Hovudpersonen

The Good Soldier Švejk

Hovudpersonen Change languageChange language
Change languageChange language

Places

Novel on-lineŠvejk museumŠvejk CentralTravel diaryBlogFacebookContact

Map of Austria-Hungary in 1914. The itinerary of Jaroslav Šerák took place entirely within the borders of the Dual Monarchy.

The Fateful Adventures of the Good Soldier Švejk is a novel which contains a wealth of geographical references - either directly through the plot, in dialogues or in the authors own observations. HAJ: was himself unusually well travelled and had a photographic memory of geographical (and other) details. It is evident that he put great emphasis on this: 8 of the 27 chapter headlines in Švejk contain place names.

This web page will in due course contain a full overview of all the geographical references in the novel; from Prague in the introduction to Klimontów in the unfinished Book Four. Countries, cities, towns, villages, mountains, oceans, lakes, rivers, islands, buildings are included. Note that from 14 September 2013, institutions (including pubs) have been moved to the new 'Institutions' page. The list is sorted according to the order in which the names appear through the novel. The chapter headlines are from Zenny K. Sadlon's recent translation and will in most cases differ from Cecil Parrott's version from 1973.

  • The facts are mainly taken from Internet sources but cross-verified when possible
  • The quotes in Czech are copied from the online version of sv: provided by Jaroslav Šerák and contain links to the relevant chapter
  • The toolbar has links for direct access to Wikipedia, Google maps, Google search, svejkmuseum.cz and Švejk online

The names are coloured according to their role in the novel, illustrated by these examples: Sanok as a location where the plot takes place, Dubno mentioned in the narrative, Zagreb as part of a dialogue, and Pakoměřice as mentioned in an anecdote.

>> The Good Soldier Švejk index of places mentioned in the novel (577) Show all
>> I. In the rear
>> II. At the front
>> III. The famous thrashing
Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

14. Švejk as military servant to senior lieutenant Lukáš

Na Zderazenn flag
Wikipedia cz Google mapsearch

Na Zderaze is mentioned by Švejk in his long story about the big card-playing session. This was in connection with himself having been gambled away by Katz and therefore now became the servant of senior lieutenant Lukáš. The big winner in the card-playing anecdote, old Vejvoda, lived in this street. The session took place in a pub behind Stoletá kavárna.

Na Zderaze appears again in [3.2] during a conversation between Švejk, Lukáš and Baloun in Budapest. The good soldier tells a petrified Baloun that he had read in the papers that a whole family had been poisoned by liver paté there.

Background

Na Zderaze is a street in Nové Město between Karlovo náměstí and Vltava. It stretches parallel to the river from Myslíkova ulice to Resslova ulice. Next to Stoletá kavárna and Na Zbořenci the street splits in two. The steet Na Zbořenci behind Stoletá kavárna was the likely location of the tavern where the famous game of cards took place.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.1] Na Zderaze žil nějakej klempíř Vejvoda a ten hrával vždy mariáš jedné hospodě za ,Stoletou kavárnou’.
[3.2] Já jsem čet několikrát v novinách, že se celá rodina votrávila játrovou paštikou. Jednou na Zderaze,jednou v Berouně, jednou v Táboře, jednou v Mladé Boleslavi, jednou v Příbrami.
more
Myslíkova ulicenn flag
Wikipedia cz Google mapsearch
myslikova.jpg
koprivy.png

Kopřivy, 29.4.1909

Myslíkova ulice is mentioned in the anecdote about the great card-playing party in the pub behind Stoletá kavárna. Old Vejvoda went to ask for help from the patrolling police in this street after winning to the extent that the other card players started to make it unpleasant for him.

Background

Myslíkova ulice is a street in Nové Město that stretches from Spálená ulice down towards Vltava. One of the side streets is Na Zderaze.

Myslíkova ulice is a street Jaroslav Hašek would have known very well. Not only was it in the middle of his stomping ground in Praha II. - number 15 housed the editorial offices and print-works of Kopřivy (Nettles) and Právo lidu (The Peoples Right), publications of the Czechoslavic Social Democratic Labour Party. Hašek contributed frequently to both publications in 1913 and 1914.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.1] A jen tak bez klobouku vyběh na ulici a přímo do Myslíkovy ulice pro strážníky. Našel patrolu a oznámil jí, že v tej a tej hospodě hrajou hazardní hru.
more
Monte Carlonn flag
Wikipedia czdeenfrnn Google mapsearch
montecarlo.jpg

Světozor, 2.12.1910

Monte Carlo is mentioned in the anecdote about the great card-playing party of old Vejvoda. The police inspector though this was worse than Monte Carlo.

Background

Monte Carlo is the most prosperous district of the Principality of Monaco and is best known for its casino that indirectly is referred to in the novel.

The districts road to fame started in 1863 when the current casino was completed. The same year the well known financier François Blanc (1806-1877), until then director of the casino in Bad Homburg, was hired to manage the casino. It still took many years before Monte Carlo became a household name for gambling, but by the outbreak of the first world war it was already famous world wide.

In the manuscript Jaroslav Hašek spelt the name Monte Karlo but during a "clean-up" of Švejk in the early 1950's, this and some other "oddities" were corrected. The inter-war issues of the novel, published by Adolf Synek, kept Hašek's original spelling.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.1] ,Tohle jsem ještě nežral,’ řekl policejní inspektor, když viděl takový závratný sumy, tohle je horší než Monte Karlo.
more

Also written:Monte Karlo Hašek

Chodovnn flag
Wikipedia czdeen Google mapsearch
chodov2.png

Kopřivy, 1.1.1914

Chodov is mentioned in a song that Katz' new servant sings after considerable intake of strong drinks.

Background

Chodov is the name of four places in Bohemia, one on the outskirts of Prague and the three others in the west of the country. The text in the quote is picked from five different folk songs. The first line is from a song from the Chodsko region near the border with Bavaria, so here it certainly refers to Chodov by Domažlice.

In 1913 Chodov belonged to hejtmanstvi Domažlice and the like-named okres. The population count was 1,947 and all but one were registered with Czech as their mother tongue. The community consisted of the villages Chodov, Trhanov and Pec.

Re-used text

The song-fragment from the book had already been used by Jaroslav Hašek. On New Years Day 1914 Kopřivy printed A story about a proper man but here the author uses Domažlice instead of Chodov.

Links

Source: Jaroslav Šerák

Quote from the novel
[1.14.1]
Okolo Chodova teče vodička, 
šenkuje tam má milá pivečko červený. 
Horo, horo, vysoká jsi, 
šly panenky silnicí, 
na Bílé hoře sedláček oře.
more

Also written:Meigelshof de

Bílá Horann flag
Wikipedia czdesv Google mapsearch
bilahora.jpg

Světozor, 7.11.1913

bilahora1.png

Sokolský zpěvník, 1909

bilahora.png

Ottův slovník naučný

Bílá Hora is mention in the song Katz's new putzfleck sings after consuming solid quantities of strong drink.

Background

Bílá Hora (White Mountain) is a hill on the western outskirts of Prague, between Smíchov, Břevnov and Ruzyně. Until 1922 it belonged to the village Řepy in "hejtmanství" Smíchov, and in the ninteen-sixties it became part of the captial.

It is primarily known for the battle on 8 November 1620 that effectively ended Czech independence. Habsburg rule followed and lasted until 1918. The battle is regarded as one of the most important events of the Thirty Year War (1618-1648).

The text in the quote is picked from five different folk songs, also pointed out by the author himself. The line featured here is from the well known folk song "Na Bílé Hoře" (At White Mountain). See also Chodov.

Links

Source: Jaroslav Šerák

Quote from the novel
[1.14.1]
Okolo Chodova teče vodička, 
šenkuje tam má milá pivečko červený. 
Horo, horo, vysoká jsi, 
šly panenky silnicí, 
na Bílé hoře sedláček oře.
more

Also written:White Mountain en Weiße Berg de

Toledonn flag
Wikipedia czdeenesnn Google mapsearch
toledo.jpg

Toledo en las fotos de Thomas (1884, 1910)

toledo1.jpg

Světozor, 13.1.1911

Toledo is mentioned as the Hertugen av Almavira is supposed to have eaten his servant Fernando during the siege of the city. In Budapest, Marek makes a similar reference, but the siege is now of Madrid and the Napoleonic wars are mentioned explicitly.

Background

Toledo is a historic city in Spain, 70 km south of Madrid. In 1986 the city was entered as a UNESCO World Heritage site. The city prospered in medieval times, and was for a while capital of Castilla. Today the city is capital of the Castilla-La Mancha region and a major tourist attraction.

The historical event in question could be from 930 to 932 when the city was encircled by the Moors during a Christian uprising. After a two year siege it surrended due to hunger.

Jesús Carrobles Santos, "Historia de Toledo", 1997

Durante dos años se mantuvo el asedio a Toledo. Sus habitantes, como ya habían hecho en otras ocasiones, volvieron a solicitar ayuda militar cristiana, esta vez a Ramiro II. Pero el ejército que éste envió fue derrotado por las tropas omeyas. Aislados del exterior y acosados por el hambre, los toledanos tuvieron que rendirse. De esta manera, el 2 de agosto del 932, Abd al-Rahmán III entró a caballo en la ciudad donde estableció una numerosa guarnición, aunque no adoptó represalias ni medidas de castigo.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Našli bychom tam, že vévoda z Almaviru snědl svého vojenského sluhu při obležení Toleda z hladu bez soli..
more
Swabiann flag
Wikipedia czdeennn Google mapsearch
schwaben.png

Leitfaden zur Manipulation bei den Unter-Abtheilungen der k.k. Landarmee, 1876

Swabia is indirectly mentioned by the author in the chapter about officer's servants. He mentions an old Swabian book about the art of warfare where it is described which personal traits an officer's servant is required to posses. It is not a small deal, he has to be a model human being.

Background

Swabia is a historical region in southern Germany that spans the borders of the current states Bavaria and Baden-Würtemberg. The principal cities in the area are Stuttgart, Ulm and Augsburg.

Type fonts

The author refers to an old Swabian book on the art of warfare, but it is not known what book he refers to. In Czech the expression švabach (Swabian writing) is often (imprecisely) used as a term for the old German type fonts (Frakturschrift) so the book is not necessarily of Swabian origin at all. At the author's time nearly all German-language newspaper and books used "Fraktur" fonts so he could in principle have referred to any old book in German about the art of waging war. The English translator of Švejk, Cecil Parrott, evidently assumes this when he translates the phrase to "an old German book".

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Ve staré švábské knize o umění vojenském nalézáme též pokyny pro vojenské sluhy. Pucflek staré doby měl býti zbožný, ctnostný, pravdomluvný, skromný, statečný, odvážný, poctivý, pracovitý. Zkrátka měl to být vzor člověka.
more

Also written:Švábsko cz

Graznn flag
Wikipedia czdeennnno Google mapsearch
graz.jpg

Graz. Hauptplatz. Um 1910. © IMAGNO/Austrian Archives

graz.png

Arbeiterwille, 10.6.1912

Graz is mentioned by the author in the chapter about officer's servants. Here he recounts a trial in Graz in 1912 against a captain who had kicked his servant to death and had escaped without punishment "because it was only the second time he did it".

Graz is mentioned late in the novel in connection with Ratskeller.

Background

Graz is the second largest city on Austria and the capital of Styria. The city has appx. 250,000 inhabitants (2006). In 1910 the population counted almost 200,000.

Garrison city

Graz hosted the headquarters of 3. Armeekorps that recruited from Styria, all of current Slovenia and from smaller areas that is currently on Italian and Croat territory (Trieste og Istria). The recruitment districts with correspondingly numbered infantry regiments, were: 27 (Graz), 7 (Klagenfurt), 47 (Maribor), 17 (Ljubljana), 87 (Celje) and 97 (Trieste).

Officer's servants

It has not been possible to find a direct parallel to the case from 1912 about the captain who allegedly kicked his servant to death and was acquitted. Most probably the story is a product of the author's imagination and his tendency to grotesque exaggerations. That said the newspaper that year wrote about several other incidents where officer's servants were involved. There are reports about servants who stole from their officers, servants who committed suicide, and one servant who failed in an attempt to kill his superior and thereafter failed in killing himself.

An article in the Graz newspaper Arbeiterwille from 1912 deals with a case where an officer's servants commits suicide after being harassed over time and finally unjustly accused of having stolen five tins of conserves. The article also puts the tragedy in a greater perspective. It deals in more general terms with the hopeless situation of the army servant. He was obliged to serve not only his superior officer but also the family. If the situation became unbearable he couldn't simply quit his post as his civilian colleague could. The article advocates scrapping the whole institution of officer's servants, and moreover has certain parallels to the author's own description of the status of the officer's servant.

Concentration camp

During WW1 Thalerhof by Graz was the site of the only concentration camp in the Austrian part of the Dual Empire (there were two in Hungary). See Steinhof.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Roku 1912 byl ve Štyrském Hradci proces, při kterém vynikající úlohu hrál jeden hejtman, který ukopal svého pucfleka.
[4.1] Všechny lidi, který potkával na ulici, viděl buď na nádraží v Miláně, nebo s nimi seděl ve Štýrským Hradci v radničním sklepě při víně.
more

Also written:Štýrský Hradec cz

Dubnonn flag
Wikipedia czdeenruuk Google mapsearch
dubno.jpg

Das interessante Blatt, 16.4.1916

dubno1.png

Le journal de Geneve, 12.6.1916

dubno.png

Haugesunds avis, 13.6.1916

Dubno is mentioned when the author describes an officer's servant who was captured by the Russians. He dragged enormous amounts of luggage Dubno to Darnitsa and on to Tashkent where he pegged out from typhus on the top of the heap.

In the same section Hašek mentions "storming" Dubno which presumably refers to the events on 8 September 1915.

Background

Dubno (ukr. Дубно, rus. Дубно) is a city in the Volhynia region of the Ukraine, until 1917 part of the Russian Volhynia governate. The city is located 15 km south of Chorupan where Jaroslav Hašek was captured on 24 September 1915. The city is situated in an area which counted a considerable number of Czech immigrants. See Zdolbunov.

Dubno was strategically important due to its fortress and the railway connections to the north and south. K.u.k. Heer entered the city on 8 September 1915 after an unexpected Russian withdrawal. The latter re-conquered Dubno on 10 June 1916 during the Brusilov offensive.

The city's web page claims Jaroslav Hašek visited in 1915, but this appears improbable as Dubno was on Austrian hands at the time when the author was in the area. It is much more likely that he visited the city in 1916 and 1917 when it was back in Russian hands and the author travelled in the aera, both as a reporter and from May 1917 as an ordinary soldier.

Österreich-Ungarns letzter Krieg, Band III

Schon am Vormittag (8.9. 1915) langte beim 4. Armeekmdo. die überraschende Nachricht ein, daß Dubno vom Feinde preisgegeben sei und die Ikwabrücken bei der Stadt in Flammen stünden.

Links

Source: Österreich-Ungarns letzter Krieg, Band III

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Viděl jsem jednoho zajatého důstojnického sluhu, který od Dubna šel s druhými pěšky až do Dárnice za Kyjevem.
Dnes jsou důstojničtí sluhové roztroušení po celé naší republice a vypravují o svých hrdinných skutcích. Oni šturmovali Sokal, Dubno, Niš, Piavu.
more

Also written:Дубно ru Дубно ua

Darnitsann flag
Wikipedia enruuk Google mapsearch
darnica1.png

Nový velký ilustrovaný slovník naučný, 1930

darnica.png

Elsa Brändström

Darnitsa is mentioned in connection with the officers servant who dragged his luggage from Dubno to Tashkent and in the end perished from typhus on top of the entire heap.

Background

Darnitsa (ukr. Дарниця, rus. Дарница) is today a district of Kiev, east of the river Dniepr. Nowadays Darnitsa is a huge suburb, dominated by high-rise apartment blocks. There is a street named after Jaroslav Hašek here.

Darnitsa was a well-known transit camp that existed from 1915. In the beginning the camp was very primitive and lacked the most basic facilities. Diseases raged and mortality rates were scaringly high. The camp was also pivotal in supplying the Czech anti-Austrian volunteer forces, who from 1916 were allowed to recruit in Russian POW camps. See České legie.

Hašek and Darnica

According to Jaroslav Kejla the author was interned in the transit camp here for three days in the autumn of 1915, probably in early October. From here he was sent onwards to Totskoye in southern Ural. His prisoner card has him registered in Penza on 6 October 1915. Kejla reports that the prisoners walked the 300 km from the Dubno-region to Darnitsa on foot on foot from 24 September, but this fits badly with Penza and 6 October. An explanation may be that the date is according the old Russian calendar, in which case the registration in Penza happened on 19 October.

There is also little doubt that Hašek revisited Darnitsa as a recruiter and agitator after he joined České legie in Kiev in July 1916.

Links

Source: Jaroslav Kejla, Elsa Brändström

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Viděl jsem jednoho zajatého důstojnického sluhu, který od Dubna šel s druhými pěšky až do Dárnice za Kyjevem.
more

Also written:Dárnice cz Darnitsa nn Дарница ru Дарниця ua

Kievnn flag
Wikipedia czdeennnnoruuk Google mapsearch
kiev2.jpg

Saint Sophia square. From "Za svobodu" (1925)

kiev2.png

Čechoslovan, 31.10.1917

kiev.png

Horrors of the civil war - abandoned corpses after the fighting in Kiev (1918)

kiev1.png

Legionářská stráž, 23.3.1928

Kiev is first mentioned when the author describes an officer's servant who was captured by the Russians. He dragged enormous amounts of luggage from Dubno to Darnitsa beyond Kiev and on to Tashkent where he pegged out from typhus on the top of the heap.

Soon after the city reappears when Švejk reads in a newspaper that "the commander of Przemyśl, general Kusmanek, has arrived in Kiev".

During Švejk's stay in Przemyśl and his interrogation there, Kiev is mentioned no less than 7 times. Most of this occurs when a Polish informer-provoker is sent into Švejk's cell and tries to construct an incriminating story: that the two had met in Kiev.

Background

Kiev (ukr. Київ, rus. Киев) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine. It straddles both banks of the river Dnieper and has nearly 3 million inhabitants, making it the 7th largest city in Europe. The administrative centre and historic districts are located on the hills on the west bank.

Kiev was in 1914 capital of the Kiev military district and "gubernia" of the same name. It had been under Russian control from the 17th century, although with a noticeable Polish footprint. The city also counted a large number of Jews.

The city and the province had a sizeable Czech immigrant community and a Czech weekly Čechoslovan was published in Kiev until February 1918. During the First World War the city was, together with Paris and Petrograd, the main centre of Czechoslovak independence movement.

Turbulent times

Until the Russian October Revolution (7 November 1917) Kiev was relatively unaffected by the war apart from the general shortages and the fact that the city was the centre of the military assembly area and an important military-administrative centre. Kiev was also the headquarters of the Russian branch of the Czechoslovak National Council (see České legie). The leader of the Czechoslovak independence movement, professor Masaryk, stayed here for long periods between May 1917 and February 1918. It was in Kiev that he 7 February 1918 signed the treaty of the transfer of the Legions from the Russian to the French army.

The Bolshevik coup in Petrograd 7 November 1917 had far-reaching consequences for Kiev. Early in 1918 the Bolsheviks initiated military operations to gain control of Ukrainian territory, which at the time was partly controlled by the Tsentralna Rada (Central Council) of the Ukrainian National Republic. Red Guards led by Vladimir Antonov-Ovseyenko invaded the areas east of Dnieper and on 8 February 1918 they seized Kiev.

The forces that entered Kiev were commanded by Mikhail A. Muravyov, a former officer in the Russian imperial army who was pivotal in defeating the forces of Kerensky who attempted to regain control of Petrograd during the October Revolution. He now acted as chief of staff for Antonov-Ovseyenko. He was a capable but brutal and megalomaniac officer. His deputy commander was Václav Fridrich, a former Czech legionnaire who had been expelled from the Legions for disciplinary reasons, and now as was imprisoned in Darnitsa, but set free by Muravyov's advancing troops. During the 10 day long siege of Kiev and ensuing occupation, a wave of terror, looting and killing followed. Even poison gas was used. Officers, members of the bourgeois and random inhabitants were slaughtered in their thousands. Muravyov and the atrocities of his troops became a liability for the Bolsheviks and he was transferred to the front against Romania on 28 February.

At the same time (9 February) Ukraine signed a peace treaty with the Central Powers. Professor Masaryk who was staying in Kiev during this period, experienced the terror, but personally he got on well with Muravyov. With representatives for the Entente present, Masaryk and Muravyov reached an agreement that permitted the Legions to leave Ukraina unhindered and also to keep their weapons. According to Masaryk the deal was signed on 16 February.

The red reign of terror in Kiev didn't last long. On 18 February 1918 the Central Powers invaded Ukraine and already on 1 March German troops reached Kiev. The Red Guards and the Legions fled the city, and amongst those who escaped was Jaroslav Hašek.

Hašek in Kiev
kiev1.jpg

Hotel Praha hosted the editorial offices of Čechoslovan

kiev3.png

Jaroslav Hašek, Revoluce, 23.4.1917 (6.5)

Thus Jaroslav Hašek witnessed those dramatic events in Kiev in February 1918. He had stayed for long periods in the city from July 1916 to May 1917 and again from 15 November until the end of February 1918. He was co-editor of Čechoslovan and also had duties involving recruitment and propaganda in prisoners camps. It was in Česchoslovan he wrote Povídka o obrázu císaře Františka Josefa I (The story of the picture of Emperor Franz Joseph I) who led to a process "in absentia" of high treason back in Austria. In 1917 he published the second version of the "Soldier Švejk", Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí (The Good Soldier Švejk in captivity).

His time in Kiev was ridden with controversies: he was involved in a row with a Russian officer who he insulted and as a result ended up in prison. Soon after (early 1917) he was "deported" to the front and as a goodbye he published Klub českých Pickwiků (The Czech Pickwick Club) where he ridiculed some of the leaders of the Czechoslovak independence movement in Russia. From his "exile" at the front he was eventually forced to apologise in writing.

Hašek was recalled to Kiev 15 November 1917 in order to testify against the Austrian spy Alexandr Mašek who he had earlier helped uncover. It was also in Kiev, during the first two months of 1918, that Jaroslav Hašek changed from being openly critical towards the Bolsheviks to openly sympathise with the new rulers in Petrograd. The reason for this turnaround are probably mixed but there is reason to believe that the young Communist Břetislav Hůla during this period had considerable influence on Hašek's political views. The two were both editors at Čechoslovan and travelled together to Moscow after their escape from Kiev. According to Václav Menger they were at the time very close (Menger used the expression "inseparable").

Important in understanding this shift is also that Hašek was firmly against transferring the Legions to France, and that they pulled out of Ukraine rather than fighting the Germans who were approaching Kiev. In a public meeting on 24 February he voiced his objections. He stated his point of view in detail in an article in Průkopník in Moscow on 27 March 1918.

kiev5.png

From "Znal jsem Haška", Josef Pospíšil

kiev6.png

Proclamation from Václav Fridrich, Muravyov's chief of staff. Československý deník, 12 February 1918.

Josef Pospíšil relates that Hašek met the leadership of the Bolshevik occupiers of Kiev in February. He was on friendly terms with them and recognised them as very capable people. That this positive personal impression may also have contributed to the author's radicalisation. Who these leaders were is not mentioned but it must be assumed that he met Fridrich (who he surely knew) and probably also Muravyov.

The occupants also took measures that Hašek probably approved of: price control (bread became cheaper), limit on bank transactions, nationalisation of the finance sector and a one time tax on rich citizens (contribution). Ironically enough the Bolsheviks also abolished capital punishment. In general the Czechoslovaks were on good terms with the revolutionary authorities. This was during February 1918 repeatedly stated by Československý deník, the official paper of the Czechoslovak National Council in Russia.

On the wall of the former Hotel Praha, the building that hosted the editorial offices of the paper, a memorial plaque honouring the author still hangs (2010).

General Kusmanek in Kiev
kiev4.png

Národní listy, 28.3.1915

Finally back to the quote by Švejk about general Kusmanek in Kiev. It is authentic and copied word by word from the press. This brief quote appeared in Národní politika 3 April 1915 and was also printed elsewhere. Newspapers also provided more comprehensive information. Kusmanek arrived in Kiev on an express train, first class, on 25 March. This was only three days after the capitulation of Przemyśl. He was very well treated in Kiev and even stayed as a guest of the governor. Furthermore his stay in Kiev was of a temporary nature, he was to be sent to the inner parts of Russia for permanent internment.

Links

Source: Viktor A. Savčenko, Josef Pospíšil, Pavel Gan, Radko Pytlík, Jaroslav Křížek, Tomáš Masaryk

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Viděl jsem jednoho zajatého důstojnického sluhu, který od Dubna šel s druhými pěšky až do Dárnice za Kyjevem.
[1.14.4] Švejk posadil se na lavici ve vratech a vykládal, že v bitevní frontě karpatské se útoky vojska ztroskotaly, na druhé straně však že velitel Přemyšlu, generál Kusmanek, přijel do Kyjeva a že za námi zůstalo v Srbsku jedenáct opěrných bodů a že Srbové dlouho nevydrží utíkat za našimi vojáky.
[4.1] Major Wolf v té době ještě neměl zdání o tom, co vlastně všechno chystají Rakousku přeběhlíci, kteří později, setkávajíce se v Kyjevě a jinde, na otázku: „Co tady děláš?“ odpovídali vesele: „Zradil jsem císaře pána.“
[4.1] Přihlásím se Rusům, že půjdu na forpatrolu ... Sloužil jsem u 6. kyjevské divise.
[4.1] Já jsem v Kyjevě znal mnoho Čechů, kteří šli s námi na frontu, když jsme přešli do ruského vojska, nemůžu si teď ale vzpomenout na jejich jména a odkuď byli, snad ty si vzpomeneš na někoho, s kým si se tam tak stýkal, rád bych věděl, kdo tam je od našeho 28. regimentu?“
[4.1] Zůstal tam zcela klidně a blábolil dále cosi o Kyjevu, a že Švejka tam rozhodně viděl, jak mašíroval mezi ruskými vojáky.
[4.1] „Já znám vaše všechny známé z Kyjeva,“ neúnavně pokračoval zřízenec protišpionáže, „nebyl tam s vámi takový tlustý a jeden takový hubený? Teď nevím, jak se jmenovali a od kterého byli regimentu...“
[4.1] Při odchodu řekla stvůra hlasitě k štábnímu šikovateli, ukazujíc na Švejka: „Je to můj starý kamarád z Kyjeva.“
[4.1] Je zde přece úplné doznání obžalovaného, že se oblékl do ruské uniformy, potom jedno důležité svědectví, kde se přiznal obžalovaný, že byl v Kyjevě.
more

Also written:Kyjev cz Kiew de Киев ru Київ ua

Ukrainenn flag
Wikipedia czdeennnnoruuk Google mapsearch
ukraina2.jpg

The Cossack Hetmanate, 1654

ukraina1.png

Ottův slovník naučný, 1888-

ukraina.jpg

Illustreret norsk konversationsleksikon, 1907-1913

ukraina.png

Linzer Volksblatt, 20.8.1914

ukraina2.png

Zlatá Praha, 12.12.1884

Ukraine is first mentioned when the author describes an officer's servant who was captured by the Russians. He dragged enormous amounts of luggage Dubno to Darnitsa and on to Tashkent where he pegged out from typhus on the top of the heap.

At the very end the author touches the relationship between Poles and Ukrainians, a conflict that had terrible consequences during WW2, and has remained an issue until present.

Background

Ukraine (ukr. Україна, rus. Украина) is a large and populous state in south west Europe with Kiev as capital. Before the first world war the name had however a rather different meaning. According to Ottův slovník naučný (1888) it was a term that refers to "the south western part of Russia along the banks of the rivers Bug and Dnieper but which extent is not precisely defined". According to the encyclopaedia the name origins from the 17th century and means "borderland".

Meyers Konverzations-Lexikon uses approximately the same definition as Otto's Encyclopaedia but doesn't mention the river Bug; it rather states that Ukraine consists of the areas on both banks of the Dnieper. Nordic and English encyclopaedia from the time before the first world war use more or less the same definition as Meyers.

The Hetmanate

The closest there was to an early Ukrainian nation state was the Hetmanate of the 17th century. It was founded through the rebellion of Bohdan Khmelnytsky against Polish supremacy, but he was dependent on help from abroad and ended up as a vassal of Moscow. The Hetmanate was historically important not only as a source of Ukrainian national identity, but it also started a process that gradually brought the Ukrainian lands under Russian control, at the expense of Poland.

The areas were thus mainly under Polish control until the 17th century, but at the peace treaty in Moscow in 1686 Poland was forced to cede the areas east of Dnieper and a smaller area around Kiev to Moscow. Most of the west bank of the river only became Russian during Poland's second partition in 1793, and the rest during Poland's third partition in 1795. Galicia was ceded to Austria during Poland's first partition in 1772.

Little Russia

At the outbreak of war in 1914 Ukraine was a rather loosely defined geographical entity: it denoted the south-western part of the Tsars empire. At the time the term Little Russia was far more commonly used, as witnessed by the entries in various encyclopaedia (amongst them Czech, Norwegian, Swedish, English and German).

That said a Ukrainian language and national consciousness existed but manifestations of nationalism were strongly suppressed by the Russian authorities. From 1804 Ukrainian was banned as a subject and as a language of teaching, a state of affairs that continued relatively unchanged until 1917. Literature and other publications written in Ukrainian were mostly published in Galicia, a region under Austrian rule. One of the victims of the repression was the famous author Taras Shevchenko.

In the novel Jaroslav Hašek no doubt refers to Ukraine in accordance with the widely accepted definition of his time: as "the south-western regions of Russia".

Ruthenia

Ukrainians were recognised as a nation in Austria-Hungary and was commonly referred to as Ruthenians. In the Habsburg Empire their language and culture enjoyed a far greater acceptance than in Russia. Ukrainian was one of twelve official languages and in 1918 there were 28 Ukrainian members of the lower chamber of the Austrian "Reichsrat" (see Parlament). This reflected their status as the fourth largest ethnic group in Cisleithanien, behind Germans, Czechs and Poles. The Ukrainian territories of the Dual Empire extended across large parts of Galicia, eastern Slovakia, Carpathian Ruthenia and Bukovina.

The First World War

Already from the outbreak of hostilities in 1914 the war was conducted on Ukrainian lands, albeit on the territory of Austria-Hungary. From August 1915 the war was carried over to Russian-Ukrainian land, and the front stretched here and in the Austrian-Ukrainian areas respectively until the summer of 1917 when the Russian army was forced out of Austro-Hungarian territory once and for all.

In 1914 a considerable number of Czech immigrants lived in Ukraine, mostly in Kiev and Volhynia. It was in these circles that the seeds of what was to become České legie took root, and until March 1918 the Legions operated from Ukrainian territory.

Distrusted on both sides
ukraina4.png

Directive on taking hostages in Galicia (© ÖSTA)

Ukrainians were often distrusted by both parts in the conflict and not without reason. In Galicia and other Ukrainian areas of the Dual Monarchy there was widespread sympathy for Russia, a theme Hašek also mentions in the novel. Ukrainians together with Czechs were regarded the least trustworthy nation in Austria-Hungary, and already in 1914 there was built concentration camps for civilians where "Ruthenians" made up a large part of the inmates. This was particularly the case in Thalerhof by Graz (see Steinhof). Many were summarily executed as "spies" and "collaborators" in the areas near the front.

It is documented that K.u.k. Heer took prominent Russophile citizens as hostages when Galicia was reconquered in 1915, and threatened them with execution if sabotage took place in their area. In documents related to the 2nd Army this is clearly revealed, and on regimental level even our acquaintance Čeněk Sagner recommended in writing that suspect civilians be shown no mercy.

The conditions for Ukrainians in Russia during the war was probably not much different, but the information available is not that comprehensive. The pressure on Ukrainian language and culture had been somewhat eased from 1905, but was now intensified again. The well known nurse Elsa Brändström (aka. "the Siberian angel") wrote that "millions of Poles and Ukrainians were deported" and added that Jews were particularly targeted. At the time Ukraine had a large Jewish population.

Revolution
ukraina3.png

The Chechoslovak army corps (Legions) pulling out of Ukraine in March 1918

In the aftermath of the October Revolution, Ukraine declared independence and took part in the peace negotiations in Brest-Litovsk. On 9 February 1918 the treaty with the Central Powers was signed, but Kiev had already the previous day been occupied by communist Red Guards commanded by Mikhail Muravyov. These were events Jaroslav Hašek that personally witnessed.

On 18 February German forces invaded the now largely Bolshevik occupied Ukraine to force the revolutionary government in Russia to accept the peace terms. By the end of March all of Ukraine had been occupied, but the state formally continued to exists but now as a German puppet.

As a result of the post-WW1 settlements Ukrainian lands were split between the Soviet Union (where it was recognised as a political entity in the form of the Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic), Poland, Czechoslovakia and Romania.

Hašek in Ukraine
hasek_kamarady_kiev.jpg

The only known photo of Jaroslav Hašek from the Russian part of Ukraine. Here with Jan Šípek and Václav Menger. Berezne 29 September 1917 (12 October).

From July to September 1915 Jaroslav Hašek stayed on the territory of current Ukraine, as an Austrian soldier in Galicia and Volhynia. It was by Chorupan in Volhynia that the author was captured on 24 September 1915. From here the prisoners had to walk to the transit camp at Darnitsa (appx. 300 km) before they were transported onwards to camps in other parts of the Russian empire.

After having been released from the prisoner's camp in Totskoye in southern Ural, Hašek lived in Russian Ukraine from June 1916 until March 1918. During this time he worked for Czech organisations who were opposed to Austria-Hungary, units that were later to become known as Czechoslovak Legions (see České legie). He was predominately based in Kiev where he worked as an editor of Čechoslovan, but also travelled extensively between Kiev and the front. On 2 July 1917 he took part in the battle of Zborów where Czechs units for the first time fought against K.u.k. Heer.

Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911

UKRAINE (“frontier”), the name formerly given to a district of European Russia, now comprising the governments of Kharkov, Kiev, Podolia and Poltava. The portion east of the Dnieper became Russian in 1686 and the portion west of that river in 1793.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Nikdy nezapomenu toho člověka, který se tak mořil s tím přes celou Ukrajinu. Byl to živý špeditérský vůz a nemohu si vysvětlit, jak to mohl unést a táhnout kolik set kilometrů a potom jeti s tím až do Taškentu, opatrovat to a umřít na svých zavazadlech na skvrnitý tyf v zajateckém táboře.
more

Also written:Ukrajina cz Ukraine de Украина ru Україна ua

Tashkentnn flag
Wikipedia czdeennoruuz Google mapsearch
tasjkent.jpg

Světozor, 14.3.1917

troitzky.png

From a Red Cross report, 1916.

tasjkent.png

Elsa Brändström: "Amongst prisonsers of war in Russia and Siberia" (1921)

Tashkent is mentioned in the story the author tells about the officer's servant dragged a huge amount of luggage with him from Dubno, but who pegged out on top of his luggage in a prisoner's camp in Tashkent. He died from spotted typhus, a disease Jaroslav Hašek himself contracted in Russian captivity (but was somewhat luckier).

The city is mentioned amongst a number of places that don't at the time play a part in the plot, but that might have appeared again if Jaroslav Hašek had managed to complete the novel. See Sokal.

Background

Tashkent (rus. Ташкент) was in 1915 capital of the Russian general governorate Turkestan. It is now the capital of Uzbekistan after having been part of the Soviet Union until 1991. Today the city has more than 2 million inhabitants.

During the war there was a prisoner's camp in the city, and another one at Troytsky 30 kilometres from the centre. In both camps the inmates were mainly prisoners from the Slav nations of of Austria-Hungary. Because many Czech were interned here Jaroslav Hašek surely knew a few people who had stories to tell from Tashkent.

Typhus

Typhus was a big problem in all the camps in Turkestan and in 1915 and 1916 epidemics raged. Health workers were inoculated but the prisoners rarely had this privilege. The casualties reached tens of thousands. Because many Czech were interned here Jaroslav Hašek surely knew a few people who had stories to tell from Tashkent.

In 1915 the Troytsky camp was ravaged by a severe epidemic, one of the worst that hit any of the Russian prisoners camps during the war. During three month 9,000 out of 17,000 prisoners perished. Otherwise the camp in the city was regarded as a good one, and and the inmates enjoyed a large degree of freedom. Officers were allowed to leave the camp without an escort.

Links

SourceElsa Brändström, F. Thormeyer, F. Ferrière

Quote from the novel
[1.14] Nikdy nezapomenu toho člověka, který se tak mořil s tím přes celou Ukrajinu<. Byl to živý špeditérský vůz a nemohu si vysvětlit, jak to mohl unést a táhnout kolik set kilometrů a potom jeti s tím až do Taškentu, opatrovat to a umřít na svých zavazadlech na skvrnitý tyf v zajateckém táboře.
more

Also written:Taškent cz Taschkent de Ташкент ru Toshkent uz

Sokalnn flag
Wikipedia deenplruuk Google mapsearch
sokal.jpg

View of the city from Sokal Hora, 2010.

sokal1.jpg

Sokal and Poturzyca on a K.u.k. military survey map.

sokal1.png

Finljandskaja Gazeta, 13.8.1914

sokal7.png

Die neue Zeitung, 20.8.1914

Sokal (ukr. Сока́ль) is first mentioned by the author in a passage where he ironically describes how the officer servants ("Putzflecks") brag about their endeavours in various battles.

Sokal is one of a few places that appears in chapter headers, here in [2.5]. In the body of this chapter Sokal is further mentioned by Schröder as he is about to show his fellow officers where the town is located on the map. In the end he sticks his finger in a turd that a tom-cat has been audacious enough to leave behind on the staff map.

In the next chapter [3.1] Sokal is mentioned again when Ságner receives on order by telegram at the station in Győr about quickly "boil ready" and set off for Sokal. The dispatcher is Ritter von Herbert who has turned insane. At the station in Budapest [3.2] the battalion receives yet another nonsensical telegram from Herbert.

From Sanok [3.4] and until the end of the novel Sokal appears regularly, last in a conversation between Švejk and Marek where it transpires that "we are going Sokal". Marek tells Švejk that he is not going to get paid until after Sokal. Marek says that paying salaries to soldiers who are going to fall anyway, is a useless exercise.

Beyond dispute is the fact that the author intended to place the plot at Sokal in the 4th book, a part that he didn't get to complete due to his premature death.

In all Sokal is mentioned 12 times in the novel.

Background

Sokal is a regional capital in the Lviv oblast in western Ukraine. It is situated 80 km north of Lviv (Lwów), on the eastern bank of Buh (Bug) and at present (2018) it counts 25,000 inhabitants.

From 1772 to 1918 the town belonged to Austria, in the inter-war period to Poland, after the Second World War the Soviet Union and from 1991 Ukraine. In 1881 the population counted around 8,000, with a near equal distributions between Jews, Poles and Ukrainians. The town was situated approx. 10 km from the border with Russia.

Russian occupation

Sokal was soon after the outbreak of war attacked by Russian forces. Already on 13 August 1914 the Russian general staff reported that the town had been captured, two bridges across Bug blown up, provisions destroyed and the railway station torched. This news were however refuted by Austrian sources a few days later. These claim that the attack was a plundering exercise and that the enemy had been repelled. Both Russian and Austrian reports confirm that the attack took place on 11 August, but the occupation was short-lived.

The Russians were however soon back. On 21 august the Austrians repelled another attack, but on 31 August Finnish newspapers reported that Sokal and several other towns and cities in Galicia had been captured.

In the aftermaths of the first Russian attack on Sokal, reports of treason against Austria-Hungary appeared in the newspapers. Some of the Emperors Ruthenian (Ukrainian) subjects, 28 of them, were judged guilty as they allegedly had guided the Russians towards Sokal by signalling from church towers. They were from Skomorochy (ukr. Скоморохи) north of Sokal, were sentenced to death on 20 August, and hanged in their home village the next day.

The Central Powers returning
sokal.png

The situation south of Sokal 27 July 1915. The blue arrow indicates the position of IR91, 11. field company. © ÖSTA.

sokal3.png

Pester Lloyd, 29.7.1915

Sokal was only reconquered by the Central Powers on 18 July 1915. For the remainder of the war the town was on Austrian hands and after the battle south of town during the next two weeks, Sokal disappears entirely from the news headlines.

The decisive battle over the control Sokal took place from 15 to 31 July 1915. It started with an attack by K.u.k. 1. Armee, eventually supported by the German 103rd Infantry Division. They crossed Bug and after fierce fighting they captured Sokal on the 18h. Thus K.u.k. Heer had established a bridgehead east of the river.

That same day there was however issued an order that had widespread consequences. The German commander-in-chief Mackesen ordered that 103rd Infantry Division and other Germans troops were to be pulled out to help general Linsingen further north. This put K.u.k. 1. Armee in a difficult situation, as the Russians, commanded by the competent general Brusilov, recaptured the hills south of Sokal on the 20th. From here they could shell the town and threaten to push the enemy back across the river.

Already the same day Paul Puhallo, commander of 1st Army, realised how serious the situation was. He asked for assistance and the request was granted. K.u.k. 2. Armee released the entire 9th Infantry Division (that IR91 belonged to). According to original plans they were to attack across the Bug by Kamionka Strumiłowa on 21 July, but in the night between the 20th and 21st they instead had to start marching northwards to relieve the threatened bridgehead at Sokal.

The order to move the division to this section of the front was thus the direct reason why Jaroslav Hašek got to Sokal at all, and hence leading to the town being mentioned in his novel.

K.u.k. Infanteriregiment Nr. 91 by Sokal
sokal2.png

Oberleutnant Sagner reporting on the critical situation of his battalion finds itself in. The losses are reacing at least 50 per cent. © ÖSTA

The regiment reached Opulsko west of Sokal on the 22nd and the next day they were in position by Poturzyca (ukr. Поториця), a few kilometres south of the town. At 4 PM on 25 July 1915 the signal for attack on the Russian positions on the hills by Poturzyca (Kote 254, 237, 234) was given. It was a brutal battle with frightening losses on both sides. It is estimated that 9th Infantry Division lost around half their men in killed, wounded and missing. On both sides a large number of prisoners were taken.

In the end K.u.k. Heer had to give up the attack and pull back to positions between Sokal and Poturzyca. In the end they were saved by an unexpected Russian withdrawal that was caused by a German break-through further north. This the Russian forces by Sokal were in danger of getting trapped on were ordered to pull back.

../dokumenty/svejk/obrazy/sokal.jpg

"Bojiště u Sokalu", Večerní České Slovo, 1924

On 1 August the 9th division was replaced. Parts of IR91 were lodged in the gymnasium in Sokal (Jan Vaněk mentions it in his diary), a fact that may have found its way into the novel (but "relocated" to Sanok). In the evening of 2 August they started the march to the reserve positions by Żdżary, 15 kilometres north of Sokal. On 3 Augsut, at 4 in the morning, the replacement had been completed. Żdżary was in an area that was infested by cholera, but it is not known whether anyone from the regiment were infected. K.u.k. Infanteriedivision Nr. 9 stayed in the area until 27 August when an offensive into Russia in the direction of Dubno started.

The original units from 1st army also took part in the battle. Amongst these were IR4 (Hoch- und Deutschmeister from Vienna), FJB10 (Kopaljäger from Jihlava), FJB25 from Brno. These units had also taken part in the original conquest of Sokal, where particularly the Deutschmeister regiment had distinguished itself.

Jaroslav Hašek and Sokal
dekorierung.jpg

"Dekorierung" at IR91/11. field company, Żdżary 18 August 1915. Colonel Rudolf Kiesswetter handed out medals to the soldiers. On the photo, we can apart from Kiesswetter himself, identify (a.o.) Vaněk, Hašek, Lukas and Sagner. From "Bestand Rudolf Kiesswetter". © ÖSTA.

Jaroslav Hašek served as messenger in 3rd field battalion, 11th company. The battalion held one of the most exposed positions and suffered terrible losses. Still Oberleutnant Čeněk Sagner led his unit commendably and in battle reports he was mentioned in very favourable terms. Oberleutnant Rudolf Lukas led 11th company, one of the four companies in Sagner's battalion.

Hašek was after the battle by Sokal promoted to Gefreiter and on 18 August 1915 he was decorated with a silver medal (2nd class) for bravery demonstrated during the fighting by Poturzyca on 25 July.

Several of the "models" for characters in Švejk took part in the battle by Sokal: Rudolf Lukas, Čeněk Sagner, Hans Bigler, Jan Vaněk, František Strašlipka, Jan Evangelista Eybl and Franz Wenzel.

Apart from the author, Kadett Bigler and Oberleutnant Sagner were promoted after the battle. Oberstleutnant Wenzel was investigated due to cowardly conduct. He allegedly left the command of his 2. battalion to Oberleutnant Peregrin Baudisch and for some mysterious reason spent time with the 4th battalion (who were reserves).

These were decorated after the battle: Jaroslav Hašek, Hans Bigler, Jan Vaněk, František Strašlipka og Čeněk Sagner. The latter was one of only three in the whole regiment who were given the highest recognition: the German "Eiserne Kreuz" (Iron Cross).

A well documented battle
sokal4.png

From Jan Vaněk's diary. 31 July 1915.

sokal5.png

From Gefechtsbericht, 9 August 1915. This report contains stinging criticism of how the main commanders of IR91 conducted the battle. Regimental commander Oberst Steinsberg and the commander of the 2nd battalion, Oberstleutnant Wenzel, are singled out for particularly harsh criticism. © ÖSTA.

Important testimonies of the battle are the diaries of Jan Vaněk and Jan Evangelista Eybl, the notes of Bohumil Vlček, all from IR91. Moreover there is the diary of Eugen Hoeflich (better known as Moscheh Ya’akov Ben-Gavriêl) from Feldjägerbtn. 25, Brno (FJB 25).

Apart from these personal accounts, detailed descriptions of the battle can be found in the regimental chronicles of IR91, IR73 and IR102, probably also by IR4, IR11 and others. Österreich-Ungarns letzter Krieg describes the battle thoroughly and gives insight into the decisions and considerations further up the command chain. In the war archives in Vienna and Prague there more material can be found; diaries, battle reports, orders, maps, photos and more. Material on IR91 and Sokal is found in both archives.

Newspaper reports that mention Sokal were numerous, but on both sides the news stream was obviously filtered and censored. The respective setbacks were "wrapped in" or not mentioned at all, and own successes exaggerated. Much more informative are newspaper items from after the war, where individuals wrote about their experiences by Sokal.

The author of this web page has not found any eye-witness accounts from the Russian side, but official reports are available in Finnish newspapers (at the time Finland was a Russian Grand Duchy) and newspapers from neutral states like Norway, Sweden, Netherlands and Switzerland.

Hašek and the 300 prisoners

A sixteen-part series in Večerní České Slovo from 1924, based partly on interviews with Rudolf Lukas, is also an important source. It has been much relied upon by post-WW2 Haškologists. This despite a suspicion that the author Jan Morávek "coloured" his account to a considerable degree. One such case is the claim that Jaroslav Hašek was decorated because he convinced 300 Russians to give themselves up, and then led them to regiment HQ without disarming them, thus causing confusion and panic behind the lines.

Interestingly this episode is not mention with a word in the application for his decoration (Belohnungsantrag), but the story has many similarities with information from one of Rudolf Lukas's obituaries (Důjstonické listy, 24 February 1938). Here it transpires that Hašek actually was trusted by Lukas to lead a group of prisoners to positions behind the lines. Contrary to instructions he did not disarm them and this led to panic as they entered HQ where the officers believed that the Russians had broken through. The episode put Lukas in a bad light but we don't known if it had any consequences for him.

Jan Vaněk, 26.7.1915

Včera odpol přišel rozkaz „Ku předu“ na ruské zákopy. Nejdříve bombardovalo naše dělostřelectvo a pak jsme šli. Ale bylo to hrozné. Sotva naši lidé vyskočili na náspy, již se jich mnoho a mnoho válelo na zemi dílem mrtvých a raněných. Hrozná to byla hodinka. Postoupili jsme o 100 kroků do předu a dále to nešlo. Byli jsme seslabeni. K tomu ke všemu pršelo jen se lilo. Bláto zamazalo pušky, takže nebylo možno střílet. Trnuli jsme strachy a kdyby rusové udělali protiútok, že to nezadržíme. Ale nestalo se tak—do rána jsme se urželi a pak jsme pokračovali. Zajali jsme spousty Rusů.

28. juli 1915, 11 Uhr Nachts

Gleich darauf meldte Oberleutnant Sagner: Linker Flügel des III. Bataillons hat, da das Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 zurückgeging, jeden Anschluss verloren. Gegner durchgebrochen - Pionerabteilung des Regimentsreserven eingesetzt. Bitte um 2 Kompagnien an meinen linken Flügel da dieser in äusserst kritischer Situation ist.

Links

Source: VHA, ÖSTA, Milan Hodík, Bohumil Vlček, Jan Vaněk, Jan Evangelista Eybl, Eugen Hoeflich

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Dnes jsou důstojničtí sluhové roztroušení po celé naší republice a vypravují o svých hrdinných skutcích. Oni šturmovali Sokal, Dubno, Niš, Piavu. Každý z nich je Napoleonem: „Povídal jsem našemu obrstovi, aby telefonoval do štábu, že už to může začít.“
[2.5] "Odtud, pánové, k Sokalu na Bug," řekl plukovník Schröder věštecky a posunul ukazováček po paměti ke Karpatům, přičemž zabořil jej do jedné z těch hromádek, jak se kocour staral udělat mapu bojiště plastickou.
[3.1] Telegram zněl prosté, nešifrován: "Rasch abkochen, dann Vormarsch nach Sokal." Hejtman Ságner povážlivé zakroutil hlavou. "Poslušné hlásím," řekl Matušič, "velitel stanice dá vás prosit k rozmluvě. Je tam ještě jeden telegram." Potom byla mezi velitelem nádraží a hejtmanem Ságnerem rozmluva velice důvěrného rázu. První telegram musel být odevzdán, třebas měl obsah velice překvapující, když je batalión na stanici v Rábu: "Rychle uvařit a pak pochodem na Sokal." Adresován byl nešifrovaně na pochodový batalión 91. pluku s kopií na pochodový batalión 75. pluku, který byl ještě vzadu. Podpis byl správný: Velitel brigády Ritter von Herbert.
[3.2] Matušič přinesl na vojenském nádraží v Budapešti hejtmanovi Ságnerovi z velitelství telegram, který poslal nešťastný velitel brigády dopravený do sanatoria. Byl téhož obsahu, nešifrován, jako na poslední stanici: "Rychle uvařit menáž a pochodem na Sokal." K tomu bylo připojeno: "Vozatajstvo začíslit u východní skupiny. Výzvědná služba se zrušuje. 13. pochodový prapor staví most přes řeku Bug. Bližší v novinách."
[3.4] Ačkoliv odtud bylo spojení železniční neporušeno pod Lvov i severně na Veliké Mosty, bylo vlastně záhadou, proč štáb východního úseku udělal tyto dispozice, aby železná brigáda se svým štábem soustřeďovala pochodové prapory sto padesát kilometrů v týlu, když šla v té době fronta od Brodů na Bug a podél řeky severně k Sokalu.
[3.4] Tato nešťastná kráva, možno-li vůbec nazvati onen přírodní zjev kravou, utkvěla všem účastníkům v živé paměti, a je téměř jisto, že kdyby později před bitvou u Sokalu byli velitelé připomněli mužstvu krávu z Liskowiec, že by se byla jedenáctá kumpanie za hrozného řevu vzteku vrhla s bajonetem na nepřítele.
[4.1] Neznalo ještě nic určitého o revolučních organizacích v cizině a teprve v srpnu na linii Sokal Milijatin - Bubnovo obdrželi velitelé bataliónů důvěrné rezerváty, že bývalý rakouský profesor Masaryk utekl za hranice, kde vede proti Rakousku propagandu. Nějaký pitomeček od divize doplnil rezervát ještě tímto rozkazem: "V případě zachycení předvésti neprodlené k štábu divize!" Toto tedy připomínám panu presidentovi, aby věděl, jaké nástrahy a léčky byly na něho kladeny mezi Sokalem- Milijatinem a Bubnovou.
[4.3] Major otevřel si stůl, vytáhl mapu a zamyslel se nad tím, že Felštýn je 40 kilometrů jihovýchodně od Přemyšlu, takže jevila se zde hrozná záhada, jak přišel pěšák Švejk k ruské uniformě v místech vzdálených přes sto padesát kilometrů od fronty, když pozice táhnou se v linii Sokal - Turze Kozlów.
[4.3] "U nás ho teď nedostaneš, poněvadž my jdeme na Sokal a lénunk se bude vyplácet až po bitvě, musíme šetřit. Jestli počítám, že se to tam strhne za čtrnáct dní, tak se ušetří na každým padlým vojákovi i s culágama 24 K 72 hal."
more

Also written:Сокаль ru Сокаль ua

Nišnn flag
Wikipedia czdeennnnosr Google mapsearch
nis.jpg

Serbian funeral in Niš © ÖSTA

nis1.png

Linzer Volksblatt, 7.11.1915

nis.png

IR91 by Niš 8 October 1918.

Niš is mentioned when the author riducules the officers' servants who "stormed" Niš, Sokal and Piave (and others).

Background

Niš (ser. Ниш) is a city in Serbia by the river Nišava. Counting more than 250,000 inhabitants it is the biggest city in southern Serbia and the third in the country behind Belgrade and Novi Sad.

During the war

The city was war-time capital of Serbia due to the exposed position of Belgrade at the border with Hungary. During the Central Power's offensive in the autumn of 1915 Niš was conquered by Bulgarian troops on 5 November 1915 after the Serbs had abandoned the city. It remained under Bulgarian occupation until 12 October 1918 when it was liberated by Serbian forces.

That Austrian soldiers would have been participating in the storming of Niš (as the author suggests) is unlikely as the operations against the city in 1915 were undertaken by the Bulgarian army.

IR91 by Niš

In late September 1918 Bulgaria pulled out of the war and left their allies on the Balkans dangerously exposed. The 9th Infantry Division (including IR91) was therefore hastily transferred from the front by Piave to southern Serbia. The transport went by train via Udine, Ljubljana, Belgrade to Vranje on the Macedonian border. The division was seriously decimated and suffered from shortages and diseases. Some reserves didn't even have shoes. South of Vranje they immediately faced the advancing Serbian 1st Army and already on 3 October they had to withdraw northwards. The 17th Brigade (IR91 and IR102) had a particularly arduous retreat across the mountains. On 8 October they had reached the vicinity of Niš and by 16 October by Vitkovač. The retreat continued northwards for the remaining few weeks of the war.

Links

Source: Jan Ciglbauer, Milan Hodík

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Oni šturmovali Sokal, Dubno, Niš, Piavu.
more

Also written:Nisch de Ниш sr

Piavenn flag
Wikipedia czdeenitno Google mapsearch
piave.jpg

K.u.k. Heer crossing Piave by Grave di Papadopoli

piave1.jpg

Svět, 12.9.1918

Piave is mentioned by the narrator when he ridicules the officers' servants who bragged about their exploits during the war.

Background

Piave is a river in northern Italy. It flows from the Alps and after 220 km ends in the Adriatic Sea near Venice.

During the war

After the Central Powers broke through by Caporetto in in October 1917, Italian forces pulled back to the Piave where the front was stabilised in November after the Central Power's attempt to cross the river failed. In June 1918 a second battle by the Piave took place, the last large-scale Austro-Hungarian operation at the Italian front. The offensive failed and K.u.k. Heer suffered nearly 120,000 casualties). At the end of October the Allies attacked across the river and the Austro-Hungarian front collapsed.

By Piave a division of Czech legionnaires were fighting on the Italian side. Those who were captured were publicly executed. On one single day, 22 July 1918, no less than 160 legionnaires suffered this fate.

IR91 by Piave

During the offensive by Caporetto that started 24 October 1917, IR91 followed K.u.k. Heer westwards from Isonzo to Piave where they arrived on 12 November 1917. For the first month they were stationed at Ponte di Piave, then moved on to Valdobbiadene further up the river. During the failed Austrian offensive in the summer of 1918 they stayed in the reserve (15 to 23 June), were then moved down the river again to Grave di Papadopoli, a large island in the Piave. Here they suffered considerable losses. Finally they were moved to the Serbian front, a transfer that began on 30 September. Amongst the models for characters in the novel only Hans Bigler and Jan Evangelista Eybl served by Piave.

Links

Source: Jan Ciglbauer, Milan Hodík

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Oni šturmovali Sokal, Dubno, Niš, Piavu.
more

Also written:Piava cz

Canary Islandsnn flag
Wikipedia czdeenesno Google mapsearch

Canary Islands is here used as an adjective in reference to a breed of birds that is named after these islands. Lukáš was fond of animals and owned a Canary bird, a cat and a dog. The bird ended its life miserably as Švejk tried to let the bird and the cat get used to each other. The result is a foregone conclusion.

Background

Canary Islands is a group of islands in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Africa that belong to Spain.

The Canary bird is named after the Canary Islands where it lives in the wild. It is also present on the Azores and Madeira. It was imported to Europe as a domesticated animal, and in Central Europe it became particularly popular. During the 19th century the Harz region became the main centre of canary breeding.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.3] Neobyčejně rád měl zvířata. Měl harckého kanárka, angorskou kočku a stájového pinče.
„Poslušně hlásím, pane obrlajtnant, že je vše v nejlepším pořádku, jedině kočka dělala neplechu a sežrala vašeho kanára.“
more

Also written:Kanárské ostrovy cz Kanarischen Inseln de Islas Canarias es

Harznn flag
Wikipedia deen Google mapsearch
harz1.png

Der Floh, 9.2.1913

harz.png

Národní politika, 5.1.1908

Harz is here used as an adjective in reference to a breed of canary birds; the Harzer Roller. The mentioned bird belonged to Lukáš but suffered a grim fate as Švejk let the bird and the senior lieutenant's cat together "so they could get used to each other".

Background

Harz is a mountain range in Germany. It is the northernmost range in the country and straddles the borders of Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia.

Harzer Roller is a breed of canary birds that was bred in the Harz mountains and was very popular in the 19th century. It is best known as a singing bird but is also used in mines to warn against poisonous gases. It is particularly sensitive to carbon monoxide. The centre for breeding of this race is Sankt Andreasberg.

The breed regularly show up in newspaper adverts from before the world war, for instance in mellom anna i Národní politika. Jaroslav Hašek, who in 1909 and 1910 was editor of the animal magazine Svět zvířat, was very knowledgeable on animals, including birds.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.3] Neobyčejně rád měl zvířata. Měl harckého kanárka, angorskou kočku a stájového pinče.
more
Pelhřimovnn flag
Wikipedia czdeen Google mapsearch

Pelhřimov is mentioned in a monologue where Švejk tells about a teacher Marek from a village nearby who runs after the daughter of the game-keeper Špera.

The town is mentioned again in Vienna when Švejk tells Lukáš about a certain Vaníček from Pelhřimov.

Background

Pelhřimov is a town in Vysočina with around 17,000 inhabitants. It has a well preserved historic centre, and also a certain industrial tradition, for instance in brewing.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.3] V jedný vesnici za Pelhřimovem byl nějaký učitel Marek a ten chodil za dcerou hajnýho Špery, a ten mu dal vzkázat, že jestli se bude s holkou scházet v lese, že mu, když ho potká, postí do zadnice z ručnice štětiny se solí.
more

Also written:Pilgrams de

Josefovnn flag
Wikipedia czdedken Google mapsearch

Josefov is mentioned first time when Švejk is introduced to Lukáš. The latter gives his "pucflék" a lecture in proper behaviour, which does NOT include stealing his masters parade uniform and sell it "in the Jews" (i.e. Josefov), like one of his previous servants did.

Later on, in [IV.2], the same expression mentioned in the anecdote Švejk tells feldkurát Martinec in the cell in Przemyśl (see Faustýn).

Background

Josefov is part of Prague, Staré Město. Until 1922 it was a separate urban district Praha V. From the late 19th century onwards it went through a redevelopment that changed the character of the quarter drastically, and few of the old buildings survived.

The Jewish community in Prague was next to extinguished by the Nazis. The most famous resident of the area was arguably Franz Kafka.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.3] I.14: "U mě musíte si čistit boty, mít svou uniformu v pořádku, knoflíky správné přišité a musíte dělat dojem vojáka, a ne nějakého civilního otrapy. Jest to zvláštní, že vy neumíte se žádný držet vojensky. Jen jeden měl ze všech těch mých sluhů bojovné vzezření, a nakonec mně ukradl parádní uniformu a prodal ji v Židech.
IV.2: Já dál na světě bejt živ nemůžu, já poctivej člověk sem žalovanej pro kuplířství jako ňákej pasák ze Židů.
more

Also written:JosefovP cz Jüdisches Viertel de Jødekvarteret no

Košířenn flag
Wikipedia czen Google mapsearch
kosire.jpg

U Demartinky 2, where Hašek and his wife lived.

Košíře is mentioned in the dialogue between Lukáš and Švejk after the cat has eaten the canary. This conversation touches on dog trade and falsification of pedigrees, and Švejk uses a mutt from Košíře as an example.

Background

Košíře is a district in Prague and is located in the western part of the capital, between Smíchov and Motol. Košíře was a separate town until 1922. Jaroslav Hašek and his wife Jarmila lived here for a short period in 1910-11.

The falsification of pedigrees mentioned by Švejk has a real life background. Hašek ran his own Kynologický ústav when he lived here and was caught doing just like Švejk did: falsifying pedigrees of stolen dogs. The enterprise went bankrupt and the owner was taken to court.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.3] A každej hned chtěl rodokmen, tak jsem si musel dát rodokmeny natisknout a dělat z nějakýho košířskýho voříška, kerej se narodil v cihelně, nejčistokrevnějšího šlechtice z bavorskýho psince Armin von Barnheim.
more

Also written: Koschirsch Reiner

Bavariann flag
Wikipedia czdeennnno Google mapsearch

Bavaria is mentioned by Švejk in the first conversation with Lukáš about dogs. In the Bavarian kennel of Armin von Barheim the pure breed pinschers are bred. In [IV.3] Bavaria is mentioned again as soldiers from the 91st regiment had been brawling with Bavarians at the square in Żółtańce.

Background

Bavaria is the largest of the German federal states, with Munich as the capital and one of the country's major cities. Bavaria was from 1871 part of the German Empire and was as a consequence became embroiled in the world war. Even during the Empire it had a relatively independent status and was only entered the war some days after the rest of Germany

Jaroslav Hašek knew parts of Bavaria from his wanderings during the summer of 1904 that inspired him to write a number of stories. Also here he pokes fun at people, but it is evident that he was far more conciliatory towards Bavaria than to Austria.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.3] A každej hned chtěl rodokmen, tak jsem si musel dát rodokmeny natisknout a dělat z nějakýho košířskýho voříška, kerej se narodil v cihelně, nejčistokrevnějšího šlechtice z bavorskýho psince Armin von Barnheim.
more

Also written:Bavorsko cz

Vojtěšská ulicenn flag
Google mapsearch

Vojtěšská ulice is mentioned by Švejk in connection with Lukáš' troubles when Katy appears. In his anecdote it was also talk of a visiting lady who didn't know her allotted time.

Background

Vojtěšská ulice is a street in Nové Město, running parallel to Vltava north of Myslíkova ulice.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.4] „Poslušně hlásím, pane obrlajtnant, že je to těžký případ. Ve Vojtěšský ulici před dvěma léty nastěhovala se k jednomu čalouníkovi nějaká slečna a von ji nemoh vypudit z bytu a musel votrávit ji i sebe svítiplynem a bylo po legraci. S ženskejma je vobtíž. Já do nich vidím.“
more

Also written:Vojtechgasse de

Třeboňnn flag
Wikipedia czdeen Google mapsearch

Třeboň was the town Mrs Micková came from. Lukáš expected her just as Katy arrived.

Background

Třeboň is a town in South Bohemia with around 8,700 inhabitants. It was one of the main centres of the Schwarzenberg estates, has a fine historic old town and is surrounded by rybníky, artificial lakes used for fish-breeding. It is also classified as a spa town. Třeboň had in 1914 direct railway connection with Prague and Vienna.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.4] Milý Jindřich byl určitě v ošklivé situaci. Manželka pronásledovaná manželem přijede k němu na několik dní na návštěvu, právě když má přijeti paní Micková z Třeboně, aby po tři dny opakovala to, co mu pravidelně poskytuje každého čtvrt roku, když jede do Prahy dělat nákupy.
more

Also written:Wittingau de

Memphisnn flag
Wikipedia deen Google mapsearch

Memphis is here used as an adjective in the expression "a packet of Memphis cigarettes", Czech "krabice memfisek". Švejk was ordered by Lukáš to buy wine and cigarettes for Katy.

Background

Memphis is here mentioned through the cigarette brand "Memphis" that was manufactured by the tobacco-monopoly Kaiserlich königliche Tabak-regie, in Svitavy and Hainburg and a number of other places. The brand was introduced in 1897 and still exists. The name refers to Memphis in ancient Egypt, not to the US metropolis.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.4] Pak koupíte tři láhve vína, krabičku memfisek, tak.
more
Dunajecnn flag
Wikipedia czdeennnplsk Google mapsearch
dunajec.jpg

Das interessante Blatt, 25.2.1915

dunajec2.png

Österreich-Ungarns letzter Krieg (Band 1)

Dunajec was mentioned by the author when he describes the war situation and the "war council" Lukáš and Švejk held to get rid of Katy.

Background

Dunajec is a river that flows through northern Slovakia and southern Poland. It is one of the tributaries of Vistula which it joins by Opatowiec, north of Tarnów.

From 15 November Russian forces crossed the river and continued across Raba towards Kraków. On 8 December the retreat started and they were soon back on the eastern bank where the front stablised. Until May 1915 part of the front stretched along the Dunajec and fierce fighting took place through the winter. The situation changed to the advantage of the Central Powers after the breakthrough by Gorlice - Tarnów on 2 May.

The text mentions fighting by Raba and Dunajec in the same sentence so time-wise so the author surely has the period between 25 November and 15 December 1914 in mind. It was presicely at this point the Russian army operated beyond Dunajec, and almost reached Kraków.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Zatímco masy vojsk připnuté na lesích u Dunajce i Rábu stály pod deštěm granátů a velkokalibrová děla roztrhávala celé setniny a zasypávala je v Karpatech a obzory na všech bojištích hořely od požárů vesnic i měst, prožíval nadporučík Lukáš se Švejk nepříjemnou idylu s dámou, která utekla svému muži a dělala nyní domácí paní.
more

Also written:Dunajetz de

Všenorynn flag
Wikipedia cz Google mapsearch

Všenory is mentioned in a story Švejk tells to illustrate to Lukáš the problems of getting Katy out of the house.

Background

Všenory is a place 20 km south of Prague, by the river Berounka.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] „Nejlepší by bylo, pane obrlajtnant,“ řekl Švejk, „kdyby ten její muž, od kterýho utekla a který ji hledá, jak jste říkal, že je v tom psaní, který jsem vám přines, věděl o tom, kde je, aby si pro ni přijel. Poslat mu telegram, že se nalézá u vás a že si ji může vyzdvihnout. Ve Všenorech byl minulej rok takovej případ v jedný vile.
more
Parisnn flag
Wikipedia czdeenfrnnno Google mapsearch

Paris will according to Lukáš soon be in German hands. This claim is part of his lecture to hop trader Wendler about the military situation.

Background

Paris is the capital and the largest city in France. The city core has a population of around 2.1 million, whereas the metropolitan area, which is the fourth largest Europe, has around 12 million.

Paris was for a while in August and September 1914 seriously threatened by the German advance, but this was halted in the battle of Marne.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Stejně Francouzům hrozí v nejkratší době ztráta celé východní Francie a vtržení německého vojska do Paříže.
more

Also written:Paříž cz

Východní Beskydynn flag
Wikipedia czdeennnplsk Google mapsearch
beskydy.jpg

Bieszczady by Łupków

beskydy.png

Národní politika, 11.4.1915

Východní Beskydy is part of the lecture about the war situation that Lukáš treats hop trader Wendler to. From [II.3] onwards, events from here are often mentioned through stories from veterans who have served with IR91 in the Carpathians. By Medzilaborce and Palota the plot takes place here without the mountains being expained directly.

Background

Východní Beskydy is a mountain region straddling the border between Poland, Slovakia and Ukraine, in Polish called Bieszczady. From the autumn of 1914 until May 1915 the front went along the mountains which saw heavy fighting during the winter battle of the Carpathians.

The novel apparently refers to battles that took place at the beginning of April 1915 east of Medzilaborce. Many of the official bulletins from this period mentions the fighting in Ostbeskiden. This assumption is supported by the fact that the author picked most of the information he used in the conversation between Lukáš and Wendler from these very announcements (and from this time).

Until the first week of May 1915 three battalions of the 91st regiment were stationed at this section of the front. They had been transferred from the Balkans front in early February. Their stay here has surely provided material for many of the conversation in Book Three.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Nadporučík Lukáš vzal obchodníka s chmelem jemně za rameno a odvedl k mapě bojiště, visící na stěně, a ukazuje mu jednotlivé body, vykládal: „Východní Beskydy jsou naším znamenitým opěrným bodem.
more

Also written:Eastern Beskids en Ostbeskiden de Aust-Beskidane no Східні_Бескиди uk

Moscownn flag
Wikipedia czdeennnno Google mapsearch

Moscow is, like many other places, part of Lukáš' lecture for Wendler about the war situation. He assures the hop trader that "we are not going to stop until Moskva".

Background

Moscow was in 1914 the biggest city in Russia but Petrograd was still the capital. Moscow was from 1922 capital of the Soviet Union and was also the centre of the Bolshevik administration from March 12 1918. Jaroslav Hašek stayed in the city i March and April 1918 and again in November 1920.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] V karpatských úsecích, jak vidíte, máme velkou oporu. Mocný úder na tuto linii - a nezastavíme se až v Moskvě. Válka skončí dřív, než se nadějeme.“
more

Also written:Moskva cz Moskau de Москва ru

Dardanellesnn flag
Wikipedia czdeenno Google mapsearch
sanders1.png

Národní politika, 4.4.1915

Dardanelles is part of summary Lukáš provides Wendler with about the situation at the various fronts. The officer informs his gueast that Liman von Sanders has been named head commander of the Dardanell army.

Background

Dardanelles is a narrow strait in north western Turkey that connects the Aegean Sea and the Marmara Sea. In March 1915 allied forces attempted to force their way through the straits but were repelled. The defeat ultimately led to the forced resignation of the British minister of Naval Affairs, Winston Churchill. The first major battle was fought on 18 March 1915 and the allied invasion fleet was repelled. The defenders were led by Cevat Paşa, later known as hero of 18 March.

Liman von Sanders was named commander-in-chief of the Dardanelle army on 24 March 1915, and the news about his new role was pasted directly in to the novel. It was cut from a summary of the latest events that was printed in Národní politika on Easter Sunday 1915 (4 April).

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Vrchním velitelem turecké armády dardanelské jmenován maršálek Liman šl. Sanders.
more

Also written:Dardanely cz Dardanellen de Çanakkale Boğazı tr

Constantinoplenn flag
Wikipedia czdeennnnotr Google mapsearch
istanbul.jpg

Světozor, 1908

goltz1.png

Národní politika, 4.4.1915

Constantinople is also included in the senior lieutenants elaborations for Wendler on the war situation, and here he informs that Goltz Paşa has arrived in Berlin from Constantinople.

In the novel the name "Cařihrad" (Emperor's City) use, but this is rarely used in modern Czech. In Slovenian (Carigrad) and Bulgarian this form still exist, but in the other Slav languages it is now obsolete.

Background

Constantinople was in 1914 capital and the largest city of the Ottoman empire, and was capital of the new republic of Turkey until 1923. From 1930 the city has been known as İstanbul.

Goltz Paşa's journey to Berlin that Lukáš refers to actually took place, but his arrival was on 29 March 1915, not in December 1914 as the novel indicates. The sentence that refers to Constantinople is one of many direct quotes Národní politika (4 April 1915) that found their way into the conversation between Lukáš and Wendler.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Goltz paša přijel z Cařihradu do Berlína a naším císařem byli vyznamenáni Enver paša, viceadmirál Usedon paša a generál Dževad paša.
more

Also written:Cařihrad Hašek Konstantinopol cz Konstantinyé tr

Berlinnn flag
Wikipedia czdeennnno Google mapsearch
berlin.jpg

Brandenburger Tor in 1914

np2903.jpg

Národní Politika 4.4.1915

Berlin is also part of Lukáš' lecture for Wendler about the military situation. The senior lieutenant informs his guest that Goltz Paşa has arrived in the city. Berlin is mentioned also in (II,4) in connection with F.S. Krauss and his publishing of graffiti from some railway station toilets there.

Background

Berlin was in 1914 capital of Germany and capital of the kingdom of Prussia. Some of the political decisions that led to the outbreak of war were taken here.

Lukáš' statement refers to the arrival of Goltz in Berlin on 29 March 1915. Also note that the relevant phrase in the novel is word-by-word to identical to the newspaper clip on the left.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Goltz paša přijel z Cařihradu do Berlína a naším císařem byli vyznamenáni Enver paša, viceadmirál Usedon paša a generál Dževad paša.
more

Also written:Berlín cz

Vistulann flag
Wikipedia czdeennnpl Google mapsearch

Vistula is also pulled in by Lukáš in his long discourse for Wendler on the strategic situation. This is the last item before before the unavoidable theme is introduced: Katy.

Background

Vistula is with its 1,047 km the longest river in Poland. It flows through cities like Kraków, Warszaw, Torun and Gdańsk. The catchment area covers half of Polen.

Throughout the autumn of 1914 and until late summer 1915 the war zone engulfed part of river basin. Here it is no doubt the upper stretch that is the theme, as it was on Austrian territory.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Uzavřením této dráhy, která předmostí spojuje s hlavní obrannou linií nepřítele, musí být přerušeno spojení mezi pravým křídlem a severní armádou na Visle. Je vám to nyní jasné?“
more

Also written:Visla cz Weichsel de

Italynn flag
Wikipedia czdeenitnnno Google mapsearch

Italy is mentioned first time by Wendler in his complaint about the effect of the war on hop markets. Here he states that exports to Italy still goes on but that he is unsure about their intentions. From [III.2] the country appears again in connection with her declaration of war on Austria-Hungary on May 23 1915. Otherwise many places in Italy are mentioned, particularly battlefields in the north. Amongst the cities are Roma, Venice, Verona, Trento and Novara and the battlefields include Piave, Solferino, Custoza and Santa Lucia.

Background

Italy was in 1914 neutral and formally allied with the Central Powers but still entered the war on the Entente's side on 23 May 1915 after she had been promised considerable areal gains at the expense of Austria-Hungary in case of victory. The country was at the time a kingdom and the area was the same as today with the exception of Alto Agide (South Tyrol).

The war against Austria-Hungary was for a long time a stalemate but in 1917 the Central Powers won a decisive victory by Caporetto and a collapse threatened. The Italians however managed to stabilise the front by Piave and in the autumn of 1918 the Italians took the initiative. After the war Italy was given Austrian territory in Tyrol and Istria (the latter was ceded to Yugoslavia after WW2).

In November 1915 Jaroslav Hašek's IR91 (91st regiment) was transferred from Volyn in Ukraine to the front in Italy. The timing of the author's capture on 24 September that year is therefore very important in the light of what direction his fate could have taken.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Ještě posíláme chmel do Italie, ale obávám se, že se Italie také do toho zamíchá.
more

Also written:Itálie cz Italien de Italia it

Meusenn flag
Wikipedia czdeennnno Google mapsearch
maas.jpg

Meuse along the map to the left

maas_np.jpg

Národní Politika 3.4.1915

Meuse is mentioned by Wendler when the laments the state of the hop trade. Han wonders why there is still artillery fights between Maas and Mosel now when the war allegedly is going so well.

Background

Meuse is a river that flows from France, through Belgium and the Netherlands before emtying into the North Sea. The total length is 925 km. From 1914 to 1918 the battlefront was close to Meuse in the area around Verdun. The fighting mentioned by Wendler took place in early April 1915 and was reported in official announcements from Berlin on 2 April. The author employs these in the novel almost excactly as they were printed in Czech newspapers.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Proč zas se vedou mezi Maasou a Moselou prudké dělostřelecké boje?
more

Also written:Maasa Hašek Máza/Mosa cz Maas nl

Woëvrenn flag
Wikipedia deenfr Google mapsearch
woevre2.png

Národní politika, 4.4.1915

Woëvre is one of the many places mentioned in Wendler's frustrated tirade regarding the hop-trade. Here a brwewery is said to have burnt down.

Background

Woëvre is a region in Lorraine in nort eastern France. It is located near Metz and the famouse battlefield by Verdun. The front passed through here for almost the full length of the war and the events Wendler somwehat imprecicely refers to are surely copied from a newsbulletin from German HQ on 28 March 1915.

In Národní politika from 4 April Woëvre is mentioned again in a summary of events from the previous week. Now it is in a wording very close to what appears in the novel, but in all the press reports there is talk of the Woëvre plain, so Wendler is slightly imprecise.

Großes Hauptquartier, 28. März. Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz: Südöstlich von Verdun wurden französische Angriffe auf den Maashöhen bei Combres und in der Woevre-Ebene bei Marcheville nach hartnäckigen Kämpfen zu unseren Gunsten entschieden.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Víte, že v Combres a Woewru u Marche shořely tři pivovary, kam jsem posílal ročně přes pět set žoků chmele?
more

Also written:Woevre Hašek Waberland de

Combres-sous-les-Côtesnn flag
Wikipedia enfr Google mapsearch
woevre2.png

Národní politika, 4.4.1915

Combres-sous-les-Côtes is mentioned in Wendler tale of woe about the hop-trade. Three breweries in the area is said to have burnt down.

Background

Combres-sous-les-Côtes is a municipality in the Meuse-department in Lorraine in France. It is located near Verdun and was on or near the front almost the entire war. In late March and early April 1915 fierce battles took place here, and it looks very much as if the author has used a news bulletin from 28 March in this sequence, repeated in Národní politika in a news summary on 4 April.

Großes Hauptquartier, 28. März. Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz: Südöstlich von Verdun wurden französische Angriffe auf den Maashöhen bei Combres und in der Woevre-Ebene bei Marcheville nach hartnäckigen Kämpfen zu unseren Gunsten entschieden.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Víte, že v Combres a Woewru u Marche shořely tři pivovary, kam jsem posílal ročně přes pět set žoků chmele?
more
Marchéville-en-Woëvrenn flag
Wikipedia fr Google mapsearch
marcheville.png

Neue Freie Presse, 29.3.1915

Marchéville-en-Woëvre is one of the many places Wendler mentions in his lamnt on the hop-trade. He simply calls it Marche, but the news bulletion reveal that he means Marcheville. There is supposed to have been three breweries here that were burnt down.

Background

Marchéville-en-Woëvre is a village in Lorraine in France, not far from Verdun. The fighting referred to was reported by German HQ on 28 March 28, and their bulletin is partly (and imprecisely) reproduced by Wendler.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Víte, že v Combres a Woewru u Marche shořely tři pivovary, kam jsem posílal ročně přes pět set žoků chmele?
more

Also written:Marche Hašek

Vosgesnn flag
Wikipedia czdeenfrnnno Google mapsearch
vosges.jpg

Das interessante Blatt, 23.12.1915

vosges.png

Národní politika, 4.4.1915

Vosges is yet another place where Wendler's customers suffered. The breweries in Hartmannsweiler was burnt down and the one in Niederaspach razed to the ground.

Background

Vosges is a mountain range in north eastern France which between 1871 and 1918 straddled the French-German border. During WW1 the front was here and in late March and early April there was heavy fighting, events that the author transforms into destruction of breweries. That these breweries were destroyed (or even existed) has yet to be confirmed.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] A shořel i ve Vogesách Hartmansweilerský pivovar, je srovnán se zemí ohromný pivovar v Niederaspachu u Mylhúz.
more

Also written:Vogézy cz Vogesen de Les Vosges fr

Hartmannsweilernn flag
Wikipedia deenfr Google mapsearch
vosges.png

Národní politika, 4.4.1915

Hartmannsweiler also had a brewery that Wendler traded with back in the good days. This was before it was burnt down during the fighting.

Background

Hartmannsweiler is the German name of Hartmannswiller, a small place on the eastern slopes of the Vosges which was the scene of fierce fighting during WW1. The battles mainly concerned Hartmannsweilerkopf, a summit of 956 metres west of the village. Hartmannsweiler was from 1871 to 1918 part of Germany. Information about any brewery here is not available.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] A shořel i ve Vogesách Hartmansweilerský pivovar, je srovnán se zemí ohromný pivovar v Niederspachu u Mylhúz.
more

Also written:Hartmansweiler Hašek Hartmannswiller fr

Niederaspachnn flag
Wikipedia enfr Google mapsearch
niederaspach.png

Národní politika, 11.4.1915

Niederaspach was another place with a destroyed brewery, this one had been razed to the ground according to hop trader Wendler.

Background

Niederaspach is the German name of Aspach-le-Bas, ei municipality in the Haut-Rhin-departmentet in Alsace, from 1871 to 1918 part of Germany. There is no information available on any brewery here.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] A shořel i ve Vogesách Hartmansweilerský pivovar, je srovnán se zemí ohromný pivovar v Niederaspachu u Mylhúz.
more

Also written:Aspach-le-Bas fr

Mühlhausennn flag
Wikipedia czdeennnno Google mapsearch
mulhouse.png

Národní politika, 11.4.1915

Mühlhausen is named in the tirade from Wendler about the failing demand for hops. He mentions a brewery in Niederaspach by Mylhúzy, the Czech name of the city.

Background

Mühlhausen is the German name of Mulhouse, a city in the province of Alsace near the border of Switzerland and Germany. As the rest of Alsace it was part of Germany from 1871 to 1918.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] A shořel i ve Vogesách Hartmansweilerský pivovar, je srovnán se zemí ohromný pivovar v Niederspachu u Mylhúz.
more

Also written:Mylhúzy cz Mulhouse fr

Klosterhoeknn flag
Wikipedia ennl Google mapsearch
klosterhoek.png

Národní politika, 11.4.1915

Klosterhoek had according to Wendler a brewery which had been fought over six times between German and Belgian forces. Because of this he had an annual loss of 350 hopsacks. The conversation took place on December 20 1914.

Background

Klosterhoek is a farm by Pervijze in Flanders. Heavy fighting took place here in October 1914 and April 1915. Pervijze was near the Yser-front and was totally destroyed in the war. Before WW1 there were six breweries here, but none of them were by Klosterhoek.

A comparison of the historical events that Lukáš and Wendler refer to during the conversation indicate that the fighting in question took place early in April 1915. Thus the author has moved this impressive cluster of facts back to 1914. It appears that he copied most of the information from newspapers. In this case it is an official war bulletin from 3 April 1915.

Großes Hauptquartier, 3. April.

Ein Versuch der Belgier, das ihnen am 31. März entrissene Klosterhoek-Gehöft wieder zu nehmen, scheiterte. Im Priesterwalde mißlang ein französischer Vorstoß. Ein französischer Angriff auf die Höhen bei und südlich von Nieder-Aspach westlich von Mülhausen wurde zurückgeschlagen.

Links

Source: Herman Declerck

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Proč zas se vedou mezi Maasou a Moselou prudké dělostřelecké boje? Víte, že v Combres a Woewru u Marche shořely tři pivovary, kam jsem posílal ročně přes pět set žoků chmele? A shořel i ve Vogesách Hartmansweilerský pivovar, je srovnán se zemí ohromný pivovar v Niederspachu u Mylhúz. To máte ztráty 1200 žoků chmele pro mou firmu ročně. Šestkrát bojovali Němci s Belgičany o pivovar Klosterhoek, to máte ztrátu 350 žoků chmele ročně.“
more
Zagrebnn flag
Wikipedia czdeennnno Google mapsearch

Zagreb was another place to which Wendler had to go to look for his wayward spouse. Still he managed to do a deal with the municipal brewery on 600 sacks of hops, markets which were lost by the end of 1914.

Background

Zagreb was in 1914 still part of the Hungarian ruled province of Croatia and Slavonia. At the time it was also known through it's German name Agram, a term that is rarely used anymore. Zagreb is now the capital of the republic of Kroatia.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Loni ujela s jedním suplentem a našel jsem je až v Záhřebu.
more

Also written:Záhřeb cz Agram de Zágráb hu

Warszawnn flag
Wikipedia czdeennnno Google mapsearch

Warszaw and its Augustine brewery was another customer that was lost for Wendler.

Background

Warszaw was in 1914 in the Russian part of Poland, which at the time didn't exist as an independent state. During the autumn of 1914 the Germans made several failed attempts to conquer the city. It finally fell on August 4 1915. It has not been possible to identify the Augustine brewery.

Warszaw is since 1918 capital of Polen and the biggest city in the country. It is located by the river Vistula.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] A zapaluje si nabídnutou cigaretu, řekl zoufale: „Jedině Varšava odebírala 2370 žoků chmele. Největší pivovar je tam augustiánský.
more

Also written:Varšava cz Warschau de

Sopronnn flag
Wikipedia czdeennnno Google mapsearch

Sopron and its brewery also provided Wendler with poor demand after the outbreak of war.

Background

Sopron is a city in Hungary near the Austrian border. The city is located south-west of Neusiedlersee. The brewery still exists (owned by Heineken), they make the national brand Soproni sör.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] „Uherské pivovary v Šoproni a ve Velké Kaniži odbíraly pro svá exportní piva, která vyvážely až do Alexandrie, u mé firmy ročně průměrem 1000 žoků chmele.
more

Also written:Šopron cz Ödenburg de

Nagykanizsann flag
Wikipedia czdeenhunn Google mapsearch

Nagykanizsa and the city's brewery provided Wendler with good demand for hops until war turned the trade upside-down. The brewery exported its beers all the way to Alexandria.

Background

Nagykanizsa is a city in Zala county in Hungary, located appx. 40 km south-west of Lake Balaton and 15 km from the border with Croatia.

Jaroslav Hašek visited the city in 1905 and wrote a couple of stories set there. He also met the Czech brew-master at the brewery. An added curiosity is that a number of translations struggle with the spelling of Nagykanizsa: amongst them the German, the Norwegian, the latest Swedish and all three English translations.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] „Uherské pivovary v Šoproni a ve Velké Kaniži odbíraly pro svá exportní piva, která vyvážely až do Alexandrie, u mé firmy ročně průměrem 1000 žoků chmele.
more

Also written:Velká Kaniža cz Großkirchen/Groß-Kanizsa de

Alexandriann flag
Wikipedia czdeenno Google mapsearch

Alexandria was a city that enjoyed beer imported from Hungary, brewed with hops delivered by Wendler.

Background

Alexandria (arab. الإسكندرية) is a city in Egypt, named after Alexander the Great, the city's founder. In ancient times it was known for its library and its light-house, both classed amongst the seven wonders of the world.

In 1914 Egypt was formally still part of the Osmanske rike but had been occupied by the British since 1882. At the outbreak of war in 1914 the country was made a British protectorate, which no doubt ended any beer import there was from Austria-Hungary.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] „Uherské pivovary v Šoproni a ve Velké Kaniži odbíraly pro svá exportní piva, která vyvážely až do Alexandrie, u mé firmy ročně průměrem 1000 žoků chmele.
more

Also written:Alexandrie cz

Zamecké schodynn flag
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum

Zamecké schody are mentioned as Švejk and Blahník are sitting in a small pub at the lower end of the stairs as they plan the infamous dog-theft.

Background

Zamecké schody are some steps that lead from Prague Castle at Hradčany down to Malá Strana.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] Na Malé Straně u Zámeckých schodů je malý výčep piva. Jednoho dne tam seděli v šeru vzadu dva muži. Jeden voják a druhý civilista. Nakloněni k sobě šeptali si tajemně. Vyhlíželi jako spiklenci z dob Benátské republiky.
more

Also written:Castle Steps en Slottstrappa no

Venetian Republicnn flag
Wikipedia deenit Google mapsearch
venezia1.png

Břetislav Hůla, © LA-PNP

Venetian Republic is mentioned when the two dog thieves, Švejk and Blahník, are compared to conspirators from the time of the Venetian Republic.

Background

Venetian Republic may refer to the city state of Venice that existed for abround 1000 years until 1797. More probable is Repubblica di San Marco, a short-lived republic that in 1848-49 rebelled against Austrian rule. It was centred on Venezia and consisted more or less of the current region of Veneto.

The Venetian Republic is also the theme in the story Turista Aratáš that Hašek got published in Venkov in 1911. In this case there is however is no doubt that he refers to the classical city state.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] Na Malé Straně u Zámeckých schodů je malý výčep piva. Jednoho dne tam seděli v šeru vzadu dva muži. Jeden voják a druhý civilista. Nakloněni k sobě šeptali si tajemně. Vyhlíželi jako spiklenci z dob Benátské republiky.
more

Also written:Benátská republika cz Repubblica di San Marco it

Klamovkann flag
Wikipedia cz Google mapsearch
klamovka.jpg

Former "Víla Svět Zvířat" in 2011.

psinec.png

Národní politika, 28.8.1910

Klamovka is mentioned by Blahník when he and Svejk are planning the dog-theft in the little pub by Zamecké schody. The place in question is a kennel above Klamovka.

Background

Klamovka is a park area in Košíře og Smíchov, named after the Bohemian noble family Clam-Gallas. Hašek was in 1910 editor of the zoological journal Svět Zvířat which editorial offices were in a villa just above the park. The kennel referred to in the novel was located in the garden in front of the villa, and Jaroslav Hašek and his wife ran it as a "cynological institute".

Hašek was dismissed after it was discovered that he had invented animals. This episode is precisely recounted by Marek on the train from Budějovice to Királyhida. In 2011 the villa was in disrepair.

Links

Source: Radko Pytlík, Jaroslav Šerák

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] Voják s civilistou si ťukli a civilista dále šeptal: „Jednou ode mne jeden černej špic, kterýho jsem potřeboval pro psinec nad Klamovkou, nechtěl taky vzít buřt
more
Havlíčkovo náměstínn flag
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum

Havlíčkovo náměstí (now Senovážné náměstí) was where the unhappy stable pinscher Fox was stolen by Blahník. The theft started right here and the dog was put on a lead in Jindřišská ulice, just a few minutes away. Švejk had earlier been here to verify the eating habits of Fox. He did so by befriending the maid of colonel Kraus.

Background

Havlíčkovo náměstí was from 1896 to 1940 the name of the square Senovážné náměstí in Nové Město. It is located north of the main railway station. It has also been named after František Soukup and Maxim Gorkij. Jaroslav Hašek worked for Banka Slavia here for a short while in 1903 until he was given notice after two absences without leave.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] „Nemluv vo tom, Švejku,“ řekl měkce Blahník, „pro starýho kamaráda všechno udělám, zejména když slouží na vojně. Sbohem, hochu, a nevoď ho nikdy přes Havlíčkovo náměstí, aby se nestalo nějaký neštěstí. Kdybys potřeboval ještě nějakého psa, tak znáš, kde bydlím.“
more

Also written:Havlíček square en Havlíčkový náměstí Švejk

Krčnn flag
Wikipedia cz Google mapsearch
krc.jpg

Krč no. 32, the birthplace of Kateřina Jarešová

Krč is mentioned in the same dialogue as Protivín. A certain Jareš was from Krč by Protivín according to Švejk.

Background

Krč is a village in the Písek district in South Bohemia, 3 km east of the centre of Protivín. In 1847 Kateřina Jarešová, the mother of Jaroslav Hašek, was born here. Her father, Antonín Jareš, was pond warden nearby. These are circumstances that no doubt inspired the author.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] „A kterýho Jareše, toho z Krče u Protivína, nebo z Ražic?“ „Z Ražic.“ „Ještě rozváží pivo?“ „Pořád.“
more
Bredovská ulicenn flag
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum

Bredovská ulice (now Ulice Politických vězňů) was a street were Fox followed Blahník just before he was put on a lead.

Background

Bredovská ulice is a street in Nové Město. The current name Ulice Politických vězňů literally means "The Political Prisoners street".

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] „Šel jsem schválně kolem něho, drže zabalená vařená játra v papíru. Počal čenichat a vyskakovat na mne. Nedal jsem mu nic a šel dál. Pes za mnou. U parku jsem se otočil do Bredovské ulice a tam jsem mu dal první kousek
more
Jindřišská ulicenn flag
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum

Jindřišská ulice is the street where Fox finally was put on a lead and thus had his fate sealed.

Background

Jindřišská ulice is a street in Nové Město. It is perpendicular to Václavské náměstí and many tram lines pass through it.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] Zabočil jsem do Jindřišské, kde jsem mu dal novou porci. Pak jsem ho, když se nažral, uvázal na řetízek a táh jsem ho přes Václavské náměstí na Vinohrady, až do Vršovic.
more
Leipzignn flag
Wikipedia czdeennnno Google mapsearch
leipzig.jpg

Hauptbahnhof

Leipzig is mentioned when the new family-tree of Fox is invented. According to this, Fox's father came from a kennel in Leipzig. The battle of Leipzig (1813) is mentioned several times in [III.1], and it appears on Cadet Biegler's impressive list of battlefields.

Background

Leipzig is the second largest city in the state of Saxony, and was in 1914 part of the German Empire. The city is known for it's trade fair, university and as an important transport hub. The name is of Slav origin.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] „To musí bejt tvou rukou napsaný. Napiš, že pochází z Lipska, z psince von Bülow. Otec Arnheim von Kahlsberg, matka Emma von Trautensdorf, po otci Siegfried von Busenthal.
more

Also written:Lipsko cz

Nurembergnn flag
Wikipedia czdeennnno Google mapsearch

Nuremberg was the city where, according to Max's new pedigree, his mother was awarded a gold medal at a dog fair.

Background

Nuremberg is the second biggest city of Bavaria and the largest in Franconia, in 1914 part of Keisarriket Germany. To judge by some short stories he wrote, Jaroslav Hašek visited the Nuremberg region in 1904.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] Otec obdržel první cenu na berlínský výstavě stájových pinčů v roce 1912. Matka vyznamenána zlatou medalií norimberskýho spolku pro chov ušlechtilých psů. Jak myslíš, že je starej?“
more

Also written:Norimberk cz

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

14. Švejk as military servant to senior lieutenant Lukáš


© 2009 - 2017 Jomar Hønsi Last updated: 24/4-2018