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The Good Soldier Švejk

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Franz Ferdinand and Sophie leave the Sarajevo Town Hall, five minutes before the assassination, 28 June 1914.

The Fateful Adventures of the Good Soldier Švejk is a novel with an unusually rich array of characters. In addition to the many who directly form part of the plot, a large number of fictive and real people (and animals) are mentioned; either through Švejk's anecdotes, the narrative or indirectly through words and expressions.

This web page contains short write-ups on the persons the novel refers to; from Napoléon in the introduction to captain Ságner in the last few lines of the unfinished Book Four. The list is sorted in to the order of which the names first appear. The chapter headlines are from Zenny K. Sadlon's recent translation and will in most cases differ from Cecil Parrott's version from 1973. In January 2014 there were still around twenty entries to be added.

  • The quotes in Czech are copied from the on-line version of the novel provided by Jaroslav Šerák and contain links to the relevant chapter
  • The tool-bar has links for direct access to Wikipedia, Google search and Švejk on-line

The names are colored according to their role in the novel, illustrated by the following examples: Doctor Grünstein who is directly involved in the plot, Heinrich Heine as a historical person, and Ferdinand Kokoška as an invented person. Note that a number of seemingly fictive characters are modelled after very real living persons. See for instance Lukáš and Wenzl.

>> The Good Soldier Švejk index of people mentioned in the novel (584) Show all
>> I. In the rear
>> II. At the front
>> III. The famous thrashing
Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

14. Švejk as military servant to senior lieutenant Lukáš

Oberleutnant Lukáš, Jindřichnn flag
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lukas.png

The author on Lukáš. © LA-PNP

lukas1.jpg

A fateful encunter

Lukáš first appears when Katz loses Švejk to him in a game of cards "twenty-one". Thus the good soldier becomes the servant of Lukáš who from now onwards becomes one of the most important characters in the novel, and apart from Švejk the only one who figures in all four parts. He is also the only officer who is generally described in a sympathetic manner.

Švejk subjects Lukáš to a number of ordeals during the time as an officer's servant. Amongst those is the theft of Fox (Max) that causes the transfer to the front, the mishap with the emergency brake by Tábor and the affair with Kákonyi in Királyhida.

From the moment when the good soldier is promoted to messenger their relationship improves and Lukáš grows fond of his servant, although he is still irritated by the endless anecdotes. Švejk all the time reveals his loyalty and on a few occasions he even puts himself on the line for his superior. One example is when he devours the compromising letter to Kákonyi and then he downs a bottle of "cognac" in Humenné to protect Lukáš.

Lukáš takes part in the novel all the way to the final pages of the unfinished part four. In the first two parts of the novel the good soldier is a servant for Lukáš, in part three and four he serves him as a messenger. Before departure from Királyhida Lukáš is appointed commander of the 11th march company, Švejk promoted to company messenger (orderly), and Baloun replaces him as servant for Lukáš.

Introduced by the author

Jaroslav Hašek actually spends a couple of pages on introducing the reader to Lukáš. This is an honour that no-one else apart from Katz benefits from, and to a much lesser degree. The other officers in the novel are only introduced through dialogues and the plot itself. The author informs us that Lukáš was Czech, born in a village in the south of Bohemia. In nationality questions he sympathises with the Czech cause but is careful to not express it publicly. One of his statements are: Let us be Czechs but non-one needs to know about it. I am also Czech.

He is portrayed as an amphibian who speaks German in society but reads Czech books. He treats his men strictly but fairly, he may raise his voice, but he never shouts at them. He is fearless and direct towards his superiors and this may even have cost him promotion to captain. He is well liked by his men, makes sure they are quartered properly during manoeuvres and also treats them with beer and appreciates that they sing when marching. He also knows how to put brutal lower rank officers in their place.

Through the years he has been unfortunate with his servants who he hates and frequently replaces. Lukáš is also fond of animals and keeps a canary bird and a cat. It is indirectly revealed that he has served for a while in Prague and that he teaches at a school for one-year volunteers (reserve officer's school). In the author's introduction it is not revealed which unit he served with in Prague.

Further information

As the novel progresses more details about Lukáš are revealed. He was a friend of the ladies, a fact that is graphically illustrated through the encounters with Katy and Kákonyi. He was an instructor at a reserve officer's school in Vršovice, therefore probably serving with IR73. It is however unclear where he lived, but as he was walking the dog Max at the corner of Panská ulice and Na Přikopě he surely lived fairly centrally in Prague.

A fateful encounter

The affair with the stolen dog caused his transfer to IR91, an important event as it leads the entire plot of the novel onto a track that in major parts runs in parallel to the author's own career in K.u.k. Heer. On the train to Budějovice where he has to answer to Major General von Schwarzburg it is revealed that he was educated at Infanteriekadettenschule Prag. During the conversation between Ságner and Zykán at the railway station in Győr it becomes clear that Lukáš attended cadet school with Ságner. Lukáš is interested in culture and arts, and the other officers in Budějovice berate him that he doesn't want to mingle with them in his spare time. He detests the brutality he witnesses on the journey to the front. It culminates in Humenné where he gets an urge to get drunk to alleviate the painful feelings.

Lukáš is part of the novel until the final scene in the uncompleted book four. Švejk is the officers servant of Lukáš in the first two books - in book three and four he serves Lukáš as his company messenger. Their relationship is often tense due to Švejk's repeated mishaps but deep down the soldier is very loyal to Lukáš and the officer slowly gets to like his subordinate, which is clear by the end of the novel. Before departure from Királyhida, Lukáš becomes commander of the 11th march company. Švejk is promoted to company orderly, and Baloun replaces him as putzfleck for Lukáš.

Background

There is little doubt that the main prototype for objlajtnant Lukáš was Rudolf Lukas, an Austrian, later Czechoslovak officer. There is also every reason to believe that the author attached both biographical details and personal traits from the real life captain Čeněk Sagner to his fictive premier lieutenant Lukáš.

Lukáš is also mentioned in Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí but plays a minor role. Some of the incidents that the novel connects to Lukáš were then related to Konrad Dauerling: the dog theft and the Kákonyi affair.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.1] Štěstí Švejkovo nemělo dlouhého trvání. Nelítostný osud přerval přátelský poměr mezi ním a polním kurátem. Jestli polní kurát až do té události byl osobou sympatickou, to, co nyní provedl, je s to strhnout s něho sympatickou tvářnost. Polní kurát prodal Švejka nadporučíkovi Lukášovi, lépe řečeno, prohrál ho v kartách. Tak dřív prodávali na Rusi nevolníky. Přišlo to tak znenadání. Byla pěkná společnost u nadporučíka Lukáše a hrálo se „jednadvacet“.
Vejvodann flag
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Vejvoda was a plumber from the street Na Zderaze in Prague who always played "mariáš" in a pub behind Stoletá kavárna. According to an interminable anecdote by Švejk he won such an amount at cards that he had to seek police protection. In the story the main character is mentioned no fewer than sixteen times and this is arguably the longest anecdote in the whole novel. See also Hospoda za Stoletou kavárnou.

The story was told by Švejk to console Katz who had just played away the money Švejk had lent him so that he (Katz) could buy Švejk back from Lukáš. This was after the field chaplain initially had gambled away his servant at a card game.

Background

It has not been possible to link the story and Vejvoda himself to any real event. In the address book from 1907 there is no Vejvoda listed at Na Zderaze, nor is there any plumber with this name in entire Prague. The same goes for older address books.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.1] Na Zderaze žil nějakej klempíř Vejvoda a ten hrával vždy mariáš jedné hospodě za ,Stoletou kavárnou’. Jednou taky, čert mu to napískal, povídá: ,A což abychom si hodili jedníka o pětníček.’ Hráli tedy pětníčkovýho jedníka a on držel bank. Všichni se ztropili a tak to rostlo do desítky. Starej Vejvoda chtěl popřát taky druhýmu něco a pořád říkal: ,Malá špatná domů.’
Sancho Panzann flag
Wikipedia enesno Google search

Sancho Panza is mentioned by the author in his reflections on the institution of military (officer) servants. Her Panza is described as a military servant of Don Quijote.

Background

Sancho Panza was the servant of Don Quijote in the classic novel by Miguel de Cervantes. Many literary scholars point to similarities between Panza and Švejk, but also add that Švejk as opposed to Sancho Panza was the main character in his novel.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Jisto však je, že v době feudalismu vystupovali v té úloze žoldnéři rytířů. Čím byl Sancho Pansa Dona Quijota? Divím se, že historie vojenských sluhů nebyla dosud nikým sepsána.

Also written:Sancho Pansa Hašek

Don Quijotenn flag
Wikipedia czdeenesno Google search
quijote.png

Les Nouvelles littéraires, 16.4.1932

Don Quijote is mentioned by the author in connection with Sancho Panza and the institution of officer servants. The author describes Sancho as Don Quijote's military servant, a position that the strictly speaking never had.

Background

Don Quijote is the protagonist of the classic novel Don Quijote de la Mancha by Miguel de Cervantes. The novel is one of the greatest in the Spanish language ever, a universal classic, and one of the most translated. Don Quijote is a novel The Good Soldier Švejk often has been compared to.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Instituce důstojnických sluhů je prastarého původu. Zdá se, že již Alexandr Macedonský měl svého pucfleka. Jisto však je, že v době feudalismu vystupovali v té úloze žoldnéři rytířů. Čím byl Sancho Pansa Dona Quijota? Divím se, že historie vojenských sluhů nebyla dosud nikým sepsána.

Also written:Quijote cz Don Quijote es Don Quichotte fr

Conde de Almavirann flag
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Beaumarchais and his Figaro may partly have inspired Hašek

almavira.png

Nový velký ilustrovaný slovník naučný, 1929

Almavira is mentioned by the author as he is supposed to have eaten his servant Fernando without salt during the siege of Toledo.

Background

Almavira is supposed to have been part of the defending party during the siege of Toledo but it is uncertain to what historic event or literary work the author refers. Later in the novel [3.3] Marek mentions an almost identical episode, but the cannibalistic deed is now located to Madrid during the Napoleonic wars (there is no mention of any Almavira or Fernando here). Even this is doubtful as the siege in question was very short. It has not been possible to locate any place in Spain with the name Almavira so it is surely a spelling mistake or the person in question is someone entirely different.

Beaumarchais

The only Almavira a search reveals are roles in The barber of Seville by Rossini and The wedding of Figaro by Mozart. Both these build on a triology of plays about Figaro by Pierre Beaumarchais. Translator of Svejk to Spanish and Catalan, Monika Zgustová "corrects" Almavira to Almavida without solving the main question. Beaumarchais used the name Almaviva anyway.

It is still probable that the author was aware of and picked the idea from Figaro. The relation between master and servant fits, but the cannibalism and siege connection does not. Nor does the fact that the duke is supposed to have written his memoirs. The Napoleonic Wars started after Beaumarchais' death, so the chronological connection to the siege of Madrid is also broken. Hašek may well have mixed together multiple stories or invented new ones. Eating a servant may be only a grotesque intermezzo in line with Bretschneider's death [1.6] or the story about a dog who devoured a baby [1.3].

Lazarillo de Tormes

A doctoral thesis by Hamza Messari that compares Švejk and the 16th century Spanish picaresque novel Lazarillo de Tormes offers no further clue, although it mentions Almavira as "some duke".

Hamza Messari

Elementos picarescos en la novela „Las aventuras del valeroso soldado Schwejk“ de Jaroslav Hašek.Ya que hemos citado a Garcílaso y a la ciudad de Toledo; Hašek hace un homenaje al paje de un tal Conde de Almavira que durante el cerco de la ciudad, se dejó comer por su amo y Lazarillo alabando la misma ciudad...

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Source: Sergey Soloukh, Hamza Messari

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Našli bychom tam, že vévoda z Almaviru snědl svého vojenského sluhu při obležení Toleda z hladu bez soli, o čemž vévoda sám píše ve svých pamětech, vypravuje, že jeho sluha měl maso jemné, křehké, vláčné, chutí podobající se něčemu mezi kuřecím a oslím.
Fernandonn flag
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fernando.jpg

Světozor, 4.10.1907

Fernando was the servant of the Hertugen av Almavira. He is said to have been eaten by his master.

Background

Fernando can not be identified until we know who the Hertugen av Almavira was (if he was a real person at all). But if the inspiration was Beaumarchais' plays, it could be argued that Figaro inspired the figure of Fernando. Still the grotesque cannibalism-story doesn't fit, and is rather the author's own invention.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Mezi touto novou generací pucfleků nenajdou se tací obětaví tvorové, kteří by se dali sníst svými pány bez soli jako šlechetný Fernando vévody z Almaviru.
Hauptmann von Kaunitznn flag
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Kaunitz was a captain who like Švejk had been superarbitrated due to idiocy. He had the habit of walking around with one finger up each nostril. This is what Švejk tells Lukáš when the latter mentions Švejk's reported mental limitations, thus innocently making the point that officers may also be nitwits.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.3] Od regimentu nás kvůli tomu pustili dva, mě, a ještě jednoho pana hejtmana von Kaunitz. Ten s dovolením, pane nadporučíku, když šel po ulici, tak se současně pořád dloubal prstem levé ruky v levej nosní díře a druhou rukou v pravé dirce, a když šel s námi na cvičení, tak nás vždy postavil jako při defilírungu a říkal: ,Vojáci, éh, pamatujte si, éh, že je dneska středa, poněvadž zejtra bude čtvrtek, éh. ‘„
Učitel Mareknn flag
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Zlatá Praha, 4.3.1892

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Výroční zpráva vyššího gymnasia v Pelhřimově za školní rok 1896-1897

Marek was a teacher from a village beyond Pelhřimov who was pursuing the daughter of gamekeeper Špera. He is part of a story Švejk tells Lukáš to underline that nothing is worse than lying and uses Marek as an examlpe of how disastrously this might end.

The teacher Marek should not be confused with one-year volunteer Marek who enters the story in [II.2].

Background

In the village of Chvojnov by Pelhřimov actually lived a teacher Karel Marek. In Zlatá Praha (Golden Prague) from 1892 it is revealed that he had won in a logical puzzle. In the yearly report of the gymnasium in Pelhřimov (1896-1897) another Karel Marek from a village nearby is mentioned. This time it is in Horní Cerekev, but whether it is the same person or if Hašek may have known about about him/them is pure speculation.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.3] „Poslušně hlásím, pane nadporučíku, že rozumím. Není nic horšího, než když člověk lže. Jak se začne zaplítat, tak je ztracenej. V jedný vesnici za Pelhřimovem byl nějaký učitel Marek a ten chodil za dcerou hajnýho Špery, a ten mu dal vzkázat, že jestli se bude s holkou scházet v lese, že mu, když ho potká, postí do zadnice z ručnice štětiny se solí.
Šperann flag
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Špera was a gamekeeper from a village near Pelhřimov who resented that the teacher Marek was pursueing his daughter. This was according to a story Švejk told Lukáš when they first met.

Background

It has not been possible to find a source of inspiration for this character.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.3] „Poslušně hlásím, pane nadporučíku, že rozumím. Není nic horšího, než když člověk lže. Jak se začne zaplítat, tak je ztracenej. V jedný vesnici za Pelhřimovem byl nějaký učitel Marek a ten chodil za dcerou hajnýho Špery, a ten mu dal vzkázat, že jestli se bude s holkou scházet v lese, že mu, když ho potká, postí do zadnice z ručnice štětiny se solí.
Sultan Mehmet V. Reşatnn flag
*2.11.1844 Istanbul - †4.7.1918 Istanbul
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Der Kaiser and the Sultan in 1914

Mehmet V. Reşat is mentioned indirectly when Švejk reads in a newspaper that the Sultan has honoured Emperor Wilhelm with a war medal and he himself didn't even have a small silver medal. The sultan is thus not mentioned directly by name.

Background

Mehmet V. Reşat was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) from 1909 to 1918. He ascended the throne after the coup by the Young Turks but had limited power. His only significant political act was to formally declare Jihad against the Allies on 11 November 1914. He was the empire's Sultan no. 35 and died only months before the empire collapsed. His time in power was marked by enormous territorial losses for The sick man of Europe. North-Africa except Egypt and almost all of the Balkans was lost from 1912 to 1913. During WW1 the Arabic territories and Cyprus followed.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.3] „Tak vida,“ řekl pro sebe Švejk, sleduje se zájmem přehled denních událostí, „sultán vyznamenal císaře Viléma válečnou medalií, a já nemá dosud ani malou stříbrnou.“
Cukrář Bělčickýnn flag
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Confectioners near U kalicha in 1910

belcicky2.png

Bělčický was a confectioner who is mentioned by Švejk when he refuses to let Katy into the flat of Lukáš. Bělčický let in a stranger who had then run away with the cash till. It is clear that the confectioners shop was located in the street where Švejk lived.

Background

Bělčický probably has a real model and there were several confectioners in the area where we assume the Good Soldier lived. Na Bojišti had two in 1910, and there was also one in Vávrova třída. Still none of them are listed with Bělčický as proprietor, and even when including all of Prague there appears to be no confectioner with this name.

A certain Václav Pospíšil owned several confectioner shops in this area, one of them in No. 10, two houses down from U kalicha. It is therefore possible that some Bělčický was the branch manager here.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.4] Teď zavřu byt, tak bych prosil, abyste laskavě vodešla. Mně není nic oznámenýho a žádnou cizí osobu, kterou neznám, zde nemůžu nechat v bytě. Jako jednou u nás v ulici u cukráře Bělčickýho nechali jednoho člověka a on si votevřel šatník a utek.
General Kusmanek von Burgneustädten, Hermannnn flag
*16.9.1860 Sibiu (Hermannstadt) - †7.8.1934 Wien
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kusmanek_kiev.jpg

Národní Politika, 4.4.1915

Kusmanek is mentioned by Švejk in a conversation about how the the war progresses. Kusmanek is said to have arrived in Kiev. This conversation takes place whilst awaiting orders from Lukáš about what to do with Katy. Švejk refers to him as General Kusmanek.

Background

Kusmanek was an Austrian infantry general and commander of the Przemyśl fortress during the two Russian sieges in 1914-1915. He was considered one of the more capable Austrian commanders and earned the nickname "The Lion of Przemyśl" in 1914. The capitulation on 22 March 1915 made him controversial and he was not in active service from then on, due to being in Russian captivity until early 1918. On his return he was put on trial for treason but was acquitted.

The information Švejk gives is from 26 March 1915, connected to Kusmanek's arrival in Kiev as prisoner of war. The author has clearly used news items for this passage, probably from Národní politika. This was his one of his favourite newspaper and it had also published at least five of his short stories.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.4] Švejk posadil se na lavici ve vratech a vykládal, že v bitevní frontě karpatské se útoky vojska ztroskotaly, na druhé straně však že velitel Přemyšlu, generál Kusmanek, přijel do Kyjeva a že za námi zůstalo v Srbsku jedenáct opěrných bodů a že Srbové dlouho nevydrží utíkat za našimi vojáky.
Katynn flag
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Katy was the wife of the hops wholesaler Wendler and one of the ladies of Senior Lieutenant Lukáš. She played a prominent role in this chapter as she appears out of the blue to visit the lieutenant when he in turn is expecting Mrs Micková from Třeboň. In this delicate situation Švejk comes up with the idea to send a telegram to her husband mentioning her whereabouts. This works and Mr. Wendler comes and fetches the young Katy, which leads to a long and detailed conversation with Lukáš about the war and international hop trading in times of crisis. Before this happens Katy had commanded the good soldier to turn the residence of Lieutenant Lukáš inside out and had also enjoyed his company in the bedroom after he had rearranged the flat to her liking. Švejk had received strict orders to please the lady in all her wishes and in this respect he only carried out his duty as a soldier.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.4] Lieber Heinrich!

Mein Mann verfolgt mich.
Ich muß unbedingt bei Dir ein paar Tage gastieren.
Dein Bursch ist ein großes Mistvieh. Ich bin unglücklich.

Deine Katy

Paní Mickovánn flag
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Micková was a lady from Třeboň who Lukáš expected a visit from just when Katy appeared.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.4] Milý Jindřich byl určitě v ošklivé situaci. Manželka pronásledovaná manželem přijede k němu na několik dní na návštěvu, právě když má přijeti paní Micková z Třeboně, aby po tři dny opakovala to, co mu pravidelně poskytuje každého čtvrt roku, když jede do Prahy dělat nákupy.
Wendlernn flag
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Wendler was an intelligent hop merchant, married to Katy. He came to visit Lukáš to fetch his wife who had ran away from home. First, Wendler listen impatiently to Lukáš and his description of the war effort, went on to compain about Katy and then ended up describing the hopeless situation in the European hop market now just before Christmas in 1914.

Background

Wendler does not have any obvious model, but many details from the conversation with Lukáš have a direct relation to events that took place in late March and early April 1915. Even literal quotes from the newspapers found their way into this conversation, mainly from official battle reports. All the place names from the Western Front that Wendler mentions appeared in official bulletins and newspaper summaries between 26 March and 4 April, so the author has obviously had access to newspapers from this period.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Telegram, který odeslal, byl velice úsečný, obchodní: „Nynější adresa vaší choti je...“ Následovala adresa bytu nadporučíka Lukáše. Tak se stalo, že byla paní Katy velice nepříjemně překvapena, když se vhrnul do dveří obchodník s chmelem. Vypadal velice rozšafně a starostlivě, když paní Katy, neztrácejíc v tom okamžiku rozvahy, představila oba pány: „Můj muž - pan nadporučík Lukáš.“ Na nic jiného nevzpomněla. „Račte se posadit, pane Wendler,“ vybídl přívětivě nadporučík Lukáš, vytahuje z kapsy pouzdro s cigaretami, „není libo?“
Halil Beynn flag
*1874 Milas - †1.5 1948 Milas
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mentese.jpg

Halil Menteşe in Berlin

haliali.png

Národní politika, 4.4.1915

Halil Bey is mentioned by Lukáš when he describes the positive war situation for hop-trader Wendler. Lukáš could inform his guest that Hali Bey, speaker of the Turkish parliament, had arrived in Vienna (accompanied by Ali Bey).

Background

Halil Bey (Halil Menteşe) was in 1915 speaker of the Turkish parliament. In this capacity he traveled to Berlin and Vienna in March 1915, and press reports from this visit are reproduced by Hašek in the novel, almost word by word. The visit to Wien that is referred to in the novel took place on 28 March 1915. Later that year he became foreign minister and in 1917 minister of justice.

On his journey Halil Bey stopped in Sofia (14 March), Bucuresti (15 March), Budapest (16 March), Vienna (18 March), Berlin (from 19. mars), and Vienna (28. mars).

Wiener Bilder, 4. April 1915

Der Präsident der türkischen Kammer Halil Bei traf, aus Berlin kommend, am 28. März in Vienna ein.

Links

Source: Hans-Peter Laqueur, Petr Novák

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] „Turci se drží dobře,“ odpověděl nadporučík, uváděje ho opět ke stolu, „předseda turecké sněmovny Hali bej a Ali bej přijeli do Vídně.

Also written:Hali bej Hašek

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© "Fakta a svědectví" - Petr Novák

haliali.png

Národní politika, 4.4.1915

Ali Bey is mentioned by Lukáš when he explains Wendler Turkey's role in the war. He could inform his guest that Ali Bey and Hali Bey had arrived in Vienna.

Background

Ali Bey refers to Emir Ali Paşa. The author uses the term "bej" but this is an error that appeared in some Czech newspapers, amongst them Národní politika. Emir Ali was the son of the Algerian national hero Abd El-Kader El Djezairi, who from 1855 lived in Damascus.

Emir Ali Paşa was from May 1914 member of the House of Commons of the Ottoman Parliament and at the same time he was first vice-chairman of the House.

In mid March 1915 he travelled to Berlin to negotiate about transfer of British and French Muslim prisoners of war to the Ottoman Empire. The plan was to employ them in the war against Great Britain.

The quote from Národní politika is nearly identical to the quote in the novel and several other snippets from the same article appear in the conversation with Wendler.

Hans-Peter Laqueur

Yusuf Hikmet Bayur, Türk İnkılabı Tarihi, vol 3, part 3 (Türk Tarih Kurumu yayınları, VIII. dizi, sayı 14, Ankara 1991 [last reprint]) p. 422 states that Emir Ali Paşa, deputy chairman of the Meclis-i Mebusan, was the eldest son of Abd el-Kader. The author, historian, born 1881, was an „eye-witness“, he was in his adult life when Emir Ali was elected in 1914, and his account seems reliable enough for me to say that Emir Ali must have been the son of Abd el-Kader.

Links

Source: Petr Novák, Hans-Peter Laqueur

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] „Turci se drží dobře,“ odpověděl nadporučík, uváděje ho opět ke stolu, „předseda turecké sněmovny Hali bej a Ali bej přijeli do Vídně.

Also written:Ali bej Hašek

Liman von Sanders, Ottonn flag
*17.2.1855 Stolp (Słupsk) - †22.8.1929 München
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sanders1.png

Národní politika, 4.4.1915

Liman von Sanders has according to Lukáš been appointed supreme commander of the Turkish army of the Dardanelles. This was in the conversation with Wendler. Lukáš could also inform that von Sanders held the rank of of marshal.

Background

Liman von Sanders was a German general and Turkish marshal, best known for his role as advisor and military commander in Turkey. Von Sanders was instrumental in thwarting the British-French expedition force at Gallipoli in 1915. He has been accused of being partly responsible for the genocide against the Armenians in 1915.

The timing of the appointment mentioned by Lukáš is at odds with historical facts (see below). It is likely that Hašek used written material (war calendars or newspapers) from 1915 to construct this part of the plot, but "moved" the event to late 1914. Similar time-shifts occur elsewhere in the novel. See Siedliska.

Hans-Peter Laqueur

When explaining the war situation to Mr. Wendler (December 20th, 1914), Lukasch mentions that Fieldmarshall Liman von Sanders has been made commander in chief of the Turkish Army at the Dardanelles: Otto Liman von Sanders was a Prussian General, and Ottoman Marshall, he was made CiC of the Ottoman 5th army (Dardanelles) March 24th, 1915 (cf. Liman von Sanders, Fünf Jahre Türkei, Berlin 1920, p. 77).

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Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] „Turci se drží dobře,“ odpověděl nadporučík, uváděje ho opět ke stolu, „předseda turecké sněmovny Hali bej a Ali bej přijeli do Vídně. Vrchním velitelem turecké armády dardanelské jmenován maršálek Liman šl. Sanders. Goltz paša přijel z Cařihradu do Berlína a naším císařem byli vyznamenáni Enver paša, viceadmirál Usedom paša a generál Dževad paša. Poměrně hodně vyznamenání za tak krátkou dobu.“

Also written:Liman šl. Sanders cz

Goltz Paşa, Colmar von der nn flag
*12.8.1843 Adlig Biekenfeld (Labiau) - †19.4.1916 Bagdad
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goltz.jpg

Das interessante Blatt, 13.9.1914

goltz1.png

Národní politika, 4.4.1915

Goltz Paşa has according to Lukáš arrived in Berlin from Constantinople. This is at least what he comforts Wendler with.

Background

Goltz Paşa was a German general, military historian and author. From 1885 he was responsible for reorganizing the Turkish army, and after his return to Germany in 1895 held several high position; as army corps commander and army inspector. In 1914 the now retired general was named military governor in occupied Belgium, and from December he became an adviser to Turkey.

The trip that Lukáš refers to actually occurred: Goltz arrived in Berlin from Constantinople on 29 March 1915. The phrase about Goltz is word by word identical to an item in Národní politika on 4 April 1915, one of many from the conversation between the hop trader and the officer that seem to be borrowed from the same news column.

Hans-Peter Laqueur

Goltz died in Baghdad 1916 of typhus and was buried there immediately, as the transport of a body died from an infectious disease was prohibited. After a couple of months(?, still in 1916) a solution was found and his coffin was transferred to Istanbul and re-buried in the German military cemetery at Tarabya, in the grounds of the German Embassy's summer residence. In 1918 the Kaiser visited the grave there. It had been planned to move the coffin to Germany after the war, but this did not happen and his grave is still there.

Links

Source: Hans-Peter Laqueur

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] „Turci se drží dobře,“ odpověděl nadporučík, uváděje ho opět ke stolu, „předseda turecké sněmovny Hali bej a Ali bej přijeli do Vídně. Vrchním velitelem turecké armády dardanelské jmenován maršálek Liman šl. Sanders. Goltz paša přijel z Cařihradu do Berlína a naším císařem byli vyznamenáni Enver paša, viceadmirál Usedom paša a generál Dževad paša. Poměrně hodně vyznamenání za tak krátkou dobu.“

Also written:Goltz paša Hašek

Enver Paşann flag
*22.11.1881 Istanbul - †4.8.1922 Baldusjan (Tadjikistan)
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vyznam.png

Národní politika, 4.4.1915

Enver Paşa is one of several Ottoman politicians and officers that Lukáš mentions when trying to reassure Wendler about the war contribution of the Ottoman Empire. He can reveal that Enver has been decorated by the emperor.

Background

Enver Paşa (İsmail Enver) was a Turkish politician and general. He was minister of war during World War I, and by some regarded a de facto dictator. In retrospect he is seen as a poor military leader; the war against Russia was a disaster. He is also largely held responsible for the mass killings of Armenians in 1915, whom he had accused of being fifth columnists. When the war ended, he fled to Germany and later to Tajikistan where he was killed fighting the Red Army.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] „Turci se drží dobře,“ odpověděl nadporučík, uváděje ho opět ke stolu, „předseda turecké sněmovny Hali bej a Ali bej přijeli do Vídně. Vrchním velitelem turecké armády dardanelské jmenován maršálek Liman šl. Sanders. Goltz paša přijel z Cařihradu do Berlína a naším císařem byli vyznamenáni Enver paša, viceadmirál Usedom paša a generál Dževad paša. Poměrně hodně vyznamenání za tak krátkou dobu.“

Also written:Enver Paša cz Enver Pascha de Enver Paşa tr

Usedom Paşa, Guido vonnn flag
*2.10.1854 Quanditten (Sinjavino) - †24.2.1925 Schwerin
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medalje300315.jpg

Národní Politika, 1 April 1915

vyznam.png

Národní politika, 4.4.1915

Usedom Paşa is mentioned when Lukáš tries to reassure Wendler about the war situation. Vice-admiral Usedom Pasha has been decorated by our Emperor he reveals.

Background

Usedom Paşa was a German vice-admiral who from August 1914 led the special command of the German navy i Turkey (Sonderkommando Kaiserliche Marine Türkei). He also led the Turkish forces in the Battle of the Dardanelles and got a large share of the credit for repealing the Allied invaders. On 26 March 1915 he was in fact decorated with the The Military Merit Cross First Class by Franz Joseph I, see the news items below.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] „Turci se drží dobře,“ odpověděl nadporučík, uváděje ho opět ke stolu, „předseda turecké sněmovny Hali bej a Ali bej přijeli do Vídně. Vrchním velitelem turecké armády dardanelské jmenován maršálek Liman šl. Sanders. Goltz paša přijel z Cařihradu do Berlína a naším císařem byli vyznamenáni Enver paša, viceadmirál Usedom paša a generál Dževad paša. Poměrně hodně vyznamenání za tak krátkou dobu.“

Also written:Usedom paša Hašek

Cevat Paşann flag
*14.9.1870 Istanbul - †13.3.1938 Istanbul
Wikipedia entr Google search
cevat.jpg

Das interessante Blatt, 9.9.1915

vyznam.png

Národní politika, 4.4.1915

Cevat Paşa was according to Lukáš a Turkish general who had been decorated by our emperor.

Background

Cevat Paşa (Cevat Çobanlı) was a Turkish general and commander of the Gallipoli fortress who distinguished himself in the battle of the Dardanelles on 18 March 1915. At the end of the month he was awarded Militärverdienstkreuz 2. klasse by emperor Franz Joseph I. He was also given the nick-name Hero of 18 March. Cevat was awarded the title Paşa after the battle, was congratulated by Emperor Wilhelm, and from newspaperclips it is obvious that he was educated in Germany.

Links

Source: Hans-Peter Laqueur

Quote from the novel
[1.14] „Turci se drží dobře,“ odpověděl nadporučík, uváděje ho opět ke stolu, „předseda turecké sněmovny Hali bej a Ali bej přijeli do Vídně. Vrchním velitelem turecké armády dardanelské jmenován maršálek Liman šl. Sanders. Goltz paša přijel z Cařihradu do Berlína a naším císařem byli vyznamenáni Enver paša, viceadmirál Usedom paša a generál Dževad paša. Poměrně hodně vyznamenání za tak krátkou dobu.“

Also written:Dzevad pasha en Dževad paša cz Dschewad pascha de

Marchese di San Giulianonn flag
*10.12.1852 Catania - †16.10.1914 Roma
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giuliano.jpg

San Giuliano e il ministro degli Esteri austriaco Leopold Berchtold ad Abbazia, Austria (oggi Croazia), nell'aprile 1914.

giuliano2.png

Böhmerwalds Volksbote, 18.10.1914

San Giuliano was mentioned by Wendler who evidently did not know that San Giuliano had died earlier in the year. Wendler is annoyed because Italy as an ally of the Central Powers still sticks to her neutrality, and he wonders if San Giuliano is asleep. The conversation with Lukáš took place just before Christmas in 1914.

Background

San Giuliano was an Italian nobleman (marquess) and politician from Sicily who held the post of foreign secretary from 1910 until his death in 1914. He, perhaps with the execption of Grey, was the politician who put most effort into reconciling the parties during the July crisis in 1914. He advocated neutrality but had long been dead when Italy entered the war on the side of the Entente, on May 23 1915. His real name was Antonino Paternò Castello.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Chmel mně ve skladištích hnije, uzávěrky domácí jsou slabé, export rovná se nule, a Italie zachovává neutralitu. Proč Italie obnovovala ještě v roce 1912 s námi trojspolek? Kde je italský ministr zahraničních záležitostí markýz di San Giuliano? Co dělá ten pán? Spí nebo co? Víte, jaký jsem měl do vojny roční obrat a jaký mám dnes?

Also written:Marquess San Giuliano en Markýz di San Giuliano cz

Blahníknn flag
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Blahník was a dog-trader and conspired with Švejk in the attempt to steal a dog for Lukáš, and he physically stole the stable pincher Fox in [I.15]. The dubious deed was planned in a small pub by the Zamecké schody in Malá Strana.

Background

surely has a real life model and to judge from the plot that person must have worked for the kennel of Svět Zvířat at Klamovka.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] „Je to opravdu stájový pinč? Můj obrlajtnant jinýho nechce.“ „Fešák stájovej pinč. Pepř a sůl, dovopravdy čistokrevnej, jako že ty jseš Švejk a já Blahník. Mně jde vo to, co žere, to mu dám a přivedu ti ho.“
Puntíknn flag
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Puntík was a black spitz dog from Klamovka, mentioned in the dialogue between Blahník and Švejk as they were planning the dog-theft. Puntík means 'Spot'.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] Tak jsem musel koupit kotletu. Dal jsem mu ji očichat a běžím, pes za mnou. Paní křičela: ,Puntíku, Puntíku,’ ale kdepak milej Puntík. Za kotletou běžel až za roh, tam jsem mu dal řetízek na krk a druhej den už byl v psinci nad Klamovkou.
Foxnn flag
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fox_inserat.png

Prager Tagblatt, 31.3.1915

Fox was the stable pincher who was to be stolen by Blahnik and Švejk and given to Lukáš. He was renamed Max when he got a new owner and a new impressive pedigree. Fox is first mentioned when Švejk ingratiatingly asks the maid who is walking the dog about the animals eating habits.

Background

The dog stories have like most elements in Švejk clear connections to the authors own life and experiences. For a short while in 1910-11 Jaroslav Hašek ran his own "cynological institute" by Víla Svět Zvírat on Klamovka. He falsified pedigrees, just like Švejk did.

On 31 March 1915 Prager Tagblatt printed a small advert that asked for news about a stolen dog. The advert has some striking links to the dog story in the novel. It requsted information about the dog to be delivered for a 30 crown at Hotel Black Horse at Na Přikopě, the very street were Kraus encountered his stolen pet. We know that Jaroslav Hašek diligently read newspapers from precicely these days because several quotes from these papers are more or less literally quoted in the novel, particulalrly in the conversation between Wendler and Lukáš. See Meuse for more on this theme.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] „Tak to je tedy váš pejsek,“ přerušil ji Švejk, „to je škoda, že můj obrlajtnant nemůže žádnýho psa vystát, já mám velice rád psy.“ Odmlčel se a náhle vyrazil: „Každej pes ale taky všechno nežere.“ „Náš Fox si strašně vybírá, jeden čas nechtěl vůbec jíst maso, až teď opět.“ „A co žere nejradši?“„Játra, vařená játra.“
Pejcharnn flag
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Pejchar was a butcher from Protivín, mentioned when Švejk talks to the maid who as walking the (soon to be stolen) dog. Švejk informs her that Pejchar is his brother.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] „Tak jsme nedaleko od sebe,“ odpověděl Švejk, „já jsem z Protivína.“ Tato znalost místopisu českého jihu, nabytá kdysi při manévrech v tom kraji, naplnila srdce dívky krajanským teplem. „Tak znáte v Protivíně na náměstí řezníka Pejchara?“
Jarešnn flag
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Jareš is mentioned when Švejk says he is the son of a Jareš from Ražice. This was in the conversation with the maid of colonel Kraus.

Background

(Antonín) was the author's grandfather. See Jareš.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] „Toho tam mají u nás všichni rádi,“ řekl Švejk, „von je moc hodnej, úslužnej, má dobrý maso a dává dobrou váhu.“ „Nejste vy Jarešův?“ otázala se dívka, začínajíc sympatisovat s neznámým vojáčkem. „Jsem.“ „A kterýho Jareše, toho z Krče u Protivína, nebo z Ražic?“ „Z Ražic.“
Vydrann flag
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Vydra was a factory owner whos Saint Bernhard was stolen, this is evident from a conversation between Švejk and Blahník as they are planning the dog-theft.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] „Pohostím ho hovězíma,“ rozhodl se Blahník, „na ty jsem už dostal bernardýna továrníka Vydry, náramně věrný zvíře. Zejtra ti psa přivedu v pořádku.“
Fuchsnn flag
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Fuchs was the owner of a stationary shop where Blahník bought a blank pedigree form for Švejk to fill in.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] Pak jsem ho, když se nažral, uvázal na řetízek a táh jsem ho přes Václavské náměstí na Vinohrady, až do Vršovic. Po cestě mně vyváděl pravé divy. Když jsem přecházel elektriku, lehl si a nechtěl se hnout. Snad se chtěl dát přeject. Přines jsem s sebou taky čistý rodokmen, kterej jsem koupil u papírníka Fuchse. Ty umíš padělat rodokmeny, Švejku.
von Bülownn flag
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Bülow was the name of a kennel in Leipzig (and surely its owner) where Max, according to the pedigree, was supposed to hail from.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] „To musí bejt tvou rukou napsaný. Napiš, že pochází z Lipska, z psince von Bülow. Otec Arnheim von Kahlsberg, matka Emma von Trautensdorf, po otci Siegfried von Busenthal. Otec obdržel první cenu na berlínský výstavě stájových pinčů v roce 1912. Matka vyznamenána zlatou medalií norimberskýho spolku pro chov ušlechtilých psů. Jak myslíš, že je starej?“
von Kahlsberg, Arnheimnn flag
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Kahlsberg was a dog; the fictive father of Max and had a first price from the stable pinscher exhibition in Berlin in the year of 1912.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] „To musí bejt tvou rukou napsaný. Napiš, že pochází z Lipska, z psince von Bülow. Otec Arnheim von Kahlsberg, matka Emma von Trautensdorf, po otci Siegfried von Busenthal. Otec obdržel první cenu na berlínský výstavě stájových pinčů v roce 1912. Matka vyznamenána zlatou medalií norimberskýho spolku pro chov ušlechtilých psů. Jak myslíš, že je starej?“
von Trautensdorf, Emmann flag
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Trautensdorf was a dog; the fictive mother of Max and had earned a gold medal from the Nuremberg society for the breeding of thoroughbred dogs.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] „To musí bejt tvou rukou napsaný. Napiš, že pochází z Lipska, z psince von Bülow. Otec Arnheim von Kahlsberg, matka Emma von Trautensdorf, po otci Siegfried von Busenthal. Otec obdržel první cenu na berlínský výstavě stájových pinčů v roce 1912. Matka vyznamenána zlatou medalií norimberskýho spolku pro chov ušlechtilých psů. Jak myslíš, že je starej?“
von Busenthal, Siegfriednn flag
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Busenthal was a dog; the fictive grandfather of Max, on the mothers side. He was a stable pinscher.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] „To musí bejt tvou rukou napsaný. Napiš, že pochází z Lipska, z psince von Bülow. Otec Arnheim von Kahlsberg, matka Emma von Trautensdorf, po otci Siegfried von Busenthal. Otec obdržel první cenu na berlínský výstavě stájových pinčů v roce 1912. Matka vyznamenána zlatou medalií norimberskýho spolku pro chov ušlechtilých psů. Jak myslíš, že je starej?“
Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

14. Švejk as military servant to senior lieutenant Lukáš


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