Hovudpersonen

The Good Soldier Švejk

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Franz Ferdinand and Sophie leave the Sarajevo Town Hall, five minutes before the assassination, 28 June 1914.

The Fateful Adventures of the Good Soldier Švejk is a novel with an unusually rich array of characters. In addition to the many who directly form part of the plot, a large number of fictive and real people (and animals) are mentioned; either through Švejk's anecdotes, the narrative or indirectly through words and expressions.

This web page contains short write-ups on the persons the novel refers to; from Napoléon in the introduction to captain Ságner in the last few lines of the unfinished Book Four. The list is sorted in to the order of which the names first appear. The chapter headlines are from Zenny K. Sadlon's recent translation and will in most cases differ from Cecil Parrott's version from 1973. In January 2014 there were still around twenty entries to be added.

  • The quotes in Czech are copied from the on-line version of the novel provided by Jaroslav Šerák and contain links to the relevant chapter
  • The tool-bar has links for direct access to Wikipedia, Google search and Švejk on-line

The names are colored according to their role in the novel, illustrated by the following examples: Doctor Grünstein who is directly involved in the plot, Heinrich Heine as a historical person, and Ferdinand Kokoška as an invented person. Note that a number of seemingly fictive characters are modelled after very real living persons. See for instance Lukáš and Wenzl.

>> The Good Soldier Švejk index of people mentioned in the novel (581) Show all
>> I. In the rear
>> II. At the front
Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

Introduction

Napoléon Bonapartenn flag
*15.8.1769 Ajaccio - †5.5.1821 St.Helena
Wikipedia czdeenfrnnno Google search
napoleon.jpg

At Fontainebleau after the defeat in 1814.

Napoléon has the honour of being the first person to be mentioned in the novel. He is also mentioned in [I.1], and later in the novel he appears several times. Švejk mentions that Napoléon was five minutes late at Waterloo and his whole reputation subsequently went down the toilet. This was when the train stopped before Tábor in [II.1].

Background

Napoléon was emperor of France from 18 May 1804 to 6 April 1814. He had gradually assembled power in the aftermath of the French Revolution, aided by his unique military talent and many successes on the battlefield. He conquered and ruled over most of western and central Europe and for a couple of years also held power in Egypt. A failed campaign in Russia in 1812 weakened his position, and laid the foundations for his final defeat at Waterloo in 1815.

Several battles during the Napoleonic wars are mentioned: Leipzig, Aspern and Waterloo. Napoléon won a major victory in the only large battle he was involved it on Czech territory: Austerlitz (now Slavkov) near Brno 2 December 1805.

Quote from the novel
[Úvod] Velká doba žádá velké lidi. Jsou nepoznaní hrdinové, skromní, bez slávy a historie Napoleona. Rozbor jejich povahy zastínil by slávu Alexandra Macedonského. Dnes můžete potkat v pražských ulicích ošumělého muže, který sám ani neví, co vlastně znamená v historii nové velké doby.
[1.1] Palivec byl známý sprosťák, každé jeho druhé slovo byla zadnice nebo hovno. Přitom byl ale sečtělý a upozorňoval každého, aby si přečetl, co napsal o posledním předmětě Victor Hugo, když líčil poslední odpověď' staré gardy Napoleonovy Angličanům v bitvě u Waterloo.
[1.10] A tak slova Napoleonova "Na vojně se mění situace každým okamžikem" došla i zde svého úplného potvrzení.
[1.14.2] Každý z nich je Napoleonem: "Povídal jsem našemu obrstovi, aby telefonoval do štábu, že už to může začít".
Alexander the Greatnn flag
*20.6.356 BC Pella - †10.6.323 BC Babylon
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Alexander the Great is introduced as someone that Švejk exceeds the reputation of!

Alexander re-appears several times later in the novel, including in the author's reflections on the officer servant occupation in [I.14]. Here it is revealed that even Alexander had his own Putzfleck.

Background

Alexander the Great was king of Macedonia. The Greek city states had already been united by his father, Philip II of Macedon. Alexander conquered Persia, Egypt and a number of other kingdoms and reached northern India. The conquests led to a rapid spread of Greek culture on the Eurasian continent. Thus he played a major part in the future extending of Greek culture and language.

Quote from the novel
[Úvod] Velká doba žádá velké lidi. Jsou nepoznaní hrdinové, skromní, bez slávy a historie Napoleona. Rozbor jejich povahy zastínil by slávu Alexandra Macedonského. Dnes můžete potkat v pražských ulicích ošumělého muže, který sám ani neví, co vlastně znamená v historii nové velké doby.
[1.14.2] Instituce důstojnických sluhů je prastarého původu. Zdá se, že již Alexandr Macedonský měl svého pucfleka.

Also written:Alexandr Macedonský Hašek Alexandr Veliký cz Alexander der Große de Mégas Aléxandros gr

Voják Švejk, Josefnn flag
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obalka.png

Josef Lada's first drawing of Švejk, 1921

svejk.jpg

© Josef Lada, 1955

Švejk is mentioned in the first paragraph of the introduction and he is obviously the main character of the novel. He was a dog trader from Prague, who lived by selling bastard animals that he falsified the pedigrees of. Švejk was unmarried and spent a great deal of time in the pubs of the Bohemian capital.

Švejk possessed considerable oral skills, but his mental horizon is still under debate. It is known that he was dismissed from the army due to idiocy, but it is unclear if this was feigned or not. He certainly had a good memory and had read a lot, which indicates that his limited mental abilities may have been stage-play. In the epilogue to Book One, the author explicitly states that he never meant Švejk to be feeble-minded, so that issue should be clear.

Politically, he was the apparently not very active, only brief passages reveal that he was against Austerrike and the Catholic Church, although he mostly said exactly the opposite. Švejk was occasionally both deceitful and a thief, but in other cases he showed moral substance, particularly towards the end of the novel. He could at times appear detached and cynical - perhaps this was a defence mechanism in the unforgiving surroundings he found himself in.

Švejk came through the war unhurt, but what happened to him at the front is unclear as the novel was never completed. His first name Josef is first used in his confession at Policejní ředitelství in the second chapter. In the course of the novel the main character is mentioned more than 2,000 times in a novel of slightly more than 200,000 words.

Personal information

The author provides sparse personal information about his hero, but some details can be read or deduced from the novel. Švejk's age at the outbreak of war must have been between 31 and 36 and he was a so called Landsturm-mann (reservist). This can be deduced from the circumstances around the draft at Štřelecký ostrov.

Very early on the reader is told that the soldier suffer from rheumatism, and made a living by trading dogs. Later it is revealed that his father was Prokop Švejk and the mother Antonie Švejková and the soldier seems to have been born in Dražov by Strakonice. At the outbreak of war he must have lived close to U kalicha in Praha II.. Through anecdotes we known that he some years back worked in Moravská Ostrava. Still many years back he was wandering/travelling around and got as far as Bremen. Furthermore he had once lived in Opatovická ulice.

As the reader know he was years ago dismissed from the army due to idiocy, but then follows a logical short-circuit: he still took part in military exercises, and several of them. We also know that he 20 December 1914 served Lukáš in Prague. As a soldier he had served by IR91 in Budějovice, and it was this regiment he rejoined some time after the outbreak of war, probably in early 1915. Apart from this we know that he took part in army exercises in Písek, Velké Meziříčí, Veszprém and Osijek. Švejk had also served as a conscript in Trident (Trento), and this city is a theme that appears in all the three versions of "The Good Soldier Švejk" (1911, 1917, 1921).

Background

The good soldier Švejk is in the end a product of the author's literary creativity, but as with several of the other characters in the plot, he clearly has real-life models. The most obvious of these is the writer himself; he lends several personal qualities and biographical details to his hero. See Jaroslav Hašek for more about this theme.

A borrowed name

The name Josef Švejk itself is by near certainty borrowed from a real person. A young man of that name is registered with home address next to U kalicha from June 1912, and may have lived there also when Jaroslav Hašek invented his good soldier in May 1911. It is quite likely that Jaroslav Hašek knew this man (or knew about him), particularly since they from 1916 both served in České legie. That said he seems to have borrowed little more than the name from him.

Another Josef Švejk that the author surely knew about was MP for the Agrarian Party, and this person is much more likely to have lent the good soldier his name in 1911. The young Josef is however a good candidate for having caused the rebirth of Švejk in 1917 and not the least in 1921 (it is only now that Švejk is connected to U kalicha). For further discussions, see Josef Švejk.

Pucflek Strašlipka

Another often touted inspiration is František Strašlipka, the servant of Oberleutnant Rudolf Lukas from the outbreak of war until the formers capture on 24 September 1915. Apart from his position in the nomenclature of IR91, Strašlipka is also believed to have inspired Švejk's incessant story-telling.

Otherwise Švejk's and František Strašlipka's biographies differ greatly. Strašlipka was the Putzfleck of Rudolf Lukas from the very start of the war and joined him in the field immediately. On the other hands Švejk was originally a Landsturm reservist and to judge by his call-up date 10 years older than Strašlipka. He was drafted several months later and didn't serve only Lukáš. As opposed to Strašlipka he was once superarbitrated and also served as a messenger, a role the former never had.

Zdeněk Matěj Kuděj

Last but not least certain experiences of his good friend Zdeněk Matěj Kuděj (1881 - 1955) can be recognised in Hašek's literary hero. This is particularly evident in part I where many chapters have few obvious links to the author's own time-line.

External Links

SourceRadko Pytlík, Jaroslav Šerák, Jan Morávek, Jan Prchal

Quote from the novel
[Úvod] Velká doba žádá velké lidi. Jsou nepoznaní hrdinové, skromní, bez slávy a historie Napoleona. Rozbor jejich povahy zastínil by slávu Alexandra Macedonského. Dnes můžete potkat v pražských ulicích ošumělého muže, který sám ani neví, co vlastně znamená v historii nové velké doby. Jde skromně svou cestou, neobtěžuje nikoho, a není též obtěžován žurnalisty, kteří by ho prosili o interview. Kdybyste se ho otázali, jak se jmenuje, odpověděl by vám prostince a skromně: „Já jsem Švejk…“
Artemisnn flag
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Artemis is mentioned indirectly by the author through the expression "the temple of the goddess in Ephesus". See Temple of Artemis.

Background

Artemis was a Greek goddess, daughter of Zeus and sister of Apollo. Artemis was the virgin moon goddess for hunting, healing, chastity and child birth. She was also protector of wild animals and the wilderness. She was often revered as a godess of fertility. Her Roman equivalent was Diana.

Her named had already appeared directly in an article by Jaroslav Hašek in Čechoslovan 29 January 1917 (10 February), but in the Roman version of Diana.

Když se zametá

A náš redaktor chtěl se dostat do dějin. Stejně jako Hérostratés, když zapálil chrám bohyně Diany, právě v tu noc, kdy se narodil Alexandr Veliký. Jenže Hérostratos měl před ním tu výhodu, že nebyl osobní.

Source: wikipedia.no

Quote from the novel
[Úvod] Mám velice rád tohoto dobrého vojáka Švejka, a podávaje jeho osudy za světové války, jsem přesvědčen, že vy všichni budete sympatizovat s tím skromným, nepoznaným hrdinou. On nezapálil chrám bohyně v Efesu, jako to udělal ten hlupák Herostrates, aby se dostal do novin a školních čítanek.

Also written:Ἄρτεμις gr

Herostratusnn flag
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Herostratus is ridiculed as being exactly the opposite of the unassuming hero of this novel. Herostratus is described as the fool who set fire to the temple in Ephesus in order to get his name in newspapers and text books.

Background

Herostratus (also called Herostrates) set fire to the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus in 356 BC in order to become known, cf Herostratic fame. He was executed the same year.

This was not the first time Jaroslav Hašek wrote about Herostratus. In a stinging article in Čechoslovan on 29 January 1917 (10 February) a similar imagery appears. The target is easy to identify although no names are mentioned: Bohdan Pavlů, editor of the competing weekly Čechoslovák in Petrograd.

Sergey Soloukh (2017) also points out the parallel to the story Cena slávy from 1913. The author mixes up the name with Efialtes but it is without doubt Herostrates, Ephesus and the temple of the goddess Diana he has in mind.

Když se zametá

A náš redaktor chtěl se dostat do dějin. Stejně jako Hérostratés, když zapálil chrám bohyně Diany, právě v tu noc, kdy se narodil Alexandr Veliký. Jenže Hérostratos měl před ním tu výhodu, že nebyl osobní.

Cena slavý

Ve starověku žil v Řecku muž jménem Efialtes, jehož jedinou tužbou bylo, aby se stal slavným a aby se o něm mluvilo. Aby toho dosáhl, šel a zapálil nádherný chrám bohyně Diany v Efesu, jeden ze sedmi divů světa.

External Links

Quote from the novel
[Úvod] Mám velice rád tohoto dobrého vojáka Švejka, a podávaje jeho osudy za světové války, jsem přesvědčen, že vy všichni budete sympatizovat s tím skromným, nepoznaným hrdinou. On nezapálil chrám bohyně v Efesu, jako to udělal ten hlupák Herostrates, aby se dostal do novin a školních čítanek.

Also written:Herostrates Hašek Herostratos cz

Hašek, Jaroslav Matěj Františeknn flag
*30.4.1883 Praha - †3.1.1923 Lipnice nad Sázavou
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hasek.jpg

O životě Jaroslava Haška, Zdena Ančík, 1953

hasek_epitafy.png

Kopřivy, 10.9.1914

Hašek is referred to five times in the novel. He signs the introduction as "The author". Then he briefly appears as "I" in the narrative in [I.14] when re-tells his experiences with officer servants. Finally he signs the epilogue to Part I, using his full name.

Background

Hašek was a Czech writer, best known for the unfinished satirical novel The Fateful Adventures of the Good Soldier Švejk During the World War. He wrote around 1,500 short stories, was the co-author of a collection of poems, and also contributed to a few plays and cabarets. Jaroslav Hašek is considered a prominent satirist, and Švejk, being translated into 58 languages, is the most translated book written in Czech ever.

The novel about Švejk is closely linked to the author's own experiences in K.u.k. Heer in 1915, and also contains numerous autobiographical elements from other periods in his life. For more information on this theme, see Jaroslav Hašek in the 'Who is Who' section.

External Links

Quote from the novel
[Úvod] On nezapálil chrám bohyně v Efesu, jako to udělal ten hlupák Herostrates, aby se dostal do novin a školních čítanek.
A to stačí. Autor.
[1.14.2] U 91. pluku znal jsem jich několik. Jeden pucflek dostal velkou stříbrnou proto, že uměl báječně péct husy, které kradl...
[1.14.2] Viděl jsem jednoho zajatého důstojnického sluhu, který od Dubna šel s druhými pěšky až do Dárnice za Kyjevem...
[1.14.2] Nikdy nezapomenu toho člověka, který se tak mořil s tím přes celou Ukrajinu...
[1.16] Stane-li se však slovo Švejk novou nadávkou v květnatém věnci spílání, musím se spokojit s tímto obohacením českého jazyka. Jaroslav Hašek.

Also written:Ярослав Гашек ru Ярослав Гашек ua

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

1. The good soldier Švejk acts to intervene in the world war

Erzherzog Franz Ferdinandnn flag
*18.12.1863 Graz - †28.6.1914 Sarajevo
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Franz Ferdinand was the Ferdinand Švejk did not know. The novel starts with Mrs. Müllerová telling Švejk that "they have killed our Ferdinand". Švejk knows two Ferdinands; one is a servant at a chemists and another one collects dog turds. Not until Mrs. Müllerová reveals that it is the fat religious one from Konopiště do we understand that she is a talking about the fateful assassination of Sarajevo.

Background

Franz Ferdinand was a nephew of emperor Franz Joseph I and from 1896 to 1914 heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary. He was murdered in Sarajevo in 1914 together with his wife Sophie, an event that led to the outbreak of World War I. His full name was Franz Ferdinand Carl Ludwig Joseph Maria von Österreich-Este. He owned Konopiště castle where the family spent much of their time.

Franz Ferdinand's political views where relatively liberal; he was against preventive warfare against Serbia and he advocated making Austria-Hungary a three-pillar federal state where the Slav nations were put on an equal footing with Germans and Hungarians.

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.1] „Tak nám zabili Ferdinanda,“ řekla posluhovačka panu Švejkovi, který opustiv před léty vojenskou službu, když byl definitivně prohlášen vojenskou lékařskou komisí za blba, živil se prodejem psů, ošklivých nečistokrevných oblud, kterým padělal rodokmeny.

Also written:Ferdinand Hašek František Ferdinand cz Ferenc Ferdinánd hu

Paní Müllerovánn flag
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Müllerová was a servant in the house where Švejk lived. The first dialogue in the novel is between the two, they discuss the news of the shots in Sarajevo where Franz Ferdinand and his wife were murdered by Serb nationalists. She had read about the shootings in the paper so the conversation surely took place on 29 June 1914 (the evening papers from the previous day were printed before the news arrived).

Müllerová is subsequently not mentioned again until Švejk was set free in [I.6]. Then his room had already rented out to someone else.

The next chapter boasts the famous scene where old Mrs Müllerová pushes Švejk to the military in a wheelchair. The last time the good soldier is at home [I.10] he discovers that the poor old lady had been arrested the very evening she had rolled him off to the draft board and she was now in the concentration camp at Steinhof.

Background

The name may have been derived from Marie Müllerová, a friend of editor Michal Kacha, one of Hašek's companions from the anarchist movement (Radko Pytlík). Another theory is that the name is borrowed from Marie Müllerová, allegedly a brothel madam next door to U kalicha (Jan Berwid-Buquoy). But there were many Müller's around in Prague at the time (7537 entries in the police registers between 1850 og 1914, of them 531 on Marie alone), so there is scope for endless speculation.

Müllerová is not part of the two early versions of Švejk, but in Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí her role is partly taken by Švejk's servant Bohuslav who pushes his master off to the draft board in a wheelchair. This indicates that Müllerová is little more than a name assigned to a literary role.

External Links

SourceRadko Pytlík, Jan Berwid-Buquoy

Quote from the novel
[1.1] „Tak nám zabili Ferdinanda,“ řekla posluhovačka panu Švejkovi, který opustiv před léty vojenskou službu, když byl definitivně prohlášen vojenskou lékařskou komisí za blba, živil se prodejem psů, ošklivých nečistokrevných oblud, kterým padělal rodokmeny. Kromě tohoto zaměstnání byl stižen rheumatismem a mazal si právě kolena opodeldokem. „Kerýho Ferdinanda, paní Müllerová?“ otázal se Švejk, nepřestávaje si masírovat kolena, „já znám dva Ferdinandy.
Ferdinandnn flag
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Ferdinand was a servant at Drogerie Průša and drank a bottle of hair oil by mistake. He was the first Ferdinand Švejk knew. See Drogerie Kokoška.

Background

Ferdinand is probably modelled on a colleague of the author from his time as a chemist's apprentice in 1898 and 1899. He frequently mentions a Ferdinand in his collection of stories "From the old pharmacy". In these stories the owner of the pharmacy is a certain Kološka, not Průša. See Drogerie Kokoška.

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.1] „Kerýho Ferdinanda, paní Müllerová?“ otázal se Švejk, nepřestávaje si masírovat kolena, „já znám dva Ferdinandy. Jednoho, ten je sluhou u drogisty Průši a vypil mu tam jednou omylem láhev nějakého mazání na vlasy, a potom znám ještě Ferdinanda Kokošku, co sbírá ty psí hovínka. Vobou není žádná škoda.“
Průša, Františeknn flag
*Votice 17.10.1862 - †Král. Vinohrady 22.5.1915
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prusa2.png

Národní politika, 27.9.1902

prusa1.png

Adresář královského hlavního města Prahy, 1910

Průša was the owner of the chemist's store where Ferdinand was an assistant.

Background

Průša was the owner of a pharmacy Drogerie Průša at Tylovo náměstí in Královské Vinohrady. Jaroslav Hašek worked here as an apprentice from March 1898 (or later) until September 1899. Exactly when he started is not known, but it happened after he had been dismissed at Drogerie Kokoška.

The pharmacist was born in Votice in 1862, was married to Mathilde (b. 1872) and they had the son Rudolf. The family moved to Královské Vinohrady in 1893. Otherwise we know little about him but newspaper adverts reveal that his store existed at least until 1915, the year Průša died. In 1916 Čech reported that his widow had been the victim of fraud, but that the culprit had been arrested and sentenced to 5 months in prison. From the death protocols it transpires that Průša died from a brain stroke, that he suffered from diabetes and lived at Vinohrady čp. 603 when he passed away.

Adverts from a chemist's Fr. Průsa appeared already in 1890 but then from Kamenice nad Lipou. That said there is no doubt that this Průša is the same person as police registers reveal that the son Rudolf was born in the very Kamenice in 1893.

Průša is the first of countless examples of how the author pulled in fragments from his own experiences to create the backdrop for the novel. Even Průša who appears to be a fictive person, is drawn from real life. This is probably the case with most of the apparently fictional figures in the novel. Their role might have been distorted or mystified but the names were rarely thought up.

External Links

SourceRadko Pytlík, Jaroslav Šerák

Quote from the novel
[1.1] Jednoho, ten je sluhou u drogisty Průši a vypil mu tam jednou omylem láhev nějakého mazání na vlasy, a potom znám ještě Ferdinanda Kokošku, co sbírá ty psí hovínka. Vobou není žádná škoda.“

Also written:Pruscha de

Kokoška, Ferdinandnn flag
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Kokoška collected dog turds. He was the second Ferdinand that Švejk knew.

Background

This name is surely inspired by the identically named Kokoška, the author's boss at Drogerie Kokoška in 1898. Hašek was reportedly dismissed here after repainting the face of a cow so it resembled the proprietor. Here the author makes further fun of him by letting him collect dog turds.

Source: Václav Menger

Quote from the novel
[1.1] Jednoho, ten je sluhou u drogisty Průši a vypil mu tam jednou omylem láhev nějakého mazání na vlasy, a potom znám ještě Ferdinanda Kokošku, co sbírá ty psí hovínka. Vobou není žádná škoda.“
Herzogin Sophie Chotek von Chotkowann flag
*1.3.1868 Stuttgart - †28.6.1914 Sarajevo
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Sophie is never mentioned by name in the novel, just referred to as "the archduchess who was riding in an automobile i Sarajevo with her archduke". Švejk was obviously not aware that she also had been killed as the talks about her as the widow who will have to find another archduke, an even fatter one.

Background

Sophie was a Bohemian noble lady, married to the heir to the Austrian and Hungarian thrones, Franz Ferdinand. She was killed in Sarajevo together with her husband. Sophie was never accepted by the Habsburg imperial family due to her non-royal background. The children of Sophie and Franz Ferdinand therefore had no rights in succession to the throne. Her full name was Sophie Maria Josephine Albina Gräfin Chotek von Chotkowa und Wognin.

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.1] „Práskli ho v Sarajevu, milostpane, z revolveru, vědí. Jel tam s tou svou arcikněžnou v automobilu.“ „Tak se podívejme, paní Müllerová, v automobilu. Jó, takovej pán si to může dovolit, a ani nepomyslí, jak taková jízda automobilem může nešťastně skončit.

Also written:Žofie Chotková cz Sophie Chotek von Chotkowa de Chotek Zsófia hu

Godnn flag
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gud.jpg

God as Michelangelo imagined him.

God is first referred to by Švejk when he states to Müllerová that the Archduke Ferdinand now rests with God, obviously referring to the Christian God. God is mentioned on numerous occasions in the novel, often through expletives like Himmelherrgott!.

The pious field chaplain in [I.12] mentions the Lord an impressive three times in the same breath, albeit under the influence of alcohol.

Background

God is a mythical figure from the Bible and the Qur'an and is the most important symbol in the three monotheistic world religions of Semitic origin: Judaism, Christianity and Islam. The word "God" can also have a more general meaning, including polytheistic religions like the old Nordic Ásatrú.

Th epious field chaplain in [I.12] mentions the Lord an impressive three times in the same breath, albeit strongly under the influence.

Quote from the novel
[1.1] „Tak se podívejme, paní Müllerová, v automobilu. Jó, takovej pán si to může dovolit, a ani nepomyslí, jak taková jízda automobilem může nešťastně skončit. A v Sarajevu k tomu, to je v Bosně, paní Müllerová. To asi udělali Turci. My holt jsme jim tu Bosnu a Hercegovinu neměli brát. Tak vida, paní Müllerová. On je tedy pan arcivévoda už na pravdě boží. Trápil se dlouho?“
[1.12] "Já mám pánaboha rád," ozval se nábožný polní kurát, začínaje škytat, "moc ho mám rád. Dejte mně trochu vína. - Já si pánaboha vážím," pokračoval potom, "moc si ho vážím a ctím. Nikoho si tak nevážím jako jeho." Uhodil pěstí do stolu, až láhve poskočily: "Bůh je vznešená povaha, cosi nadpozemského.

Also written:Bůh cz Gott de Gud nn

Kaiser Franz Joseph I.nn flag
*18.8.1830 Wien - †21.11.1916 Wien
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franzjoseph.jpg

Franz Joseph soiled by flies. The picture is a gift from John Rocarek, Zenny Sadlon, and Mary Keenan Sadlon. Cedar Rapids (Iowa), 30 August 2014.

Franz Joseph I. is mentioned in the first chapter, referred to as "His Imperial Highness" but is crops up several times later in the novel with his real name. He was the theme of the discussion at U kalicha after Palivec revealed that the flies had shitted on his portrait.

Background

Franz Joseph I. was emperor of Austerrike and from the Ausgleich (Vienna Accord) in 1867 also crowned king of Ungarn. His reign lasted from 1848 to 1916 and is the third longest in European history. He ascended the throne when he was 18 years old, after the revolution of 1848. He was regarded as very conservative during his first period in power. The young emperor was initially unpopular and in 1853 he survived an attempt on his life. The next year he married his cousin, Elisabeth zu Bayern (Sisi). They had four children.

The emperor suffered a number of personal tragedies: the oldest daughter died when she was two, his brother Maximillian (see Maximiliano I) was executed in Mexico, his son and heir Rudolf committed suicide, and in 1914 his nephew Franz Ferdinand was murdered in Sarajevo. The emperor was quite unpopular amongst Czechs as he refused to be crowned as king of Bohemia.

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Quote from the novel
[1.1] „To se samo sebou rozumí, paní Müllerová,“ řekl Švejk, konče masírování kolen, „kdybyste chtěla zabít pana arcivévodu, nebo císaře pána, tak byste se jistě s někým poradila.
[1.15] Rozebereme-li jeho duševní schopnosti, dojdeme k přesvědčení, že nebyly o nic lepší těch, které proslavily otlemeného Habsburka Františka Josefa jako notorického idiota.

Also written:Francis Joseph I Parrot František Josef I/Franz Josef I Sadlon František Josef I cz Franjo Josip I hr I. Ferenc József hu Franciszek Józef I pl František Jozef I sk Franc Jožef I sl Франц Йосиф I ua

Lucheni, Luiginn flag
*22.4.1873 Paris - †19.10.1910 Genève
Wikipedia czdeenfrit Google search

Lucheni is mentioned by Švejk in conversations with Mrs Müllerová when he reveals his knowledge on royal murders.

Background

Lucheni was a French-born anarchist of Italian descent who lived most of his life in Switzerland. He murdered empress Elisabeth zu Bayern of Austria-Hungary in Geneva in 1898. He was sentenced to life for this (Switzerland had abolished the death penalty) and later committed suicide in prison. The name is often written Luccheni, which is also used by Hašek.

Quote from the novel
[1.1] Hlavní věcí je vyčíhat na ten moment, až takovej pán jede kolem. Jako, jestli se pamatujou, na toho pana Luccheniho, co probod naši nebožku Alžbětu tím pilníkem. Procházel se s ní.

Also written:Luccheni Hašek

Kaiserin Elisabeth zu Bayernnn flag
*24.12.1837 München - †10.9.1898 Genève
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sissi.jpg

Zlatá Praha, 16.9.1898

sissi1.png

Kourier an der Donau, 1.1.1838

sissi.png

Journal de Genève, 11.9.1898

Elisabeth zu Bayern is referred to as "the empress" by Švejk when he reels off for Müllerová his list of royal assassinations. Although her name is not stated directly, the mention that the killer was Lucheni makes it clear that is her.

Background

Elisabeth zu Bayern was empress of Austria, queen of Hungary, also called Sisi (later Sissi), and married to emperor Franz Joseph I.. Her full name was Elisabeth Amalie Eugenie, Herzogin in Bayern.

Elisabeth zu Bayern was the second eldest daughter of duke Max Joseph av Bayern of the royal Bavarian Wittelsbach dynasty, one of eight siblings. Only 17 years old she married her cousin Franz Joseph I.. in what could be described as a dynastically arranged marriage. The couple had four children, but mostly lived separate lives. After "Ausgleich" (the Vienna Accord) she was crowned queen of Ungarn on 8 June 1867.

The empress/queen was very popular and has over the years acquired a status as a legend. She has been the focus of countless books, films, plays, and animations.

Murdered

The event that Švejk refers to 10 September 1898 in Genève. The young anarchist Lucheni (who originally intended to murder the Duke of Orleans) stabbed her with a sharpened file at 12:40 PM and at 3:50 PM she was declared dead. The murder was reported in the Vienna newspaper already that evening and caused great consternation all over the world. The killer was arrested and identified the same evening.

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Quote from the novel
[1.1] Hlavní věcí je vyčíhat na ten moment, až takovej pán jede kolem. Jako, jestli se pamatujou, na toho pana Luccheniho, co probod naši nebožku Alžbětu tím pilníkem. Procházel se s ní.

Also written:Alžběta cz Erzsébet hu

Tsar Nicholas IInn flag
*18.5.1868 Sankt-Peterburg - †17.7.1918 Jekaterinburg
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nikolaj1.png

Národní listy, 18.3.1917

Nicholas II is mentioned by Švejk when he is reeling off for Mrs Müllerová his list of royal murders, and says it may even happen to the Tsar and the Tsarevna.

Background

Nicholas II was a tsar of the Romanov dynasty and the last monarch of Russia. His reign lasted from 1894 to 1917 when he was forced to step down after the February Revolution (March 15). He was from September 1915 commander-in-chief of Russia's armed forces after replacing his cousin Nicholas Nikolaevich. On 17 July 1917 he and his family were executed by the Bolsheviks, an event which is regarded as one of the most significant political murders in recent history.

Nicholas was regarded a weak and inept ruler, but has since 1990 seen a certain post-mortem rehabilitation. He was officially buried in 1998 and in 2000 he was declared a saint by the Russian-Orthodox church.

A paradox is that Jaroslav Hašek in 1916 and 1917 advocated czarist rule and even proposed that a Romanov prince ascend the Czech throne after the foreseen victory in the war and the subsequent break-up of Austria-Hungary.

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Quote from the novel
[1.1] A vono to čeká ještě moc osob. A uvidějí, paní Müllerová, že se dostanou i na toho cara s carevnou, a může být, nedej pánbůh, i na císaře pána, když už to začli s jeho strýcem. Von má, starej pán, moc nepřátel.

Also written:Mikuláš II cz Nikolaus II de Николай II ru

Tsaritsa Alexandrann flag
*6.6.1872 Darmstadt - †17.7.1917 Jekaterinburg
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Alexandra is mentioned by Švejk when he is reeling off for Müllerová his list of royal murders, and says it may even happen to the Tsar and the Tsarevna. The good soldier's prophecy was proven true little more than three years later.

Background

Alexandra was empress of Russia from 1894 to 1917, married to tsar Nicholas II. She was executed together with her family in Yekaterinburg (Екатеринбу́рг) on 17 July 1917.

Geboren: Victoria Alix Helena Louise Beatrice von Hessen und bei Rhein.

Quote from the novel
[1.1] A vono to čeká ještě moc osob. A uvidějí, paní Müllerová, že se dostanou i na toho cara s carevnou, a může být, nedej pánbůh, i na císaře pána, když už to začli s jeho strýcem. Von má, starej pán, moc nepřátel.

Also written:Alix de Александра ru

Browning, John Mosesnn flag
*21.1.1855 Ogden - †26.11.1926 Liège
Wikipedia czdeenno Google search
browning.jpg

The weapon that killed Franz Ferdinand.

Browning is mentioned through his pistol-brand when Švejk explains for Mrs. Müllerová what he would have used if he was to kill an archduke.

Background

Browning was an American firearms designer. He made pistols, rifles, shotguns and machine-guns. Franz Ferdinand was killed with a Belgian-made Browning semi-automatic pistol (FN Model 1910).

Quote from the novel
[1.1] „To jde náramně rychle, paní Müllerová, strašně rychle. Já bych si na takovou věc koupil brovnink. Vypadá to jako hračka, ale můžete s tím za dvě minuty postřílet dvacet arcivévodů, hubenejch nebo tlustejch.
Rei Carlos Inn flag
*28.9.1863 Lisboa - †1.2.1908 Lisboa
Wikipedia deenptsv Google search
carlos1.jpg

Světozor, 14.2.1908

Carlos I is mentioned indirectly by Švejk when he explains Müllerová what he would have used if he was to kill an archduke. To kill a fat dignitary like the king of Portugal, a good weapon like a Browning was needed.

Background

Carlos I was king of Portugal from 1889 until he was murdered by republican activists in 1908. Portugal went bankrupt twice during his lifetime, including once during his reign, in 1902.

Carlos I had indeed, as Švejk said, become quite fat in his later years. He was however killed by rifle shots, and not with a Browning as the good soldier claims.

Nome completo: Carlos Fernando Luís Maria Vítor Miguel Rafael Gabriel Gonzaga Xavier Francisco de Assis José Simão de Bragança Sabóia Bourbon Saxe-Coburgo-Gotha.

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Quote from the novel
[1.1] Ačkoliv, mezi námi řečeno, paní Müllerová, že do tlustýho arcivévody se trefíte jistějc než do hubenýho. Jestli se pamatujou, jak tenkrát v Portugalsku si postříleli toho svýho krále. Byl taky takovej tlustej. To víte, že král nebude přece hubenej.
Princip, Gavrilonn flag
*25.7.1894 Obljaj - †28.4.1918 Terezín
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princip.png

Die neue Zeiting, 14.10.1914

Princip is mentioned indirectly by Švejk and Müllerová when they discuss those who carried out the killings in Sarajevo.

Background

Princip was one of the assassins who took part in the plot to kill Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo on June 28 1914. Princip and the complices were trained by and acted on orders from the Serb nationalist group The Black Hand which had it's origin in the Serb armed forces. Their principal goal was to join all Serb-populated territories in a greater Serbia.

It was Princip who fired the lethal bullets after several attempts had failed in the preceding minutes. Princip unsuccessfully tried to commit suicide and was immediately arrested.

The trial started in Sarajevo 12 October 1914 and on the 28th the verdict fell. Some of teh conspirators were handed death sentences but Princip was convicted to life imprisonment as he was to young to be sentenced to death.

He died in jail in Terezín already in 1918. Thus he never lived to see the greater Serbia that Yugoslavia in many ways became.

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.1] Já si představuju, že se pan arcivévoda Ferdinand také v tom Sarajevu zmejlil v tom člověkovi, co ho střelil. Viděl nějakého pána a myslil si: To je nějakej pořádnej člověk, když mně volá slávu. A zatím ho ten pán bouch. Dal mu jednu nebo několik?“

Also written:Гаврило Принцип sr

Detektiv Bretschneidernn flag
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Čechoslovan 21.08.1916 (3.9).

Bretschneider was an undercover agent working for the state police. He met Švejk at U kalicha and tried to trick him and the host Palivec into compromising themselves in connection with the Sarajevo murders. He succeeded in both cases. We hear about Bretschneider for the last time in [I.6] when Švejk has been released after his arrest. This time he did not get anyone on the hook, and the author sends him out of the story in the most miserable manner by revealing that the detective was devoured by the very dogs he had bought from Švejk. Bretschneider is the only person taking part in the plot who explicitly gets killed.

Background

Bretschneider seems to be modelled on a real person in K.u.k. Staatspolizei in Prague. Jaroslav Hašek was kept an eye on due to his connection with the anarchist movement and he knew many in the police force. Emil Artur Longen claims that the real Bretschneider was a certain Vincenc Španda, and that he and Hašek had met in Berlin in 1920 (unlikely). In Longen's book the connection is explained in detail.

The name Bretschneider may have several sources: the policeman Josef Brettschneider who lived in Košíře at the same time as Hašek, or the sculptor Vladimír Bretschneider who was a friend of the author. A certain Karel Bretschneider was a policeman who lived in Kinského tř. 31 Smíchov in 1891, but the start and end of his active duty is not known.

The agent Mašek

Another possible inspiration is Hynek Mašek, an agent provocateur who tried to infiltrate the anarchist movement and also Česká strana národně sociální on several occasions between 1906 and 1909. He was explicitly named in Hašek's story Po stopách státní policie v Praze, printed in Čechoslovan 21 August 19161. Here Hašek claims that Mašek was an Austrian spy operating amongst the Czechs in Russia, and the article eventually led to Mašek's arrest. When České legie hastily had to leave Ukraine in February 1918 he was shot. Perhaps Jaroslav Hašek alludes to Mašek's fate when he lets Bretschneider be eaten by his own dogs?

[1]Julian calendar.

Radko Pytlík: Kniha o Švejkovi, s.146

Policejní strážník Josef Brettschneider, uveden ve statu pražské policie roku 1910, bydlel v Košířích č. 177, tedy v rajónu Světa zvířat; sochař Vladimír Bretschneider byl jedním z blízkých Haškových kamarádů.

External Links

SourceRadko Pytlík, Břetislav Hůla (LA PNP)

Quote from the novel
[1.1] V hospodě „U kalicha“ seděl jen jeden host. Byl to civilní strážník Bretschneider, stojící ve službách státní policie.
Hostinský Palivecnn flag
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Palivec was pub landlord at U kalicha and known for his foul mouth. He was also a man who had read a lot without this having refined his language the slightest. He was arrested by detective Bretschneider, having uttered an unfortunate sentence about flies defiling a portrait of the Emperor. For this he got 10 years hard labour.

The epilogue to book one reveals that he served his sentence until the end of the war. In the same epilogue the author presents Palivec as a symbol of his right to reproduce things as they were told, without having to embellish it to placate the more sensitive part of the readership, or to satisfy the demands for decent language in literature.

On biographical details it is revealed that Palivec was married and his wife worked in the bar, that he had served with the army in Bosnia, and that he sympathised with the organisation Volná myšlenka (Free Thought).

Background

Palivec quite probably has a real-life model. In 1989 Jan Berwid-Buquoy claimed that this person was was Václav Šmíd who is reported to have been landlord at U kalicha in 1914 and was known for his rough language. The same source claims that a Josef Palivec was a waiter there at the time.

Radko Pytlík finds it more likely that a certain Josef Šolc was the inspiration for the Palivec character. Šolc was landlord at a pub nearby, on the corner of Sokolská ulice and Fügnerovo nám and this was a place the author knew well.

What can be confirmed is that the landlord at U kalicha in 1910 and also in 1913 was Vilém Juris, and that two Václav Šmíd's were landlords elsewhere (in 2011 Berwid-Buquoy changed the landlord's name to Josef Šmída), that he ran the pub together with Vilém Jurisch, who allegedly died in the spring of 1914. Police registers show up 180 entries on Palivec from 1850 to 1914 so there are plenty of candidates. Juris was according to police registers born in 1871 but the date of this death can't be confirmed. In an article in Prager Presse 5 December 1929 Maximilian Huppert claims that the former landlord at U kalicha, Ferdinand Juris, was still alive. If this is a mix-up with another person is now known.

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Quote from the novel
[1.1] V hospodě „U kalicha“ seděl jen jeden host. Byl to civilní strážník Bretschneider, stojící ve službách státní policie. Hostinský Palivec myl tácky a Bretschneider se marně snažil navázat s ním vážný rozhovor. Palivec byl známý sprosťák, každé jeho druhé slovo byla zadnice nebo hovno. Přitom byl ale sečtělý a upozorňoval každého, aby si přečetl, co napsal o posledním předmětě Victor Hugo, když líčil poslední odpověď staré gardy Napoleona Angličanům v bitvě u Waterloo.
Hugo, Victornn flag
*28.2.1802 Besançon - †22.5.1885 Paris
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Hugo was an author Palivec had read and liked to quote. Palivec put forward Hugo in defence of his vulgar language. Indirectly he referred to a passage in Les Misérables where the famous mot de Cambronne, which is connected to Napoléon's old guard in the battle of Waterloo, is quoted.

General Cambronne is said to have given this simple answer to General Colville when the latter insisted he surrender: Merde!.

Background

Hugo was a French author and politician who published poetry, drama and novels. In France he is regarded as one of the country's leading poets. His most famous novel is probably "Les Misérables". Hugo was also a political activist and was forced into exile for a number of years. After his return in 1870 he was elected member of the Senate. He was also known as an advocate of human rights.

Quote from the novel
[1.1] Palivec byl známý sprosťák, každé jeho druhé slovo byla zadnice nebo hovno. Přitom byl ale sečtělý a upozorňoval každého, aby si přečetl, co napsal o posledním předmětě Victor Hugo, když líčil poslední odpověď staré gardy Napoleona Angličanům v bitvě u Waterloo.
Lazarusnn flag
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Lazarus was mentioned in a dialogue when Švejk told Bretschneider that he was tied up like Lazarus for two days after having got arrested with 20 buttons missing on his uniform.

Background

Lazarus was the name of two persons from the new testament. One of them was a pauper in St. Lucas' gospel, mentioned in a parable. The second one was Lazarus of Bethany, brother of Martha and Mary and who was very close to Jesus. It was this Lazarus that Jesus resurrected, and almost certainly the one Švejk had in mind.

Quote from the novel
[1.1] Jednou se pamatuji, že mně scházelo při takové přehlídce dvacet knoflíků u munduru a že mě zavřeli za to na čtrnáct dní do ajnclíku a dva dni jsem ležel jako lazar, svázanej do kozelce.

Also written:Lazar cz Lazarus de

Oberleutnant Makovecnn flag
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Makovec was one of Švejk's superiors when he did national service. Švejk refers to him as "obrlajtnant Makovec" (senior lieutenant) and portrays him as a nasty brute and a fanatic disciplinarian. One of the best known quotes from the novel stems from Makovec: "Discipline must be enforced, you stupid boys".

Background

Makovec is in Jan Werich's recital for some reason mentioned as Michal Makovec.

Quote from the novel
[1.1] Náš obrlajtnant Makovec, ten nám vždycky říkal: ,Disciplina, vy kluci pitomí, musí bejt, jinak byste lezli jako vopice po stromech, ale vojna z vás udělá lidi, vy blbouni pitomí? A není to pravda? Představte si park, řekněme na Karláku, a na každým stromě jeden voják bez discipliny. Z toho jsem vždycky měl největší strach.“
Ludvík, Břetislavnn flag
*31.7.1882 Praha - †6.12.1956 Praha
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ludvik.jpg

Ludvík was a cattle trader who, according to one of Švejk's numerous and long anecdotes, was stabbed on the square in Budějovice. This story associated cattle traders with the imperial family and contributed greatly to Švejk's arrest by Bretschneider.

Background

The name is borrowed from a journalist and multi-artist, in police records from 1913 registered as "Schauspieler" (actor). He was one of Hašek's childhood friends, and in 1946 he published a short book Kdo je Jaroslav Hašek in the series Who is. Here he admits to being angry with the way his name was abused and also that he briefly met Jaroslav Hašek in 1922.

Borrowing a name

Ludvík is a good example of how the author borrowed names from a person that has nothing in common with the corresponding literary character.

Hašek and Mussolini

One of the more imaginative claims in Ludvík's book is that Hašek met Benito Mussolini in Trento in 1906. The story is inherited from Václav Menger and his book Jaroslav Hašek doma, 1935, but the author adds that this is a legend that Hašek himself told his friends.

*) In an updated revision of the book from 1946 the information that allegedly was spread by Hašek himself removed. Menger had by now presumably concluded that they were unreliable.

The historian Renzo de Felice even suggests that this meeting inspired the latter's interest in Jan Hus, also suggested in Menger's book. As recently as 2013 the Mussolini theme appeared in the film Toulavé house by Vít Olmer.

Talk on Hašek
ludvik.jpg

Břetislav Hůla, 22.2.1949

© LA-PNP

In 1949 Břetislav Hůla noted that Ludvík once held a talk on Hašek in a the pub U Brindů, but adds that he was simply reading aloud from his book, "with all the contained errors and inaccuracies". There was however no damage done as only around 20 people attended and they were charged 8 crowns each!

Pavel Helan

Mussolini and Hašek both visited Switzerland and Trentino, but never at the same time. The information about contacts between the two may be found in Břetislav Ludvík’s Kdo je Jaroslav Hašek (Prague, 1946) 15-16, but the source is unreliable, even if Hašek himself was the informant. This tenuous account reached de Felice in a telephone conversation from Claudio Poeta, an Italian student in Prague in the mid-1970s, as Poeta told me in 1999.

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Source: Pavel Helan

Quote from the novel
[1.1] U nás před léty v Budějovicích probodli na trhu v nějaké takové malé hádce jednoho obchodníka s dobytkem, nějakého Břetislava Ludvíka.
Ludvík, Bohuslavnn flag
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bludvik.png

Police registration 1911

Ludvík was the son of Ludvík in Švejk's anecdote about cattle traders. He committed suicide by jumping in the Vltava from a bridge. See Most v Krumlově.

Background

Only one single person carried this name according to the Prague police registers (1850 to 1914). He was born in 1883 and resident in Nusle in 1904. He was the same age as Jaroslav Hašek, and the author knew the area well but there exists no knowledge of any contact between the two.

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Quote from the novel
[1.1] U nás před léty v Budějovicích probodli na trhu v nějaké takové malé hádce jednoho obchodníka s dobytkem, nějakého Břetislava Ludvíka. Ten měl syna Bohuslava, a kam přišel prodávat prasata, nikdo od něj nic nekoupil a každý říkal: ,To je syn toho probodnutýho, to bude asi také pěknej lump.’ Musel skočit v Krumlově s toho mostu do Vltavy a museli ho vytáhnout, museli ho křísit, museli z něho pumpovat vodu a von jim musel skonat v náručí lékaře, když mu dal nějakou injekci.“
Pinďournn flag
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pindour.jpg

A typical gamekeeper from Zliv

Pinďour was a game keeper from Zliv. He figured in an inappropriate anecdote that Švejk told Bretschneider in U kalicha. In this story water bailiffs and pig gelders are subtly compared to the imperial family. Pinďour was shot by poachers. He had an ugly name according to Švejk. The name actually means "little dick" but this is for obvious reasons not directly stated in the novel. The gamekeeper was shot by poachers and left behind the very widow who this anecdote is constructed around.

Quote from the novel
[1.1] To byl ve Zlivi u Hluboké před léty jeden hajný, měl takové ošklivé jméno Pinďour.

Also written:Pinscher Reiner

Šavel, Pepíknn flag
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Šavel was a gamekeeper from Mydlovary in the anecdote Švejk told at U kalicha (see Pinďour). He got married to the widow of Pinďour, and was like him shot by poachers. The analogy towards the killings of Sarajevo didn't serve Švejk well at all.

Background

Pepík is a Czech nickname for Josef.

Quote from the novel
[1.1] To byl ve Zlivi u Hluboké před léty jeden hajný, měl takové ošklivé jméno Pinďour. Zastřelili ho pytláci a zůstala po něm vdova s dvěma dítkami a vzala si za rok opět hajného, Pepíka Šavlovic z Mydlovar. A zastřelili jí ho taky.

Also written:Pepi Schawlowitz Reiner Rohwolt (2001) Schewla-Pepi Reiner (Aufbau 2009)

The prince at Hlubokánn flag
*18.3.1832 Wien - †5.10.1914 Libějovice
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The prince at Hluboká is mentioned in Švejk's anecdote about the widow of the gamekeepers who turns up at the prince's office at Hluboká nad Vltavou to ask for advice.

Background

The prince at Hluboká is possibly Adolf Joseph Schwarzenberg, the 8th Prince of Schwarzenberg and a major landowner in South Bohemia. Another candidate is his son Johann II (1860-1938) as both were alive at the time the event is said to have taken place ("years ago"). They also held the title Duke of Krumlov, another of the Schwarzenberg estates.

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.1] To se ví, že jí ho zas zastřelili, a to už měla s těmi hajnými šest dětí dohromady. Byla až v kanceláři knížete pána na Hluboké a stěžovala si, že má s těmi hajnými trápení.

Also written:Kníže na Hluboké cz Der Fürst in Hluboká de

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jares.png

Národní listy, 2.10.1889

Jareš was a pond warden from Ražická bašta in a story Švejk told at U kalicha. He was married to the widow of Pinďour and Šavel but drowned when fishing empty a pond. The widow finally married a pig gelder from Vodňany but was killed by him. The pig gelder uttered the most unsavoury phrases about the Emperor as he was hung in Písek. This anecdote surely contributed to Švejk's arrest.

Background

Antonín Jareš (1806-1889) was the grandfather of Jaroslav Hašek and a pond warden by Ražice. The name is re-used on three occasions later in the novel; once in Švejk's conversation with colonel Kraus's maid, and twice in an anecdote told at Švarcenberský ovčín.

Grandfather Jareš lived the last few years of his life with his daughter's family in Prague, and here he got to know his famous-to-be grandson. There is no doubt that he inspired both the names in this novel, as well as the seven stories centred around Ražická bašta that were published in Veselá Praha in 1908.

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Quote from the novel
[1.1] Tak jí odporučili porybnýho Jareše ražické bašty. A co byste řekli, utopili jí ho při lovení rybníka, a měla s ním dvě děti.
Kronprinz Rudolfnn flag
*21.08.1858 Laxenburg - †30.01.1889 Mayerling
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Rudolf was mentioned by Švejk as he in front of Bretschneider reeled off the personal tragedies the Emperor had suffered in his lifetime.

Background

Rudolf was crown prince and heir to the thrones of Austria-Hungary and the only son of Franz Joseph I. and Elisabeth zu Bayern. He committed suicide together with his lover Maria Vetsera at Mayerling castle outside Vienna. Rudolf suffered from strong depressions but there is still some debate over whether it really was suicide. The death certificate mentions "spiritual confusion." The drama of Mayerling has been filmed many times, including in a French/British production from 1968 with Omar Sharif in the role as Rudolf.

The free-thinking crown price lived a dissolute life, got dependent on morphine after treatment for VD and infected his wife with gonorrhoea, which made her sterile. Rudolf was politically liberal and associated with the organisation Free Thought. His political views prevented him from being included in the influential circles of the court, his father keeping him at distance.

Quote from the novel
[1.1] Syna Rudolfa ztratil v útlém věku, v plné mužské síle.
Orth, Johannnn flag
*25.11.1852 Firenze - †12.7.1890 (?) Cabo tres Puntas
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Orth was mentioned by Švejk when he listed the tragedies that had hit the emperor during his lifetime.

Background

Orth was archduke of the house of Habsburg and prince of Tuscany. His real name was Johann Salvator, but he took the common name Orth in 1889 after having reneged on his imperial privileges. This happened after a conflict with the court as Salvator wanted to marry the dancer Ludmilla Schubel, a lady well below his rank. He took the new name after a castle he owned in Salzkammergut. Orth was a good friend of crown prince Rudolf and shared his liberal political views. After breaking with the court he was forced to leave the country. Already having obtain a ship captain's certficate he tried his luck in merchant shipping. In 1890 he left for London where he bought a cargo vessel and embarked on a freight mission to Argentina and Chile. Around 12 July 1890 the ship went missing near Cabo Tres Puntas.

His full name was Giovanni Nepomuceno Salvatore Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Ferdinando Baldassares Lodovico Carlo Zenobio Antonino d'Asburgo-Lorena.

Speculations

What really happened is still unclear but rumours that he survived have regularly surfaced. He was officially declared dead in 1911, but in 1945 a certain Alexander Hugo Köhler from Kristiansand claimed on his death-bed that he was Orth. The case appeared in Norwegian courts in 1945 and 2007 and raised attention also in Austerrike. Still researchers at the university of Bergen see little reason to believe the claims of Köhler and his descendants.

Drill oder Erziehung
drill2.png

Drill oder Erziehung, page 11. When the intelligent soldier feigns dutifulness.

drill.png

Concluding Drill oder Erziehung

In the novel there is yet another reference Orth, albeit obscure and indirect. It was first pointed out by Sergey Soloukh in 2012. In Marek's description of Dauerling in [II.3] he mentions a book Drill oder Erziehung where it according to Marek is stated that terror is fundamental in training of soldiers and that successful training is proportional to the degree of terror. This booklet of 22 pages exists but the content does not fit the description Marek gives and could certainly not have inspired Dauerling's inhuman methods. It is a reprint of a lecture Orth (at the time still Erzherzog Johann) held on 3 November 1883 in Militär-Wissenschaftlichen Vereine zu Wien and was published by the same association. The above-mentioned quote can not be found in the booklet, and it was exactly this type of brutal exercise Erzherzog Johann spoke out against. Nor is Marek's claim that Kriegsministerium was the publisher of the book correct. In Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí the booklet is even described as a military textboook.

Drill oder Erziehung is a sharp attack on the practices within K.u.k. Heer to emphasize drill at the expense of education in military training. The lecture caused considerable resentment and harmed the already strained relation between the liberal-minded archduke and the military establishment. Johann already carried a certain weight besides being a member of the Habsburg-family: he was a professional soldier and commander of 25. Infanterie-Truppendivision and had participated in the occupation of Bosnia­-Hercegovina­ in 1878. At the time he presented his provicative lecture the 41 year old archduke had already obtained the rank of Feldmarschall-Leutnant.

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Quote from the novel
[1.1] Manželku Alžbětu mu propíchli pilníkem, potom se mu ztratil Jan Orth; bratra, císaře mexického, mu zastřelili v nějaké pevnosti u nějaké zdi.

Also written:Jan Orth cz Orth János hu Giovanni Orth it

Emperador Maximiliano Inn flag
*6.6.1832 Wien - †19.6.1867 Santiago de Querétaro
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maximillian.jpg

Emperor of Mexiko, by Mathew Brady, around 1864.

Maximiliano I is referred to by Švejk as the Emperor of Mexico when he tells Bretschneider about all the tragedies that had hit Franz Joseph I. He was executed by some wall in some fortress in Mexico according to Švejk.

Background

Maximiliano I was an archduke of the house of Habsburg, and brother of Franz Joseph I. He was installed as emperor of Mexico by the French in 1863, but was executed in 1867 at Cerro de las Campanas in Querétaro after a rebellion led by the liberal Benito Juárez.

His full name was Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph von Österreich.

Quote from the novel
[1.1] Manželku Alžbětu mu propíchli pilníkem, potom se mu ztratil Jan Orth; bratra, císaře mexického, mu zastřelili v nějaké pevnosti u nějaké zdi.
Paní Palivcovánn flag
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Palivcová was left crying in U kalicha at the end of [I.1] when her husband was escorted out by Bretschneider. Palivec consoled her and told that she need not fear the police just because some flies had shitted on a portrait of the Emperor.

Mrs Palivec reappears in [I.6] after Švejk was released from prison. In [I.11] she refuses to serve Švejk because she thinks he is a deserter. This is the last time we hear of her.

Quote from the novel
[1.1] A zatímco vedli Švejka do přijímací kanceláře, „U kalicha“ předával pan Palivec hospodu své plačící ženě, těše ji svým zvláštním způsobem: „Neplač, neřvi, co mně mohou udělat kvůli posranýmu obrazu císaře pána?“

Also written:Mrs. Palivec en Frau Palivec de Frun Palivec no

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

2. The good soldier Švejk at police headquarters

Detektiv Brixinn flag
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Adresář královského hlavního města Prahy a obcí sousedních (1907)

Brixi was a detective who arrested an unusually fat paper merchant who had paid for to Serbian students at U Brejšky and had been observed drunk with them at Café Montmartre. The owner of the paper shop was one of Švejk's fellow prisoners at Policejní ředitelství.

Background

This detective may well have had a model from real life but the surname Brixi (including the variant Briksi) was relatively rare in Prague. At most ten people carrying this name were alive at the time and none of them are listed with professions that seem related to the police.

Quote from the novel
[1.2] Výjimku dělal neobyčejně tlustý pán s brýlemi, s uplakanýma očima, který byl zatčen doma ve svém bytě, poněvadž dva dny před atentátem v Sarajevu platil „U Brejšky“ za dva srbské studenty, techniky, útratu a detektivem Brixim byl spatřen v jejich společnosti opilý v „Montmartru“ v Řetězové ulici, kde, jak již v protokole potvrdil svým podpisem, též za ně platil.
Christopher Columbus, Cristoforonn flag
*1451(?) Genova(?) - †20.5.1506 Valladolid
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Columbus breaking the egg

Christopher Columbus is mentioned indirectly through the description of the event who led to the arrest of one of Švejk's fellow prisoners. Švejk's fellow inmate was a teacher of history who concluded his analysis of various assassinations with the words: "The idea of an assassination is as easy as Columbus' egg.

Background

Christopher Columbus was a discoverer and merchant og Italian origin, known for the European "discovery" of America in 1492.

Columbus' egg describes a brilliant idea or discovery that seems simple or easy after the fact. The expression refers to a popular story of how Christopher Columbus, having been told that discovering the Americas was no great accomplishment, challenged his critics to make an egg stand on its tip; and, after they gave up, he did it himself by tapping the egg on the table so as to flatten its tip.

Quote from the novel
[1.2] Malý pán, kterému se to stalo ve vinárně, byl profesorem dějepisu a vykládal vinárníkovi dějiny různých atentátů. Byl zatčen právě v okamžiku, když končil psychologický rozbor každého atentátu slovy: „Myšlenka atentátu je tak jednoduchá jako, Kolumbovo vejce’.“

Also written:Kryštof Kolumbus cz Christoph Kolumbus de Cristóbal Colón es Kristoffer Columbus no

Jesus Christnn flag
*4 f.kr(?) Betlehem - †30(?) Jersusalem
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kristus.jpg

As seen by El Greco

Jesus Christ is referred to by Švejk as "Kristus Pán", literally "Christ the Lord". This is when he tells his fellow prisoners about their hopeless situation. "Christ the Lord was also innocent" are the discouraging words they hear. Jesus is mentioned more peripherally in the first chapter, through the expression Ježíšmarjá that Švejk used when he heard about the killings in Sarajevo. Jesus is mentioned at various stages through the novel, mostly in common expressions.

Background

Jesus Christ was a central figure in the Bible. He laid the foundations of the Christian faith. He was crucified for instigating rebellion in the year of 33 during the period of Roman rule. His birth and death dates are most uncertain. According to the Cristian faith and his own claims he was the Son of God and Messiah the Saviour. Jesus was also an important prophet in islam but this religion credits him with a less important role. The Jewish religion regards him as a false Messiah.

Quote from the novel
[1.2] „Já jsem nevinnej, já jsem nevinnej,“ opakoval zježený muž. „Kristus Pán byl taky nevinnej,“ řekl Švejk, „a taky ho ukřižovali. Nikde nikdy nikomu na nějakým nevinným člověku nezáleželo. Maul halten und weiter dienen!, jako říkávali nám na vojně. To je to nejlepší a nejkrásnější.“

Also written:Ježíš Kristus cz

Lombroso, Cesarenn flag
*6.11.1835 Verona - †19.10.1909 Torino
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Lombroso is referred to in connection with the book L'uomo delinquente where the author describes the interrogator at Policejní ředitelství. He looked like a criminal type described by Lombroso in this particular book.

Background

Lombroso was an Italian criminologist, anthropologist and lawyer. He was a pioneer of anthropological criminology which promoted the claim that criminality was inherited. Lombroso rejected the hitherto classical view that the criminal instinct was part of human nature. His political anthropology criminology maintained that criminal behaviour is in the genes and could be enhanced by physical defects. The physical shape could indicate whether a person was a criminal, which he gave many examples of in the illustrations in his books. Lombroso was of Jewish origin and baptised Ezechia Marco Lombroso.

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.2] „Dobrý večer přeju, pánové, všem vespolek.“ Místo odpovědi dloubl ho někdo pod žebra a postavil před stůl, za kterým seděl pán chladné úřední tváře s rysy zvířecké ukrutnosti, jako by právě vypadl z Lombrosovy knihy „O typech zločinných“. Podíval se krvežíznivě na Švejka a řekl: „Netvařte se tak blbě.“
Jan Nepomuckýnn flag
*1345(?) Nepomuk - †20.3.1391 Praha
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nepomuk.jpg

Statue in Třeboň

Jan Nepomucký was by Švejk held as an example of how badly prisoners were treated before, compared to the good treatment Švejk and his fellow inmates got these July days in 1914. Our hero falsely claimed that Nepomuk was drowned from Eliščin most. He appears again in the anecdote about Šic in [II.5].

Background

Jan Nepomucký was a Czech priest and martyr who was blinded, tortured, and drowned in the Vltava. Today there is a statue of him at the point at Karlův most where he was thrown off. He was canonized in 1729 and is now a patron saint. He is buried in Saint Vitus Cathedral in Prague.

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.2] Nebo mu dali nohy do španělský boty a natáhli ho na žebřík, když se nechtěl přiznat, nebo mu pálili boky hasičskou pochodní, jako to udělali svatému Janu Nepomuckému.

Also written:John of Nepomuk en Johannes Nepomuk de Johan Nepomuk no

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

3. Švejk before the court physicians

Demartininn flag
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Demartini was the fat head of the guards for the prisoners in custody at the Zemský trestní soud.

Background

The prison guard has perhaps been inspired by the very real police high commisioner in Prague, Rudolf Demartini (1866-1919), who lived in Královské Vinohrady (1906). This is a person Jaroslav Hašek surely knew or knew about. Little is known about him except for that he had three daughters and is buried at Olšany in Žižkov.

It has not been confirmed if he really was the chief guard in the remand arrest at Zemský trestní soud in 1914. He is not listed as an employee of the criminal court in the address books of 1907 and 1912 and it seems strange that someone with such a high rank is employed as the head of the prison guards. Therefore this is probably a borrowed name and not much more.

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.3] Čisté, útulné pokojíky zemského „co trestního soudu“ učinily na Švejka nejpříznivější dojem. Vybílené stěny, černě natřené mříže i tlustý pan Demartini, vrchní dozorce ve vyšetřovací vazbě s fialovými výložky i obrubou na erární čepici. fialová barva je předepsána nejen zde, nýbrž i při náboženských obřadech na Popeleční středu i Veliký pátek.
Valeš, Aloisnn flag
*19.5.1861 Mšecké Žehrovice - †18.12.1908 Nusle (Pankrác)
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vales.png

Matrika zemřelých, © AHMP

vales1.png

Národní politika, 20.12.1908

Valeš was a well knwn murderer who some years earlier had been interrogated by the same good-natured man who questioned Švejk at Zemský trestní soud.

Background

Valeš and his wife Ludmila committed a brutal double murder in April 1902 in the villa "Vilém" in Horní Krč where he was employed as a gardener. The victims were the young Slovak/Hungarian couple Matilda Hanzely and József Takács. They were planning to emigrate to America and therefore had a lot of money handy. Valeš hid the corpses in the garden and the crime was not discovered until October 1904. In February 1905 the couple was sentenced to death but the term was converted to life imprisonment by Franz Joseph I.

Interrogation

Amongst those who interrogated Valeš in 1905 were Karel Křikava and Václav Olič. They were police officers that Jaroslav Hašek knew and one of them may well have served as models for the good-natured interrogator. E.E. Kisch mentions the Valeš-case briefly in the story Polizeimuseum, where he reveals that the murderer's weapon is on exhibition.

The villa owner

At the time of the discovery of the murder the owner of the villa was Alois Bauer, a merchant who lived in Smíchov. When the trial took place (January 1905) he was under administration and the villa was sold. In 1909 he committed suicide by jumping into the Vltava near Střelecký ostrov.

E.E. Kisch

Aus Prager Nächten und Gassen (Polizeimuseum): Eine ganze Vitrine weist die Instrumente auf, mit denen das wurdige Ehepaar Valeš zu Krtsch das Liebespaar Takasz-Hanzely im Schlafe umgebracht hatte: ein Jagdgewehr, ein Strick, ein Revolver, ein Beil.

External Links

Source: Milan Hodík, Jaroslav Šerák

Quote from the novel
[1.3] Starší pán dobromyslného vzezření, který kdysi, vyšetřuje známého vraha Valeše, nikdy neopomenul jemu říci: „Račte si sednout, pane Valeš, právě je zde jedna prázdná židle.“
Pontius Pilatenn flag
*? - †?
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Pontius Pilate is written about by the author when he describes those of the examining magistrates who were most obsessed with the letter of the law as "the Pilates of the new era".

Background

Pontius Pilate was Roman prefect of Judea in the period 26 to 36 AD and oviously plays a central part in the Bible as the Roman official who sentenced Jesus to death by crucifixion.

Quote from the novel
[1.3] Vracela se slavná historie římského panství nad Jerusalemem. Vězně vyváděli i představovali je před Piláty roku 1914tého dolů do přízemku. A vyšetřující soudcové, Piláti nové doby, místo aby si čestně myli ruce, posílali si pro papriku a plzeňské pivo k Teissigovi a odevzdávali nové a nové žaloby na státní návladnictví.

Also written:Pilát Pontský cz

Prokop Švejknn flag
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Prokop Švejk is here at Zemský trestní soud mentioned in passing by Švejk when referring to his parents. They are mentioned again in [II.5], and it is only then their full names are revealed and it transpires that they are from Dražov.

Quote from the novel
[1.3] „Já myslím,“ odpověděl Švejk, „že jím musím být, poněvadž i můj tatínek byl Švejk a maminka paní Švejková. Já jim nemohu udělat takovou hanbu, abych zapíral svoje jméno.“
[2.5] Jakmile jsem ho poznal, šel jsem k němu na plošinu a dal jsem se s ním do hovoru, že jsme oba z Dražova. On se ale na mne rozkřik, abych ho neobtěžoval, že prý mne nezná. Já jsem mu to začal vysvětlovat, aby se jen upamatoval, že jsem jako malej hoch k němu chodil s matkou, která se jmenovala Antonie, otec že se jmenoval Prokop a byl šafářem. Ani potom nechtěl nic vědět o tom, že se známe. Tak jsem mu ještě řekl bližší podrobnosti, že v Dražově byli dva Novotní, Tonda a Josef.
Antonie Švejkovánn flag
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Antonie Švejková is mentioned in passing by Švejk when referring to his parents in a conversation at Zemský trestní soud. The parents are mentioned again in [II.5], and it is only then their full names are revealed and it transpires that they are from Dražov.

Quote from the novel
[1.3] „Já myslím,“ odpověděl Švejk, „že jím musím být, poněvadž i můj tatínek byl Švejk a maminka paní Švejková. Já jim nemohu udělat takovou hanbu, abych zapíral svoje jméno.“
[2.5] Jakmile jsem ho poznal, šel jsem k němu na plošinu a dal jsem se s ním do hovoru, že jsme oba z Dražova. On se ale na mne rozkřik, abych ho neobtěžoval, že prý mne nezná. Já jsem mu to začal vysvětlovat, aby se jen upamatoval, že jsem jako malej hoch k němu chodil s matkou, která se jmenovala Antonie, otec že se jmenoval Prokop a byl šafářem.

Also written:Paní Švejková cz

Doktor Heveroch, Antonínnn flag
*29.1.1869 Minice - †2.3.1927 Praha
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Heveroch was mentioned in a story by one of Švejk's fellow detainees who had gone to a lecture by Heveroch to learn to fake madness. He drank from the ink pot and performed his bodily needs in front of the legal commission. The only mistake he made was to bite a psychiatrist in the right foot, a procedure which was not described by Dr. Heveroch. One of the doctors of the commission that examined Švejk was a follower of Dr. Heveroch's psychiatric teaching.

Background

Heveroch was a notable Czech psychiatrist and neurologist who was, amongst other things, known for his studies on dyslexia and epilepsy. His book „O podivínech a lidech nápadných“ (On Freaks and Striking People) (1901) was according to František Langer amongsts Jaroslav Hašek's favourites.

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.3] „Já těm soudním lékařům nic nevěřím,“ poznamenal muž inteligentního vzezření. „Když jsem jednou padělal směnky, pro všechen případ chodil jsem na přednášky k doktoru Heverochovi, a když mě chytili, simuloval jsem paralytika právě tak, jak ho vyličoval pan doktor Heveroch.
Rittmeister Rotter, Theodornn flag
*1873 - †1944
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rotter.png

Rotter in the middle. Svět zvířat, 1909.

rotter_psu.png

Za císáře pána, Michal Dlouhý

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Verordnungsblatt für die kaiserlich-königliche Gendarmerie, 5.10.1912

Rotter was a well known police chief in Kladno who trained his dogs by experimenting with them on tramps in the district. This is according to a story Švejk tells his fellow prisoners at Zemský trestní soud.

The policeman is mentioned again in [II.2] during Švejk's wanderings around Písek. This story is almost identical, but is now told by a tramp.

Background

Rotter was a renowned dog breeder and policeman, stationed in Kladno at least until mid-summer 1914 and then Písek. Here he was head of the 14th gendarmerie department. He specialised in police dogs and was a member of the Polizeihundverein (Police dog association). In 1911 he published the 107 page booklet Anleitung zur Dressur von Polizeihunden.

Jaroslav Hašek knew him personally from his time as editor of the magazine "Svět zvířat" (Animal World), and on 28 June 1914 (the day of the muder of Franz Ferdinand), he and Josef Lada visited Rotter in Kladno.

In 1909, when he was still Oberleutnant at K.u.k. Gendarmerie in Kladno, Rotter bought two German Shepherds from Saarbrücken, where had had been on a course the previous year. He trained the dogs Wolf and Wölfin for service purposes and in Svět zvířat appeared a picture of the latter "catching" a runaway.

Rotter later wrote several books on the subject of dog breeding. One of them was published as late as 1947, three years after his death.

External Links

Source: Petr Netopil, Josef Lada, Michal Dlouhý

Quote from the novel
[1.3] Taky vám dám příklad, jak se na Kladně zmejlil jeden policejní pes, vlčák toho známého rytmistra Rottera. Rytmistr Rotter pěstoval ty psy a dělal pokusy s vandráky, až se Kladensku počali všichni vandráci vyhejbat.
[2.2] "....Jó, dneska mají právo četníci." "Voní ho měli i dřív," ozval se vandrák, "já pamatuju, že na Kladně bejval četnickým rytmistrem nějakej pan Rotter. Von vám najednou začal pěstovat tyhlety, jak jim říkají, policejní psy tý vlčí povahy, že všechno vyslídějí, když jsou vyučení. A měl ten pan rytmistr na Kladně těch svejch psích učeníků plnou prdel...."

Also written:Bohdan Rotter cz

Wölfinnn flag
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Wölfin (Vlčka) was most probably the name of the police dog that is mentioned in connection with Rotter's experiments in Kladno where he lets police dogs chase tramps. In the novel the dog is referred to as a police dog and wolf-dog.

Background

Wölfin was a female police dog that Rotter reportedly brought in from Saarbrücken together with the male Wolf in 1909. It was probably one of those dogs Švejk had in mind when he told his anecdote. The author knew Rotter well and had surely been aware of and seen both dogs.

Wölfin was moreover bred at the kennel of Fuchs a Klamovka, next to the villa where Svět zvířat had their editorial offices and where Jaroslav Hašek worked as an editor. He would therefore have known the female dog well and in an article in the magazine 1 November 1909 it is stated that her training took place here at Klamovka.

On 16 October 1909 Rotter showed off the skills of Wölfin and a Doberman Pinscher called Petar on the premises of Policejní ředitelství. The whole leadership of police HQ was present, amongst them commissioners Drašner and Ladislav Adamička (the brother of captain Adamička). The article also states that Wölfin was bought from the kennel at Klamovka earlier in the year.

External Links

Source: Petr Netopil, Michal Dlouhý

Quote from the novel
[1.3] Taky vám dám příklad, jak se na Kladně zmejlil jeden policejní pes, vlčák toho známého rytmistra Rottera. Rytmistr Rotter pěstoval ty psy a dělal pokusy s vandráky, až se Kladensku počali všichni vandráci vyhejbat.
Doktor Kallersonnn flag
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Hůla is of the opinion that Hašek invented the names Kallerson and Weiking

Kallerson is mentioned together with the psychiatrists Heveroch and Weiking as someone who had founded a school within the discipline.

Background

Kallerson was a psychiatrist but there is no information available apart from what is stated in the novel. Břetislav Hůla assumed that the name is invented as he was unable to verify the existence of any well known psychiatrist Kallerson.

If the psychiatrist isn't invented it is probably a case of a distorted name. In one of Hašek's stories a Karl Larsson features, a name that is phonetically similar. This person was however not a psychiatrist, he was head of the Czechoslovak Salvation Army.

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Quote from the novel
[1.3] Věc byla úplně jasnou. Spontánním projevem Švejkovým odpadla celá řada otázek a zůstaly jen některé nejdůležitější, aby s odpovědí potvrzeno bylo prvé mínění o Švejkovi na základě systému doktora psychiatrie Kallersona, doktora Heverocha i Angličana Weikinga.
Doktor Weikingnn flag
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Weiking is an Englishman mentioned together with the psychiatrists Heveroch and Kallerson. He had allegedly founded a certain school within the discipline of psychiatry.

Background

Weiking is supposed to have been an English psychiatrist but there is no information available apart from what is stated in the novel. The name doesn't sound partucularly English. Břetislav Hůla assumes that the names Kallerson and Weiking are inventions. Alternatively it is a distortion of the name of a real psychologist.

Quote from the novel
[1.3] Věc byla úplně jasnou. Spontánním projevem Švejkovým odpadla celá řada otázek a zůstaly jen některé nejdůležitější, aby s odpovědí potvrzeno bylo prvé mínění o Švejkovi na základě systému doktora psychiatrie Kallersona, doktora Heverocha i Angličana Weikinga.
Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

4. They threw Švejk out of the madhouse

The Virgin Marynn flag
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Icon of Mary in Vladimir, Russia

The Virgin Mary was someone the inmates of the lunatic asylum could pretend to be. Otherwise she is already mentioned through the common Czech expression Ježíšmarjá. This is exclaimed by Švejk already in the first dialogue of the novel, when he hears the news about the assassination of Sarajevo. Her name is invoked in this and similar variations throughout the novel.

Background

The Virgin Mary was the mother of Christ and the principal saint of the Catholic Church. In the New Testament she is featured in the gospels and in the deeds of the Apostles. At the Ecumenical Council of Ephesus in 431, the Council Fathers bestowed here the title Theotokos, 'Mother of God'. The Quran portrays here as selected by God above all women in the world; she is mentioned in seven chapters in the Quran, one of them with her name as the title. She features in numerous works of art, where she is usually just called 'Madonna' - 'Our Lady'.

Quote from the novel
[1.4] Člověk se tam může vydávat za pánaboha nebo za panenku Marii, nebo za papeže, nebo za anglickýho krále, nebo za císaře pána, nebo za sv. Václava, ačkoliv ten poslední byl pořád svázanej a nahej a ležel v isolaci.

Also written:Panenka Marie Hašek Panna Maria cz Jungfrau Maria de

The Popenn flag
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Pius X, Wiener Bilder, 23.8.1914

The Pope was one of the persons the inmates of the lunatic asylum could pretend to be.

Background

The Pope is bishop of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church, based in the Vatican. Pope from 1904 until 20 August 1914 was Pius X, who was succeeded by Benedict XV. Hence Pius still occupied the seat at the time Švejk was in the asylum (July 1914).

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Quote from the novel
[1.4] Člověk se tam může vydávat za pánaboha nebo za panenku Marii, nebo za papeže, nebo za anglickýho krále, nebo za císaře pána, nebo za sv. Václava, ačkoliv ten poslední byl pořád svázanej a nahej a ležel v isolaci.

Also written:Papež cz Der Pabst de

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George V before the war

King of England was as one of the persons the patients at the lunatic asylum could pretend to be, and that without repercussions.

Background

King of England seems to refer more to the king as a title and is not necessarily a reference to George V who was king of Great Britain, Ireland and the Commonwealth from 1910 to 1936. The title king of England hadn't formally existed since 1707, but then as now it was common to interchange the terms England, Great Britain and United Kingdom.

King George belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg, a noble family originating from Germany. He was cousin of both emperor Wilhelm II and tsar Nicholas II. He bore considerable physical resemblance to the Russian tsar. In 1917 the Royal House was renamed House of Windsor, one of several examples of politically motivated name changes during the world war.

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Quote from the novel
[1.4] Člověk se tam může vydávat za pánaboha nebo za panenku Marii, nebo za papeže, nebo za anglickýho krále, nebo za císaře pána, nebo za sv. Václava, ačkoliv ten poslední byl pořád svázanej a nahej a ležel v isolaci.

Also written:Anglický král cz Kongen av England nn

Saint Wenceslausnn flag
*907 Praha - †28.9.35 Stará Boleslav
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Saint Wenceslaus is mentioned during Švejk's staty at Blazinec (the madhouse) when the author lists various persons or objects the inmates pretended to be.

He reappears in the anecdote about the chamberpot in Poděbrady which was claimed to be the helmet of Saint Wenceslaus.

Background

Saint Wenceslaus was prince (kníže) of Bohemia from 921 until his death. He was murdered by his brother Bohuslav, was canonised after his death and was eventually to become the Czech patron saint. Wenceslaus is still the patron saint of the Czech people and the Czech Republic. His feast day is 28 September and is also a Czech national holiday.

Václavské náměstí is named after him and in 1912 a big equestrian statue of him was unveiled at the southern end of the street, in front of Museum. Václav is still today one of the most common Czech male names.

Quote from the novel
[1.4] A von mu ten jeho kamarád napsal takovej fejton vo takovým jednom sběrateli, jak našel v písku na břehu Labe starej nočník plechovej a myslel, že to přilbice svatýho Václava, a udělal s tím takovej rozruch, že se tam na to přijel podívat biskup Brynych z Hradce s procesím a s korouhvema.

Notice: Undefined offset: 1 in /var/www/honsi.org/public_html/svejk/source/php/book.php on line 289
[3.3.0] A von mu ten jeho kamarád napsal takovej fejton vo takovým jednom sběrateli, jak našel v písku na břehu Labe starej nočník plechovej a myslel, že to přilbice svatýho Václava, a udělal s tím takovej rozruch, že se tam na to přijel podívat biskup Brynych z Hradce s procesím a s korouhvema.

Also written:Svatý Václav cz Heiliger Wenzel de

The Archbishopnn flag
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Lev Skrbenský z Hříště, Zlatá Praha, 1899

The Archbishop is referred to when one of the patients at Blázinec claims that he is archbishop. In [I.9] he is mentioned again because he received Katz and seemingly supported the latter in his attempt to join the priest's seminary. See Seminář.

Background

The Archbishop may arguably refer to the Roman-catholic archbishop of Prague although the text doesn't indicate any particular archbishop, and is rather used as a generic term. In [I.9] there is however no doubt that the author writes about the archbishop of Prague.

In office at the time was Lev Skrbenský z Hříště (1863-1938) who held the seat from 1899 to 1916. He was a Czech cleric and nobleman who before becoming archbishop had served for 10 years as field chaplain in K.u.k. Heer.

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Quote from the novel
[1.4] Byl tam taky jeden, kterej křičel, že je arcibiskupem, ale ten nic jiného nedělal, než jen žral a ještě něco dělal, s odpuštěním, víte, jak se to může rýmovat, ale tam se žádnej za to nestydí. Jeden se tam dokonce vydával za svatýho Cyrila a Metoděje, aby dostával dvě porce.

Also written:Arcibiskup cz Der Erzbischof de Erkebiskopen nn

Saint Cyrilnn flag
*827 Solun (Thessaloniki) - †869 Roma
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kyrillos.jpg

Cyril in Olomouc

Saint Cyril was mentioned when Švejk told about his stay in the lunatic asylum. One of the inmates claimed to be Saints Cyril and Methodius in order to get two portions.

Background

Saint Cyril was a Greek missionary, later to become a saint, who together with his brother Methodius startet the christianisation of the Slavic peoples. The Cyrillic alphabet is named after him. During his lifetime he was known as Constantin.

Quote from the novel
[1.4] Jeden se tam dokonce vydával za svatýho Cyrila a Metoděje, aby dostával dvě porce.

Also written:Svatý Cyril cz Sankt Kyrill de

Saint Methodiusnn flag
*815 Solun (Thessaloniki) - †6.4.885 Mähren
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methodios.jpg

Methodius in Olomouc

Saint Methodius was mentioned when Švejk told about his stay in the lunatic asylum. One of the inmates claimed to be Saints Cyril and Methodius in order to get two portions.

Background

Saint Methodius was a Greek missionary, later to become a saint, who together with his younger brother Cyril startet the christianisation of the Slavic peoples. During his lifetime he was known as Michael. The two brothers are often referred to as the "Apostles to the Slavs". They translated the Bible to what is now called Old Church Slavonic.

Quote from the novel
[1.4] Jeden se tam dokonce vydával za svatýho Cyrila a Metoděje, aby dostával dvě porce.

Also written:Svatý Metoděj cz Sankt Method de

Otto, Jannn flag
*8.11.1841 Přibyslav - †29.5.1916 Praha
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Otto was indirectly mentioned in connection with the mental patient who claimed to be the 16th part of Otto's Encyclopaedia.

Background

Otto was a Czech publisher best known for publishing Ottův slovník naučný. He also published literature, text books and magazines. Amongst the latter were Zlatá Praha and Světozor which Jaroslav Hašek contributed to. The head office of the publishing house J. Otto was located at Karlovo náměstí No. 34 and they also had a branch office in Vienna.

Otto's son studied at Českoslovánská obchodní akademie at the same time as Jaroslav Hašek (1899-1902). Otto also ran a foundation to support poor students at the academy.

External Links

SourceRadko Pytlík, Marek Šimoňák

Quote from the novel
[1.4] Nejzuřivější byl jeden pán, kerej se vydával za 16. díl Ottova slovníku naučného a každého prosil, aby ho otevřel a našel heslo ,Kartonážní šička’, jinak že je ztracenej.
General Windischgrätznn flag
*11.5.1787 Brussel - †21.3.1862 Wien
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Alfred Füsrt zu Windisch-Graetz

wind_hula.png

Břetislav Hůla, 1951. ©LA PNP

wind_dead.png

Oberst Fürst Windischgrätz, commander of IR35 reported dead, 24 June 1859

Windischgrätz is in the book only referred to in a song which Švejk mentions when one of the court doctors asks him which songs he knows. In [I.7] he sings parts of the song in bed, stricken by rheumatism and fortified by patriotic fervour, just before he is carted off to war in a wheelchair by Mrs Müllerová.

Background

Windischgrätz and who the song refers to is somewhat unclear. It has long been believed that the person in question was general Alfred I. Fürst zu Windisch-Graetz (ref. Břetislav Hůla, 1951). He was a famous commander who brutally suppressed the revolutions of 1848, both in Prague and Vienna.

The song in question however refers to events during the second Italian was of independence in 1859, and on this occasion the old field marshal was not involved. On the other hand, his nephew and son-in-law was on duty: Karl Vinzenz 19 October 1821 - 24 June 1859, colonel and commander of IR35 (Pilsen), and he even fell at Solferino. On 18 July his body was brought back to Prague, and the event received extensive press coverage.

The latest German translation of Švejk (Antonín Brousek, Reclam Verlag, 2014) provides extensive "Anmerkungen" (annotations). Both persons are mentioned, but at the first occurrence of the name it claims that Alfred I. is the person in question. On the next mention it is Karl Vinzenz, despite the indisputable fact that Švejk refers to the same song on both occasions. Only a thorough investigation of the etymology behind the song may shed proper light on the apparent contradictions.

External Links

Source: Antonín Brousek, Militär-Zeitung

Quote from the novel
[1.4] A také to dál neumím,“ vzdychl Švejk. „Znám ještě první sloku z ,Kde domov můj’ a potom ,Jenerál Windischgrätz a vojenští páni od východu slunce vojnu započali’ a ještě pár takových národních písniček jako ,Zachovej nám, Hospodine’ a ,Když jsme táhli k Jaroměři’ a ,Tisíckrát pozdravujeme Tebe’...“
Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

5. Švejk at the district police station in Salmova street

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Police report, 5 January 1909

Braun was a sadistic inspector at Salmova ulice police station. The author compared him to emperor Nero. His abrupt order when Švejk entered was: "put him behind bars!".

Background

If Braun was inspired any particular person it was most likely Karel Fahoun who was chief inspector at Policejní komisařství Salmova ulice at least from 1906 until 1910. From 1903 to 1912 Jaroslav Hašek was repeatedly in touch with this police station due to public order offences and Fahoun signed documents that directly implicated the author. Fahoun had moved on to Královské Vinohrady by 1911, and in 1917 he had become head of Policejní ředitelství.

It has also been claimed that the police inspector and the author were personal friends, but this is categorically refuted by Břetislav Hůla. It is easy to imagine that Hašek's many appearances at this police station served as inspiration for Švejk's stay there, albeit displaced in time. There is no known records that connect the author with this police station after outbreak of war.

Another possible inspiration is the policeman Friedrich Brauner who held a similar post at the police station in Nusle. Jaroslav Hašek also knew this district, not the least from his time in the Anarchist movment. There is however no record of him having been detained here.

SourceJaroslav Šerák

Quote from the novel
[1.5] Po krásných slunných dnech v blázinci přišly na Švejka hodiny plné pronásledování. Policejní inspektor Braun aranžoval scénu setkání se Švejkem s krutostí římských pochopů doby roztomilého císaře Nerona. Tvrdě, jako tenkrát, když oni říkali: „Hoďte toho lumpa křesťana lvům,“ řekl inspektor Braun: „Dejte ho za katr!“ Ani o slovíčko více, ani méně. Jenom oči pana policejního inspektora Brauna zasvítily přitom zvláštní, perversní rozkoší.
Imperator Neronn flag
*15.12.37 Antium (no Anzio) - †9.6.68 Roma
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Nero is mentioned when the author compares him unfavourably with police inspector Braun.

Background

Nero was Roman emperor from 54 AD. The chronicles portray Nero as a tyrant and libertarian and he is known as the Emperor who "played while Rome was on fire", and an early persecutor of Christians. These stories originate from Tacitus, Svetonius and Cassius Dio. But other contemporary sources claim that Nero really was very popular in his lifetime. The first part of his time as Emperor was characterized by stability and prosperity, much thanks to his advisers, amongst them the philosopher Seneca. But Nero initiate many expensive building projects which eventually led to an economic crisis.

In 66 AD Nero added the title of "Imperator" to his name. The empire experienced insurgencies because of the economic problems. After the people had rebelled in 68 AD he was deposed by the senate. Nero though that the Senate would execute him, so he took his own life.

As Emperor he used the official name Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, but was born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus.

Source: Wikipedia

Quote from the novel
[1.5] Policejní inspektor Braun aranžoval scénu setkání se Švejkem s krutostí římských pochopů doby roztomilého císaře Nerona. Tvrdě, jako tenkrát, když oni říkali: „Hoďte toho lumpa křesťana lvům,“ řekl inspektor Braun: „Dejte ho za katr!“

Also written:Neron Hašek Nerone it

Mareček, Josefnn flag
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Mareček was a merchant from Vršovice who had been in Švejk's cell at Salmova ulice police station the previous year. He had written his name, the date (5 June 1913) and his profession on the cell wall. Nothing more is revealed about him.

Background

Mareček may have borrowed the name (or more) from a real person, although the facts about the people listed in the address book from 1910 do not quite correspond to the information about the man who wrote on the cell wall. Of the five Josef Marečeks listed, a house owner from Královské Vinohrady seems the likeliest candidate.

Quote from the novel
[1.5] Jiný opět prostě konstatoval fakt: „Seděl jsem zde 5. června 1913 a bylo se mnou slušně zacházeno. Josef Mareček, obchodník s Vršovic.“
Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

6. Švejk at home again, having broken through the vicious circle

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© Josef Lada

The Devil name is first invoked when the interrogator at Policejní ředitelství gets uptight about Švejks reassurance that his exclamation: "Long live the Emperor, we'll win this war!" was not meant ironically. His name occurs repeatedly, mostly in the form of Czech and German swear words.

Background

The Devil is a mythological figure in numerous religions; symbolising evil. Alternative names are Satan, Lucifer, Mephistopheles and Beelzebub. In monotheist religions, the Devil is generally considered the opposite of God. He presides in Hell as opposed to God who rules in Heaven. The Devil has a bad name, he is invoked whenever one seeks to convey a negative association, typically uttered through so-called swearwords. As a symbolical expression, the word devil through it's many variations, may be one of the most used ever.

Quote from the novel
[1.6] Vem vás čert, Švejku,“ řekla nakonec úřední brada, „jestli se sem ještě jednou dostanete,tak se vás vůbec nebudu na nic ptát a poputujete přímo k vojenskému soudu na Hradčany. Rozuměl jste?
[1.14.6] Zatímco Švejk koupal Maxa, plukovník, bývalý jeho majitel, strašně doma láteřil a vyhrožoval, že postaví toho, kdo mu psa ukradl, před válečný soud, že ho dá zastřelit, pověsit, zavřít na dvacet let a rozsekat. „Der Teufel soll den Kerl buserieren,“ ozývalo se v bytě plukovníka, až se třásla okna, „mit solchem Meuchelmördern werde ich bald fertig.“

Also written:Čert cz Der Teufel de

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cimpera.png

"Encyklopedie pro milovníky Švejka". Milan Hodík

Čimpera owned a piece of land in Straškov no.5 that he advertised for sale in a newspaper found at U kalicha. Švejk read the advert out loud to demonstrate his total lack of interest in the attention of Bretschneider who again sought to trap him.

Background

A Václav Čimpera actually lived in Straškov no. 5 in 1910 . This is information from Encyklopedie pro milovníky Švejka, II., Hodík a Landa, 1999. The document is from 22 February 1910. It is not known why (or whether) Čimpera later sold the property.

External Links

Source: Milan Hodík, Jaroslav Šerák

Quote from the novel
[1.6] Švejk sňal s věšáku nějaké noviny a prohlížeje si zadní stranu inserátů, ozval se: „Tak vida, tenhle Čimpera v Straškově č. 5, p. Račiněves, prodá hospodářství s třinácti korci vlastních polí, škola a dráha na místě.“ Bretschneider nervosně zabubnoval prsty a obraceje se k Švejkovi řekl: „To se divím, proč vás to hospodářství zajímá, pane Švejku.“
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Mařena was a woman who the porter at the nigh café Mimosa had brought home. This happened when Švejk got back from his time in custody and discovered that Müllerová had rented his room out, and that in his bed slept the night porter and the mentioned woman. Mařenay contributed to the novel with a single utterance when she dressed down Švejk with the select words: "you son of an Archbishop!"

Quote from the novel
[1.6] „Já jsem chtěl spát do osmi večer,“ zaraženě ozval se portýr, navlékaje kalhoty, „já platím denně z postele dvě koruny té paní a můžu si sem vodit slečny z kavárny. Mařeno, vstávej!“
Detektiv Kalousnn flag
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Kalous was police detective who, like Bretschneider, bought dogs from Švejk in order to lure something compromising out of him. He got nowhere and soon disappeared from the plot.

Background

The detective may have been inspired by Josef Kalous, a policeman in Nusle who is listed in the address book of 1910.

On 13 March 1913 Karikatury printed a story by Jaroslav Hašek called The detective Kalous. It was signed Richard Mayer, one of the many pseudonyms the author used.

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.6] Pak tam šel koupit psa detektiv Kalous a vrátil se s vyjevenou potvorou, připomínající hyenu skvrnitou, s hřívou škotského ovčáka, a v položkách tajného fondu přibyla nová: D...90 K.
Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

7. Švejk goes in the military

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Pávek was a medical doctor from Královské Vinohrady who prescribed Švejk bromium against his rheumatism, belligerance and exaggerated patriotism.

Background

The address book of Prague (1910) does not show up any doktor Pávek. This also goes for the address book of Královské Vinohrady (1912).

The surname Pávek also shows up in the story How Mr. Cetlička voted from 1913, but here there is no question of a doctor.

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.7] A tak byl probuzen obtloustlým pánem, který mu chvíli držel ruku na čele a říkal: „Nebojte se, já jsem doktor Pávek z Vinohrad - ukažte ruku - tenhle teploměr si dejte pod paždí... Tak - ukažte jazyk - ještě víc - držte jazyk - na co zemřel váš pan otec a vaše matka?“ A tak v době, kdy Vídeň si přála, aby všichni národové Rakousko-Uherska dávali nejskvělejší příklady věrnosti a oddanosti, předepsal doktor Pávek Švejkovi proti jeho vlasteneckému nadšení brom a doporučoval statečnému a hodnému vojínu Švejkovi, aby nemyslil na vojnu.
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Scaevola and king Porsena by Bernardo Cavellino

scaevola.png

Ein zweiter Mucius Scaevola. Die neue Zeitung, 13.6.1915.

Mucius Scaevola is mentioned in an article in Pražské úřední novinty and compared to Švejk in the news about the incident where Švejk gets pushed off to the draft commission in a wheel-chair. The headline reads: "The patriotism of a cripple".

Background

Mucius Scaevola was a known figure from ancient Rome who through his bravery is supposed to have saved the city during the Ethruschian siege of 508 BC. He was send to the enemy's camp to murder king Porsena but was captured. To show the king how little physical sufferings meant to a Roman soldier he held his hand in the fire without showing any signs of pain. The king released Mucius and offered peace. It has not be established if this story has a factual background but is in any cased based on the writing of Roman historian Titus Livius.

Symbol in stories of war heroism

Mucius and his burnt hand often appears as symbolism in stories about heroic deeds that the press of the Dual Monarchy printed during the war, particularly during the summer of 1915. References can also be found in the Czech press, even before the war. Amongst the papers who printed these stories in 1915 were Neue Freie Presse and Pester Lloyd. One such story appeared in June 1915 and was printed in several newspapers, including Pester Lloyd. It refers to an attack on Italian coastal defences by Porto Corsini on 24 May 1915, led by admiral Miklos Horthy. The admiral is better known as the inter-war and WW2 Hungarian dictator who led his country to war as an allied of Nazi Germany.

Reuse of themes

Many themes from the novel have earlier appeared in short stories by Jaroslav Hašek, so also Mucius: Jak se Baluška naučil lhát (How Baluška learned to lie), first printed in Právo lidu, Dělnická besídka, 2 March 1913.

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.7] O celé této události objevil se v „Pražských úředních novinách“ tento článek:
[1.7] Vlastenectví mrzáka: Včera dopoledne byli chodci na hlavních pražských třídách svědky scény, která krásně mluví o tom, že v této veliké a vážné době i synové našeho národa mohou dáti nejskvělejší příklady věrnosti a oddanosti k trůnu stařičkého mocnáře. Zdá se nám, že se vrátily doby starých Řeků a Římanů, kdy Mucius Scaevola dal se odvésti do boje, nedbaje své upálené ruky.
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Dunkle Geschichten aus dem Alten Österreich

Lynch is mentioned indirectly by the term "lycnhing". It is Prager Tagblatt who report that Czech agents of the Entente tried to lynch the cripple Švejk as he was wheeled to Odvodní komise in a wheelchair. The brave cripple was protected by Germans.

Background

Lynch (Charles or William) are both the probable candidates for the etymological origin of the term "lynching". Both lived in the 18th century, were judges and the circumstance was the American war of independence (1776-1783). In the US the term was later mostly used in connection with abuses directed against blacks. Austrian newspapers used the term "Lynchjustiz" already before 1840, mostly in connection with cases in the US (but not exclusively there).

It has not been possible to find anything in Prager Tagblatt that relates to the quote from the novel and fatal lynching was unusual amongst civilians in Austria-Hungary, even during the war. Arbitrary justice was however widespread at the front. It was used against both the enemy population and own subjects who were suspected of co-operating with the enemy. The victims were mostly Ukrainians and South Slavs.

Quote from the novel
[1.7] Ve stejném smyslu psal i Prager Tagblatt, který končil. svůj článek slovy, že mrzáka dobrovolce vyprovázel zástup Němců, kteří ho svými těly chránili před lynčováním ze strany českých agentů známé Dohody.
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Jaroslav R. Veselý, Květy, 7.9.1968

halbhuber2.png

Pester Lloyd, 24.10.1914

Bautze was head officer at the medical examination board at Střelecký ostrov. He exposed all malingerers in the most efficient and ruthless manner. He is the man behind one of the most famous quotes from Švejk: Das ganze tschechische Volk ist eine Simulantenbande (the whole Czech nation is a pack of malingerers). Švejk suffered the same fate as the other 11,000 malingerers Bautze had smoked out during his ten weeks in service.

Background

Bautze has no obvious model but we know with near certainty that Jaroslav Hašek in mid December 1914 appeared in front of the Landsturm draft commission at Střelecký ostrov, so he would have known who examined him, and might have borrowed traits for his literary figure from this person. Still no dr. Bautze is found in the address books from the years before the war.

In an article in Květy from 7 September 1968 Jaroslav R. Veselý states that some Dr. Halbhuber examined Josef Švejk at Střelecký ostrov, and his claim at first sight seems worth investigating. Dr. Franz Halbhuber was indeed an army doctor and by all accounts extremely cruel to the soldiers who were unlucky enough to get within his reach. He sent hundreds of ill and crippled soldiers back to the front and was also known as a German chauvinist, all this making him very unpopular amongst the Czech population.

There are however many reasons to doubt the veracity of Veselý's account. Halbhuber seems to have been in Prague only from 1916 to 1918. He served as "Oberstabsarzt" at Vojenská nemocnice Karlovo náměstí, and before that he had been in the same function in Košice and Litoměřice. That he was involved with the Landsturm draft commission (see Odvodní komise) in 1914 as Veselý claims, is difficult to believe, particularly in view of a news item from Pester Lloyd 24 October 1914 that says Halbhuber at the time, in Košice, was receiving a delegation led by Hungarian prime minister Count Tisza. October 1914 was precisely when Josef Švejk and others who were born in 1892 would have appeared before the commission (Josef was by all account to appear on the 20th, that is if the story about him being "superarbitrated" is true at all ...). Some temporary assignment can obviously not be ruled out, but for this to be verified, Halbhuber's military documents need to be consulted.

Still it is quite possible that Halbhuber and other brutal medics may have inspired the author to create the characters Bautze and Grünstein. Halbhuber had a number of similarities with both of them, for instance treating seriously ill people as malingerers and sending them to the front. In addition he was notoriously infamous so Hašek surely knew about him.

Halbhuber's predecessor as "Oberstabsarzt", MUDr. Jaromír Pečírka, may be the person who examined Hašek at Střelecký ostrov in 1914, or at least led the draft commission. But that he in any way was a model for those very German medics appears improbable. Pečírka was Czech and his obituary contradicts any suggestion that he in any way had anything in common with the two obnoxious medics Švejk encountered.

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Quote from the novel
[1.7] Zejména ne vrchní vojenský lékař Bautze. Byl to muž neúprosný, který ve všem viděl podvodný pokus uniknout vojně, frontě, kulce a šrapnelům. Známý jest jeho výrok: „Das ganze tschechische Volk ist eine Simulantenbande.“ Za deset týdnů své činnosti vymýtil z 11.000 civilistů 10.999 simulantů a byl by se dostal na kobylku i tomu jedenáctitisícímu, kdyby nebyla toho šťastného člověka právě v tom okamžiku, když na něho zařval „Kehrt euch!“ ranila mrtvice. „Odneste toho simulanta,“ řekl Bautze, když zjistil, že je muž mrtev.
Marschall Radetzky, Johann Joseph Wenzelnn flag
*2.11.1776 Třebnice - †5.1.1858 Milano
Wikipedia czdeenno Google search
radecky.jpg

Radetzky, 1857

radetzky_tot.png

Bohemia, 6.1.1858

radetzky_1919.png

Národní listy, 23.4.1919

Radetzky is mentioned when Švejk is led past a statue of him on the way to the garrison prison. Švejk obviously honoured him by saluting.

Radetzky is mentioned several times later in the novel, and claims centre stage during the field mass that Ibl serves in Királyhida before the departure to the front.

The Radetzky march is mentioned directly in [IV.1] Dobromil where the not very sober interrogator/interpreter hums it but adds his own lyrics.

Background

Radetzky was a nobleman and Austrian field marshal of Czech origin. He was Austria's most prominent commander in the first half of the 19th century and distinguished himself in the wars in Italy in 1848/49 where his armies emerged victorious in the battles of Custoza, Santa Lucia and Novara. He served in Austria's army for 72 years, under five emperors, participated in 17 field operations, and was decorated 146 times.

In 1848 Johann Strauss the Elder composed the famous Radetzky march which even today is played at the end of the Vienna New Year Concerts.

The statue

The statue that is mentioned in the novel stood at Malostranské náměstí in and was removed in 1919. It is now stored in the Lapidárium in Holešovice, a subsidiary of the National Museum.

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.7] Bajonety svítily v záři slunce a na Malé Straně obrátil se Švejk před pomníkem Radeckého k zástupu, který je vyprovázel: „Na Bělehrad! Na Bělehrad!“
A maršálek Radecký snivě se díval ze svého pomníku za vzdalujícím se dobrým vojákem Švejkem s rekrutskou kytkou na kabátě, kulhajícím na starých berlích, zatímco sděloval nějaký vážný pán lidem kolem, že vedou desentéra.

Also written:Radecký cz

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

8. Švejk as a malingerer

Bruno, Giordanonn flag
*1548 Nola - †17.2.1600 Roma
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Bruno is mentioned by a prisoner at Vojenská nemocnice Hradčany who attempts to feign insanity by yelling day and night: "Giordano Bruno's fire is still smouldering, renew the process against Galileo!"

Background

Bruno was an Italian astronomer and philosopher who was burned as a heretic in 1600. Finally, in the year 2000 the Papal Cultural Council and a theological commission declared his execution as illegal.

Quote from the novel
[1.8] Nejlepší,“ mínil jeden ze simulantů, „dá se simulovat šílenství. Z našeho učitelského sboru jsou vedle v cimře dva, jeden neustále křičí dnem i nocí: ,Hranice Giordana Bruna ještě dýmá, obnovte proces Galileův!’ a ten druhý štěká, napřed třikrát pomalu: haf - haf - haf, potom pětkrát rychle za sebou: hafhafhafhafhaf, a zas pomalu, a tak to jde neustále.
Galilei, Galileonn flag
*15.2.1564 Pisa - †8.1.1642 Arcetri
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galileo.jpg

Galilée devant le Saint-Office au Vatican. Joseph-Nicolas Robert-Fleury, 1847

Galilei is mentioned because a recruit at Vojenská nemocnice Hradčany was simulating madness by shouting day after day: "Giordano Bruno's fire is still smouldering, renew the process against Galileo!"

Background

Galilei was an Italian scientist, best known for his work in the fields of astronomy and physics. He is regarded as the founder of experimental natural sciences.

The process that is mentioned in Švejk was a trial that was conducted in 1633 as a result of Galilei's book Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo (Dialogue concerning the two chief World Systems). The systems being discussed in the book is the heliocentric (Copernicus) and the geocentric (Ptolemy).

The book caused anger in clerical circles and Galilei was put before a papal court. Here he withdrew his theories and thus avoided being sentenced to death by burning. He was found guilty of heresy and abjurium, sentenced to life imprisonment, albeit soon converted to house arrest.

Only in 1835 did the Catholic Church withdraw the ban of the book, but the final rehabilitation of the author only followed in 1992.

Quote from the novel
[1.8] Nejlepší,“ mínil jeden ze simulantů, „dá se simulovat šílenství. Z našeho učitelského sboru jsou vedle v cimře dva, jeden neustále křičí dnem i nocí: ,Hranice Giordana Bruna ještě dýmá, obnovte proces Galileův!’ a ten druhý štěká, napřed třikrát pomalu: haf - haf - haf, potom pětkrát rychle za sebou: hafhafhafhafhaf, a zas pomalu, a tak to jde neustále.
Henčlů, Frantann flag
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Henčlů was a soldier from Hluboká who was given two years in prison after having informed members of parliament about maltreatment of soldiers. This is revealed in an anecdote Švejk tells his fellow malingerers at the military hospital at Hradčany.

Background

This story surely has some connection to real events, but attempts to pinpoint it directly have so far proved futile. Before the war there were several reports in the press about mistreatment of soldiers, and at least one involving IR91.

Quote from the novel
[1.8] Nějakej ministr poslal k nám komisi, aby to vyšetřila, a nějakej Franta Henčlů ze Hluboký dostal potom dva roky, poněvadž to byl ten, co se vobrátil do Vídně k poslancům kvůli tý facce, kerou dostal na cvičišti od pana obršta.
Doktor Grünsteinnn flag
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grunstein2.png

Military head doctors in 1906.

Grünstein was head doctor at the garrison at Hradčany where the malingerers were undergoing treatment. Doctor Grünstein made sure they got the demon of sabotage exorcised by medical means like quinine, aspirin, enema, stomach pumping and a strict diet. See Vojenská nemocnice Hradčany.

Background

Grünstein probably doesn't have an obvious model from real life. Although Hašek was in a military hospital in 1915, this was in Budějovice. Any person that may have served as inspiration for Grünstein may better be looked for there and not in Prague.

That said, Jaroslav Hašek could also have been inspired by stories he heard of without knowing the person. We know that the head medic at Hradčany in 1916 was Dr. Josef Krejčí, and that his superior at the main military hospital at Karlovo náměstí was the cruel and mentally unstable Dr. Franz Halbhuber. The latter was notoriously known and Jaroslav Hašek probably knew about him. As such Halbhuber may well have lent his dubious qualities to both Grünstein and Bautze.

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.8] Přiblížila se doba odpolední visity. Vojenský lékař Grünstein chodil od postele k posteli a za ním sanitní poddůstojník se zápisní knihou. „Macuna?“ „Zde!“ „Klystýr a aspirin! - Pokorný?!“ „Zde!“ „Vypláchnout žaludek a chinin! - Kovařík?!“
Macunann flag
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Macuna was one of the malingerer who was called up for treatment by Grünstein. He was treated with anema and aspirin. See Vojenská nemocnice Hradčany.

Quote from the novel
[1.8] Přiblížila se doba odpolední visity. Vojenský lékař Grünstein chodil od postele k posteli a za ním sanitní poddůstojník se zápisní knihou. „Macuna?“ „Zde!“ „Klystýr a aspirin! - Pokorný?!“ „Zde!“ „Vypláchnout žaludek a chinin! - Kovařík?!“
Pokornýnn flag
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Pokorný was one of the malingerer who was called up for treatment by Grünstein. He was treated with stomach pumping and quinine. See Vojenská nemocnice Hradčany.

Quote from the novel
[1.8] Přiblížila se doba odpolední visity. Vojenský lékař Grünstein chodil od postele k posteli a za ním sanitní poddůstojník se zápisní knihou. „Macuna?“ „Zde!“ „Klystýr a aspirin! - Pokorný?!“ „Zde!“ „Vypláchnout žaludek a chinin! - Kovařík?!“
Kovaříknn flag
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Kovařík was one of the malingerer who was called up for treatment by Grünstein. He was given enema and aspirin. But soon after he quietly, from his bed by the window, he suddenly reported fit for duty, and Grünstein awarded him with an enema for the road. See Vojenská nemocnice Hradčany.

Quote from the novel
[1.8] "Poslušně hlásím, pane obrarct," ozvalo se tiše od postele u okna, "já už jsem zdravej, já už v noci pozoroval, že mne záducha přešla." "Jmenujete se?" "Kovařík, poslušně hlásím, mám dostat klystýr:" "Dobře, klystýr dostanete ještě na cestu," rozhodl dr. Grünstein, "abyste si nestěžoval, že jsme vás tady neléčili".
Koťátkonn flag
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Koťátko was one of the malingerer who was called up for treatment by Grünstein. He was treated with stomach pumping and quinine. See Vojenská nemocnice Hradčany.

Quote from the novel
[1.8] „Vypláchnout žaludek a chinin! - Kovařík?!“ „Zde!“ „Klystýr a aspirin! - Koťátko?!“ „Zde!“ „Vypláchnout žaludek a chinin!“ A tak to šlo, jeden za druhým, bez milosti, mechanicky, řízně.
Socratesnn flag
*4.6.469 f.kr Aten - †399 f.kr Aten
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sokrates.jpg

La mort de Socrate, Jacques-Louis David, 1787

Socrates is mentioned because not even he emptied the poison chalice with such calm as Švejk drank quinine.

Background

Socrates was a Greek philosopher, one of the all time greats, and regarded as one of the founders of Western philosophy. The outspoken philosopher was late is his life accused and convicted of impiety and having corrupted the youth. He was sentenced to either exile from Athens or to take his own life by a method of his own choice. He chose the latter by emptying a chalice of poison.

Quote from the novel
[1.8] Ani Sokrates nepil svou číši bolehlavu s takovým klidem jako chinin Švejk, na kterém vyzkoušel dr Grünstein všechny stupně trápení.

Also written:Sókratés cz

Baronesse von Botzenheimnn flag
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botzenheim.jpg

The baroness watches Švejk devour her gifts

Botzenheim was a general's widow who had read about Švejk in Bohemia. The editor had urged readers to collect money for the brave cripple, who brimming with patriotism was pushed to mustering in a wheelchair. The baroness brought splendid gifts for Švejk, amongst them a bottle of war liquor with the inscription Gott Strafe England! The author mocks the poor Czech of the German-speaking baroness and her visit ranks amongst the most famous episodes of the novel.

Quote from the novel
[1.8] V té době měla vdova po generálovi pěchoty baronka von Botzenheim velice mnoho starostí, aby vypátrala toho vojáka, o kterém uveřejnila nedávno Bohemie zprávu, jak se dal vozit, on, mrzák, na vozíku pro nemocné a křičel: „Na Bělehrad!“, kterýž vlastenecký projev dal původ redakci „Bohemie“ k vyzvání čtenářů, aby konali sbírky ve prospěch loyálního hrdiny-mrzáka.
Otakar Filipnn flag
*1.7.1874 Praha - †10.4.1931 Praha
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filip3.png

Národní politika, 18.8.1915

ofilip.png

On his 50th birthday. Národní listy 1.7.1924

cesrep.png

Národní Listy, 11.4.1931

Otakar Filip was probably the person the narrator had in mind as, quote: author of Stories from the life of our monarch and editor in chief of Československá Republika.

Background

Otakar Filip was a Czech journalist. author, and illustrator, and long time editor of local news in official newspapers that were published in Prague both under Austria-Hungary and Czechoslovakia. The book that is referred to he actually wrote, albeit with a title that differs somewhat from the one given in the novel. It was published in 1910 and contained 242 pages. That he was editor in chief of Československá Republika isn't entirely true, he was one of the board of editors. Filip specialised in reports and literature about Prague and published several books. See also Pražské úřední noviny.

The full title of the book Jaroslav Hašek refers to was: Osmdesátiletý mocnář: Význačné události a zajímavé obrazy ze života jeho veličenstva císaře a krále Františka Josefa I. Translated: The eighy year old monarch: significant events and interesting pictures from the life of His Majesty Emperor and King Franz Josef I.

On 18 August 1915, ironically on the very day that Jaroslav Hašek was awarded the small silver medal for bravery, an advert for a patriotic book appeared in his home town. It was titled The supreme protector of Czech children, His Highness Emperor and King Franz Joseph I. and written by none other than our editor Filip!

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.8] Vše elegantně rozložila na prázdnou postel vedle Švejka, kam přibyla ještě pěkně vázaná kniha „Příběhy ze života našeho mocnáře“, kterou napsal nynější zasloužilý šéfredaktor naší úřední „Československé republiky“, který se ve starém Frantíkovi viděl.
Shrapnel, Henrynn flag
*3.6.1761 Bradford-on-Avon - †13.3.1842 Southampton
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Shrapnel is mentioned indirectly through the term shrapnel as baroness von Botzenheim and her entourage enter the sick-ward of the malingerers at Hradčany. As the novel progresses his name, or rather his invention, crops up several times in various stories from the fighting.

Background

Shrapnel was a British officer and inventor who is famous for having invented the shrapnel shell, a shell filled with metal fragments. It turned out to be an effective anti-personnel weapon. The method was in use from the Napoleonic wars until the end of WW1.

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.8] Ani arcikněžna nemohla tak vážně vejít, jako to udělala baronka von Botzenheim. Za ní valil se celý průvod, ve kterém nescházel ani účetní šikovatel při nemocnici, který v tom všem viděl tajemnou ruku revise, která ho od tučného žlabu v týlu hodí napospas šrapnelům někam pod drátěné překážky posic.

Notice: Undefined offset: 1 in /var/www/honsi.org/public_html/svejk/source/php/book.php on line 289
[1.14.2] V tom okamžiku zapomínal, že sviští mu nad hlavou granáty a šrapnely, a probíral se neúnavně se zavazadly ke štábu, kde stálo vozatajstvo.
Johannnn flag
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Johann was the servant of Baroness von Botzenheim and looked like the murderer Babinský.

Quote from the novel
[1.8] Ja čist všekno f nófiny, já vám přinest pápat, kousat, kuřit, cucat, cešky fójak, toprá fójak. Johann, kommen Sie her!„ Komorník, připomínající svými ježatými licousy Babinského, přitáhl objemný koš k posteli, zatímco společnice staré baronky, vysoká dáma s uplakanou tváří, sedla si na Švejkovu postel a urovnávala mu slaměný polštář pod záda, s fixní myšlenkou, že se to patří dělat nemocným hrdinům.
Babinský, Václavnn flag
*20.8.1792 Pokratice u Litoměřic - †1.8.1879 Řepy u Prahy
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Babinský is mentioned because Johann, the servant of Baronesse von Botzenheim, looked like him.

Background

Babinský was a Czech criminal, sentenced for a series of murders and a number of other crimes. He is one of the best known Czech criminals ever and E.E. Kisch devotes a whole chapter to him in his Die Abenteuer in Prag. A lot of space was devoted to him in the police museum.

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.8] Komorník, připomínající svými ježatými licousy Babinského, přitáhl objemný koš k posteli, zatímco společnice staré baronky, vysoká dáma s uplakanou tváří, sedla si na Švejkovu postel a urovnávala mu slaměný polštář pod záda, s fixní myšlenkou, že se to patří dělat nemocným hrdinům.
Kaiser Wilhelm II.nn flag
*27.1.1859 Berlin - †4.6.1941 Doorn
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wilhelm2.jpg

In Balestrand, Norway, 1911

Wilhelm II. is mentioned because he is pictured with emperor Franz Joseph I on a bottle of "Kriegslikör" (war liquor). This was one of the gifts Baroness von Botzenheim bestowed the good soldier during her visit at the garrison hospital at Hradčany.

Background

Wilhelm II. was German emperor from 1888 until 1918. He was the last emperor of Germany and the last king of Prussia. He was forced to abdicate in 1918 after the defeat in World War 1, and lived the rest of his life in the Netherlands. Wilhelm had family relations with the rulers of both England and Russia.

Quote from the novel
[1.8] Baronka zatím vytahovala dárky z koše. Tucet pečených kuřat, zabalených do růžového hedvábného papíru a ovázaných černožlutou hedvábnou stužkou, dvě láhve nějakého válečného likéru s etiketou „Gott strafe England!“ Na druhé straně byl na etiketě František Josef s Vilémem, jak se drží za ruce, jakoby si chtěli hrát hru „Králíček v své jamce seděl sám, ubožátko, co je ti, že nemůžeš skákati“.

Also written:Vilém II cz

Prinz Eugen von Savoyennn flag
*18.10.1663 Paris - †24.4.1736 Wien
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Eugen is mentioned by a young doctor who attempts a rousing speech to the malingerers and points to prince Eugen and field marshal Radetzky as glorious military role models.

Eugen also appears at the end of [II.2] in the song that Marek and Švejk sing in the cell at Mariánská kasárna (Prinz Eugen, der edle Ritter).

Moreover the song is partly quoted in [III.1] when soldiers from the march battalion of the Deutschmeister regiment sing it on their way through Győr. See Zemun.

Background

Eugen was an Austrian prince and field commander. He gets most of the credit for the successful military operations against the Ottomans from the siege of Vienna in 1683 to the peace treaty of Sremski Karlovci in 1699. The song however refers to an event that took place much later: the siege of Belgrade in 1717. The full name of the French born prince was Eugène-François de Savoie.

External Links

SourceJaroslav Šerák

Quote from the novel
[1.8] Mluvil dlouho o tom, že každý z těch, kteří opouští nemocnici, aby odešli ke svým plukům do pole, musí být vítězem i rytířem. On že jest přesvědčen, že budou zruční ve zbrani, na bojišti i čestní ve všech záležitostech válečných i soukromých. Že budou nepřemožitelnými válečníky, pamětlivými na slávu Radeckého i prince Eugena Savojského.
[I.12] V zápalu a v řečnickém rozmachu vydával polní kurát i prince Evžena Savojského za světce, který je bude chránit, až budou dělat mosty přes řeky.

Also written:Eugene of Savoy en Evžen Savojský cz Eugène de Savoie fr Eugene av Savoia no

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

9. Švejk in the garrison prison

Klíma, Jaroslavnn flag
*1879 Kostelec nad Černými lesy - †5.5 1927 Menton
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klima2.png

Moravská orlice, 8.5.1927

klima1.png

Rovnost, 13.7.1923

klima.png

Information from 1906

Klíma is mentioned by the author when he writes about policemen in the Austrian power structure who kept their positions in the new Czechoslovakia.

Background

Klíma was a lawyer and high commissioner in K.u.k. Staatspolizei which career was very similar to that of Slavíček. According to Václav Menger he was the policeman who interrogated Jaroslav Hašek after the famous incident at U Valšů in November 1914, where Hašek pretended to be a trader from Russia.

Klíma takes a more extensive role in Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí than in the novel; now he personally leads the interrogation of Švejk at Policejní ředitelství. He also features in the story Kolik kdo má kolem krku. See Slavíček.

In Czechoslovakia he continued to serve in the police but was like his colleague "exiled" to Slovakia. In 1927 he fell ill with because of after effects of the Spanish flu, was sent abroad for recuperation but died soon after, at the age of 48. His was succeeded as Bratislava police chief by Slavíček.

Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí, 1917

Bude-li to někoho zajímat, poznamenávám, že Klíma i Slavíček bydlí naproti Riegrovým sadům a že mají vyhlídku na dva jasany v parku. Jsou to zdravé stromy se silným větvemi. Komisař Klíma má kolem krku 40 cm, komisař Slavíček 42 cm.

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.9] Státní policie dodávala také na garnison materiál, pánové Klíma, Slavíček & Comp. Vojenská censura dopravovala sem autory korespondence mezi frontou a těmi, které doma zanechali v zoufalství. Sem vodili četníci i staré výměnkáře, kteří posílali psaní na frontu, a vojenský soud házel jim na krk za jich slova útěchy a líčení bídy domácí po dvanácti letech.
Slavíček, Karelnn flag
*23.1 1874 Vodňany - †21.10 1929 Bratislava
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slavicek_nek.png

Expres, 21.10.1929

slavicek0.png

Čechoslovan, 19.2.1917 (ort. kal)

slavicek1.png

Sebrané spisy Jaroslava Haška, 1925

Slavíček is mentioned when the author informs that Klíma and Slavíček were still working for the state police in the new Czechoslovak Republic.

Background

Slavíček was a police officer, lawyer and civil servant in K.u.k. Staatspolizei where he was employed from 1900 until 1918. He held a degree in law from Universita Karlova and joined the police when he was 26. His career progressed rapidly within the security police where he also came across Jaroslav Hašek, for instance after the famous episode at U Valšů on 24 November 1914. He was promoted to commissioner in 1909, to high commissioner in 1913 and in 1915 he succeeded Viktor Chum as head of the state police in Prague.

Slavíček was married to Bohumila (born Vaníčková in 1884) and in 1912 the couple had one child, Karel (born in 1905).

Serving Czechoslovakia

Slavíček was investigated by the new Czechoslovak authorities in 1919, but was allowed to continue in the police, albeit in "exile" in Bratislava. Here he played a major part in organising and "demagyarizing" the police in Slovakia. From 1923 he was stationed in Košice. From 1927 he was back in Bratislava as Police Director (head of the police). Two years later he suddenly died from a stroke, at the age of 55.

In Hašek's focus

Dr. Slavíček is given a more prominent place in Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí where he interrogates Švejk in person. The author also dishes out a thinly veiled death threat: he knows that Slavíček and Klíma live near Riegrové sady and that in this park there are trees with branches strong enough to carry their weight.

It appears obvious that publisher Adolf Synek or editor Antonín Dolenský didn't want to offend the two policemen who were still alive and held important positions in the police in Slovakia. Perhaps they feared a law-suit? In Spisy Jaroslava Haška from 1973 the rewritten names are still not corrected, so the editors had obviously not read Čechoslovan too closely. A certain commissioner Knotek has also been renamed (renamed Snopek).

Changed spelling

In the story Kolik kdo má kolem krku Slavíček and Klíma arrested Kramář and Klofáč and sent them on to Vienna. The author additionally relates from his own encounter with them during a house search at the end of 1914. The same death threat is included; the stories were written during the same period. When this story appeared in Sebrane spisy in 1925 Slavíček had been renamed Klabíček and Klima became Slíva. But in the original printed in Čechoslovan (19 February 1917) the author used their real names!

Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí, 1917

Bude-li to někoho zajímat, poznamenávám, že Klíma i Slavíček bydlí naproti Riegrovým sadům a že mají vyhlídku na dva jasany v parku. Jsou to zdravé stromy se silným větvemi. Komisař Klíma má kolem krku 40 cm, komisař Slavíček 42 cm.

External Links

SourceJaroslav Šerák,Zdeněk Kárník

Quote from the novel
[1.9] Státní policie dodávala také na garnison materiál, pánové Klíma, Slavíček & Comp. Vojenská censura dopravovala sem autory korespondence mezi frontou a těmi, které doma zanechali v zoufalství. Sem vodili četníci i staré výměnkáře, kteří posílali psaní na frontu, a vojenský soud házel jim na krk za jich slova útěchy a líčení bídy domácí po dvanácti letech.
Stabsprofus Slavíknn flag
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Slavík was a brutal "stabsprofus" (staff guard) at the garrison jail at Hradčany. He was the first who received Švejk in the prison and was also present at the Holy Mess in the jail chapel, served by Katz for the prisoners. Slavík was imprisoned for theft after the war.

Background

Slavík is described as a real person, but it has not been possible to determine who the author had in mind. In 1906 there were two "stabsprofus" at the prison: Jan Frkal and Josef Bureš. Otherwise Slavík is a very common surname, and it has not been possible to establish any obvious candidate amongst the many entries in the address books from 1907, 1910 and 1924.

Quote from the novel
[1.9] Je úplně přirozené, že štábní profous Slavík, když přejímal Švejka, vrhl na něho pohled plný němé výčitky:„I ty máš porouchanou pověst, že jsi se dostal až sem mezi nás? My ti, chlapečku, pobyt zde osladíme, jako všem, kteří upadli v naše ruce, a ty naše ruce nejsou nějaké dámské ručky.“ Aby pak dodal váhy svému pohledu, přiložil svou svalnatou, tlustou pěst Švejkovi pod nos a řekl: „Čichni si, lumpe!“ Švejk si čichl a poznamenal: „S tou bych nechtěl dostat do nosu, to voní hřbitovem.“
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Řepa was a sergeant at the garrison jail (on one instance a corporal), a torturer with many lives on his conscience. His specialty was breaking the ribs of prisoners by jumping on them. He was also called "the executioner". Řepa returned to his profession as bricklayer after the war.

Background

It has not been possible to pin-point any real life individual that might have inspired the author's creation of this character.

Quote from the novel
[1.9] A v garnisoně trojice: štábní profous Slavík, hejtman Linhart a šikovatel Řepa, přezdívaný též „kat“, vykonávali již svou úlohu. Kolik jich umlátili v samovazbě!
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Linhart was a captain at the garrison prison, but little involved in the plot apart from a less than cordial phone conversation with prosecutor Bernis about Švejk's documents.

Background

This is another character without an identifiable real life model. One Karel Linhart served in the police in Smíchov (Jaroslav Hašek lived here in 1910-11) but the connection to the literary figure is difficult to established although it is likely that Hašek knew or knew about him. Linhart was a very common name in Prague and the author may have been aware of several of them.

Quote from the novel
[1.9] A v garnisoně trojice: štábní profous Slavík, hejtman Linhart a šikovatel Řepa, přezdívaný též „kat“, vykonávali již svou úlohu. Kolik jich umlátili v samovazbě!
Feldkurat Katz, Ottonn flag
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A. Sauer a J. Čermák, 1921

Katz is a field chaplain in Prague and no doubt one of the most famous characters in the novel. He was of Jewish origin but converted to the Roman-Catholic church. Otto Katz was a notorious drunkard and with questionable moral, but a colourful and intelligent person who the author clearly has some sympathy for.

Katz is the only one of Švejk's superiors who never shouts or swears at him. The field chaplain plays a pivotal role in this ([1.10]) and the next four chapters. He saved Švejk from the garrison prison by taking him on as an officer's servant and the soldier largely enjoyed good times when serving Katz. Together they served field masses, provided the last rites, took part on the same side in a religious debate, and consumed whatever alcohol they could get their hands on. This blissful existence ended miserably in [I.14] where Katz gambled away his servant to obrjlajtnant Lukáš in a game of cards.

The author provides a number of biographical details on Otto Katz. It is revealed that he had studied at some commercial academy, served in K.u.k. Heer as a one-year volunteer, inherited his father's trading company Katz a spol., and drove it to bankruptcy within a year. His father settled with the creditors behind closed doors and emigrated to North America leaving his son with nothing to inherit.

Thus Otto Katz saw no other option but to enlist in the army as a professional. Before that he had the brilliant idea to convert to the Roman-Catholic church, and was baptised by pater Alban (Schachleiter) in Emauzský klášter. His entry exam as an officer was successful, so he continued in the army and even planned to enlist in a staff course.

But one sunny day he got drunk and exchanged the sword with the cassock. He studied for priest at the Archsbishop's seminary (see Seminář) and was ordained. After completing his studies and being ordained, he turned back to the amrmy. At his old regiment he obtained the rank that eventually made him famous.

As a field chaplain he worked in Prague and lived in Královská třída in Karlín. It is not known at which unit he served as the author merely informs that he was assigned to one regiment. He boght a horse, lived a debaucherous life with card games, drink and prostitutes, often on borrowed money that he never intended to pay back. Amongst the officers in his regiment he was known as "Holy Father".

Katz disappears from the story after the disastrous gambling event, but is mentioned by the author in the epilogue to book one. Here it is revealed that he had lived through the war unhurt, had left the church after the war, and had become a "prokurista" (agent) at a paint factory in North Bohemia. He wrote the author an angry and threatening letter after having read about himself in the translation of one of the chapters in a certain German newspaper. The two still met, were reconciled, and it turned out that his drinking habits of the former field chaplain hadn't changed one bit.

During the remainder of the novel his name reappears a few times, but now in the stories that Švejk entertains his fellow soldiers with.

Background

Any obvious model fro Otto Katz has so far been impossible to pinpoint. At least four persons with this name lived in Prague in 1910 and are possible inspirations, but notably in his role as namesake, Jew and trader, but not as a field chaplain. At least three of them ran their own companies during Hašek's lifetime and were also Jews, so we are going to limit the investigation to these.

Searching a prototype for field chaplain Katz has on the other hand been futile. Not a single person person with the surname Katz is listed as a cleric in K.u.k. Heer in 1914 (Schematismus), so if any real field chaplain has inspired the author he must have carried a very different name.

Augustín Knesl's research
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Augustín Knesl, Večerní Praha, 1983

In the series Josef Švejk a ti druzí, published in Večerní Praha in 1983, Augustín Knesl identifies an Otto Katz who he claims was the inspiration for Hašek's field chaplain Katz. This person was born in 1864 in Prague, son of Leopold. He studied at the Českoslovanské akademie obchodní and Knesl provides many details about his years at the academy, including his marks who his teachers were.

Then the years after Otto Katz graduated in 1881 and until 1920 are left blank apart from the "literary facts" that Knesl without reservations borrows from the novel. His next step are some adverts for a firm in Celetná ulice 14, Staré Město. These were printed in České Slovo in 1920 and 1921. Knesl also notes that the firm appeared to have closed down in January 1923. Combining this with the information from the novel, he concludes that Katz went bankrupt twice. He he has obviously not considered that there could me more than one firm named Otto Katz in Prague.

Rapeseed oil in Libeň
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Adresář Praha, 1910

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The house where Otto was born

Recent investigations in newspapers and police records reveal that a certain Otto Katz was the co-owner of a company that manufactured oil from vegetables. This enterprise was located in Královská třída in Libeň and operated from 1893 until at least 1899. By 1902 the company was not listed any more but Otto Katz still owned the premises. A curious link to the the novel is the street where the firm was located. The literary field chaplain and the real life factory owner both lived in Královská třída, albeit at opposite ends.

It can now be concluded that the oil manufacturer in Libeň (in some documents named Otta) was indeed identical to the man Knesl mentioned (see link A). He was born 6 December 1864 in Prague, of Jewish confession, son of Leopold and Matylda. He married Marie Moravetz in 1894, which rules out that he ever was a Catholic priest.

On 1 March 1893 he and Josef Gross from Karlín registered the company Grossmann a Katz, manufacturer of rapeseed oil. In 1896 Katz is listed as the sole proprietor and in 1899 an advert confirms the existence of the firm. The advert is however not for oil, but for some furniture, so it might have been a closing down sale. In 1902 Otto Katz is listed as the owner of the same property (Královská třída 358) but there is no mention of any firm or factory any more. This year he lives in Podskalská ul. in Praha II., indeed very close to the Českoslovanské akademie obchodní where Jaroslav Hašek studied from 1899 to 1902.

In the 1910 address book he is listed again, now as "disponent" and house owner. He is also chairman of the Association of Czech rapeseed oil producers. His address is now Hybernská 40 and he had lived here at least since 1905. In 1915 Katz was still married, and still recorded with "Israelite confession", so as opposed to his literary counterpart he never converted. As late as 1932 he still owned the property in Libeň. Katz died on 16 June 1935 and his wife Marie was in 1942 deported by the Nazis and murdered in Treblinka (Jaroslav Šerák).

Leopold Katz

According to the novel Katz's father was the owner of a trading company. The real Leopold Katz, born in Poděbrady in 1831, died 22 April 1909, indeed ran his own firm, but traded in leather. He passed away in Prague so it is unlikely that he ever emigrated to North America. Nor is there any trace of any Leopold Katz from Prague in the passenger lists for New York arrivals. Moreover we have seen no evidence that his son Otto ever inherited the company or that it went broke. When Otto Katz was born the family lived at Pořící (Praha II., č.p.1071).

Sewing and embroidery

The address book from 1910 lists another Otto Katz who ran his own company. By comparing police records and address books we know that one Otto Katz from Sedlec lived in Ferdinandova tř. 25 in 1910, and ran a sewing and embroidery enterprise. He was married to Božena who converted to Jewish confession when they married. In 1913 he is registered in Staré Město No. 387 (Provaznická 2). His name appears here as late as 1916.

A flood of adverts
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Budweiser Zeitung, 7.2.1919

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Národní politika, 27.2.1921

The third firm was a weaver and linen manufacturer in Celetná ulice 14 and is no doubt the firm that Knesl refers to in regards to the adverts in 1920. It existed at least from January 1918 when it advertised aprons in Lidové noviny, and may have operated already in 1916, but in Josefovská ulice in Josefov (this address also appears in adverts from 1918).

From 1918 the firm often advertised in the newspapers, particularly in 1920 and 1921, including during spring and summer 1921 when the author introduced Otto Katz for his readers. Jaroslav Hašek may well have noticed these as he eagerly read newspapers, including the adverts. Otto Katz advertised in regional and national newspapers, and even abroad. They were also seen in German-language newspapers like Budweiser Zeitung and Dorfsbote, and in Slovenia's Maribor Zeitung. Prager Tagblatt reported on 28 November 1922 that a fire damaged the store on the 2nd floor and in a note in Lidové noviny 25 January 1923 it is revealed that the firm had gone broke, information that fits well with Knesl's version. In 1924 the firms property was auctioned off.

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Prager Presse, 13.6.1924

The identity of this Otto Katz is somewhat unclear. At first glance he seems to have been born in 1870 in Sedlec (link B). He specialised in embroidery, also on an industrial scale, but the information from the address book entry from 1924 shows him and the factory owner in Celetná ul. as different people (it might be an error in the address book). Several others named Otto Katz lived in Prague, some of them potential factory owners by 1918. One of them was born in 1886 and is listed as obchodník (trader) in 1915 and lived in Praha I./čp. 920.

Fraudster in uniform
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Národní listy, 7.4.1915

In April 1915 newspapers reported on a certain Otto Katz from Plzeň who defrauded a number of hotels while dressed in the uniform of a Fähnrich. That Jaroslav Hašek read the story is quite likely as he was marod (ill) in Budějovice at the time (and he was an avid newspaper reader). We also know that snippets from newspaper from this period appear elsewhere in the novel. The story may thus have lent drops of inspiration to Otto Katz (negligence of financial duties and visit to brothels), but this is mere speculation.

"Field chaplain" Mojžíš
katz2.jpg

A most unlikely model for Katz

In his book Jaroslav Hašek und sein „braver Soldat“ Schwejk, (2011) Jan Berwid-Buquoy claims that the model of Katz was Lev Mojžíš, "a cleric from Břevnov and notorious drunkard". His servant in Prague towards the end of the war was allegedly Zdeněk Matěj Kuděj, one of Jaroslav Hašek's closest friends.

That the chaplain Leo Josef Mojžíš actually lived is beyond dispute. He was born in Česká Skalice on 1 April 1863, served at Břevnovský klášter from 1888 until 1920, and at the parish at Bílá Hora from 1924 to 1948. Newspaper clips during the war always refer to him as a priest from Břevnov, but never as a military chaplain. Apart from the name there is no indication that he was of Jewish origin and he survived the Nazi occupation (died 1 May 1948). One point from Berwid-Buquoy's book is however worth recognising: that Zdeněk Matěj Kuděj from his experiences with Militärgeistlichkeit may have inspired Hašek when he created his military chaplains.

Mojžíš is not mentioned in the unpublished memoirs from Kuděj, who never mentions serving any field chaplain in Prague. He did however served at Militärgeistlichkeit, but never as an officer's servant. In 1918 he worked for the field bishop in Vienna, writing death certificates. Here he simulated a nervous breakdown after a serious clash with a superior. He then returned to his regiment in Beroun and Rumburk, and was given in Litoměřice around 25 July 1918 given a years sick leave. He returned to Praha but fell ill for real and spent three months in hospital in the clinic of Dr Thomayer. The information from Jan Berwid-Buquoy that Kuděj served "field chaplain Mojžíš" in Praha can therefore not be true and appears to be based on hearsay

Considering his age it is unlikely that Mojžíš was drafted as a field chaplain, and "Schematismus" from 1914 can confirm that he didn't serve in K.u.k. Heer and he doesn't even appear in the list of reserve field chaplains. "Schematismus" does however list another reserve field chaplain with a Jewish sounding surname: Jan Mojžíš. This one actually served in Budějovice and Jaroslav Hašek is likely to have been aware of him so he could, at least in theory, have lent a trait or two to Katz.

An unclear picture
katzdean.png

Fekdkurat Stephan Dean: a file that would have fitted Katz well. © ÖStA

As opposed to his colleagues Lacina and to a lesser extent Ibl, field chaplain Katz has no obvious real life model. Katz as a Jewish merchant may have a few plausible models, Katz as an army cleric no-one that springs to mind. In 1914 there was, according to "Schematismus", not a single army cleric called Katz in K.u.k. Heer.

Some of the field chaplain's less admirable traits may even hail from the author himself: cynicism, drunkenness and a tendency to shirk financial obligations. It is obvious that field chaplain Katz is Jaroslav Hašek's main instrument in his mocking of the Catholic church and military clergy, and that inspiration has been drawn from many sources (including the author's vivid imagination) to create this grotesque but interesting figure.

External Links

SourceJaroslav Šerák, Augustín Knesl, Václav Petera, Jan Berwid-Buquoy

Quote from the novel
[1.9] Potom ještě to kázání, ta zábava a legrace. Polní kurát Otto Katz byl přece jen roztomilý člověk. Jeho kázání byla neobyčejně poutavá, legračná, osvěžující tu nudu garnisonu. Uměl tak krásně žvanit o neskonalé milosti boží, sílit zpustlé vězně a muže zneuctěné. Uměl tak krásně vynadat od kazatelny i od oltáře. Uměl tak báječně řvát u oltáře své: „Ite, missa est“, celé bohoslužby provést originelním způsobem a přeházet celý pořádek mše svaté, vymyslit, si, když už byl hodně opilý, úplně nové modlitby a novou mši svatou, svůj ritus, něco, co zde ještě nebylo.
[1.16] Potom je Otto Katz je též na živu. Je to skutečná figurka polního kuráta. Hodil to všechno po převratě na hřebík, vystoupil z církve, dělá dnes prokuristu v jedné továrně na bronz a barviva v severních Čechách. Psal mi dlouhý dopis, ve kterém vyhrožuje, že si to se mnou spořádá. Jeden německý list přinesl totiž překlad jedné kapitoly, kde je vylíčen, jak skutečně vypadal. Navštívil jsem ho tedy a dopadlo to s ním velice dobře. Ve dvě hodiny v noci nemohl stát na nohou, ale kázal a říkal: „Já jsem Otto Katz, polní kurát, vy gypsové hlavy.“ště to kázání, ta zábava a legrace.
Arcibiskup Kohn, Theodornn flag
*22.3.1845 Březnice - †3.12.1915 Ehrenhausen
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kohn.jpg

Das interessante Blatt, 16.2.1915

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Národní Politika, 9.11.1892

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Wiener Zeitung, 4.12.1915

Kohn is given as an example of someone who was a Jew like Katz, but that this in itself was not very important. The author also adds that Kohn even was a friend of Machar. Moreover he informs that Katz had an even more colourful past than the famous archbishop.

Background

Kohn was professor of church law and theology, and between 1892 and 1904 archbishop of Olomouc. He was of Jewish descent but his grandfather had converted to Catholicism. The family were Czech-speaking and of humble origins but thanks to grants the gifted and diligent young man got a good education and we was consecrated as a priest in 1871. After serving in various parishes, holding positions at the university of Olomouc and at the city's archdiocese, he was finally elected archbishop in 1892. He was the first non-noble holding the seat for 300 years, and his election was therefore popular amongst the population, particularly the Czechs.

Kohn gradually fell out with parts of the Catholic church hierarchy, he was for instance not well thought of in Vienna due to his common and Jewish background. Kohn notes in his autobiography that Eduard Taaffe, the Minister-President in Cisleithanien made the following comment about his election as archbishop: Und hat er sich schon getauft lassen? (and has he already had himself baptised?)

Kohn was a capable administrator and the economy of the archdiocese improved, but soon revealed himself as headstrong and even despotic, and often took disciplinary measures against those he believed undermined him. He was increasingly criticised, also in the press, and after the so-called Rectus affair in 1903 he was called to Rome for a consultation with the Pope. The case even appeared in Reichsrat, see Parlament. In this particular controversy Kohn had sued a man based on a critical anonymous letter to the newspaper Rectus, but it soon became obvious that he had accused the wrong person.

He was summoned to Rome and the Pope asked Kohn to give up his position and in 1904 he bowed to the pressure, and moved to the castle Ehrenhausen in Styria. Here he spent the rest of his life and dedicated his time to scientific studies. In his will the left parts of his fortune to the Czech university in Brno.

Support from J. S. Machar

It was at the height of this affair that Kohn received support from an unexpected direction - from the strongly anti-clerical writer Machar. On 5 May 1903 he wrote a long article that was printed in Die Zeit, a newspaper in Vienna that already had written about Kohn. In 1909 the two were involved in another controversy: Kohn received a visit from the above mentioned Machar in Ehrenhausen and the news caused a stir despite attempts by the former archbishop to be discrete about the visit.

External Links

Source: Jitka Jonová

Quote from the novel
[1.9] Polní kurát Otto Katz, nejdokonalejší vojenský kněz, byl žid. To ostatně není nic divného. Arcibiskup Kohn byl také žid a ještě dokonce Macharův kamarád. Polní kurát Otto Katz měl ještě pestřejší minulost než slavný arcibiskup Kohn.
Machar, Josef Svatopluknn flag
*29.2.1864 Kolín - †17.3.1942 Praha
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machar.jpg

Český svět, 14.10.1910

Machar is mentioned by Jaroslav Hašek as a friend of archbishop Kohn.

Background

Machar was a Czech poet and satirist. He was like Jaroslav Hašek strongly anti-Austrian, anti-clerical and a master in the use of colloquial Czech. He was for a while one of the favourites of Masaryk, member of his Realist Party and contributed to the party newspaper Čas. After the war he fell out with the president and oriented himself towards the political far right.

The friendship with Kohn that the author refers to is probably based on events in 1903 at the height of so-called Rectus affair when controversy around Kohn reached a critical point. Machar defended the archbishop in a newspaper article in Die Zeit, printed on 5 May 1903. He also visited the now deposed Kohn in Ehrenhausen in 1909. Both these events were widely reported in the press and Jaroslav Hašek would surely have been well informed about the case.

External Links

Source: Jitka Jonová

Quote from the novel
[1.9] Polní kurát Otto Katz, nejdokonalejší vojenský kněz, byl žid. To ostatně není nic divného. Arcibiskup Kohn byl také žid a ještě dokonce Macharův kamarád. Polní kurát Otto Katz měl ještě pestřejší minulost než slavný arcibiskup Kohn.
Páter Schachleiter, Albannn flag
*20.1.1861 Mainz - †20.6.1937 Feilnbach
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© Langhans Praha

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Národní politika, 7.11.1908

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Národní listy, 5.12.1918

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Národní listy, 21.6.1937

Schachleiter was the priest who baptised Katz after the latter's conversion from Judaism. In the novel referred to as páter Albán, he ceremoniously dipped Katz in the baptismal font in Emauzský klášter.

Background

Schachleiter (born Johann Jakob) was a German Benedictine monk and from 1908 abbot at Emauzský klášter. In 1886 he was ordained as a priest, and he was associated with the monastery in various roles from 1892 to 1918. He was very involved in church music, played the organ himself and was also an expert on the instrument. He was also involved in politics, and was for instance one of the leaders of the German nationalistic Los-von-Rom-Bewegung that worked for closer links with Germany both religiously and politically.

Schachleiter was an affluent man - in 1908 he bought a sumptuous car from Laurin a Klement, the firm that was later to become Škoda. In August 1914 he converted the work-shop of the monastery into a hospital that could receive up to 50 patients. Due to his German nationalism Pater Alban was unpopular amongst the Czech part of the population and despite his many years in Prague he never bothered to learn Czech. The population register shows that his home address was the very monastery (1902) but in 1915 he was not registered as a resident of Prague any more.

The new state

In the tense situation after the collapse of Austria-Hungary and the creation of Czechoslovakia 28 October 1918, Schachleiter was from part of the Czech press subjected to accusations, one of them being espionage. Already on 31 October a delegation named by the newly created National Committee appeared to investigate the claims but let itself be convinced that they were without substance. The Emaus monastery still became a victim of the fervent moods that that prevailed these days. It was surrounded by crowds, occupied and guarded by Sokol and the so-called Academic League (students).

To refute the claims he had a proclamation printed (dated 5 November) in Národní politika, Prager Tagblatt and Bohemia. This made scant impressions and the abbot was confined to his house and in the hostile environment he chose to leave the country as the National Committee couldn't guarantee his safety. When leaving on 9 December he was recognised in Benešov and arrested. On intervention from higher authorities he was released and could continue to Linz where he arrived on 10 December 1918. It turned out that the abbot had left the country for good and in 1920 he resigned his position at the monastery. All the German monks likewise left the Emaus monastery and emigrated.

He was never taken to court and there is no indication that any proofs were ever put on the table. Schachleiter himself claimed that members of the atheist organisation Volná myšlenka were behind the smear campaign, and also emphasised the that the Czechoslovak authorities were not directly involved in the harassment of him and Emauzský klášter.

Nazi association

Schachleiter settled in Bavaria and if he had been a nationalist in Prague, he soon took it a bit further. For posterity he has become notorious due to his open co-operation with the Nazis and Adolf Hitler personally, a connection that had been established as early as 1923. On several pictures he is seen shaking hands with Der Führer. His political involvement led him into direct conflict with the Catholic church and he was briefly suspended. On his 74th birthday Schachleiter received personal greetings from Adolf Hitler, Rudolf Hess and several others from the NSDAP hierarchy and in 1937 he was honoured with a state funeral.

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.9] Křtili ho slavnostně v Emauzích. Sám páter Albán ho na máčel do křtitelnice. Byla to nádherná podívaná, byl u toho jeden nábožný major od pluku, kde Otto Katz sloužil, jedna stará panna z ústavu šlechtičen na Hradčanech a nějaký otlemený zástupce konsistoře, který mu dělal kmotra.

Also written:Páter Albán Hašek

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*21.8.1567 Chateau de Sales - †28.12.1622 Lyon
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Wiener allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung, 11.10.1816

Francis de Sales had his portrait displayed on the wall of the sacristy of the garrison chapel at Hradčany. He even witnesses Švejk's first conversation with field chaplain Katz. See also Vězeňské kaple.

Background

Francis de Sales was a French bishop and theologian, later to be canonised. He was a distinguished counter-reformist, notable for his stand against Calvinism. He is the patron saint of the deaf, writers and journalists.

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Quote from the novel
[1.9] Seskočil se stolu a cukaje Švejkovi za rameno křičel pod velkým, zasmušilým obrazem Františka Sáleského: „Přiznej se, lumpe, žes brečel jen tak kvůli legraci?!“ A František Sáleský díval se tázavě z obrazu na Švejka.

Also written:František Saleský cz Franz von Sales de Frans av Sales no

Auditor Bernisnn flag
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Bernis was judge advocate at Vojenský soud (military court) at Hradčany. He was a libertine who had his focus anywhere but in court. He mislaid most court documents and often had to invent accusations to get the trials done.

Background

The name Bernis can't even be traced in address books from Prague or any military loss records so it's a mystery where Hašek got the name from. Known persons with this surname did exist, but they were from a French noble family. Still the name at times appeared in the press in Austria-Hungary so Hašek may well have picked it up there.

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Quote from the novel
[1.9] Vyšetřující auditor Bernis byl muž společnosti, půvabný tanečník a mravní zpustlík, který se zde strašně nudil a psal německé verše do památníků, aby měl pohotově vždy nějakou zásobu. Byl nejdůležitější složkou celého aparátu vojenského soudu, poněvadž měl tak hrozné množství restů a spletených akt, že uváděl v respekt celý vojenský soud na Hradčanech. Ztrácel obžalovací materiál a byl nucen vymýšlet si nový.
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riha1.png

Jaroslav Hašek, 1921

© LA-PNP

riha2.png

Adolf Synek, 1930

riha3.png

Vydavatelstvo ROH, 1955

Říha was also employed at the garrison prison. He is mentioned briefly in an anecdote that one of the prisoners in cell 16 relates (from his stay in cell number 12).

Background

Also in this case there is no obvious link to any living person although people with the surname Říha were quite a few in Prague at the time. He was probably not an active soldier, so looking for him in pre-war address books yields no results. In 1915 several with the surname Říha served in IR91, so the name may have been borrowed from one of these.

In post WW2 editions of the novel Říha is simply replaced by Řepa in his role. The editors must have thought that the author really meant the latter and corrected the "error" (which it probably was). More than one hundred minor changes were done to the text in the early nineteen-fifties: removing "russisisms", adapting to modern Czech and Hungarian orthography, and on at least one occasion spelling mistakes in German were corrected.

The revision of the novel means that Říha also has disappeared from both post-war English translations, as well as most other modern translations, and even translations that were done in the inter-war years but have been revised after. In the most recent German translation (2014) Říha has resurfaced.

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Quote from the novel
[1.9] Tak tam hned přilítli, zavolali štábního profousa a kaprála Říhu. My všichni jeden jako druhý říkáme, že se zbláznil, že včera i dlouho do noci žral a že to všechno sežral.
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Adresář hl. města Prahy..., 1910

Koudela was an inmate at Posádková věznice (garrison prison) who fell victim to Bernis' disorderliness. The latter had swapped his acts with those of Švejk. Documents found after the war indicated that this Koudela was executed.

Background

Koudela is a common Czech surname and many lived in Prague in 1910, amongst them at least five carrying the first name Josef. A number of others are listed in the loss lists from the war, and there lived also one well-known person named Josef Koudela. He was a politician from the Catholic-National Party. Still it has not been possible to identify any particular Josef Koudela who fits the description from the garrison prison.

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Quote from the novel
[1.9] Spisy byly zastrčeny do spisů týkajících se jakéhosi Josefa Koudely. Na obálce byl křížek a pod ním „Vyřízeno“ a datum.
Infanterist Maixnernn flag
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maixner.png

Adresář hl. města Prahy..., 1910

maixner.jpg

Český svět, 9.11.1917

Maixner was an infantryman who stood accused at the same time as Švejk. This is revealed in a telegram Bernis receives from Policejní ředitelství just when Švejk was to be in his office for interrogation.

Background

Maixner and Meixner were common surnames in Prague at the time and obviously many of them served in K.u.k. Heer. It has however not been possible to identify anyone that fits the description from the novel. It is therefore probably a case of a borrowed name and nothing more.

Dr. Maixner

Maixner is a name that also briefly appears in the story Střed Evropy that Jaroslav Hašek had printed in Národní obzor in 1912, so in the case of name-borrowing he is an obvious candidate. In this story the person Maixner is no doubt real. Hašek writes in negative terms about Dr. Emerich Maixner (1847-1920), owner of a large estate and also a well known medical doctor who eventually was named Hofrat. For a period he was also the main editor of Ottův slovník naučný.

Jaroslav Hašek: Střed Evropy

Chlumecké panství rozesílá do kraje své pivo, na velkostatcích se lidi dřou do úmoru, ve Velkých Kňovicích má velkostatek pan dr. Maixner, a jestli si tohoto povšimne, tak si přečte, že právě na jeho velkostatku jsou mzdové poměry velice bídné. Jedině co v tom kraji tak bije do očí, jest poctivost.

External Links

SourceJaroslav Šerák

Quote from the novel
[1.9] Po odchodu polního kuráta dal si auditor Bernis předvésti Švejk a nechal ho stát u dveří, poněvadž právě dostal telefonogram od policejního ředitelství, že vyžadovaný materiál k obžalovacímu spisu čís. 7267, týkající se pěšáka Maixnera, byl přijat v kanceláři čís. 1 s podpisem hejtmana Linharta.
Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

10. Švejk as a military servant to the field chaplain

Odysseusnn flag
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Odysseus offering the cyclops wine (Nordisk Familjebok 1914)

Odysseus is indirectly mentioned through the term odyssey that the author uses to describe Švejk's legendary trip from the garrison prison at Hradčany to field chaplain Katz in Karlín.

Background

Odysseus is a characters from Greek mythology, best known through Homer's epic tales, the Odyssey and the Iliad.

Quote from the novel
[1.10.1] Znovu počíná jeho odyssea pod čestným průvodem dvou vojáků s bajonety, kteří ho měli dopravit k polnímu kurátovi.

Also written:Odysseus cz Odysseus de Ὀδυσσεύς gr

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Toník was one of the two soldiers who escorted Švejk to Katz. It appears from the dialogue that he is a Czech patriot and regards Švejk likewise. Toník is mosly referred to as Čahoun, a nickname for a long and lanky person. Toník is short for Antonín.

Quote from the novel
[1.10.1] „Nejsi národní socialista?“ Nyní počal být malý tlustý opatrným. Vmísil se do toho. „Co je nám do toho,“ řekl, „je všude plno lidí a pozorujou nás. Aspoň kdybychom někde v průjezdu mohli sundat bodla, aby to tak nevypadalo. Neutečeš nám? My bychom měli z toho nepříjemnosti. Nemám pravdu, Toníku?“ obrátil se k čahounovi, který potichu řekl: „Bodla bychom mohli sundat. Je to přece náš člověk.“
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Venkov, 26.9.1918

Serabona was according to Švejk landlord at Na Kuklíku, member of Sokol and therefore to be trusted.

Background

Serabona is a name which origin is unclear but the connection to the mentioned pub is obvious. Landlord at Na Kuklíku from 1901 was Vilém Srp, and there is even a picture of him on a postcard from 1906. Here the pub is called U Serabono and the address confirms that it is the same place as Kuklík.

It is possible that Serabono was a former owner; pubs were often named after the original owners. It may hypothetically even be a nickname of Vilém Srp, or the name could have an entirely different origin.

Vilém Srp

Vilém Srp (sometimes written Srb) was born 15 April 1864 in Panenské Březany east of Prague. In 1897 he married Marie Nováková with whom he already had the daughter Božena. From 1901 and until 1928, when the building that housed Na Kuklíku was demolished, he owned and managed the named hostelry. In 1916 it appears that the pub closed for a period, and in 1918 the name U Miláčka appeared in an advert, just as on the mentioned post card. Srp lived in the building next to the restaurant and he died on 26 May 1931. So far it has not been possible to confirm the author's assertion that "Serabona" was a member of Sokol.

External Links

SourceJaroslav Šerák, M. Smreček

Quote from the novel
[1.10.1] „Pojďme na ,Kuklík’,“ vybízel Švejk, „kvéry si dáte do kuchyně, hostinský Serabona je Sokol, toho se nemusíte bát.
Mařkann flag
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Mařka was a prostitute who frequented Na Kuklíku and who went to U Valšů with a soldier. The name is a short variation of Marie.

Quote from the novel
[1.10.1] U hudby hádali se dva, že nějakou Mařku včera lízla patrola. Jeden to viděl na vlastní oči a druhý tvrdil, že šla s nějakým vojákem se vyspat k „Valšům“ do hotelu.
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Franta was a wounded soldier who had taken part in the campaign in Serbia. He was drinking at Kuklík when Švejk and his entourage dropped by. Franta is short for František.

Quote from the novel
[1.10.1]Franto,“ volali na raněného vojáka, když přezpívali, zahlušivše „Osiřelé dítě“, „nech už je bejt a pojď si k nám sednout. Vykašli se už na ně a pošli sem cigarety! Budeš je bavit, nádivy!“
Policejní komisař Drašner, Ladislavnn flag
*6.3.1877 Nový Bydžov - †19xx Praha (?)
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drasner.jpg

© Milan Hodík

drasner1.png

"Meldebuch", 1904

drasner.png

Venkov, 11.4.1916.

Drašner was a police commissioner who once before the war had raided Na Kuklíku looking for prostitutes just when Švejk dropped by. He is also mentioned in a song. See Mařena. Later he appears in the story about Mestek.

Background

Drašner was a policeman at IV. department by Policejní ředitelství in Prague. He was employed in the police force at least from 1902 and records shows that he held the mentioned position in 1913. Čech informs that he had been promoted already in 1911. By 1918 he had been promoted to head commissioner. He continued to serve in the 4th department also in Czechoslovakia.

A photo from Milan Hodík confirms that Drašner was alive as late as 1937. This is confirmed by newspaper articles from January 1939 that also indicate that he had recently retired.

In 7 November 1948 Břetislav Hůla noted that he planned to visit Drašner to ask for advise in navigating police archives, indicating that the pensioned policeman was still alive.

Newspapers reveal that he was very active in controlling prostitution in Prague and he also investigated cases of human trafficking. He was a well known figure amongst the prostitutes and was in general held in high esteem by them although some also feared him.

Drašner was married to Cecilie (b. 1880), and in 1905 their first child was born. The girl however died already in 1909. In 1913 no further children are registered in the police protocols.

External Links

SourceJaroslav Šerák, Milan Hodík

Quote from the novel
[1.10.1] Švejk vžil se ve vzpomínky, když tu často sedával do vojny. Jak sem chodil policejní komisař Drašner na policejní prohlídku a prostitutky jak se ho bály a skládaly na něho písničky s obsahem opačným.
[1.10.1]
Za pana Drašnera 
stala se tu mela, 
Mařena byla vožralá 
a Drašnera se nebála.
Mařenann flag
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marena1.jpg

"Mařena, ta byla vožrala"

Patrola Šlapeto, 1994.

marena1.png

Břevnov čp. 47, restaurant "U zelené brány"

Mařena (nickname for Marie) was a prostitute who is mentioned is a song that Švejk remembers was performed at Na Kuklíku before the war. The main character in the song was police commissioner Drašner who was inspecting the premises. She should not be confused with Mařena from [I.6].

Background

Písen o Mařeně (The song about Mařena) is a Czech folk song, but only a fragment from it is mentioned in the novel. Who wrote it and when it first appeared is not clear, but because Drašner features it must have been after 1900 and probably before the First World War.

The song is set in the restaurant U Vonásků behind Pohořelec at Břevnov Bělohorská tř. 47 and the theme is the arrival of police commissioner Drašner his colleague Malaska on an inspection. The latter, Norbert Malaška, was also a real person, born 4 August 1868 in Horká na Moravě by Olomouc. He is listed in the police registers as a civilian clothes patrol-man.

U Vonásků still exists (2019) but under the name U zelené brány. Address books confirms that this was the official name already in 1907, and František Smrtka was landlord.

External Links

SourceJaroslav Šerák

Quote from the novel
[1.10.1]
Za pana Drašnera 
stala se tu mela, 
Mařena byla vožralá 
a Drašnera se nebála.
Epicurusnn flag
*341 f.kr Samos - †270 f.kr Athen
Wikipedia czdeenno Google search

Epicurus is referred to when the author maintains that small and fat people have the same philosophical attitude as Epicurus: get as much pleasure as possible, the less pain the better.

Background

Epicurus was a Greek philosopher who maintained that the connection between good and evil is equvalent to the physical sensation of pleasure and pain. A well-known quote: "Do not fear death because when you exist death does not and when death does you do not". This laid the foundation of the Epicurian philisophical school: obtain maximum pleasure when you still can.

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Quote from the novel
[1.10.1] První z nich, který našel zde úplného uspokojení, byl malý tlustý, neboť tací lidé, kromě svého optimismu, mají velký sklon být epikurejci.

Also written:Epikúros cz

Oberleutnant Feldhubernn flag
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Feldhuber was a senior lieutenant from whom Katz had borrowed a previous servant. The latter was a teetotaller and this did not suit Katz at all.

Background

No officer carrying this surname can be identified from the address books of Prague (1906, 1910, 1913). Nor was there any Feldhuber in the police domicile records during the period so this must have been a rare surname. Nor does it appear in the Verlustlisten (loss lists) from the war.

Quote from the novel
[1.10.1] „Dobře, podívejte se tady na toho vojáka. Toho jsem si vypůjčil na dnešek od obrlajtnanta Feldhubra, je to jeho pucflek. A ten nic nepije, je ab-ab-abstinent, a proto půjde s marškou. Po-poněvadž takového člověka nemohu potřebovat. To není pucflek, to je kráva. Ta pije taky jenom vodu a bučí jako vůl.
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helmich.jpg

Adresář města Prahy 1907

helmich.png

Adresář města Prahy 1910

Helmich was a senior lieutenant to which party Katz went. The field chaplain was in the end thrown out and got picked up by Švejk. Their trip back from Helmich is an in-depth study of drunken drivel.

Background

A certain senior lieutenant Alfred Helmich (born 1872, Vienna) actually served in Prague in 1906 and 1910, in the Feldhaubitzerregiment that were garrisoned at Hradčany. Whether or not the author knew or knew about this person is only guesswork, but can't be ruled out. In the address book from 1912 he is not listed with this unit.

If this is the person who inspired the character in the novel, it is logical that Katz needed a cab back to Karlín. Helmich lived at Hradčany (1906) and Malá Strana (1910).

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Quote from the novel
[1.10.2] Již třetí den byl Švejk sluhou polního kuráta Otto Katze a ta dobu viděl ho jen jednou. Třetího dne přišel vojenský sluha od nadporučíka Helmicha, aby si Švejk přišel pro polního kuráta.
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Just was an officer in Infanterieregiment Nr. 75 who Katz got Švejk mixed up with, being inebriated on the way back from obrlajtnant Helmich.

Background

This is a person that has so far never been linked to any real-life model. Moreover Infanterieregiment Nr. 75 was not stationed in Prague in 1914, they had been moved away from the city already in 1909.

For K.u.k. Heer the Schematismus for 1914 show up a number of officers carrying the name Just. None of them held ranks as high as colonels, and none of them served in Infanterieregiment Nr. 75.

Quote from the novel
[1.10.2] Švejk ho vzbudil a za pomoci drožkáře dopravil do drožky. V drožce polní kurát upadl v úplnou otupělost a považoval Švejka za plukovníka Justa od 75. pěšího pluku a několikrát za sebou opakoval: „Nehněvej se, kamaráde, že ti tykám. Jsem prase.“
Doktor Batěk, Alexandr Sommernn flag
*15.6.1874 Prádlo u Nepomuku - †6.4.1944 Praha
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batek.png

Národní politika, 30.10.1920

Batěk is mentioned when Katz, with a heavy hangover sounds like a lecture by dr. Batěk.

Background

Batěk was a Czech doctor of chemistry and very prominent in the fight against the twin demons of alcohol and tobacco. He was also a vegetarian, sci-fi writer, scout-activist, YMCA-activist and pacifist. For a long period in 1919 he held (almost) daily lectures at Staroměstské náměstí so it is probably these the novel refers to.

More than 100 of the lectures were printed in a collection of installments published by Nakladatelství Kočí in 1919. His Sto jisker ethických (One hundred sparks of ethics) is included in the collection but the timing indicates that Katz could hardly could known about them at the time so here the author has mixed in contemporary elements and moved them back into history by six years. Batěk also published the mentioned lecture as a separate 16-page pamphlet. He was very productive; the catalogue of the Czech national library lists more than 500 items under his name. The other pamphlet mentioned, "Let's declare a life and death struggle against the demon of alcohol ...", is not listed in the catalogue.

He also lectured for the Czechoslovak abstinent's association, together with Moudrá a.o.

External Links

Source: Milan Hodík, Wikipedia (cz)

Quote from the novel
[1.10.3] Polní kurát byl stižen dokonalou kočkou a naprostou depresí. V tom okamžiku, kdo by ho slyšel, musil by být přesvědčen, že chodí na přednášky dra Alexandra Baťka „Vypovězme válku na život a na smrt démonu alkoholu, jenž nám vraždí muže nejlepší“ a že čte jeho „Sto jisker ethických“.

Also written:Alexandr Batěk Hašek

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Šnábl was a captain at the Bruska barracks who according to Katz had good ořechovka (nut spirits). The field chaplain also sent Švejk there to borrow one hundred crowns. The captain was a monster according to Švejk. The good soldier had to kneel in front of him and the matter was only resolved when he told the captain that money was needed for child support.

Background

This character has no prototype as far as we know. Bruska was used by IR28 but the address books from 1906 and 1913 list no officer with this name neither here nor at other barracks in Prague. There were many people with the surname Šnábl or Schnabel in Praha at the time, but the address book from 1907 has none of them listed as belonging to the army.

Jaroslav Hašek has surely known or known about people with this surname and could in his usual manner have borrowed it. Curiously one Hynek Schnabl lived at Na Bojišti 1732/14 in 1907, and U kalicha was actually located in the same house!

Quote from the novel
[1.10.3] Když ukazoval tři sta korun, vrátiv se čestně z výpravy, byl polní kurát, který se zatím umyl a převlékl, velmi překvapen. „Já to vzal najednou,“ řekl Švejk, „abychom se nemuseli zejtra nebo pozejtří starat znova o peníze. Šlo to dost hladce, ale před hejtmanem Šnáblem jsem si musel kleknout na kolena. Je to nějaká potvora. Ale když jsem mu řek, že máme platit alimenty...“

Also written:Snábl Bang-Hansen Schnabl Reiner

Oberleutnant Mahlernn flag
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Mahler an officer at Vršovice kasárna. He was one of the three officers to whom Švejk was sent to by Katz to borrow money.

Background

No trace of any Mahler can be found in IR73 or the 8. Traindivision, the largest military units that were garrisoned in Vršovice. In fact there was not a single Mahler registered in any of the Prague garrisons in 1907. Presumably the name of this rather peripheral figure was picked fairly at random.

Quote from the novel
[1.10.3] Jestli tam nepochodíte, tak půjdete do Vršovic, do kasáren k nadporučíkovi Mahlerovi.
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Fišer was a captain at Hradčany. He was one of the three to whom Švejk was sent by Katz to borrow money.

Background

It is unlikely that this peripheral figure has any real-life model. At Hradčany there were several barracks, amongst them artillery and Landwehr, but in 1906 no officer with this name was listed in the address book.

Quote from the novel
[1.10.3] Nezdaří-li se to tam, půjdete na Hradčany k hejtmanovi Fišerovi. Tomu řeknete, že musím platit futráž pro koně, kterou jsem propil.
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kejrova_np.png

Národní politika, 28.3.1915

Kejřová was the cousin of Müllerová and was present in Švejk's flat when he visited his home for the last time. She had received a letter from Müllerová who was now locked up in the Steinhof concentration camp. The arrest had taken place the very evening she had pushed Švejk to the military in a wheel-chair. The letter is quoted in the novel, complete but words removed by the sensors. The letter reveals that Mrs. Müllerová believes that Švejk already has fallen in battle or been executed.

Background

This could be a name the author borrowed from an advert in Národní politika on 28 March 1915. If this is the case, she was owner of a cookery school, author of cook-books and teacher of cookery from Hradec Králové. It is not inconceivable that the author already knew about her. On the other hand: according to police records there were 313 carriers of the name Kejř/Kejřová in Prague at the time so who (if any) Hašek used as a prototype is debatable. What we do know is that the author made use of several fragments from newspapers published late March/early April 1915, so this could be another example. See Liman.

Narozena 1874 v Kralupech nad Vltavou, zemřela 16 September 1926 v Praze. Učitelka vaření, autorka kuchařských knih. Napsala: Cukrovinky na vánoční stromek, Dělnická kuchařka se sřetelem na malé dělnické domácnosti, Dělnická kuchařka, Kniha vzorné domácnosti, Minutové večeře, příležitostné hostiny, Úsporná kuchařka, Úsporná válečná kuchařka, Zdravotní polovegetariánská kuchařka, Zlatá kuchařka s rozpočty, Návod k přípravě pečiva s použitím výrobků "Kveta", Česká vegetariánská kuchařka Anuše Kejřové,České moučníky Anuše Kejřové, Naše ryby a jich vhodná úprava, ... - Zdroj Česká národní bibliografie.

External Links

SourceJaroslav Šerák

Quote from the novel
[1.10.4] „To je náramně žertovné,“ řekl Švejk, „to se mně báječně líbí. Tak aby věděli, paní Kejřová, mají ouplnou pravdu, že jsem se dostal ven. Ale to jsem musel zabít patnáct vachmistrů a feldweblů. Ale neříkají to nikomu...“.
Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

11. Švejk rides with the field chaplain to serve a field mass

Adalbert of Praguenn flag
*956 Libice nad Cidlinou - †23.4.997 Truso
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adalbert.jpg

Saint Adalbert in Prague, Václavské náměstí.

Adalbert of Prague is by the author mentioned as a crook who used the cross in one hand and the sword in the other to murder and exterminate the Baltic Slavs. The theme in this context is the institution of Field Mass.

Background

Adalbert of Prague was Czech marthyr and saint who spread Christianity in several countries. He suffered death as a martyr in his attempt to converts the Balts and later became a patron saint of Bohemia, Poland, Ungarn og Prussia.

Quote from the novel
[1.11.1] Nic se nezměnilo od té doby, kdy loupežník Vojtěch, kterému přezděli „svatý“, účinkoval s mečem v jedné a křížem v druhé ruce při vraždění a vyhubení pobaltických Slovanů.

Also written:Svatý Vojtěch cz Adalbert von Prag de

Guillotin, Joseph-Ignacenn flag
*1770 Paris - †1823 Paris
Wikipedia czdeenfrno Google search
guillotin.jpg

Exécution de Marie Antoinette le 16 octobre 1793

Guillotin (or rather the execution apparatus that carry his name) is mentioned by the author in connection with his description of execution- and field mass rituals.

Background

Guillotin was a French doctor and politician who on 10 October 1789 in the National Assembly proposed a reform of capital punishment; applying the same method regardless of class, that the purpose was to end life quickly rather than torture etc. The result of the proposal was that development of a falling axe apparatus was started. From 1792 is was in regular use and led to a much quicker and less painful execution process, a great progress from the previously barbarous methods.

The guillotine is best known from the French Revolution where many prominent heads rolled. The apparatus was also used in Switzerland, and notoriously in Nazi Germany and occupied territories. In Austria-Hungary the official method of execution was hanging in Würgegalgen.

Quote from the novel
[1.11.1] V Prusku vodil pastor ubožáka pod sekyru, v Rakousku katolický kněz k šibenici, ve Francii pod gilotinu, v Americe kněz na elektrickou stolici, ve Španělsku na židli, kde byl důmyslným způsobem uškrcen, a v Rusku bradatý pop revolucionáře atd.
Kolaříknn flag
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Kolařík - Katz - Švejk

Kolařík was a pious retired teacher from Vršovice who had bought a couch from Katz and had given away the field altar that was hidden inside. He had believed that the altar was a divine gift which obliged him to donate it to the local parish. Katz and Švejk pointed out that the alter was military property and that handling it in such a dubious manner could have grave consequences. See Vršovice kostel.

Quote from the novel
[1.11.2] Ve Vršovicích v bytě pana učitele, starého nábožného pána, čekalo je nemilé překvapení. Naleznuv polní oltář v pohovce, starý pán domníval se, že je to nějaké řízení boží a daroval jej místnímu vršovickému kostelu do sakristie, vyhradiv si na druhé straně skládacího oltáře nápis: „Darováno ku cti a chvále boží p. Kolaříkem, učitelem v. v. Léta Páně 1914.“ Zastižen jsa ve spodním prádle, jevil velké rozpaky.
Pivoňkann flag
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Pivoňka was a man from Chotěboř who had got his hands on state property and subsequently suffered a grim fate. Švejk found it appropriate to relate this fact to the pious teacher Kolařík who had donated the field altar to the local parish. The fear-stricken old man finally grasped the gravity of the situation.

Background

Pivoňka is a name that appears in at least one of the short stories of Jaroslav Hašek. One of them was a Salvation Army captain who visited Pardubice, mentioned in Zápas s Armádou spásy (Kopřivy, 26 January 1921). Inspiration may also stem from the author's visit to Chotěboř in 1912, the outcome of which was the story Zrádce národa v Chotěboři.

Radko Pytlík writes in Data, fakta, dokumenty (2013) that Pivoňka was a secretary at the tax collector's office in Chotěboř. He met Hašek met in 1912 and the two visited a number of pubs together. The source of this assertion is however unknown, and Jaroslav Šerák adds that no Pivoňka is registered in the birth and death records of Chotěboř between 1880 and 1929. He may of course have moved here, but that would be a theme for further research.

External Links

SourceRadko Pytlík,Jaroslav Šerák

Quote from the novel
[1.11.2] „Na útraty vojenského eráru, to se rozumí,“ řekl tvrdě a drsně Švejk, „zaplaťpánbůh za takový boží řízení. Nějakej Pivoňka z Chotěboře považoval jednou také za boží řízení, když se mu do rukou připletla ohlávka s cizí krávou.“
Oberleutnant Witingernn flag
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Schematismus für das k. u. k. Heer ... 1914

Witinger was a senior lieutenant from the Infanterieregiment Nr. 75 who had won the trophy that Katz borrowed for use as a chalice when giving field mass. The trophy was won by the officer years ago when he ran for Sport-Favorit. He was a good runner and boasted that he had run the 40 kilometre Vienna - Mödling stretch in 1 hour 48 minutes.

Background

Witinger is said to have belonged to Infanterieregiment Nr. 75, a unit that was located in Salzburg and Jindřichův Hradec in 1914. It would therefore have been rare to encounter officers from this regiment in Prague at the time. See Just.

The facts given in the novel with regards to distance and duration of his running are also way off. If Witinger's version was correct his time would have been much better than the current Marathon world record. See Mödling.

Witinger was not a common name in Prague at the time of our soldier, but the almost identical Wittinger was. Any inspiration for the name is therefore likely to be found amongst these.

No traces in K.u.k. Heer

There was no officer named Witinger in K.u.k. Heer in 1914, and only one Wittinger. The latter was a reserve lieutenant, Edmund Wittinger, enrolled in Traindivision Nr. 4 in Budapest. That this person had anything to do with the figure in the novel is improbabable.

Quote from the novel
[1.11.2] Tak dostaneme sportovní pohár od nadporučíka Witingra od 75. pluku. On kdysi před lety běhal o závod a vyhrál jej za ,Sport-Favorit’. Byl to dobrý běžec. Dělal čtyřicet kilometrů Vídeň-Mödling za 1 hodinu 48 minut, jak se nám vždycky chlubí. Jsem hovado, že všechno odkládám na poslední chvíli. Proč jsem se, trouba, nepodíval do té pohovky.“
Dalton, Johnnn flag
*6.9.1766 Eaglesfield - †27.7.1844 Manchester
Wikipedia czdeenno Google search

Dalton is mentioned indirectly through the term daltonist (a person who suffers from colour blindness) when Katz's gory field altar is vividly described by the author.

Background

Dalton was a distinguished British scientist in physics and chemistry, also known for his research into colour blindness, which he suffered from. Daltonism has even become a byword for it in some languages, notably French and Spanish. It has become a synonym in many more, amongst them Czech and English. Dalton spent almost his entire life in Manchester.

External Links

Source: Wikipedia (en)

Quote from the novel
[1.11.2] Oltář skládal se ze tří dílů, opatřených hodně falešným pozlátkem, jako celá sláva církve svaté. Nebylo také možno zjistit bez fantasie, co vlastně představují obrazy namalované na těch třech dílech. Jisto je, že to byl oltář, kterého by mohli stejně používat nějací pohani na Zambezi či šamáni Burjatů i Mongolů. Opatřen řvavými barvami, vypadal zdáli jako barevné tabule určené pro zkoumání daltonistů na železné dráze.
Moritz Mahlernn flag
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Moritz Mahler is indirectly mentioned through the Jewish firm of the same name in Vienna who manufactured religious artefacts, in this case the field altar of Katz.

Background

The firm can not be found in the address book of Vienna, 1915. Suppliers of religious artefacts existed of course but in this case the name appears to be invented. The company Moritz Löwenstein in [III.2] seems to be a variation of the same theme.

Quote from the novel
[1.11.2] Slavný polní oltář byl od jedné židovské firmy, Moritz Mahler ve Vídni, která vyráběla všemožné mešní potřeby a předměty náboženské, jako růžence a obrázky svatých.
Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

12. A religious debate

Heine, Heinrichnn flag
*13.12.1797 Düsseldorf - †17.2.1856 Paris
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heine-001.png

Sterne der Satire Nummer 79.

Heine is quoted by Katz in a poetic moment after a long and cheerful day.

Background

Heine (born Harry, later christened Christian Johann Heinrich), was one of the most important German poets and journalists in the of the 19th century. He is often referred to as the last romantic poet and one who also survived the era. As a critical and politically engaged journalist and satirist, he was as much admired as feared. His Jewish background also underlined his role as an Aussenseiter (outsider) with many enemies. His most famous poem was Die Lore-Ley (1824).

Sterne der Satire

On 15 September 2015 Heine posthumously shared an unlikely stage with Jaroslav Hašek. Both were on this day inducted in the memory plaque gallery of Sterne der Satire in Mainz, as stars no. 78 and 79. respectively. Present on the occasion was Richard Hašek (grandson of the author) and several notabilities from German political and cultural life. The 80th and final star in the series was awarded to the comedian Dieter Hallervorden.

Ich weiß nicht was soll es bedeuten,
Dass ich so traurig bin;
Ein Märchen aus alten Zeiten,
Das kommt mir nicht aus dem Sinn.

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.12] Polní kurát rozděloval své povinnosti s hýřením a přicházíval velice zřídka domů, umazaný, nemytý, jako kocour, když se mrňouká a dělá své výlety po střechách. Při návratu, mohl-li se vyjadřovat, hovoříval ještě se Švejkem, než usnul, o vznešených cílech, o zápale, o radosti z myšlení. Někdy se také pokoušel mluvit ve verších, citovat Heina.
Susanna in the bathnn flag
Wikipedia czdeensv Google search
susanna.jpg

Painted by Lovis Corinth in 1890.

susanna2.png

Humoristické listy, 25.8.1911

susanna1.png

Národní listy, 22.9.1911

susanna3.png

Kinematographische Rundschau, 4.1.1914

Susanna in the bath decorates the wall above the bed of Katz and this is pointed to the pious field chaplain by when he complains there are no crucifixes in the room.

Background

Susanna in the bath was a biblical character from the Book of Daniel. This part of the book is so-called "apochrypal" (of disputed origin) and not included in Protestant bibles. Susanna has been painted by many artists - Rembrandt, Rubens og van Dyck being amongst them. She is also the theme of a composition by Händel. Several theatre plays base on the theme have been performed over the years, some of them considered quite daring at the time.

The story revolves around Susanna, the beautiful wife of Joachim. Two elders (judges) get infatuated with her and try to blackmail her to have sex with them. One day when she is taking a bath they carry out the threat but she rejects their advances. They subsequently accuse her of infidelity and report her. She is given a death sentence but after prayers by Susanna God intervenes, informs the prophet Daniel about the real situation, and the case is reopened. The two elders are now interrogated separately and their explanations turn out to differ. The result is that Susanna is cleared and her two tormentors executed.

Jaroslav Hašek surely knew this story very well. One of his friends from Strana mírného pokroku v mezích zákona (Quodo Maria Vyskočil) for instance penned a story called "Miss Susanna in the Bath". It was published by Nakladatel Jos. R. Vilímek in 1911. Around the same time a theatre play based on Susanna was performed in Smíchov.

Hašek also wrote the story Biblický případ koupající se Zuzany v novém světle that was never published during his lifetime. It is set in Samara and presumingly it was written after the author's return from Russia, i.e. in 1921 or 1922.

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.12] Dnes přišel svého kolegu Katze uvésti na pravou cestu a promluvit mu do duše, což začal tím, že poznamenal: „Divím se, že u vás nevisí krucifix. Kde se modlíte breviář? Ani jeden obrázek svatých nezdobí stěny vašeho pokoje. Co to máte nad postelí?“ Katz se usmál: „To je ,Zuzana v lázni’ a ta nahá ženská pod tím je moje stará známost.

Also written:Zuzana v lázni cz Susanna im Bade de

Papin, Denisnn flag
*22.6.1647 Blos - †1712 London(?)
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papin.png

Blätter für literarische Unterhaltung, 21.4.1838

Papin is mentioned indirectly by Katz in his description of the modern hell where pressure-boilers play a part in inflicting sufferings on the damned.

Background

Papin was a French physicist, mathematician and inventor who is best known for having invented the pressure-boiler (machine à vapeur). It is this device that is mentioned in the novel and it was invented in 1769 in London (Papin had left France in 1675).

Quote from the novel
[1.12] To jest místo obyčejných kotlů se sírou pro ubohé hříšníky papinské hrnce, kotle s velkou atmosférou, hříšníci se smaží na margarinu, rožně s elektrickým pohonem, po miliony let přejíždějí přes hříšníky stoje na válcování silnic, skřípání zubů obstarávají dentisti zvláštními přístroji, kvílení se zachycuje do gramofonů a desky se posílají nahoru do ráje k obveselení spravedlivých.
Brahms, Johannesnn flag
*7.5.1833 Hamburg - †3.4.1897 Wien
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Světozor, 30.4.1897

brahms2.png

Světozor, 30.4.1897

brahms.png

Agramer Zeitung, 3.4.1897

Brahms was, according to Katz, played so frequently in paradise that the righteous in the end wanted a transfer to hell.

Background

Brahms was a German composer, conductor and pianist. He was discovered in 1853 by Robert Schumann who wrote a an ecstatic article about the young musical genius.

His big breakthrough happened in 1868 with Ein deutsches Requiem. Brahms spent 20 years on his first symphony but eventually more were produced. From 1872 until his death he lived in Vienna.

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.12] To jest místo obyčejných kotlů se sírou pro ubohé hříšníky papinské hrnce, kotle s velkou atmosférou, hříšníci se smaží na margarinu, rožně s elektrickým pohonem, po miliony let přejíždějí přes hříšníky stoje na válcování silnic, skřípání zubů obstarávají dentisti zvláštními přístroji, kvílení se zachycuje do gramofonů a desky se posílají nahoru do ráje k obveselení spravedlivých. V ráji účinkují rozprašovače kolínské vody a filharmonie hraje tak dlouho Brahmsa, že raději dáte přednost peklu a očistci.
Saint Augustinenn flag
*13.11.354 Souq Ahras(Aghaste) - †28.8.430 Annaba(Hippo Regius)
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augustin.jpg

Augustine in Australia.

Saint Augustine is mentioned in the anecdote of Švejk about the church servant from Vlašim who, like Augustine, did not believe in the Antipodes. The quote in question was: "damned is he who believes in the Antipodes". The target of the anecdote was the pious filed chaplain who unannounced arrived at the door of his colleague Katz to have a stern word him.

Background

Saint Augustine was a Church father and philosopher from North Africa and one of the greatest of the ancient theologians. He was regarded a saint soon after his death. In "De civitate Dei" he reveals his scepticism about the Antipodes:

Quod vero et Antipodes esse fabulantur, id est, homines a contraria parte terrae, ubi sol oritur, quando occidit nobis, adversa perdibus nostris calcare vestigia, nulla ratione credendum est ...

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.12] „U Vlašimě byl, poslušně hlásím, pane feldkurát,“ řekl Švejk, „jeden děkan a ten měl, když mu jeho stará hospodyně utekla s klukem i s penězi, posluhovačku. A ten děkan na stará kolena dal se do studování svatýho Augustina, kterýmu říkají, že patří mezi svaté otce, a dočet se tam, že kdo věří v protinožce, má bejt prokletej.

Also written:Svatý Augustin cz Sankt Augustin de

John the Baptistnn flag
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doyparen.jpg

From Hagia Sofia in Istanbul

John the Baptist is mentioned when the pious field chaplain asks Katz if he believes that the thumb of John the Baptist is kept U Piaristů and if he believes in God at all.

Background

John the Baptist is a character from the New Testament who baptised Jesus Christ in the river Jordan. He was also a martyr, having been executed at the order of herodes.

He also plays a role as a prophet in Islam, Judaism and the Bahai-relegion.

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.12] Mžouraje očima, otázal se Katze: „Vy nevěříte v neposkvrněné početí panny Marie, nevěříte, že palec sv. Jana Křtitele, který se chrání u piaristů, je pravý? Věříte vůbec v pána boha? A když nevěříte, proč jste polním kurátem?“

Also written:Jan Křtitel cz Johannes der Täufer de Jochanan ben Sacharja hb

Josephnn flag
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josef.jpg

Guido Reni, 1635

Joseph is invoked by the religious field chaplain when he after several potent swigs bangs his fist on the table and proclaims that he regards Joseph a saint.

Later on in the novel, in Medzilaborce [III.3], he is invoked by the repenting sinner Baloun. In this context Marek proclaims Joseph the patron saint of all deserters.

Background

Joseph is a figure from the New Testament who was married to the Virgin Mary and thus served the role as father of Jesus Christ. He is regarded a saint in Orthodox, Catholic and Anglican Christianity.

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.12] Uhodil pěstí do stolu, až láhve poskočily: „Bůh je vznešená povaha, cosi nadpozemského. Je čestný ve svých záležitostech. Je to slunný zjev, to mně nikdo nevyvrátí. I sv. Josefa si vážím, všechněch svatých si vážím, až na sv. Serapiona. Má takové ošklivé jméno.“

Also written:Josef cz Josef de Josef nn

Saint Serapionnn flag
*1179 London - †14.11.1240 Alger
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Saint Serapion was not held in esteem as a saint by the religious field chaplain because he had such a repulsive name.

Background

Saint Serapion was a monk and soldier from the age of the Crusades who suffered martyrdom at the hands of the Moors and was later canonized. He was a member of the Mercedarian Order for Redemption of Captives which goal was to release Christian prisoners in Moslem captivity. The background for this martyrdom was that he offered himself as a hostage in Alger in a prisoner exchange deal, but when the Moslem captives were not released in time he was mutilated and killed. Serapion was of British origin, probably born in London.

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.12] Uhodil pěstí do stolu, až láhve poskočily: „Bůh je vznešená povaha, cosi nadpozemského. Je čestný ve svých záležitostech. Je to slunný zjev, to mně nikdo nevyvrátí. I sv. Josefa si vážím, všechněch svatých si vážím, až na sv. Serapiona. Má takové ošklivé jméno.“

Also written:Svatý Serapion cz San Serapio es

Saint Ludmilann flag
*860(?) Mělník - †15.9.921 Tetín
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ludmila.jpg

Zlatá Praha, 31.10.1884

ludmila.png

From Hašek's marriage certificate,
signed 28 December 1911

Saint Ludmila is also mentioned by the pious field chaplain during the religious debate with Katz.

Background

Saint Ludmila was, according to legend, a Czech princess and married to the first Christian ruler of Bohemia, Bořivoj I of the Přemysl dynasty. She was the grandmother and custodian of Saint Wenceslaus. Ludmila is said to have been murdered on orders from her daughter-in-law, and became the first Czech saint.

Ludmila is an important person in the borderland between Czech mythology and history. Antonín Dvořák composed an oratorio to her honour, lyrics provided by Vrchlický. A red wine from Mělník is also named after her.

Ludmila also had a church in Královské Vinohrady named after her: Kostel sv. Ludmily at Purkyňově náměstí (now Náměstí míru). It was here that Jaroslav Hašek married Jarmila Mayerová on 23 May 1910.

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.12]Sv. Ludmilu mám rád, i sv. Bernardina,“ pokračoval bývalý katecheta, „ten zachránil moc poutníků ve sv. Gotthardě. Má na krku láhev s koňakem a vyhledává zapadlé sněhem.“

Also written:Svatá Ludmila cz Sankt Ludmilla de

Saint Bernhardnn flag
*996 ? Aosta - †15.6.1081? Novara
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Saint Bernhard was held in high esteem by the religious field chaplain. Here he is called St. Bernardin but there is little doubt that the field chaplain refers to Saint Bernhard because he saved many pilgrims by Sankt Gotthard.

Background

Saint Bernhard (Bernard of Aosta, Bernard of Menthon or Bernard of Mont-Joux) was a French missionary who operated in the Alpine region. He is the patron saint of Alpine dwellers and mountaineers. The chronological details of his life are unclear, including year of birth and death.

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.12] „Sv. Ludmilu mám rád, i sv. Bernardina,“ pokračoval bývalý katecheta, „ten zachránil moc poutníků ve sv. Gotthardě. Má na krku láhev s koňakem a vyhledává zapadlé sněhem.“

Also written:Svatý Bernard cz Bernardo di Mentone it

Herodnn flag
*73 f.kr Ashkelon ? - †4 .e.kr Jericho
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herodes.png

Večery, 23.12.1911

Herod appears in the story through unkind words uttered by the God-fearing field chaplain who hates him.

Background

Herod was a Roman vassal king of Judea, Galilee, Samara and the surrounding areas. Many historians regard him as an effective ruler who completed several large building projects, but he was also known as ruthless and tyrannical. He had several members of his family executed, amongst them one of his wives.

In the New Testament

Herod is best known through the Bible and the role he played after the birth of Jesus Christ. According to Matthew's gospel he gave the order to murder all boys in Betlehem of less than two years age. This was after the newly born Jesus, his perceived rival as "king of the Jews", had been brought into safety by his father Joseph.

Quote from the novel
[1.12] Zábava dostala jiný směr. Nábožný polní kurát počal mluvit páté přes deváté: „Mláďátek si ctím, mají svátek 28. prosince. Herodesa nenávidím.

Also written:Herodes cz

Boccaccio, Giovanninn flag
*Certaldo 16.6 1313 - †Certaldo 21.12 1375
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dekameron1.png

Josef Lada, 1955

dekameron.png

J.J. Benešovský-Veselý, 1897

dekameron2.png

© Det norske samlaget, 1996

Boccaccio is mentioned because Švejk put Bocaccio's Decameron in the hand of the pious field chaplain who was legless and had fallen asleep. The soldier found the book on the night table of Katz.

Background

Boccaccio was an Italian writer and poet. He is best known as author of the The Decameron, the book that is mentioned here. He is regarded as one of the all time greats of Italian literature.

The Decameron

This book was by some distance Boccaccio's most famous work. The plot is set during the times of the Black Death (1348) in the surroundings of Florence. It is a collection of 100 short stories, told by 10 people who have fled the city due to the plague. Each tell one story a day over 10 days, some of them very daring for their time. This was partly due to sexually explicit content, moreover satire directed at the church and it's institutions.

The Decameron is considered a key work in European literature, inspiring, amongst others, Geoffrey Chaucer and later Miguel de Cervantes and Lope de Vega.

The book was banned and censored on several occasions during medieval times, but more surprisingly the US postal services were from 1873 required by law not to ship it. The ban was lifted as late as 1926.

Translations

The novel has been translated into numerous languages, English translations abound. The first known was in 1620, and the first complete version was published in 1886 (translated by John Payne), and the most recent one appeared as late as 2013. The first Czech translation was published in 1881 (translated by Josef Fl. Karafiát), and in 1897 a new one followed.

Hašek and the Decameron

There are some striking similarities between Jaroslav Hašek's novel and Decameron. They are both satirical books, have been banned, and are fragmented in their composition. Another curious similarity is the large number of facts that are embedded: the Decameron mentions numerous places, people and institutions, just like Hašek's novel does.

Fifty years after Hašek's death three volumes of his short stories were published, exploiting the name of Boccaccio's famous book: Dekameron humoru a satiry (1968), Druhý Dekameron (1979) and Třetí dekameron: Reelní podnik (1977).

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.12] Nakonec ho uložili do postele. Než usnul, prohlásil, vztyčuje k přísaze pravici: „Věřím v boha otce, syna i ducha svatého. Přineste mně breviář!“ Švejk mu strčil do ruky nějakou knihu ležící na nočním stolku, a tak nábožný polní kurát usnul s „Decameronem“ G. Boccaccia v ruce.
Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

13. Švejk goes to provide the last rites

Němcová, Boženann flag
*4.2.1820 Wien - †21.1.1862 Praha
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nemcova1.png

Pestrý týden, 19.1.1927

nemcova2.png

České národní báchorky a pověsti, Díl I

nemcova.png

Moravské noviny, 24.1.1862

nemcova3.png

Das Vaterland, 26.1.1862

Němcová is mentioned when Švejk tells Katz that finding oil consecrated by a bishop is worse than finding the water of life in tales by Němcová.

Background

Němcová was a prominent Czech writer who wrote short stories, poems and fairytales. Her best known work is however a novel: Babička (Grandmother), regarded as one of the classics of Czech literature. The well known film Three nuts for Cinderella (1973) is based on one her fairytale from 1845 called O Popelce (About Cinderella).

Water of life

One of the tales that Švejk refers to is surely About the talking bird, the water of life and the three golden apple trees. It was first printed in 1846 and has since been included in many compilations. See link A.

Life

Němcová was born Barbara Pankl in Vienna but the family moved to Bohemia when she was a year old. Her father was a German (Austrian) coach driver, her mother a Czech maid. Němcová grew up in Ratibořice by Náchod and married the 15 year older civil servant Josef Němec when she was 17. The marriage was a result of pressure from her parents. The couple had four children but the marriage was an unhappy one, and Němcová had a number of extra-marital affairs.

In 1842 the family moved to Prague where she came in contact with leading figures in the Czech national revival movement. She started to write and in 1844 her first tales were published. Around this time she changed her first name to the more typical Czech Božena.

The family moved frequently and Němcová suffered from poverty and illness during her last years. She was only 42 years old when she died on 21 January 1862. The funeral that took place three days later, and was a stark contrast to the penury of her later years. It was attended by a big crowd; amongst them were a number of Czech notabilities from literary and political circles. She was buried at Vyšehrad and her tomb is still there.

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Quote from the novel
[1.13] Švejk vypravil se tedy na cestu za olejem posvěceným od biskupa. Taková věc je horší než hledání živé vody v pohádkách Boženy Němcové.
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Tauchen was the shop clerk at Firma Polák. It was from him Švejk purchased Hamp seed oil Nr.3 that was to be used by Katz for the last rites at Vojenská nemocnice Karlovo náměstí. It was required that the oil was consecrated by a bishop.

Background

Tauchen is a name that also appears later in the novel when Švejk tells Vaněk about his apprenticeship at Drogerie Kokoška. This second Tauchen is also a chemists assistant. Tauchen (in the slightly chnaged form Tauben) had alreday in 1909 played a part in stories by Jaroslav Hašek; he was an assistant at Kološka (read Kokoška) in the eight stories "From the old chemists" Veselá Praha. It is very likely that these three varieties of Tauchen are an inspiraton for the author's time as a chemists apprentice in 1898-99. To this day (2017) it has not been possible to find out who the real Tauchen was.

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Quote from the novel
[1.13] Když Švejk přišel a přál si za deset korun olej posvěcený od biskupa, řekl šéf k příručímu: „Nalejou mu, pane Tauchen, deset deka konopného oleje čís. 3.“
John Chrysostomnn flag
*347 Antiokia - †14.9.407 Komana Pontika
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John Chrysostom was quoted by Katz when addressing the persistent money lender: "He who honours the priest, honours Christ. He who persecutes the priest, persecutes Christ the Lord, whose representative happens to be that very priest".

Background

John Chrysostom was a Greek Church Father who was proclaimed a saint with 13 September as his memorial day. He was famous for his rhetorical capabilities. The name of Chrysostom, which is Greek for 'golden mouth', refers to this ability.

Quote from the novel
[1.13] „Vidíte, Švejku, jak to dopadá s takovým člověkem, který nectí kněze,“ usmál se polní kurát. „sv. Jan Zlatoústý řekl: ,Kdo ctí kněze, ctí Krista, kdo příkoří činí knězi, činí příkoří Kristu pánu, jehož zástupcem právě kněz jest.’

Also written:Jan Zlatoústý cz

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Adresář obce libeňské, 1896

Boušek was a man from Libeň who was impossible to get rid of at U Exnerů. In one of his aptly chosen analogies Švejk compared him to the ever persisting money lender who pestered Katz.

Background

There is no person carrying this name in the address book of Libeň from 1896, but on the other hand a couple of Bouček are listed. Nor in the police registers is there any trace of Boušek.

Quote from the novel
[1.13] „Poslušně hlásím, pane feldkurát,“ poznamenal Švejk, „že je to hotovej nezmar, jako nějakej Boušek z Libně. Vosumnáctkrát za večer ho vyhodili od ,Exnerů’, a vždycky se jim tam vrátil, že tam zapomněl fajfku.
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Verlustliste Nr. 85, 23.12.1914

Janata was a senior lieutenant who fell by the Drina without having paid the 700 crowns he owed the moneylender who pestered Katz.

Background

The name Janata appears several times in the list of casualties throughout the war. The database of fallen soldiers from the current Czech and Slovak republic lists 13 fallen, but none of them appear to have died by the Drina or even had the rank of senior lieutenant.

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Quote from the novel
[1.13] Vytáhl zápisník z kapsy a pokračoval: „Mám to všechno zapsáno. Nadporučík Janata dluhoval mně 700 korun a odvážil se padnout na Drině.
Leutnant Prášeknn flag
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Prášek was a lieutenant who was captured by the Russian without having paid his debts to the money lender.

Background

As with Janata no lieutenant Prášek can be found in the lists of fallen Czechs and Slovaks. Three persons with this name and from this area fell during the war. Many more were wounded according to Verlustlisten, but even in these it has not been possible to identify a single lieutenant Prášek or similar who fell at the Russian front.

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Quote from the novel
[1.13] Poručík Prášek upadl na ruské frontě do zajetí, a je mně dlužen na 2000 korun.
Hauptmann Wichterlenn flag
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Wichterle was a captain who let himself get killed by his own soldiers at Rawa Ruska without having settled his debts to the money-lender.

Background

No Wichterle is listed in the database of fallen from the First World War (soldiers from the current Czech and Slovak republics). Nor is the name found in Verlustlisten or in lists of officers in K.u.k. Heer from 1914. The only item that appears on searches for Wichterle at the time is a tools manufacturer in Prostějov.

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Quote from the novel
[1.13] Hejtman Wichterle, dluhující mně stejný obnos, dal se zabít pod Ruskou Ravou vlastními vojáky.
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Schematismus ..., 1914

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Nachrichten über Verwundete und Verletzte, 21.1.1915

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Národní listy, 10.2.1915

Machek was a senior lieutenant who was a POW in Serbia despite his unpaid debts of 1500 crowns.

Background

In Armeeschematismus from 1914 one Oberleutnant Viktor Machek is actually listed. That year he served at 3. Tyroler Kaiserjägerregiment. On 1 July 1915 he was promoted to captain and was still enlisted with the same regiment.

From the list of wounded 21 January 1915 it is evident that Machek was hospitalised in Vienna after having been shot in the lungs. It is also mentioned that he was born in Prague in 1886. In Verlustliste Nr. 116 from 29 January he is correspondingly listed as "Verwundet". The Czech version is however confusing. In Čech and Národní listy it may be be interpreted as if he was captured. Národní politika however makes it clear that when nothing else is noted, the soldier mentioned in the list is wounded.

The rank fits, Machek was born in Prague and from Czech newspapers it's not entirely clear whether he was wounded or captured. Moreover his family lived in Královské Vinohrady, a place Jaroslav Hašek knew very well. This indicates that the author may perhaps have linked his literary figure with the real Viktor Machek.

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Quote from the novel
[1.13] Nadporučík Machek zajat v Srbsku, dluhuje mně 1500 korun. Je zde víc takových lidí.
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Schematismus für das kaiserliche und königliche Heer..., 1914

Matyáš was a field chaplain from Brno who died in isolation hospital, he never got round to paying his debts before he pegged out.

Background

A field chaplain Miklos Mátyás actually served in K.u.k. Heer in 1914 (as a reserve). The field chaplain was Hungarian and Hašek spells the name slightly differently (but phonetically correct). Whether he was from Brno or died there is not known. There is apparently no evidence in military documents about him being killed, captured or injured although several other with this name appear (but none of them are field chaplains).

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.13] Přistrčil polnímu kurátovi svůj zápisník pod nos. „Vidíte: Polní kurát Matyáš v Brně, zemřel v isolační nemocnici před týdnem. Já bych si rval vlasy. Nezaplatil mně 1800 korun, a jde do cholerového baráku zaopatřovat nějakého člověka, po kterém mu nic nebylo.“
Profesor Zenger, Karel Václav Bedřichnn flag
*17.12.1830 Chomutov - †22.1.1908 Praha
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Karel V. Zenger

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Národní politika, 2.10.1902

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Le Figaro, 6.7.1902

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Lidové noviny, 23.1.1908

Zenger is mentioned indirectly as "one professor" when Švejk reveals his mishaps relating to sunspots. He claimed that when "that time the volcano Mount Pelée destroyed the entire island of Martinique a professor had written in Národní politika that he well in advance had warned about a big sunspot".

Background

Zenger is by near certainty the professor that Švejk refers to in the conversation at Vojenská nemocnice Karlovo náměstí. It can however not be verified that Zenger wrote any article similar to the one Švejk mentions, but his studies of the connection between sunspots and seismic activity on earth makes him an obvious inspiration for the professor in the novel.

Zenger was a distinguished physician and meteroroloist and towards the end of his life he was even awarded the title "Hofrat". He published widely; in Czech, German and even French. He was particularly well known in French academic circles, but his name also appears in newspapers like Bergens Tidende (Norway).

He taught at the technical high school Česká technika (now ČVUT) in Prague and Jaroslav Hašek mixed a great deal with it's students and has surely been aware of professor Zenger and his theories.

Zenger observed an approximate ten year cycle on volcanic eruptions, and linked this to a corresponding cycle of high solar activity. The first eruption that was included in the statistics happened in 1732, and with only two exceptions there were repeated eruptions in years that ended in two. The two remaining happened in years that ended in three, amongst these were Krakatoa in 1883.

Národní politika

Some months after the disaster at Martinique an article was printed in the very Národní politika where Zenger's theories were linked to the mentioned eruption. The article quotes the newspaper L'Opinion from Martinique, but also other French newspapers wrote about Zenger and his theories.

Many years earlier Zenger had investigated the connection between solar activity and its effect on the earth. He coined the term "sun climate" and was an international capacity within this research. For instance he provided some statistic that indicate a link between low sun spot activity and seismic events on earth, and it may well be that Švejk had noticed this.

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Quote from the novel
[1.13] Když tenkrát ta sopka Mont-Pellé zničila celý ostrov Martinique, jeden profesor psal v ,Národní politice’, že už dávno upozorňoval čtenáře na velkou skvrnu na slunci.
Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

14. Švejk as military servant to senior lieutenant Lukáš

Oberleutnant Lukáš, Jindřichnn flag
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The author on Lukáš. © LA-PNP

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A fateful encounter

Lukáš first appears when Katz loses Švejk to him in a game of cards "twenty-one". Thus the good soldier becomes the servant of Lukáš who from now onwards becomes one of the most important characters in the novel, and apart from Švejk the only one who figures in all four parts. He is also the only officer who is generally described in a sympathetic manner.

Švejk subjects Lukáš to a number of ordeals during the time as an officer's servant. Amongst those is the theft of Fox (Max) that causes the transfer to the front, the mishap with the emergency brake by Tábor and the affair with Kákonyi in Királyhida.

From the moment when the good soldier is promoted to messenger their relationship improves and Lukáš grows fond of his servant, although he is still irritated by the endless anecdotes. Švejk all the time reveals his loyalty and on a few occasions he even puts himself on the line for his superior. One example is when he devours the compromising letter to Kákonyi and then he downs a bottle of "cognac" in Humenné to protect Lukáš.

Introduced by the author

Jaroslav Hašek actually spends a couple of pages on introducing the reader to Lukáš. This is an honour that no-one else apart from Katz benefits from, and to a much lesser degree. The other officers in the novel are only introduced through dialogues and the plot itself. The author informs us that Lukáš was Czech, born in a village in the south of Bohemia. In nationality questions he sympathises with the Czech cause but is careful to not express it publicly. One of his statements are: "let us be Czechs but non-one needs to know about it. I am also Czech".

He is portrayed as an amphibian who speaks German in society but reads Czech books. He treats his men strictly but fairly, he may raise his voice, but he never shouts at them. He is fearless and direct towards his superiors and this may even have cost him promotion to captain. He is well liked by his men, makes sure they are quartered properly during manoeuvres and also treats them with beer and appreciates that they sing when marching. He also knows how to put brutal lower rank officers in their place.

Otherwise he has over time been unfortunate with his servants who he hates and frequently replaces. Lukáš is also fond of animals and keeps a canary bird and a cat. It is indirectly revealed that he has served for a while in Prague and that he teaches at a school for one-year volunteers (see Einjährig-Freiwilligenschule (Prag)). In the author's introduction it is not revealed which unit he served with in Prague.

Further information

As the novel progresses more details about Lukáš are revealed. He was a friend of the ladies, a fact that is graphically illustrated through the encounters with Katy and Kákonyi. He was an instructor at a reserve officer's school in Vršovice, therefore probably serving with IR73. It is however unclear where he lived, but as he was walking the dog Max at the corner of Panská ulice and Na Přikopě he surely lived fairly centrally in Prague. This is however contradicted by the fact that Blahník handed over the stolen dog in Vršovice.

A fateful encounter

The affair with the stolen dog caused his transfer to IR91, an important event as it leads the entire plot of the novel onto a track that in major parts runs in parallel to the author's own career in K.u.k. Heer. On the train to Budějovice where he has to answer to Major General von Schwarzburg it is revealed that he was educated at K.u.k. Infanteriekadettenschule Prag. During the conversation between Ságner and Zykán at the railway station in Győr it becomes clear that Lukáš attended cadet school with Ságner. Lukáš is interested in culture and arts, and the other officers in Budějovice berate him that he doesn't want to mingle with them in his spare time. He detests the brutality he witnesses on the journey to the front. It culminates in Humenné where he gets an urge to get drunk to alleviate the painful feelings.

Lukáš is part of the novel until the final scene in the uncompleted book four. Švejk is the officers servant of Lukáš in the first two books - in book three and four he serves Lukáš as his company messenger. Their relationship is often tense due to Švejk's repeated mishaps but deep down the soldier is very loyal to Lukáš and the officer slowly gets to like his subordinate, which is clear by the end of the novel. Before departure from Királyhida, Lukáš becomes commander of the 11th march company. Švejk is promoted to company orderly, and Baloun replaces him as putzfleck for Lukáš.

Background

There is little doubt that the main prototype for objlajtnant Lukáš was Rudolf Lukas, an Austrian, later Czechoslovak officer. Still he can't have been the only one as there is little in book one where Lukáš has anything in common with his real-life counterpart. There is for instance every reason to believe that the author attached both biographical details and personal traits from the real life captain Čeněk Sagner to his fictive senior lieutenant Lukáš.

Lukáš is also mentioned in Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí but plays a minor role. Some of the incidents that the novel connects to Lukáš were then related to Dauerling (the dog theft and the Kákonyi affair).

Quote from the novel
[1.14.1] Štěstí Švejkovo nemělo dlouhého trvání. Nelítostný osud přerval přátelský poměr mezi ním a polním kurátem. Jestli polní kurát až do té události byl osobou sympatickou, to, co nyní provedl, je s to strhnout s něho sympatickou tvářnost. Polní kurát prodal Švejka nadporučíkovi Lukášovi, lépe řečeno, prohrál ho v kartách. Tak dřív prodávali na Rusi nevolníky. Přišlo to tak znenadání. Byla pěkná společnost u nadporučíka Lukáše a hrálo se „jednadvacet“.
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Vejvoda was a plumber from the street Na Zderaze in Prague who always played "mariáš" in a pub behind Stoletá kavárna. According to an interminable anecdote by Švejk he won such an amount at cards that he had to seek police protection. In the story the main character is mentioned no fewer than sixteen times and this is arguably the longest anecdote in the whole novel. See also Hospoda za Stoletou kavárnou.

The story was told by Švejk to console Katz who had just played away the money Švejk had lent him so that he (Katz) could buy Švejk back from Lukáš. This was after the field chaplain initially had gambled away his servant at a card game.

Background

It has not been possible to link the story and Vejvoda himself to any real event. In the address book from 1907 there is no Vejvoda listed at Na Zderaze, nor is there any plumber with this name in entire Prague. The same goes for older address books.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.1] Na Zderaze žil nějakej klempíř Vejvoda a ten hrával vždy mariáš jedné hospodě za ,Stoletou kavárnou’. Jednou taky, čert mu to napískal, povídá: ,A což abychom si hodili jedníka o pětníček.’ Hráli tedy pětníčkovýho jedníka a on držel bank. Všichni se ztropili a tak to rostlo do desítky. Starej Vejvoda chtěl popřát taky druhýmu něco a pořád říkal: ,Malá špatná domů.’
Sancho Panzann flag
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Sancho Panza is mentioned by the author in his reflections on the institution of military (officer) servants. Her Panza is described as a military servant of Don Quijote.

Background

Sancho Panza was the servant of Don Quijote in the classic novel by Miguel de Cervantes. Many literary scholars point to similarities between Panza and Švejk, but also add that Švejk as opposed to Sancho Panza was the main character in his novel.

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Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Jisto však je, že v době feudalismu vystupovali v té úloze žoldnéři rytířů. Čím byl Sancho Pansa Dona Quijota? Divím se, že historie vojenských sluhů nebyla dosud nikým sepsána.

Also written:Sancho Pansa Hašek

Don Quijotenn flag
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Les Nouvelles littéraires, 16.4.1932

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Dagens Nyheter, 23.8.1926

Don Quijote is mentioned by the author in connection with Sancho Panza and the institution of officer servants. The author describes Sancho as Don Quijote's military servant, a position that the strictly speaking never had.

Background

Don Quijote is the protagonist of the classic novel Don Quijote de la Mancha by Miguel de Cervantes. The novel is one of the greatest in the Spanish language ever, a universal classic, and one of the most translated.

Compared with Švejk

Don Quijote is a novel The Good Soldier Švejk often has been compared to. On 23 August 1926 Swedish literary critic Carl-August Brolander wrote a review of the German translation of book one for the newspaper Dagens Nyheter. Here he declared Jaroslav Hašek a "Czech Cervantes" and also compared him to Rabelais. The French critic Jean-Richard Bloch wrote a similarly enthusiastic review in Les Nouvelles littéraires in 1932.

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Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Instituce důstojnických sluhů je prastarého původu. Zdá se, že již Alexandr Macedonský měl svého pucfleka. Jisto však je, že v době feudalismu vystupovali v té úloze žoldnéři rytířů. Čím byl Sancho Pansa Dona Quijota? Divím se, že historie vojenských sluhů nebyla dosud nikým sepsána.

Also written:Quijote cz Don Quijote es Don Quichotte fr

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Beaumarchais and his Figaro may partly have inspired Hašek

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Nový velký ilustrovaný slovník naučný, 1929

Almavira is mentioned by the author as he is supposed to have eaten his servant Fernando without salt during the siege of Toledo.

Background

Almavira is supposed to have been part of the defending party during the siege of Toledo but it is uncertain to what historic event or literary work the author refers. Later in the novel [3.3] Marek mentions an almost identical episode, but the cannibalistic deed is now located to Madrid during the Napoleonic wars (there is no mention of any Almavira or Fernando here). Even this is doubtful as the siege in question was very short. It has not been possible to locate any place in Spain with the name Almavira so it is surely a spelling mistake or the person in question is someone entirely different.

It has not been possible to locate a place in Spain named Almavira so here it is probably a question of a typing error, mix-up, or pure invention.

Beaumarchais

The only Almavira a search reveals are roles in The barber of Seville by Rossini and The wedding of Figaro by Mozart. Both these build on a triology of plays about Figaro by Pierre Beaumarchais. Translator of Svejk to Spanish and Catalan, Monika Zgustová "corrects" Almavira to Almavida without solving the main question. Beaumarchais used the name Almaviva anyway.

It is still probable that the author was aware of and picked the idea from Figaro. The relation between master and servant fits, but the cannibalism and siege connection does not. Nor does the fact that the duke is supposed to have written his memoirs. The Napoleonic Wars started after Beaumarchais' death, so the chronological connection to the siege of Madrid is also broken. Hašek may well have mixed together multiple stories or invented new ones. Eating a servant may be only a grotesque intermezzo in line with Bretschneider's death [1.6] or the story about a dog who devoured a baby [1.3].

Lazarillo de Tormes

A doctoral thesis by Hamza Messari that compares Švejk and the 16th century Spanish picaresque novel Lazarillo de Tormes offers no further clue, although it mentions Almavira as "some duke".

Hamza Messari

Elementos picarescos en la novela „Las aventuras del valeroso soldado Schwejk“ de Jaroslav Hašek.Ya que hemos citado a Garcílaso y a la ciudad de Toledo; Hašek hace un homenaje al paje de un tal Conde de Almavira que durante el cerco de la ciudad, se dejó comer por su amo y Lazarillo alabando la misma ciudad...

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Source: Sergey Soloukh, Hamza Messari

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Našli bychom tam, že vévoda z Almaviru snědl svého vojenského sluhu při obležení Toleda z hladu bez soli, o čemž vévoda sám píše ve svých pamětech, vypravuje, že jeho sluha měl maso jemné, křehké, vláčné, chutí podobající se něčemu mezi kuřecím a oslím.
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Světozor, 4.10.1907

Fernando was the servant of the Hertugen av Almavira. He is said to have been eaten by his master.

Background

Fernando can not be identified until we know who the Hertugen av Almavira was (if he was a real person at all). But if the inspiration was Beaumarchais' plays, it could be argued that Figaro inspired the figure of Fernando. Still the grotesque cannibalism-story doesn't fit, and is rather the author's own invention.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Mezi touto novou generací pucfleků nenajdou se tací obětaví tvorové, kteří by se dali sníst svými pány bez soli jako šlechetný Fernando vévody z Almaviru.
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Kaunitz was a captain who like Švejk had been superarbitrated due to idiocy. He had the habit of walking around with one finger up each nostril. This is what Švejk tells Lukáš when the latter mentions Švejk's reported mental limitations, thus innocently making the point that officers may also be retarded.

Background

Any officer with the name von Kaunitz is neither to be found in the address books of Prague nor in Armeeschematismus.

The Czech noble family Kaunitz (cz. Kounice) was however well known and it could be that the author borrowed the name from them. There were also a few Kaunitz (without the noble prefix) serving in K.u.k. Heer thourgh the years but it is unlikely that the author was aware of them.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.3] Od regimentu nás kvůli tomu pustili dva, mě, a ještě jednoho pana hejtmana von Kaunitz. Ten s dovolením, pane nadporučíku, když šel po ulici, tak se současně pořád dloubal prstem levé ruky v levej nosní díře a druhou rukou v pravé dirce, a když šel s námi na cvičení, tak nás vždy postavil jako při defilírungu a říkal: ,Vojáci, éh, pamatujte si, éh, že je dneska středa, poněvadž zejtra bude čtvrtek, éh. ‘„
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Zlatá Praha, 4.3.1892

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Výroční zpráva vyššího gymnasia v Pelhřimově za školní rok 1896-1897

Marek was a teacher from a village beyond Pelhřimov who was pursuing the daughter of gamekeeper Špera. He is part of a story Švejk tells Lukáš to underline that nothing is worse than lying and uses Marek as an examlpe of how disastrously this might end.

The teacher Marek should not be confused with one-year volunteer Marek who enters the story in [II.2].

Background

In the village of Chvojnov by Pelhřimov actually lived a teacher Karel Marek. In Zlatá Praha (Golden Prague) from 1892 it is revealed that he had won in a logical puzzle. In the yearly report of the gymnasium in Pelhřimov (1896-1897) another Karel Marek from a village nearby is mentioned. This time it is in Horní Cerekev, but whether it is the same person or if Hašek may have known about about him/them is pure speculation.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.3] „Poslušně hlásím, pane nadporučíku, že rozumím. Není nic horšího, než když člověk lže. Jak se začne zaplítat, tak je ztracenej. V jedný vesnici za Pelhřimovem byl nějaký učitel Marek a ten chodil za dcerou hajnýho Špery, a ten mu dal vzkázat, že jestli se bude s holkou scházet v lese, že mu, když ho potká, postí do zadnice z ručnice štětiny se solí.
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Špera was a gamekeeper from a village near Pelhřimov who resented that the teacher Marek was pursueing his daughter. This was according to a story Švejk told Lukáš when they first met.

Background

It has not been possible to find a source of inspiration for this character.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.3] „Poslušně hlásím, pane nadporučíku, že rozumím. Není nic horšího, než když člověk lže. Jak se začne zaplítat, tak je ztracenej. V jedný vesnici za Pelhřimovem byl nějaký učitel Marek a ten chodil za dcerou hajnýho Špery, a ten mu dal vzkázat, že jestli se bude s holkou scházet v lese, že mu, když ho potká, postí do zadnice z ručnice štětiny se solí.
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Čechoslovan, 19.2.1917 (2.3)

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In "The Good Soldier Švejk in captivity" Balabán was a Boxer who Švejk stole for the benefit of Dauerling

Balabán was an unusually ugly dog of mixed race that Švejk once had bought. The dog is mentioned in the kynological discourse he subjects his superior Lukáš to on the day the two first met.

Background

This dog appears in several of Jaroslav Hašek's stories. It was so ugly that dogs, other animals and people avoided him. From one of the stories, Kolik kdo má kolem krku, it is apparent that the author actually owned a dog called Balabán.

Balabán also appears in Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí (1917), the second version of the good soldier. Here it is the name of the dog that Švejk stole in Bruck an der Leitha for the benefit of Dauerling. In this story the dog is a Boxer and even Biegler gets involved with him.

Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí

Tak ho přitáhl k Dauerlingovi, který vyjasnil tvář. Nijak mu nevadilo zoufalé vzezření boxerovo. Ptal se, jak jmenuje. Švejk pokrčil rameny: "Já mu říkal po cestě Balabán." "Ty hlupáku," rozkřikl se Dauerling, "takový pes se musí jmenovat nějak vznešeně, počkáme, až přijde Biegler, to je chytrá hlava, ten si něco vymyslí."

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Quote from the novel
[1.14.3] Já jsem jednou koupil takovýho psa Balabána, von byl po těch svých tátech tak vošklivej, že všichni psi se mu vyhýbali, a já ho koupil z lítosti, že je takovej vopušténej.
Sultan Mehmet V. Reşatnn flag
*2.11.1844 Istanbul - †4.7.1918 Istanbul
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The Emperor and the Sultan in 1914

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Neue Freie Presse, 10.3.1915

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Rozkvět, 10.4.1915

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Nieuwe Venlosche courant, 30.3.1915

Mehmet V. Reşat is mentioned indirectly when Švejk reads in a newspaper that the Sultan has honoured Emperor Wilhelm with a war medal and he himself didn't even have a small silver medal. The sultan is thus not mentioned directly by name.

Background

Mehmet V. Reşat was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (see Turkey) from 1909 to 1918. He ascended the throne after the coup by the Young Turks but had limited power. His only significant political act was to formally declare Jihad against the Allies on 11 November 1914. He was the empire's Sultan no. 35 and died only months before the empire collapsed.

His reign was marked by enormous territorial losses for The sick man of Europe. North-Africa except Egypt and almost all of the Balkans was lost from 1912 to 1913. During WW1 the Arabic territories and Cyprus followed.

War medal

Circumstances strongly suggest that the decoration that Švejk read about took place in March 1915 as a quote from Roskvět's "Brief Chronicle of the World War" is to the letter reproduced in the novel. The content of the "Chronicle" also appeared is newspapers like Národní politika, and many of these brief quotes appear throughout this chapter of the novel. The chronicle refers to the date of decoration as 24 March 1915.

Already on 9 March 1915 the Turkish news agency Agence Milli reported that the Sultan had telegraphed the Emperor and congratulated him on the great victories in the east. In the same telegrammme it is revealed that the Emperor will be offered the Imtiaz War Medal as an expression of the Sultans admiration.

On 25 March Agence Milli reported that Goltz Paşa had left Constantinople for Berlin in order to personally forward the award. It also added that the war medal was specially issued for the Emperor.

In April it was revealed that the Emperor had responded by awarding the Sultan the Iron Cross 1st Class. Again Goltz Paşa performed the formal decoration. He actually brought the medal back with him from the trip to Berlin, and the Sultan received the medal on 11 April.

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Source: Hans-Peter Laqueur, Petr Novák, Jaroslav Šerák

Quote from the novel
[1.14.3] „Tak vida,“ řekl pro sebe Švejk, sleduje se zájmem přehled denních událostí, „sultán vyznamenal císaře Viléma válečnou medalií, a já nemá dosud ani malou stříbrnou.“
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Confectioners near U kalicha in 1910

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Bělčický was a confectioner who is mentioned by Švejk when he refuses to let Katy into the flat of Lukáš. Bělčický let in a stranger who had then run away with the cash till. It is clear that the confectioners shop was located in the street where Švejk lived.

Background

Bělčický probably has a real model and there were several confectioners in the area where we assume the Good Soldier lived. Na Bojišti had two in 1910, and there was also one in Vávrova třída. Still none of them are listed with Bělčický as proprietor, and even when including all of Prague there appears to be no confectioner with this name.

A certain Václav Pospíšil owned several confectioner shops in this area, one of them in No. 10, two houses down from U kalicha. It is therefore possible that some Bělčický was the branch manager here.

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.4] Teď zavřu byt, tak bych prosil, abyste laskavě vodešla. Mně není nic oznámenýho a žádnou cizí osobu, kterou neznám, zde nemůžu nechat v bytě. Jako jednou u nás v ulici u cukráře Bělčickýho nechali jednoho člověka a on si votevřel šatník a utek.
Erzherzog Karl Franz Josephnn flag
*17.8.1887 Persenbeug-Gottsdorf - †1.4.1922 Funchal
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Světozor, 17.6.1914

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Neue Freie Presse, 20.4.1914

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Světová válka 1914-1915 slovem i obrazem, s. 555

Karl Franz Joseph is mentioned indirectly as "the Austrian heir to the throne" when Švejk escorts Katy to the barracks where Lukáš teaches. The soldier enters a conversation with the guard and wears an expression "as stupid as that seen on a picture with the Austrian heir to the throne in KSV".

He enters the plot again in [3.1] during the dream of cadet Biegler on the way to Budapest. Here he is mentioned under his full name as there is a portrait of him hanging on the wall at K.u.k. Gottes Hauptquartier.

Background

Karl Franz Joseph (Karl Franz Joseph Ludwig Hubert Georg Otto Marie von Habsburg-Lothringen) was in 1915 heir to the Austrian and Hungarian thrones. He was the eldest son of Archduke Otto, brother of Franz Ferdinand. He became emperor and king when Franz Joseph I died on 21 November 1916.

His reign was less repressive than his predecessor's as he gave an extensive amnesty to political prisoners. He also tried to negotiate a separate peace with the Entente, albeit without notifying his allies. Karl was the last emperor of the Habsburg family. He was beatified in 2004.

Karl and the pilots

Before he ascended the thrones he visited the front frequently, and he is frequently shown in picture-magazines like Wiener Illustrierte Zeitung. In a Švejk context the most important photo of him is the one that was printed in Kronika světové války and is mentioned in the novel.

The picture shows the heir to the throne together with two pilots who have downed a Russian plane. It was printed also in other newspapers, and then with additional explanatory details. The two airmen shown were the Germans Johann Offermann and Erwin von Sprungmann. The photo was taken by Czernowitz in Bukovina (now Чернівці Ukraine) and hails from the first half of 1915. The heir to the throne visited Černovci on 19 April 1915 and the photo was probably taken during this visit.

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Source: Milan Hodík

Quote from the novel
[3.1] Uprostřed pokoje, ve kterém po stěnách visely podobizny Františka Josefa a Viléma, následníka trůnu Karla Františka Josefa, generála Viktora Dankla, arcivévody Bedřicha a šéfa generálního štábu Konráda z Hötzendorfu, stál pán bůh.
General Kusmanek von Burgneustädten, Hermannnn flag
*16.9.1860 Sibiu (Hermannstadt) - †7.8.1934 Wien
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kusmanek.jpg

Österreichische Illustrierte Zeitung, 15.8.1915

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Kuryer Lwowski, 1.2.1914

Kusmanek is mentioned by Švejk in a conversation about how the the war progresses. Kusmanek is said to have arrived in Kiev. This conversation takes place whilst awaiting orders from Lukáš about what to do with Katy. Švejk refers to him as General Kusmanek.

Background

Kusmanek was an Austrian infantry general and commander of the Przemyśl fortress during the two Russian sieges in 1914-1915. He was considered one of the more capable Austrian commanders and earned the nickname "The Lion of Przemyśl" in 1914. After the capitulation on 22 March 1915 he and the nearly 120,000 strong garrison became prisoners of war in Russia.

Before the war

Kusmanek was the son of a highranking police officer, Josef Kusmanek, who for many years headed the security police in Vienna. Already as a 19-year old he graduated from the military academy in Wiener Neustadt. His career then progressed via, amongst others: IR63, Kriegsministerium, IR73 and from 1903 General Staff. On 16 February 1906 Oberst Kusmanek w2as even invited to an official dinner by Franz Ferdinand.

In 1908 he became commander of 65th Infantry Brigade in Győr, and from 4 May 1910 by 3rd Infantry Division in Linz, From February 1911 he was head of 28th Infantry Division in Ljubljana (Laibach). In Linz he was replaced by Joseph Ferdinand, a member of the imperial family. Kusmanek this had an unusually short term here, and it is tempting to suggest that he was transferred to make way for a Habsburger.

Kusmanek was promoted to Feldmarschall-Leutnant (FML) on 1 November 1910 (with a resulting audience with the Emperor). he was knighted on 1 November 1913 and chose the post-fix "von Burgneustädten". He became fortress commander in Przemyśl on 1 February 1914, a transfer that was to determine his fate.

Authentic quote
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Národní Politika, 4.4.1915

The information Švejk gives refers to events on 26 March 1915, connected to Kusmanek's arrival in Kiev as prisoner of war. The author has clearly used news items for this passage, and at first glance they seem to be from Národní politika who 4 April printed a snippet that was almost identical to the quote in the novel.

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Světová válka 1914-1915 slovem i obrazem, s. 505

The book Světová válka 1914-1915 slovem a obrazem, page 505, contains the same quote and here it is to the letter identical to the wording in the novel. That this is indeed the author's source is confirmed by the sub-title of the page: Kronika světové války. To remove any doubt this page even contains a picture of the successor to the throne Karl Franz Joseph, with subtitles exactly as those used in the novel a few lines earlier.

Prisoner of war
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Hufvudstadsbladet, 1.3.1916

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Illustrierete Kronen-Zeitung, 22.4.1916

Newspapers provided more comprehensive information. Kusmanek arrived in Kiev on an express train, first class, on 25 March. This was only three days after the capitulation of Przemyśl. He was very well treated in Kiev and even stayed as a guest of the governor. Furthermore his stay in Kiev was of a temporary nature, he was to be sent to the inner parts of Russia for permanent internment.

Reports in the Finnish press (and later also in Austria-Hungary) reveals that we was interned in Nishny Novgorod. He arrived here in late April via Moscow. In April there were also reports the he was internet in the Voronesh Gubernate but this is probably not true.

In Nishny Novgorod the authorities provided rented accommodation and he was allowed to move freely two hours every day. In the beginning he reportedly lived in a hotel. As a prisoner of war he was not allowed to visit public houses, but other reports claimed he was able to move around more or less freely.

In the beginning the conditions were good but deteriorated towards the end of the war. In February 1916 he complained to the Red Cross that the authorities had confiscated material he had prepared about the reasons for the fall of Przemyśl. He had collected the material in anticipation of an investigation on returning to his homeland.

Returning home
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Pester Lloyd, 19.2.1918

In early 1918 Austria-Hungary and Russia negociated a prisoner exchange where a number of higher officers were involved, amongst them those captured at Przemyśl. On 12 February 1918 Kusmanek left Nishny Novgorod and travelled via Moscow, Petrograd, Vilnius and Warsaw to Vienna. On the 18th he arrived at Nordbahnhof and was greeted by several dignitaries and high ranking officers.

In January 1918 news articles appeared, claiming that he had travelled to Stockholm. Allegedly he and other generals stayed there in anticipation of the conclusion of the peace treaty with Russia, but this is only one of several false news stories regarding his whereabouts during the war.

Three days after returning Kusmanek stood before a military court of honour, a formal investigation that all repatriated officers had to go through. As expected the court cleared him of any wrongdoings. The day before (20 February) he had been invited to see the Emperor, and in March he was awarded the honorary title Geheime Rat. During the war he had in absentia been promoted to Generaloberst.

His latter years

Kusmanek settled in Vienna after the war but was not very active in public life. In 1920 rumours circulated that he had become commander of the Ukrainian Boslhevik's 6th army, a rumour that was soon refuted. In 1923 he suffered a stroke from which he never recovered. The last years of this life he was very ill. Kusmanek died in 1934 and is buried at Wien Zentralfriedhof.

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Quote from the novel
[1.14.4] Švejk posadil se na lavici ve vratech a vykládal, že v bitevní frontě karpatské se útoky vojska ztroskotaly, na druhé straně však že velitel Přemyšlu, generál Kusmanek, přijel do Kyjeva a že za námi zůstalo v Srbsku jedenáct opěrných bodů a že Srbové dlouho nevydrží utíkat za našimi vojáky.
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Katy was the wife of the hops wholesaler Wendler and one of the ladies of Senior Lieutenant Lukáš. She played a prominent role in this chapter as she appears out of the blue to visit the lieutenant when he in turn is expecting Mrs Micková from Třeboň.

In this delicate situation Švejk comes up with the idea to send a telegram to her husband mentioning her whereabouts. This works and Mr. Wendler comes and fetches the young Katy, which leads to a long and detailed conversation with Lukáš about the war and international hop trading in times of crisis.

Before this happens Katy had commanded the good soldier to turn the residence of Lukáš inside out and had also enjoyed his company in the bedroom after he had rearranged the flat to her liking. Švejk had received strict orders to please the lady in all her wishes and in this respect he only carried out his duty as a soldier and gentleman.

Background

It has not been possible to identify any real-life model for Katy although Jan Berwid-Buquoy makes an unconvincing attempt to link her to some Anna Wendler from Liberec. Rudolf Lukas allegedly had a relationship with her in Budějovice in 1915. The story has not been confirmed but it is altogether possible because Lukas spent time in the city between 1 April 1915 and 1 June 1915, recovering after having been wounded in Carpathians on 15 March. There are however many discrepancies: this lady was not the wife of a hop trader and she wasn't even married. The only connection to some Mr. Wendler was her uncle who allegedly was co-owner of a brewery. If there is substance to this theory it is unlikely to be more than a borrowed name. It can be added that there was no Wendler associated with the city's two breweries in 1914 (the uncle could of course have been the brother of Anna's mother). Indeed there was no Wendler in the address book at all.

If there is substance to this theory it is unlikely to be more than a borrowed name , and more likely gossip or pure invention. If the episode with Katy is inspired by some real events, it probably has nothing to do with Rudolf Lukas at all. Note that other episodes involving the senior lieutenant like the dog theft are found also in Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí. Here they don't involve Lukáš but rather Dauerling and the same goes for the scandal with Kákonyi.

SourceJan Berwid-Buquoy

Quote from the novel
[1.14.4] Švejk se právě chystal, že se půjde poohlédnout po nějakém stájovém pinči, když mladá dáma zazvonila a přála si mluvit s nadporučíkem Lukášem
[1.14.4] Lieber Heinrich!

Mein Mann verfolgt mich.
Ich muß unbedingt bei Dir ein paar Tage gastieren.
Dein Bursch ist ein großes Mistvieh. Ich bin unglücklich.

Deine Katy

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Micková was a lady from Třeboň who Lukáš expected a visit from just when Katy appeared.

Background

It has not been possible to identify any real-life model for Micková.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.4] Milý Jindřich byl určitě v ošklivé situaci. Manželka pronásledovaná manželem přijede k němu na několik dní na návštěvu, právě když má přijeti paní Micková z Třeboně, aby po tři dny opakovala to, co mu pravidelně poskytuje každého čtvrt roku, když jede do Prahy dělat nákupy.
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Wendler was an intelligent hop merchant, married to Katy. He came to visit Lukáš to fetch his wife who had ran away from home. First, Wendler listen impatiently to Lukáš and his description of the war effort, went on to complain about Katy and then ended up describing the hopeless situation in the European hop market now just before Christmas in 1914. Still in the end his wife went home with him!

Background

Wendler does not have any obvious model, but many details from the conversation with Lukáš have a direct relation to events that took place in late March and early April 1915. Even literal quotes from the newspapers found their way into this conversation, mainly from official battle reports.

All the place names from the Western Front that Wendler mentions appeared in official bulletins and newspaper summaries between 26 March and 4 April 1915, so the author has obviously had access to newspapers or magazines from this period. The main source is no doubt Kronika světové války.

No reliable traces

The address books of Prague do not show up any Wendler who had any connection to hop trade. There were in fact very few people named Wendler in the Czech capital before WW1. The best known Wendler was Antonín who owned a factory that produced gates and fences. He also made equipment for the brewing industry. That said it is clear from the context that the couple didn't live in Praha as Wendler told his wife that the train leaves at 2:20. He had arrived the same morning. See Katy for a possible connection to some Wendler in Budějovice.

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Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Telegram, který odeslal, byl velice úsečný, obchodní: „Nynější adresa vaší choti je...“ Následovala adresa bytu nadporučíka Lukáše. Tak se stalo, že byla paní Katy velice nepříjemně překvapena, když se vhrnul do dveří obchodník s chmelem. Vypadal velice rozšafně a starostlivě, když paní Katy, neztrácejíc v tom okamžiku rozvahy, představila oba pány: „Můj muž - pan nadporučík Lukáš.“ Na nic jiného nevzpomněla. „Račte se posadit, pane Wendler,“ vybídl přívětivě nadporučík Lukáš, vytahuje z kapsy pouzdro s cigaretami, „není libo?“
[1.14.5] Seděli všichni chvíli mlčky proti sobě, až uznal nadporučík za vhodné přerušit trapnou situaci slovy: „Kdy jste přijel, pane Wendler?“
Hali Beynn flag
*1874 Milas - †2.4.1948 Milas
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Halil Bey in Berlin

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Pester Lloyd, 29.3.1915

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Světová válka slovem i obrazem

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Das interessante Blatt, 2.12.1915

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Dagbladet, 27.10.1915

Hali Bey is mentioned by Lukáš when he describes the positive war situation for hop-trader Wendler. Lukáš could inform his guest that Hali Bey, speaker of the Turkish Parliament, had arrived in Vienna accompanied by Ali Bey.

Background

Hali Bey (correct Halil Bey, later he took the name Halil Menteşe) was a Turkish politician and one of the leaders of the Young Turk Movement, and for a while chairman of the associated Committee of Union and Progress. Halil served as MP from 1908 to 1918. He was educated as a lawyer, and completed part of his studies in France.

Some time before December 1909 he became chairman of the Committee, the de-facto ruling party after the Young Turk Revolution (1908). In February 1911 he accepted the post of minister of the interior after some deliberation. It was a critical period with considerable unrest amongst the minorities of the empire. His first task was to deal with a Albanian rebellion, and he strived to alleviate the tension by allowing the Latin alphabet to be used in Albanian schools. On 15 May 1912 he became speaker of the lower chamber of the Turkish Parliament (re-elected 13 May 1914), on 24 October 1915 foreign minister and in 1917 minister of justice.

According to US ambassador Henry Morgenthau Halil didn't approve of the genocide of the Armenians, but still defended it officially. In an interview with Berliner Tageblatt in 1915 he stated that "the Armenians are traitors, we must finish with them". Halil was politically active also in the new Turkish republic that was formed after the collapse of the Ottoman empire.

Journey to Vienna

In March 1915 he set out on a journey to capital cities on the Balkans and in Central Europe. On this journey Halil Bey stopped in Sofia (14 March), Bucharest (15 March), Budapest (16 March), Vienna (18 March), Berlin (from 19 March), and again in Vienna (28 March). The main purpose of the journey was to meet leading foreign policy makers in person, particularly in Berlin where he stayed for a longer period.

Quotes from periodicals

It is the visit to Vienna on 28 March 1915 that is directly referred to in the novel. Everything indicates that the author fetched the fragment about Hali Bey and Ali Bey and their arrival in Vienna directly from Světová válka slovem i obrazem (see Kronika světové války). On page 506 in this publication the phrase that is used in the novel can be found, including the erroneous spelling of Halil (in "Kronika" and in the novel he is "Hali"). The same quote also appeared in Rozkvět on 10 April and in Národní politika on 4 April. In the two latter publications the wording is however slightly different and Halil is here correctly spelled.

Ambassador Morgenthau's Story, Henry Morgenthau, 1919

Soon after this interview Saïd Halim ceased to be Minister for Foreign Affairs; his successor was Halil Bey, who for several years had been Speaker of the Turkish Parliament. Halil was a very different type of man. He was much more tactful, much more intelligent, and much more influential in Turkish affairs. He was also a smooth and oily conversationalist, good natured and fat, and by no means so lost to all decent sentiments as most Turkish politicians of the time. It was generally reported that Halil did not approve the Armenian proceedings, yet his official position compelled him to accept them and even, as I now discovered, to defend them. Soon after obtaining his Cabinet post, Halil called upon me and made a somewhat rambling explanation of the Armenian atrocities. I had already had experiences with several official attitudes toward the persecutions; Talaat had been bloodthirsty and ferocious, Enver subtly calculating, while the Grand Vizier had been testy. Halil now regarded the elimination of this race with the utmost good humour. Not a single aspect of the proceeding, not even the unkindest things I could say concerning it, disturbed his equanimity in the least. He began by admitting that nothing could palliate these massacres, but, he added that, in order to understand them, there were certain facts that I should keep in mind.

External Links

Source: Hans-Peter Laqueur, Petr Novák

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] „Turci se drží dobře,“ odpověděl nadporučík, uváděje ho opět ke stolu, „předseda turecké sněmovny Hali bej a Ali bej přijeli do Vídně.

Also written:Hali bej Hašek

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emirali.jpg

EMIR ALI PASHA
Vice President of the Turkish Parliament, Who Was Sent to Berlin to Take Back to Turkey Mohammedan Prisoners Captured from the Allies.
(Photo from Press Illustrating Co.)

The New York Times Current History, March 1915

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Pilsner Tagblatt, 29.3.1915

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Wiener Zeitung, 30.3.1915

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Rozkvět 10.4.1915

Ali Bey is mentioned by Lukáš when he explains Wendler Turkey's role in the war. He could inform his guest that the Turks are holding their ground and that Ali Bey and Hali Bey had arrived in Vienna.

Background

Ali Bey no doubt refers to Emir Ali Paşa. The author uses the term "bej" but this is an misquote that appeared in some Czech newspapers, amongst them Národní politika, Rozkvět and Kronika světové války.

Emir Ali was the son of the Algerian national hero Abd El-Kader El Djezairi, who from 1855 lived in Damascus. Emir Ali Paşa was from May 1914 member of the Lower Chamber of the Turkish Parliament and at the same time he was first vice-chairman of the chamber.

In mid March 1915 he travelled to Berlin to negotiate about transfer of British and French Muslim prisoners of war to the Ottoman Empire. The plan was to employ them in the war against Great Britain. On the way back he stopped in Vienna. The stay lasted from 28 to 30 March 1915 and he stayed at Hotel Bristol. He travelled from Berlin to Vienna together with Halil Bey. From Vienna he returned directly to Constantinople.

Quote from the press

The quote from Národní politika, Rozkvět and Kronika světové války is nearly identical to the quote in the novel and several other snippets from the same pages appear in the conversation with Wendler. It is this brief news item about the visit in Vienna that six years later found its way into a world famous novel. The incorrect news items in the Czech press that the author made use of complicated the effort to identify Emir Ali, but a comparison with similar quotes from the Viennese press puts all doubt to rest.

Hans-Peter Laqueur

Yusuf Hikmet Bayur, Türk İnkılabı Tarihi, vol 3, part 3 (Türk Tarih Kurumu yayınları, VIII. dizi, sayı 14, Ankara 1991 [last reprint]) p. 422 states that Emir Ali Paşa, deputy chairman of the Meclis-i Mebusan, was the eldest son of Abd el-Kader. The author, historian, born 1881, was an „eye-witness“, he was in his adult life when Emir Ali was elected in 1914, and his account seems reliable enough for me to say that Emir Ali must have been the son of Abd el-Kader.

External Links

Source: Petr Novák, Hans-Peter Laqueur

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] „Turci se drží dobře,“ odpověděl nadporučík, uváděje ho opět ke stolu, „předseda turecké sněmovny Hali bej a Ali bej přijeli do Vídně.

Also written:Ali bej Hašek

Marschall Liman von Sanders, Otto Viktor Karlnn flag
*17.2.1855 Stolp (Słupsk) - †22.8.1929 München
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sanders3.png

Middagsavisen, 6.4.1915

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Světová válka 1914-1915 slovem i obrazem, s. 506

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Venkov, 25.8.1929

Liman has according to Lukáš been appointed supreme commander of the Turkish army of the Dardanelles. This was in the conversation with Wendler. Lukáš could also inform that Liman held the rank of of marshal.

Background

Liman was a German cavalry general and Turkish marshal, best known for his role as advisor and military commander in Turkey. Liman was instrumental in thwarting the British-French expedition force by the Dardanelles in 1915.

In 1913 Liman was given the task of re-organizing the Turkish army after the disastrous setbacks in the Balkans Wars of 1912 and 1913. Initially he was Corps Commander of Constantinople but was on 24 March 1915 appointed commander of the newly formed 5th Army and it is the news of this appointment that appears in the words of Lukáš in the novel.

Towards the end of the the war he was commander of the Asia-Corps, and after the war he was arrested by the British, accused of war crimes against Armenians and Greeks, but released due to lack of evidence. He returned to Germany in 1919 and settled in Munich where he lived for the rest of his life.

Time shift

The timing of the appointment mentioned by Lukáš is at odds with historical facts. It is likely that Hašek used written material (war calendars or newspapers) from 1915 to construct this part of the plot, but "moved" the event to December 1914. The phrase that Lukáš uses is to the letter identical to that found in Národní politika 4 April 1915 and also in Kronika světové války.

Similar time-shifts occur elsewhere in the novel. See Siedliska.

Hans-Peter Laqueur

When explaining the war situation to Mr. Wendler (December 20th, 1914), Lukasch mentions that Field Marshall Liman von Sanders has been made commander in chief of the Turkish Army at the Dardanelles: Otto Liman von Sanders was a Prussian General, and Ottoman Marshall, he was made CiC of the Ottoman 5th army (Dardanelles) March 24th, 1915 (cf. Liman von Sanders, Fünf Jahre Türkei, Berlin 1920, p. 77).

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Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] „Turci se drží dobře,“ odpověděl nadporučík, uváděje ho opět ke stolu, „předseda turecké sněmovny Hali bej a Ali bej přijeli do Vídně. Vrchním velitelem turecké armády dardanelské jmenován maršálek Liman šl. Sanders. Goltz paša přijel z Cařihradu do Berlína a naším císařem byli vyznamenáni Enver paša, viceadmirál Usedom paša a generál Dževad paša. Poměrně hodně vyznamenání za tak krátkou dobu.“
Goltz Paşa, Colmar von dernn flag
*12.8.1843 Adlig Biekenfeld (Labiau) - †19.4.1916 Bagdad
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goltz.jpg

Das interessante Blatt, 13.9.1914

goltz.png

Světová válka 1914-1915 slovem i obrazem, s. 506

goltz2.png

Světová válka 1914-1915 slovem i obrazem, s. 529

goltz1.png

Pester Lloyd, 22.4.1916

Goltz Paşa has according to Lukáš arrived in Berlin from Constantinople. This is at least what he comforts Wendler with his account about the situation in the war.

Background

Goltz Paşa was a German general, military historian and author. From 1883 he was responsible for reorganizing the Turkish army, and after returning to Germany in 1895 he held several high positions; amongst them army corps commander and army inspector. In 1914 the now retired general was appointed military governor in occupied Belgium, and from December he became an adviser to Turkey.

Travel to Berlin

The trip that Lukáš refers to actually occurred: Goltz arrived in Berlin from Constantinople on 29 March 1915. The phrase about Goltz is word by word identical to an item in Kronika světové války in 1915, and then in Národní politika on 4 April 1915. This is one of many items from the conversation between the hop trader and the officer that are be borrowed from the same source.

He returned to Constantinople on 4 April 1915 and stopped in Vienna for a conversation with Franz Joseph I..

Hans-Peter Laqueur

Goltz died in Baghdad 1916 of typhus and was buried there immediately, as the transport of a body died from an infectious disease was prohibited. After a couple of months(?, still in 1916) a solution was found and his coffin was transferred to Istanbul and re-buried in the German military cemetery at Tarabya, in the grounds of the German Embassy's summer residence. In 1918 the Kaiser visited the grave there. It had been planned to move the coffin to Germany after the war, but this did not happen and his grave is still there.

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Source: Hans-Peter Laqueur

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] „Turci se drží dobře,“ odpověděl nadporučík, uváděje ho opět ke stolu, „předseda turecké sněmovny Hali bej a Ali bej přijeli do Vídně. Vrchním velitelem turecké armády dardanelské jmenován maršálek Liman šl. Sanders. Goltz paša přijel z Cařihradu do Berlína a naším císařem byli vyznamenáni Enver paša, viceadmirál Usedom paša a generál Dževad paša. Poměrně hodně vyznamenání za tak krátkou dobu.“

Also written:Goltz paša Hašek

Enver Paşann flag
*22.11.1881 Istanbul - †4.8.1922 Baldusjan (Tadjikistan)
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vyznam.png

Světová válka 1914-1915 slovem i obrazem, s. 507

enver_dead.png

Norwich Bulletin, 18.8.1922

Enver Paşa is one of several Ottoman politicians and officers that Lukáš mentions when trying to reassure Wendler about the war contribution of the Ottoman Empire. He can reveal that Enver has been decorated by the emperor.

Background

Enver Paşa (İsmail Enver) was a Turkish politician and general. He was minister of war during World War I, and by some regarded as de facto dictator. In retrospect he is seen as a poor military leader; the war against Russia was not a success. He is also largely held responsible for the mass killings of Armenians in 1915, whom he had accused of being fifth columnists.

When the war ended, he fled to Germany and later to Russia. After first having co-operated with the Soviet government he turned against them and in Tajikistan he was killed fighting the Red Army.

Decorated by Franz Josef

Enver was indeed decorated by Franz Joseph I. together with Usedom Paşa and Cevat Paşa, exactly as Lukáš told Wendler. The decoration was announced on 30 March 1915. He was awarded the medal Militärverdienstkreuz 1. klasse. There was also a fourth decorated officer mentioned in the official news. Kontreadmiral Merten was however left out by the author.

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Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] „Turci se drží dobře,“ odpověděl nadporučík, uváděje ho opět ke stolu, „předseda turecké sněmovny Hali bej a Ali bej přijeli do Vídně. Vrchním velitelem turecké armády dardanelské jmenován maršálek Liman šl. Sanders. Goltz paša přijel z Cařihradu do Berlína a naším císařem byli vyznamenáni Enver paša, viceadmirál Usedom paša a generál Dževad paša. Poměrně hodně vyznamenání za tak krátkou dobu.“

Also written:Enver Paša cz Enver Pascha de Enver Paşa tr

Usedom Paşa, Guido vonnn flag
*2.10.1854 Quanditten (Sinjavino) - †24.2.1925 Schwerin
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medalje300315.jpg

Feldblatt, 1.4.1915

vyznam.png

Světová válka 1914-1915 slovem i obrazem, s. 507

Usedom Paşa is mentioned when Lukáš tries to reassure Wendler about the war situation. Vice-admiral Usedom Pasha has been decorated by our Emperor he reveals.

Background

Usedom Paşa was a German naval officer and ultimately vice-admiral who from August 1914 led the special command of the German navy in Turkey (Sonderkommando Kaiserliche Marine Türkei). He also led the Turkish forces in the Battle of the Dardanelles and was given a large share of the credit for repealing the Allied invaders.

Decorated by the Emperor

Like with the other names that Lukáš mentions for Wendler regarding the Turkish war effort the quote is cut directly from Kronika světové války. The background is the fact that Usedom on 30 March 1915 was awarded the medal Militärverdienstkreuz 1. Klasse by emperor Franz Joseph I..

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Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] „Turci se drží dobře,“ odpověděl nadporučík, uváděje ho opět ke stolu, „předseda turecké sněmovny Hali bej a Ali bej přijeli do Vídně. Vrchním velitelem turecké armády dardanelské jmenován maršálek Liman šl. Sanders. Goltz paša přijel z Cařihradu do Berlína a naším císařem byli vyznamenáni Enver paša, viceadmirál Usedom paša a generál Dževad paša. Poměrně hodně vyznamenání za tak krátkou dobu.“

Also written:Usedom paša cz Usedom Pascha de

Cevat Paşann flag
*14.9.1870 Istanbul - †13.3.1938 Istanbul
Wikipedia entr Google search Švejk-muzeum
cevat.jpg

Das interessante Blatt, 9.9.1915

vyznam.png

Světová válka 1914-1915 slovem i obrazem, s. 507

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Merten almost got his name mentioned in Švejk. © LA-PNP

Cevat Paşa was according to Lukáš a Turkish general who had been decorated by our emperor.

Background

Cevat Paşa (Cevat Çobanlı) was a Turkish general and commander of the Gallipoli fortress who distinguished himself in the battle of the Dardanelles on 18 March 1915. He was also given the nick-name Hero of 18 March. Cevat was awarded the title Paşa after the battle, was congratulated by Emperor Wilhelm II., and from newspaper clips it is obvious that he was educated in Germany.

Decorated

At the end of the month he was awarded Militärverdienstkreuz 2. klasse by emperor Franz Joseph I. and this is the event that Lukáš refers to. The entire sequence about the decorations has been cut from Kronika světové války.

The fourth man

In listing the decorations Kronika světové války, Národní politika and other publications also mention a fourth officer. This man was rear admiral Mertens but unlike the three others he is never mentioned by Wendler.

Studies of the novel's manuscript however reveal that the admiral was extremely close to achieve a place in world literature in the company of Enver Paşa, Usedom Paşa and Cevat Paşa. In the manuscript, after "Dževad paša", follow the letters "a kon" but these have been crossed over so the author obviously changed his mind at the last moment. There is no doubt that "kon" here is the start of "kontredmirál" which is the exact wording in Kronika světové války.

It could also be added that Mertens is misspelt and that his rank in 1915 was Vizeadmiral and not Konteradmiral (rear admiral). The real name of this German naval officer serving in the Ottoman armed forces was Johannes Merten (1857-1926). He was pensioned in 1910 but after the outbreak of war he took up a command in the Turkish army by the Dardanelles. He was also a well-known pilot and in 1912 newspapers refer to him as president of the German airmen association.

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Source: Hans-Peter Laqueur

Quote from the novel
[1.14] „Turci se drží dobře,“ odpověděl nadporučík, uváděje ho opět ke stolu, „předseda turecké sněmovny Hali bej a Ali bej přijeli do Vídně. Vrchním velitelem turecké armády dardanelské jmenován maršálek Liman šl. Sanders. Goltz paša přijel z Cařihradu do Berlína a naším císařem byli vyznamenáni Enver paša, viceadmirál Usedom paša a generál Dževad paša. Poměrně hodně vyznamenání za tak krátkou dobu.“

Also written:Dzevad pasha en Dževad paša cz Dschewad pascha de

Marchese di San Giulianonn flag
*10.12.1852 Catania - †16.10.1914 Roma
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giuliano.jpg

Bergens Tidende, 13.10.1914

giuliano.png

Světová válka 1914-1915 slovem i obrazem, s. 511

San Giuliano was mentioned by hop trader Wendler who evidently did not know that San Giuliano had died earlier in the year. Wendler is annoyed because Italy as an ally of the Central Powers still sticks to her neutrality, and he wonders if San Giuliano is asleep. He had after all renewed the treaty woth the Central Powers in 1912.

The conversation between Wendler and Lukáš took place shortly before Christmas in 1914, two months after the death of the Italian foreign minister, so San Giuliano was definitely "asleep".

Background

San Giuliano was an Italian politician who held the post of Foreign Secretary when the war started. He advocated neutrality but was already dead when Italy entered the war on the side of the Entente, on 23 May 1915. His real name was Antonino Paternò Castello.

Paternò-Castello originated from a noble family a Sicily, and received a good education in Vienna, London and Catania. From 1882 he was a member of the national assembly, from 1889 minister of various ministries, and from December 1905 Foreign Secretary. Politically he was liberal and anti-clerical, in foreign affairs he tried to balance between the blocks to the benefit of Italy. Before he became minister of foreign affairs he had been ambassador to London and Paris.

His successor as Foreign Secretary was Sidney Sonnino who was one of the politicians who eventually led Italy to declare war on her formal allies.

Kronika světové války (Chronicle of the World War)

Many fragments from the conversation between the hop trader and the officer are picked from Kronika světové války, and probably this also applies to details around San Giuliano. In this case it is from page 511 where the chronicle mentions that San Giuliano as foreign minister renewed the Triple Alliance treaty in 1912, exactly as Wendler says.

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Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Chmel mně ve skladištích hnije, uzávěrky domácí jsou slabé, export rovná se nule, a Italie zachovává neutralitu. Proč Italie obnovovala ještě v roce 1912 s námi trojspolek? Kde je italský ministr zahraničních záležitostí markýz di San Giuliano? Co dělá ten pán? Spí nebo co? Víte, jaký jsem měl do vojny roční obrat a jaký mám dnes?
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Blahník was a dog-trader who conspired with Švejk in the attempt to steal a dog for Lukáš, and he actually stole the stable pincher Fox in [I.15]. The dubious deed was planned in a small pub by the Zámecké schody in Malá Strana. See Malý výčep piva.

About Blahník it is revealed that he had worked at a kennel above Klamovka. As opposed to Švejk he stole the dogs, but was only interested in thoroughbreds. He knew all the dogs in Prague and surroundings and was a master at his dark art, and had been in court many times. Once he had been bitten by a dog, was infected with rabies, sent to the Pasteur-Institut in Vienna where he felt quite at home. Before the war when Švejk still made a living by selling dogs, it was Blahník who provided him with animals. Blahník is mentioned 12 times in the novel, all in connection with the dog theft and the planning of it.

Background

Blahník is not a very frequent family name, and only four entries appear in the Prague address book from 1910. None of those can conceivably be linked to animal trade or any similar activity. Thus we must assume that any model for Blahník was a person with another surname, trading in dogs, and associated with Psinec nad Klamovkou.

Ladislav Čížek
cizek.jpg

Jednou za čas, Josef Mach, June 1918

Some of Hašek's stories set at Klamovka give useful clues. Můj obchod se psy (My trade with dogs) features a man who bears many similarities with Blahník, a certain Ladislav Čížek from Košíře. Čížek also plays an important role in the story Má drahá přitelkyně Julča (Me dear friend Julie) where he actually works for the kennel of Fuchs above Klamovka.

Čížek is also mentioned in Strana mírného pokroku v mezích zákona, again as a servant at the kennel of Fuchs. Here he is described as a brute who beats the animals at will. Hašek even signed a couple of stories using his name, although these were not related to animals.

All in all there is little doubt that Ladislav Čížek is the main inspiration for Blahník.

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SourceJaroslav Šerák,Radko Pytlík

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] „Je to opravdu stájový pinč? Můj obrlajtnant jinýho nechce.“ „Fešák stájovej pinč. Pepř a sůl, dovopravdy čistokrevnej, jako že ty jseš Švejk a já Blahník. Mně jde vo to, co žere, to mu dám a přivedu ti ho.“
[1.14.6] Oba přátelé si opět ťukli. Ještě když Švejk se živil prodejem psů do vojny, Blahník mu je dodával.
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puntik.png

Dva tucty povídek, 1927

Puntík (Spotty) was a black spitz dog from Klamovka, mentioned in the conversation between Blahník and Švejk as they were planning the dog theft. Puntík was a dog that Blahník stole and handed in at PBK. This dog was very choosy when it came to food so the thief tried out several delicacies before he finally got him on a lead. The whole operation lasted for three days.

Background

Puntík is like many other names in the novel re-use of a theme from one of Hašek's prewar stories. He and the cat Balíček are the main characters in the story Kaťouráci, first printed in Světozor 31 December 1914.

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Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] Tak jsem musel koupit kotletu. Dal jsem mu ji očichat a běžím, pes za mnou. Paní křičela: ,Puntíku, Puntíku,’ ale kdepak milej Puntík. Za kotletou běžel až za roh, tam jsem mu dal řetízek na krk a druhej den už byl v psinci nad Klamovkou.
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Prager Tagblatt, 31.3.1915

Fox was the stable pincher who was to be stolen by Blahnik and Švejk and given to Lukáš. He was renamed Max when he got a new owner and a new impressive pedigree. Fox is first mentioned when Švejk ingratiatingly asks the maid who is walking the dog about the animals eating habits.

Background

The dog stories have like most elements in Švejk clear connections to the authors own life and experiences. For a short while in 1910-11 Jaroslav Hašek ran his own Cynological institute below Klamovka (see Psinec nad Klamovkou). He falsified pedigrees, just like Švejk did (or his assistant more likely did).

On 31 March 1915 Prager Tagblatt printed a small advert that asked for news about a stolen dog. The advert has some striking links to the dog story in the novel. It requested information about the dog to be delivered for a 30 crown at Hotel Black Horse at Na Přikopě. This is the very street were Colonel Kraus encountered his stolen pet.

We know that Jaroslav Hašek made use of newspaper items from exactly this period when he wrote this chapter. Several snippets from these publications are more or less literally quoted in the novel, particularly in the conversation between Wendler and Lukáš. See Kronika světové války for more on this theme.

Ivan Štern, Český rozhlas

Z románu víme, že plukovník inzeroval v obou v Praze německy vycházejících listech. V Bohemii a v Prager Tagblattu. A vskutku: Z vydání Prager Tagblattu z 31. března 1915 se na nás obrací zoufalé inzerentovo volání: „Pes, stájový pinč, hrubosrstý, byl odcizen. Odměna 30 K tomu, kdo o něm poskytne zprávu do hotelu „Černý oř“, Prague, Příkopy.“

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Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] „Tak to je tedy váš pejsek,“ přerušil ji Švejk, „to je škoda, že můj obrlajtnant nemůže žádnýho psa vystát, já mám velice rád psy.“ Odmlčel se a náhle vyrazil: „Každej pes ale taky všechno nežere.“ „Náš Fox si strašně vybírá, jeden čas nechtěl vůbec jíst maso, až teď opět.“ „A co žere nejradši?“„Játra, vařená játra.“
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pejchar.png

Chytilův adresář 1915

Pejchar is mentioned when Švejk talks to the maid of Kraus, who is walking the soon to be stolen dog. Švejk asks her if she knows the butcher Pejchar at Protivín náměští. She answers that he is actually her brother.

Background

In the address book of 1915 no butcher named Pejchar is listed in Protivín.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] „Tak jsme nedaleko od sebe,“ odpověděl Švejk, „já jsem z Protivína.“ Tato znalost místopisu českého jihu, nabytá kdysi při manévrech v tom kraji, naplnila srdce dívky krajanským teplem. „Tak znáte v Protivíně na náměstí řezníka Pejchara?“
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Jareš z Ražic (Jareš from Ražice) is mentioned when Švejk is in a conversation with the maid of colonel Kraus, trying to find out as much as possible about the dog that he and Blahník plan to steal. Švejk's alleged father was from Ražice, was 68 years old, and delivered beer.

Background

This person and three like named figures from the novel are not doubt inspired by the author's grandfather. See Jareš.

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Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] „Toho tam mají u nás všichni rádi,“ řekl Švejk, „von je moc hodnej, úslužnej, má dobrý maso a dává dobrou váhu.“ „Nejste vy Jarešův?“ otázala se dívka, začínajíc sympatisovat s neznámým vojáčkem. „Jsem.“ „A kterýho Jareše, toho z Krče u Protivína, nebo z Ražic?“ „Z Ražic.“
Továrník Vydra, Františeknn flag
*20.4.1869 Vráž - †29.9.1921 Praha
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vydra.jpg

Frantíšek Vydra

Vydra was a factory owner who had his Saint Bernhard dog stolen by Blahník. This is evident from a conversation between Švejk and Blahník as they are planning to steal a dog for Lukáš.

Background

Vydra surely was, as most apparently fictive persons in Švejk, a real person. In this respect a candidate would be Frantíšek Vydra (1869-1921), a factory owner and inventor that Hašek surely knew about.

Vydra was educated as a brewer and in 1893 he bought the brewery in Dobrovíz but soon converted it to a foodstuff factory. In 1898 he moved production to a former sugar refinery at Na Rokosce in Libeň that he converted and expanded. The official name was Vydrova továrna požívatin. It manufactured nutrition products, amongst them coffee substitutes, grog, fruit juice, baking powder soup tins etc. The factory advertised regularly and seems to have been well known at the time. In it's most successful period before WW1 Vydra employed close to 300 people. Their best known product was a coffee substitute made from rye malt.

Whether or not Vydra at some time owned a St. Bernard dog and if the animal ever was stolen has not been confirmed!

Today the building houses the Institute of rock structure and mechanics (Ústav struktury a mechaniky hornin).

Misuse of brand names

In 1901 the company Kathreiner Malzkaffeefabriken from Munich successfully sued Vydra and other companies for having branded their own products illegally. Vydra was fined 200 crowns and ordered to destroy all goods labelled with the "Kathreiner" brand. The Bavarian company had throughout the year warned in adverts that illicitly branded products were circulating in the marked.

External Links

Source: Bohumil Tesařík

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] „Pohostím ho hovězíma,“ rozhodl se Blahník, „na ty jsem už dostal bernardýna továrníka Vydry, náramně věrný zvíře. Zejtra ti psa přivedu v pořádku.“
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Adresář ... 1910, Papírníci.

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The retail outlet in Melantrichova 465/11, Praha I.

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Adresář ... 1910

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Hynek Fuchs in Staré město (Old town)

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Almanach der k. k. österreichischen Staatsbahnen, 1915/1916

Fuchs was a stationer from whom Blahník bought a blank pedigree form for dogs. He then instructed Švejk on how to fill it in with invented names of the forefathers of the stolen Fox (now called Max).

Background

It is hard to say what exactly what enterprise Blahník refers to, but one must assume that it was a specialist shop. Pedigree forms for dogs were surely not available in common stationer's shops.

The surname Fuchs was very common in Prague, but there is only one stationary shop Fuchs listed in the address book. Listed is also a paper factory in Česká Kamenice with head offices in Mikulášská třída in Praha. Both are places where Blahník may have bought the blank pedigree forms, but with the former as the prime candidate.

Hynek Fuchs

Closer investigations reveal that both firm had the same roots. They were owned by two brothers and had existed as a single enterprise until 1908. The company can be traced back to 1793, but it was the father of the brothers, the Jewish businessman Ignaz Fuchs (cz. Hynek) (1824-1890), who led the company to become one of the leaders in this market segment.

In 1868 Fuchs bought a paper factory in Česká Kamenice that he modernised and expanded. When he died the number of employees was nearly 1000 and Fuchs had manufacturing facilities in Prague, Böhmisch Kamnitz (Česká Kamenice), and Vienna. Already from 1873 the firm was recognized as official purveyor to the court. By 1891 stores and offices could be found in Paris, Amsterdam, Brussels, London, Madrid, Copenhagen, Hamburg, Berlin, Moscow, Petrograd and New York. That year the company had its own pavilion at the country exhibition in Praha, built as a Swiss cottage.

In 1888 the sons Robert (1854-1925) and Artur (1862-1940) took over as owners of the company. In 1908 the Fuchs brothers decided to split and they divided the company in two parts. Robert now owned the factory in Česká Kamenice and an office in Prague whereas the rest remained with Artur who also retained the brand name Hynek Fuchs. Both enterprises remained official purveyors to the court.

In Prague

The main office with a factory and store was located in Michálska 460/31 in Staré Město. In the immediate neighbourhood, in Melantrichova 465/11, the company had a retail outlet. It was here in this house U pěti korun the company had its origins. The book printing was located at Václavské náměstí 819/51, and in 1912 a new and larger factory was built in Strašnice.

Range of goods

The range of good was extensive, as witness by a whole-sale catalogue of 670 pages. The company didn't only trade in paper products, they offered a whole range of office- and also school equipment. The company also manufactured various forms but he mentioned catalogue did not include blnak pedigrees. On the other hand it refers to detailed price lists for retail goods, so one would assume that empty pedigree forms belonged in this category.

After 1918

In inter-war Czechoslovakia the firm still flourished and the branches in Vienna and Hamburg also continued to operate. After 1922 the Hamburg branch was "arfified" by the Nazis and the entire comany suffered the same fate after the Nazi occupation of the Czech lands in 1939. Artur Fuchs committed suicide in 1940 and several member of the Fuchs family became victims of Holocaust. What happened to the company Hynek Fuchs after the 2nd World War is not known. The paper factory of Robert Fuchs in Česká Kamenice is still operating but it is not clear if production has gone on continuously.

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Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] Pak jsem ho, když se nažral, uvázal na řetízek a táh jsem ho přes Václavské náměstí na Vinohrady, až do Vršovic. Po cestě mně vyváděl pravé divy. Když jsem přecházel elektriku, lehl si a nechtěl se hnout. Snad se chtěl dát přeject. Přines jsem s sebou taky čistý rodokmen, kterej jsem koupil u papírníka Fuchse. Ty umíš padělat rodokmeny, Švejku.
Arnheim von Kahlsbergnn flag
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kahlsberg.png

Volksfreund, 30.11.1912

Arnheim von Kahlsberg the fictive father of the dog Max (previously Fox), from Hundezwinger von Bülow in Leipzig. He held a first price from the stable pincher exhibition in Berlin in the year of 1912. His name was invented by Blahník for Švejk to use on the stolen dog's pedigree form.

Background

Even if this name (as the rest of the dog- and kennel names) are inventions, it may be that the name Kahlsberg in itself inspired the author. Such a candidate is Schloß Kahlsberg (now Kahlsperg) by Salzburg, but even this is unlikely.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] „To musí bejt tvou rukou napsaný. Napiš, že pochází z Lipska, z psince von Bülow. Otec Arnheim von Kahlsberg, matka Emma von Trautensdorf, po otci Siegfried von Busenthal. Otec obdržel první cenu na berlínský výstavě stájových pinčů v roce 1912. Matka vyznamenána zlatou medalií norimberskýho spolku pro chov ušlechtilých psů. Jak myslíš, že je starej?“
Emma von Trautensdorfnn flag
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welminsdorf.png

Svět zvířat, 1.6.1910

Emma von Trautensdorf was the fictive mother of the stolen dog Max. She had earned a gold medal from the Nuremberg society for the breeding of thoroughbred dogs.

Background

This name is, like the other names on Max's pedigree (see Fox), surely invented. It is logical to assume that Hašek, when he wrote down these names, drew inspiration from his own experiences, namely as editor of Svět zvířat (1909-1910) and as owner of a Cynological Institute (1910). See Psinec nad Klamovkou.

During Hašek's editorship of Svět zvířat there is a note in the magazine about a dog exhibition in Berlin, where a dog owner Karolina von Welminsdorf, is mentioned. Although her name and information about the dog exhibiton don't correspond to the details from the novel, there is still an air of similarity. More on the theme under Berliner Stallpinscherausstellung .

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] „To musí bejt tvou rukou napsaný. Napiš, že pochází z Lipska, z psince von Bülow. Otec Arnheim von Kahlsberg, matka Emma von Trautensdorf, po otci Siegfried von Busenthal. Otec obdržel první cenu na berlínský výstavě stájových pinčů v roce 1912. Matka vyznamenána zlatou medalií norimberskýho spolku pro chov ušlechtilých psů. Jak myslíš, že je starej?“
Siegfried von Busenthalnn flag
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Siegfried von Busenthal was the fictive grandfather of the stolen stable pinscher Max (formerly Fox). The name was proposed for Švejk by the dog thief Blahník when the two sat down to write a false pedigree form for "Max".

Background

As an obviously invented name for the dog, the place name Busenthal is the only item left to investigate. It is an extremely rare geographical name, on modern maps it can't be located at all. The similar Busental(*) does however exists by Graz and also by Trier in Germany. Both are names of minor valleys, so it is unlikely that the name could have inspired Blahník to invent the name of Max's grandfather. A more likely source would be one of the German words for breast cleavage: Busental.

*) Busental is simply a modern spelling of Busenthal.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] „To musí bejt tvou rukou napsaný. Napiš, že pochází z Lipska, z psince von Bülow. Otec Arnheim von Kahlsberg, matka Emma von Trautensdorf, po otci Siegfried von Busenthal. Otec obdržel první cenu na berlínský výstavě stájových pinčů v roce 1912. Matka vyznamenána zlatou medalií norimberskýho spolku pro chov ušlechtilých psů. Jak myslíš, že je starej?“
Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

15. Catastrophe

Oberst Kraus von Zillergut, Friedrichnn flag
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zillergut.jpg

Kraus, Lukáš and Fox/Max, as envisaged by Josef Lada.

Kraus was a colonel at some barracks in Prague (presumably Karlín), he originated from the Salzburg area. He was the owner of the stolen dog Fox (who was named Max for the short period he belonged to Lukáš).

Kraus was a price idiot and also had plenty of other despicable characteristics. He was probably the most stupid of the many officers that are described in the novel. He had a habit of explaining the most obvious things, which drove his colleagues to insanity. Despite of all this he had advanced in the military hierarchy thanks to good connections, a fact the author uses to emphasise the rottenness of the Habsburg Empire.

After running into Lukáš who was promenading with Fox/Max, Kraus made sure that Lukáš and Švejk were sent to the front. This was an important turning point in the novel which from now on mostly uses military life as a backdrop to the plot.

Background

Kraus does not have any obvious model from real life, and the author gives little biographical information that could help to identify him. With his grotesque stupidity one must assume that the colonel is a caricature, but some of his character traits may well have been borrowed from officers or other people that Hašek knew. Not even the geographical name Zillergut gives any clue as no such place can be identified, be it on modern maps or in historical newspapers.

The theories of Augustín Knesl
krausf.png

Augustín Knesl, Večerní Praha, 1983

krausf1.png

Adresář ... 1910

Seemingly Augustín Knesl is the only researcher that has made a serious attempt at identifying a model for the idiotic colonel. Allegedly he is inspired by a certain Friedrich Kraus who studied civil engineering at the German technical high school in Prague. This Kraus was born in 1880 and Knesl claims that he was a colonel and served at the Prague garrison. Knesl also maintain that Kraus had a mania for explaining the most obvious of things.

Unfortunately Knesl's conclusions are unconvincing. As usual he naively accepts information from the novel as facts, and thus concludes that Kraus was a colonel in Prague. However no trace of such a colonel exist, be it in Schematismus für das k.u.k. Heer (1914) or in the Prague address books. The closest are some reservists, but none of them served in Prague in 1914. Not even in K.k. Landwehr can any such officer be traced.

Friedrich Kraus was a common name, so Hašek may well have known a few of them, and there is good reason to believe that Knesl's engineering student actually lived. Apart from this there is little tangible information and the parallel to Knesl's write-up on Katz is striking: the researcher dug out a person with some similarities to the literary figure, but then assumed that additional information can be deduced from Švejk.

A fellow student

One Kraus who Hašek may have known was Bedřich (Friedrich), a fellow student at the gymnasium in Žitná ulice from 1893 to 1896. This Kraus hailed from Karlín and studied five years above Hašek, so he would probably have been no more than a peripheral acquaintance.

Rector Řežábek

In the Hašek biography The Bad Bohemian, Cecil Parrott notes that rector of Českoslovánské akademie obchodní, Řežábek was detested by the author who wrote a scathing satire Karikatury in 1908. Parrott observed that Řežábek like colonel Kraus demanded that "sub-ordinates" had to greet him already at distance and woe betide he who didn't.

Cecil Parrott: "The Bad Bohemian"

Režábek's insistence that the students should greet him from a long way off recalls Colonel Kraus von Zillergut in The Good< Soldier Švejk. Woe betide anyone who failed to notice him! The culprit was given a dressing down before the whole class and his crime was recorded in the class book. In addition his marks for good behaviour were slashed and he was led off to the Rector's office, where he got a second dressing down and his parents were told of his unheard of behaviour.

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Quote from the novel
[1.15] Plukovník Bedřich Kraus, mající též přídomek von Zillergut, po nějaké vesničce v Solnohradech, kterou jeho předkové prožrali již ve století osmnáctém, byl úctyhodným pitomcem.
[1.15] Scházela mu polovička levého ucha, kterou mu usekl jeho protivník za mládí v souboji kvůli prostému konstatování pravdy, že Bedřich Kraus von Zillergut je prachpitomý chlap.

Also written:Bedřich Kraus von Zillergut cz

Mannlicher, Ferdinand Karl Adolf Josefnn flag
*30.1.1848 Mainz - †20.1.1904 Wien
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man.jpg

Mannlicher Repetier-Gewehr M1895

Andrew Bossi.

mannlicher.png

Leitmeritzer Zeitung, 23.1.1904.

Mannlicher is indirectly referred to by the Mannlicher rifle, called manlicherovka in the novel. The theme here is colonel Kraus who was obsessed with this rifle and therefore got the nickname "Mannlicher idiot" (Manlichertrottel).

Background

Mannlicher was an Austrian inventor and small armaments designer, best known for M1895, a series of automatically loading rifles that became the standard hand gun in K.u.k. Heer. The term manclicherovka refers to this gun. The most common version was Infanterie Repetier-Gewehr M1895. The rifles were produced in Steyr and later also in Budapest.

Mannlicher, who hailed from a family in Brüx (now Most) in Bohemia, moved with them to Vienna in 1857. Here he studied machine engineering and made a career as a railway engineer. In 1876 he travelled to Philadelphia for a railway equipment exhibition, and on the side he had a chance to study the patents of various small-arms designs. This was probably the impetus for his career as a small arms designer.

In 1879 his first design for an 11 mm repeater rifle was ready. It underwent several improvements over the next few years, until it in 1886 was introduced in K.u.k. Heer. Two years later the 8 mm M88 was introduced, and several models followed until the flagship M1895 was introduced in 1895. Mannlicher also designed pistols and hunting guns. Mannlicher firearms were also widely exported. He is generally regarded as one of the greatest small arms designers in history.

Personal details

Mannlicher remained employed by the railways until 1887 when he finally took up a full position at the Steyr armaments factory, Österreichische Waffenfabriksaktiengesellschaft. He was by now famous, repeatedly decorated, and in 1892 he was ennobled, choosing the name Ritter von Mannlicher. In 1899 he was awarded life long membership of Herrenhaus, the upper chamber of Reichsrat (the parliament of Cisleithanien). Mannlicher was married with two daughters. In 1904 he died of a heart attack, still only 55.

Hašek and "manlicherovka"

Mannlicher's famous rifle is mentioned by Hašek already in the story "Smrt Horala" (The death of Horal). It was published first in Národní listy on 8 April 1902 and also appeared across the Atlantic in Národní noviny, Baltimore, on 3 May. This was surely the first time ever that Hašek had a story published outside Bohemia.

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.15] Při přehlídkách pluku dával se do hovoru s vojáky a ptal se jich vždy jedno a totéž: „Proč se ručnici, zavedené ve vojsku, říká manlicherovka?“ U pluku měl přezdívku „manlichertrottel“. Byl neobyčejně mstivý, ničil podřízené důstojníky, když se mu nelíbili, a když se chtěli ženit, tu posílal nahoru velmi špatná doporučení jejich žádostí.
Schiller, Friedrichnn flag
*10.11.1759 Marbach - †9.5.1805 Weimar
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Schiller is mentioned because colonel Kraus passed idiotic remarks when his officer colleagues talked about Schiller at a banquet.

Background

Schiller was a world-famous German composer, poet, historian and philosopher. He belonged to the Romantic era and was strongly associated with Goethe and Weimar. His full name his was Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller.

Quote from the novel
[1.15] Týž spád řeči, táž zásoba největší naivnosti. Na jednom banketu v důstojnickém kasině plukovník Bedřich Kraus von Zillergut z čista jasna pronesl, když byla řeč o Schillerovi: „Tak jsem vám, pánové, včera viděl parní pluh hnaný lokomotivou. Považte si, pánové, lokomotivou, ale ne jednou, dvěma lokomotivami. Vidím kouř, jdu blíž, a ona to lokomotiva a na druhé straně druhá. Řekněte mně, pánové, není-liž to směšné? Dvě lokomotivy, jako by nestačila jedna.“
Vierordt, Heinrich Wilhelmnn flag
*1.10.1855 Karlsruhe - †17.6.1945 Hornberg
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vierordt2.png

Arbeiterwille, 25.11.1914

Vierordt gets compared to colonel Kraus due to his grotesque poem "Deutschland, Hasse!" (Hate, Germany!), which is spiritually in line with the attitudes of the colonel.

Background

Vierordt was a local poet from Karlsruhe who wrote bloodthirsty poems during the war. The most infamous one, "Deutschland, Hasse!", is referred to by the author in the novel. It was even banned by the German General Staff.

The poem was published some time before 25 November 1914, and was reproduced by Arbeiterwille in 1914 and 1915. It also appeared in the booklet Deutschland hasse! Kriegsruf by Verlag Müller & Gräff in 1914. The text published on the front page of the paper 25 November 1915 differs slightly from what has been reproduced since.

Arbeiterwille mentioned the poem again on 22 April 1915 and clearly distanced themselves from the content. They might have done so already in November 1914, but as most of the surrounding text was removed by sensorship it is difficult to pass judgement on the context.

O Du Deutschland, jetzt hasse mit eisigem Blut,
Hinschlachte Millionen der teuflischen Brut,
Und türmten sich berghoch in Wolken hinein
Das rauchende Fleisch und das Menschengebein!

O du Deutschland, jetzt hasse geharnischt in Erz!
Jedem Feind ein Bajonettstoß ins Herz!
Nimm keinen gefangen! Mach jeden gleich stumm!
Schaff zur Wüste den Gürtel der Länder ringsum!

O du Deutschland, jetzt hasse! Im Zorn glüht das Heil,
Und zerspalt ihre Schädel mit Kolben und Beil.
Diese Räuber sind Bestien, sind Menschen ja nicht.
Mit der Faustkraft vollstrecke des Herrgotts Gericht.

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.15] Nebyl o nic horší než německý básník Vierordt, který zveřejnil za války verše, aby Německo nenávidělo a zabíjelo s železnou duší miliony francouzských ďáblů:
Ať až k oblakům nad hory 
hromadí se lidské kosti a kouřící se maso.
Kunešnn flag
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Kuneš was a bagmaker in Spálená ulice, described by Švejk when he tries to explain the dog theft to the furious Lukáš.

Quote from the novel
[1.15] Ve Spálený ulici je nějakej brašnář Kuneš a ten nemoh jít se psem na procházku, aby ho neztratil. Vobyčejně ho nechal někde v hospodě nebo mu ho někdo ukrad nebo si ho vypůjčil a nevrátil
General von Laudon, Ernst Gideonnn flag
*2.2.1717 Ļaudona(Tootzen) - †14.7.1790 Nový Jičín
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Laudon is mentioned indirectly through the powerful expression Himllaudon that Lukáš used when he verbally wiped the floor with Švejk after discovering that the dog was stolen. He is also mentioned in the in the final chapter when the author is describing colonel Gerbich.

Background

Laudon was an Austrian field marshal of Baltic origin, and one of the most successful commanders of the 18th century. He fought in the Seven Years' War, the War of the Bavarian Succession and the wars against Turkey.

Quote from the novel
[1.15] „Švejku, dobytku, himmellaudon, držte hubu! Buď jste takový rafinovaný ničema, nebo jste takový velbloud a blboun nejapný. Jste samý příklad, ale povídám vám, se mnou si nehrajte. Odkud jste přived toho psa? Jak jste k němu přišel? Víte, že patří našemu panu plukovníkovi, který si ho odvedl, když jsme se náhodou potkali? Víte, že je to světová ohromná ostuda? Tak řekněte pravdu, ukrad jste ho, nebo neukrad?“
Božetěchnn flag
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Božetěch was a man from Košíře who specialized in stealing dogs and claimed reward on the basis of newspaper ads for the missing animals. Švejk found it appropriate to mention this for Lukáš in the midst of the severe reprimand he was subjected to after the lieutenant got to know that Max was stolen.

Quote from the novel
[1.15] Nějakej Božetěch z Košíř, ten se jen tak živil. Ukrad vždycky psa, pak hledal v inserátech, kdo se zaběh, a hned tam šel.
General Folliot de Crenneville, Franznn flag
*22.3.1815 Sopron - †22.6.1888 Gmunden
Wikipedia de Google search

Folliot de Crenneville is mentioned in a song Švejk sings, he uses the name Grenevil.

Background

Folliot de Crenneville was an Austrian count and general from a renowned military family of French decent. He served in the Austrian army in Croatia, Italy and Bohemia and for a while he represented the Austrian military authorities at the Royal Court in Paris. He took part in the battle of Solferino where he was injured. Later in his career he was awarded the command of the 75th infantry regiment in Jindřichův Hradec.

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Source: Milan Hodík

Quote from the novel
[1.15] Nadporučík se odvrátil, vzdychl a uznal za vhodné místo se Švejkem obírat se raději bílou kávou.Švejk šukal již v kuchyni a nadporučík Lukáš slyšel zpěv Švejkův:
Mašíruje Grenevil
Prašnou bránou na špacír,
šavle se mu blejskají,
hezký holky plakají
Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

Afterword to the first volume, "In the rear"

Doktor Guth, Jiřínn flag
*23.1.1861 Heřmanův Městec - †8.1.1943 Náchod
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guth.jpg

Český svět, 20.1.1921

Guth is held as an example of someone who talks very differently from Palivec. The author refers to him as Dr.Guth.

Background

Guth was a significant educator and literary figure, also known as a member of the first Olympic Committee, and very active in the Olympic movement. He was also master of ceremony at President Masaryk's office. He From 1920 onwards he called himself Jiří Stanislav Guth-Jarkovský.

Kuděj

He was also Zdeněk Matěj Kuděj's teacher at the gymansium at Královské Vinohrady and soon after the end of the First World War he employed his former student as secretary of Klub Českých Turistů, an organisation he at the time chaired.

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Quote from the novel
[1.16] Život není žádnou školou uhlazeného chování. Každý mluví tak, jak je schopen. Ceremoniář dr Guth mluví jinak než hostinský Palivec „U kalicha“, a tento román není pomůckou k salonnímu ušlechtění a naučnou knihou, jakých výrazů je možno ve společnosti užívat. Je to historický obraz určité doby.
Saint Aloysiusnn flag
*9.3.1568 Castiglione delle Stiviere - †21.6.1591 Roma
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Saint Aloysius did, according to the monk Eustach, burst into tears when he overheard a thunderous fart, and had to resort to prayer to regain the equilibrium of his soul. Jaroslav Hašek contemptuously describe him as a representative of "the masturbators of false culture".

Background

Saint Aloysius was an Italian Jesuit priest, later canonised. His real name was Luigi Gonzaga. He is the patron saint of the Catholic youth and chastity. He died when caring for plague victims, which made him a saint for protection against this disease.

Quote from the novel
[1.16] Oni by vychovali národ jako skupinu přecitlivělých lidiček, masturbantů falešné kultury typu sv. Aloise, o kterém se vypravuje v knize mnicha Eustacha, že když sv. Alois uslyšel, jak jeden muž za hlučného rachotu vypustil své větry, tu se dal do pláče a jedině modlitbou se upokojil.

Also written:Svatý Alois cz

Eustachnn flag
*12.11.1655 Caen - †1.11.1743 Mondaye
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Eustach is supposed to have written the story about the sufferings of Saint Aloysius after he witnessed that legendary fart.

Background

Eustach is not identified with certainty. One possibility is the French painter, architect and abbot Eustache Restout.

A theory of Milan Jankovič is that the person in question was the Greek Eustathios. This assumption seems however improbable as Saint Aloysius lived some 500 years later.

Quote from the novel
[1.16] Oni by vychovali národ jako skupinu přecitlivělých lidiček, masturbantů falešné kultury typu sv. Aloise, o kterém se vypravuje v knize mnicha Eustacha, že když sv. Alois uslyšel, jak jeden muž za hlučného rachotu vypustil své větry, tu se dal do pláče a jedině modlitbou se upokojil.

Also written:Eustache fr

Laudová, Marienn flag
*16.8.1869 Mladá Boleslav - †20.10.1931 Praha
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Laudová was very well spoken compared to Palivec and along with Guth and Fastrová named as masturbators of false culture, one of the people trying to make Czechoslovakia into a huge banquet hall with parquet floor where people would come in tails and gloves. Proper language would always be used, and salon manners would be exercised. In the novel she is referred to as Mrs Laudová.

Background

Laudová was a Czech actress, after getting married she took the name Laudová-Hořicová. Amongst others, she had a role as Mrs Sørby in Ibsen's play "The Wild Duck", performed at the Czech National Theatre from 1904 until 1913.

Quote from the novel
[1.16] Od hostinského Palivce nemůžeme žádat, aby mluvil tak jemně jako pí Laudová, dr Guth, pí Olga Fastrová a celá řada jiných, kteří by nejraději udělali z celé Československé republiky velký salon s parketami, kde by se chodilo ve fracích, v rukavičkách a mluvilo vybraně a pěstoval se jemný mrav salonů, pod jehož rouškou bývají právě salonní lvi oddáni nejhorším neřestem a výstřednostem.
Fastrová, Olgann flag
*10.1.1876 Praha - †8.8.1965 Praha
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Fastrová was another of the author's ironic examples of someone who didn't talk like Palivec.

Background

Fastrová was a Czech writer, journalist and translator, considered the first female Czech journalist. She wrote about issues like morals and decent conduct. Her translations were mainly from French.

Jaroslav Hašek knew Fastrová personally; in the short story Za Olgou Fastrovou he writes that they had met just after his return from Russia, and Fastrová had asked him if "the Bosheviks really were eating human meat".

Quote from the novel
[1.16] Od hostinského Palivce nemůžeme žádat, aby mluvil tak jemně jako pí Laudová, dr Guth, pí Olga Fastrová a celá řada jiných, kteří by nejraději udělali z celé Československé republiky velký salon s parketami, kde by se chodilo ve fracích, v rukavičkách a mluvilo vybraně a pěstoval se jemný mrav salonů, pod jehož rouškou bývají právě salonní lvi oddáni nejhorším neřestem a výstřednostem.
Index Back Forward II. At the front Hovudpersonen

1. Švejk's mishaps on the train

Nechlebann flag
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Nechleba from Nekázanka ulice in Prague is mentioned by Švejk when he is explaining Lukáš that he tries to do good but rarely succeeds. Nechleba suffered from the same bad luck.

Quote from the novel
[2.1] „Poslušně hlásím, že jsem to, pane obrlajtnant, pozoroval. Já má, jak se říká, vyvinutej pozorovací talent, když už je pozdě a něco se stane nepříjemnýho. Já mám takovou smůlu jako nějakej Nechleba z Nekázanky, který tam chodil do hospody ,V čubčím háji’.
Purkrábeknn flag
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pulkrabek_slavia.png

Chytilův adresář 1912

pulkrabek1907.jpg

Address book entry from 1907

Purkrábek enters the plot as Švejk mistakenly thinks the passenger opposite him is Purkrábek, a representative of Banka Slavia.

Background

Purkrábek Purkrábek is probably a reference to Rudolf Pulkrábek, a Czech banker and industrialist born in Frydland 28 August 1864. He took over the brickworks (cihelna) at Vokovice after the death of his father in 1882.

In 1912 he is listed as a member of the board of Banka Slavia, but he was better known as an executive of Hypoteční Banka where he had spent 25 years by 1914. Jaroslav Hašek is very likely to have known him from his brief employment at Banka Slavia in 1902-1903.

External Links

Quote from the novel
[2.1] „Dovolte, vašnosti, neráčíte být pan Purkrábek, zástupce banky Slavie?“ Když holohlavý pán neodpovídal, řekl Švejk nadporučíkovi: „Poslušně hlásím, pane obrlajtnant, že jsem jednou četl v novinách, že normální člověk má mít na hlavě průměrně šedesát až sedumdesát tisíc vlasů a že černý vlasy bývají řidčí, jak je vidět z mnoha případů.“
Generalmajor von Schwarzburgnn flag
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schwertburg1.png

Prager Tagblatt, 14.5.1914

schwertburg.png

Jihočeské Listy, 2.6.1915

pitlik.png

Jihočeské Listy, 17.3.1915

pitlik1.png

Österreichische Illustrierte Zeitung, 17.5.1914

Von Schwarzburg enters the plot as Švejk mistakenly thinks the passenger opposite him is Purkrábek, a representative of Banka Slavia. Instead it turns out to be major general von Schwarzburg, a terrifying army inspector who is on his way to surprise the garrison in Budějovice. This episode was obviously very unpleasant for senior lieutenant Lukáš.

Background

No major general von Schwarzburg can not be found in military records but army inspectors did of course exist. Those were higher ranking senior officers. Responsible for the garrison in Budějovice was K.u.k. Militärkommando Prag (see Korpskommando) and army inspectors would be based there. At least two high ranking officers are known to have inspected Budějovice during or around the time that Jaroslav Hašek served there (17 February to 1 June 1915). They both held the rank Feldmarcshallleutnant and were assigned to the Prague army corps.

Schwerdtner von Schwertburg

The most obvious inspiration for the bald and elderly gentleman on the train is Simon Ritter Schwerdtner von Schwertburg (1854-1925). The nobility suffix von Schwertburg is rather close to von Schwarzburg and within the author's margin of error regarding spelling.

Schwerdtner was at the time commander of the Prague garrison to which he had been transferred from Olomouc in May 1914. His rank was Feldmarschalleutnant, he was promoted from Generalmajor on 1 May 1912. In Olomouc he served as commander of 5. Infanteriedivision from 2 May 1912.

He visited Budějovice for inspection purposes at least twice when Hašek served there. The dates of arrival were 13 April and 31 May 1915. This means that he almost certainly was present on the day IR91 Ersatzbattailon was transferred to Királyhida (1 June). That Jaroslav Hašek knew about Schwerdtner and his role is inevitable and he was quite likely present at an inspection or two.

The officer was known as a German chauvinist with a dislike for Czechs and was the driving force behind the execution of Kudrna and was personally present at Motolské cvičiště when the soldier from IR102 was shot. Schwerdtner claimed it was necessary to make an example to deter disloyal elements. He was generally known as a hard-liner on nationality issues and was a driving force behind the arrest of Kramář and Scheiner i 1915. In 1913 in Olomouc he was the driving force behind a summary trial and following execution of the corporal Jan Bagacz who had shot senior lieutenant Rudolf Schramek during manoeuvres.

Pitlik von Rudan und Poria

The second high-ranking inspector based in Prague was Andreas Pitlik von Rudan und Poria (1856-1937) (cz. Ondřej Pytlík) who is known to have inspected the garrison in Budějovice in January, March and June 1915. Newspapers reported briefly on the inspections and they also reveal that he stayed at Hotel Grand (located opposite the railway station).

Born in Plzeň he started his career in his native IR35 and later served in numerous units, amongst them IR53 in Zagreb where he was promoted to major in 1898. At this time the 42 year old officer was also named Flügeladjutant for His Imperial Majesty. In December 1899 he had already become an Oberstleutnant. In 1906 his rank was Oberst and that year he was transferred to IR56 as the regiment's commander. In 1908 he was knighted with the noble suffix von Rudan und Poria.

At the outbreak of war in 1914 Pitlik was commander of the 24th Infantry Division in Przemyśl. He had been promoted from Generalmajor on 1 May 1914 but already in the autumn he requested and was granted a six month leave for health reasons. After a spa break he returned to service and from now on he served at K.u.k. Militärkommando Prag. From around 1 June 1915 he was formally in charge of training of the reserves in military district No. 8 (Prague, south and west Bohemia), the schools for one year volunteers, and recuperation hospitals.

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Quote from the novel
[2.1] A nyní se stalo něco hrozného. Holohlavý pán vyskočil, zařval na něho: „Marsch heraus, Sie Schweinkerl,“ vykopl ho do chodby, a vrátiv se do kupé, uchystal malé překvapení nadporučíkovi tím, že se mu představil. Byl to nepatrný omyl. Holohlavé individuum nebylo panem Purkrábkem, zástupcem banky „Slavie“, ale pouze generálmajorem von Schwarzburg. Generálmajor konal právě v civilu inspekční cestu po posádkách a jel překvapit Budějovice.
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Hývl was a tailor who was mentioned in an anecdote by Švejk. He was unlucky with some utterances in his native Czech after assuming that his fellow passengers wouldn't understand him. This happened on the train route Maribor - Leoben - Prague.

Quote from the novel
[2.1] To nám jednou před léty vypravoval krejčí Hývl, jak jel z místa, kde krejčoval ve Štyrsku, do Prahy přes Leoben a měl s sebou šunku, kterou si koupil v Mariboru. Jak tak jede ve vlaku, myslel si, že je vůbec jedinej Čech mezi pasažírama, a když si u Svatýho Mořice začal ukrajovat z tý celý šunky, tak ten pán, co seděl naproti, počal dělat na tu šunku zamilovaný voči a sliny mu začaly téct z huby. Když to viděl krejčí Hývl, povídal si k sobě nahlas: ,To bys žral, ty chlape mizerná.’
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Rous was the fellow passenger av the tailor Hývl in the anecdote told by Švejk to illustrate how one could be unlucky when thinking others don't understand ones own language.

Quote from the novel
[2.1] Když to viděl krejčí Hývl, povídal si k sobě nahlas: ,To bys žral, ty chlape mizerná.’ A ten pán mu česky vodpoví: ,To se ví, že bych žral, kdybys mně dal.’ Tak tu šunku sežrali společně, než přijeli do Budějovic. Ten pán se jmenoval Vojtěch Rous.“
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Hofmann was mentioned in a conversation between Švejk and the attendant on the train between Prague and Tábor. Hofmann had claimed that emergency brakes do not work. This conversation led to the incident where Švejk was accused of having stopped the train.

Quote from the novel
[2.1] „Ke mně chodíval,“ rozhovořil se Švejk, „jeden dobrej člověk, nějakej Hofmann, a ten vždy tvrdil, že tyhle poplašný signály nikdy neúčinkují, že to zkrátka a dobře nefunguje, když se zatáhne za tuhle rukojeť.
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Šnor was mentioned in an anecdote by Švejk because he had kneeled before the carriage of the Emperor when His Majesty visited Žižkov. He was fined 20 crowns, just like Švejk on the train to Tábor.

Background

(František) was the name of two men in Žižkov at the time in question. The youngest had a son Karel and it is possibly this Karel who was landlord at U kamenáče when Jaroslav Hašek wrote the first part of the novel during the spring of 1921. It is typical of the author to "re-use" names of real people in this manner. The imperial visit in question was probably that of 1907, but the emperor also visited Žižkov in 1901. See Starej Procházka.

V Praze moc Šnorů nežilo, pouze dvě rodiny, ale na Žižkově žila skutečně jedna rodina Šnorů: Otec František *1847 a byl písařem ( officiant, Schreiber), měl syna Františka * 1873.Jeden z těchto Františků si mohl kleknout před kočár. Dále zde byl syn Karel * 1886 – ten mohl být tím hostinským „U kamenáče“.

SourceJaroslav Šerák

Quote from the novel
[2.1] Jednou, když byl císař pán návštěvou na Žižkově, tak nějakej Franta Šnor zastavil jeho kočár tím, že si před císařem pánem kleknul na kolena do jízdní dráhy.
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Kraus was a police commissioner who is mentioned in the same anecdote as Franta Šnor.

Background

The person rererred to was probably police inspector Heinrich Krause, not a commisioner as Švejk says. Apart from the fact that he lived in Královské Vinohrady in 1908 there is no information available.

Jméno Kraus se adresáři nevyskytuje, ale je tam inspektor jménem Jindřich [Heinrich] Krause. Zachovala se i policejní pobytová přihláška, kde je uveden v roce 1908 jako inspektor, bytem Královské Vinohrady, č.p. 852.

SourceJaroslav Šerák

Quote from the novel
[2.1] Potom ten policejní komisař z toho rayonu řekl k panu Šnorovi s pláčem, že mu to neměl dělat v jeho rayonu, že to měl udělat vo jednu ulici níž, co patří už pod policejního radu Krause, tam že měl vzdávat hold. Potom toho pana Šnora zavřeli.“
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Mlíček is mentioned in an anecdote by Švejk because he also had stopped a train by pulling the emergency brake. He was from Uhříněves by Prague and the incident had happened in May 1912.

Quote from the novel
[2.1] Poněvadž železniční zřízenec neodpovídal, prohlásil Švejk, že znal nějakého Mlíčka Františka z Uhříněvse u Prahy, který také jednou zatáhl za takovou poplašnou brzdu a tak se lekl, že ztratil na čtrnáct dní řeč a nabyl ji opět, když přišel k Vaňkovi zahradníkovi do Hostivaře na návštěvu a popral se tam a voni vo něho přerazili bejkovec. „To se stalo,“ dodal Švejk, „v roce 1912 v květnu.“
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Vaněk was a gardener from Hostivař who is mentioned in the same anecdote as Mlíček.

Quote from the novel
[2.1] Poněvadž železniční zřízenec neodpovídal, prohlásil Švejk, že znal nějakého Mlíčka Františka z Uhříněvse u Prahy, který také jednou zatáhl za takovou poplašnou brzdu a tak se lekl, že ztratil na čtrnáct dní řeč a nabyl ji opět, když přišel k Vaňkovi zahradníkovi do Hostivaře na návštěvu a popral se tam a voni vo něho přerazili bejkovec. „To se stalo,“ dodal Švejk, „v roce 1912 v květnu.“
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Wagner was a bastard of a station master in Svitavy, mentioned in one of the many anecdotes Švejk reels off on this train journey.

Quote from the novel
[2.1] Švejk vytáhl z bluzy dýmku, zapálil si, a vypouštěje ostrý dým vojenského tabáku, pokračoval: „Před léty byl ve Svitavě přednostou stanice pan Wagner. Ten byl ras na svý podřízený a tejral je, kde moh, a nejvíc si zalez na nějakýho vejhybkáře Jungwirta, až ten chudák se ze zoufalství šel utopit do řeky.
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Jungwirt was a switch operator in Svitavy, mentioned in the same anecdote as Wagner. He drowned himself due to persecution by Wagner but returned to haunt the latter who in turn hanged himself in a signal post.

Quote from the novel
[2.1] Švejk vytáhl z bluzy dýmku, zapálil si, a vypouštěje ostrý dým vojenského tabáku, pokračoval: „Před léty byl ve Svitavě přednostou stanice pan Wagner. Ten byl ras na svý podřízený a tejral je, kde moh, a nejvíc si zalez na nějakýho vejhybkáře Jungwirta, až ten chudák se ze zoufalství šel utopit do řeky.
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zeman1.jpg

© Jan Profous

zeman2.png

Deník plukovníka Švece, s. 174

zeman.jpg

Ziman in the first row, third from the right.

© Milan Hodík

Zeman was allegedly a brewer in Zdolbunov, mentioned in a conversation between Švejk and his benefactor at the Tábor railway station. The latter asks the soldier to pass his greetings to Zeman. In this conversation Švejk is encouraged to defect as soon as he gets to the front, something he strongly indicates that he intends to do.

Background

Zeman may well have been Václav Zeman or a relative of his. He and his cousin Josef were brewers of Czech origin who in 1880 founded a brewery in Kvasilov, a Czech settlement a few kilometres north of Zdolbunov. We know little about this brewery, but Josef Jiři Švec notes in his diary that he met the brewer Zeman in the summer of 1915. Švec describes him as a tall and happy man, married to an interesting brown-haired lady. His brother was, like Švec, a member of Česká družina, a force of Czech volunteers who would later develop into the Czechslovak army in Russia , after the war known as the "legions".

About another Zeman brewery, we know a lot more. In 1888 Václav Zeman set up his own operation in Lutsk, and it was ultimately very successful. It was therefore logical to assume that Josef Zeman was sole proprietor in Kvasilov after this, and that it is him Hašek refers to in the novel.

Information from Alexandr Drbal however adds another twist to the story: Josef Zeman died in 1892, so the identity of Hašek's sládek Zeman is still in the dark. The Polish site Polskie etykiety z piwa do 1945 r (see link) however reveals that the Kvasilov brewery in the inter-war period was owned by a Josef Zeman, born in 1873.

How this Zeman was related to the older brewers is not known, but it would be natural to assume he was the son of the old Josef Zeman, and had continued his fathers operation in Kvasilov. If this hypothesis holds, it is this Zeman Jaroslav Hašek had in mind. It could even be that the Kvasilov operation was a branch of the Lutsk brewery, and in this case it was Václav that was referred to.

Newspaper clips from the end of the 19th century reveal that the owner of the brewery in Kavsilov was Anna Zemanová, presumably the widow of Josef Zeman.

The Zeman family had immigrated to Volyn from Bohemia in 1870, and the father of Václav; Josef, was also a brewer. In Lutsk the Zeman brewery operated until the plant was nationalised after the Soviet invasion of Poland in September 1939. In 1940 the family were deported to Siberia, but Václav Zeman never lived to experience this tragedy. In 2003 a brewery named Zeman opened again in Lutsk, and the building of the old brewery is still there.

Alexandr Drbal

Zeman Václav (*11 November 1864 Městec Králove, †24 August 1938 Luck, Polská republika, nyní Ukrajina; je pravděpodobně pohřben v obci Kvasilov, nyní Rivnenská oblast), sládek, podnikatel, činitel české menšiny v Polsku. Do Ruského císařství přijel s rodiči v září r. 1870. Studoval v Kyjevě, kde pak pracoval v jednom pivovaru. Spolu s bratrancem Josefem Zemanem (*?, †1892), bratrem spisovatele Antala Staška (*1843,†1931), vystavěl pivovar v Kvasilově (1880). Pak se osamostatnil a vystavěl „Czeski Browar parowy Wacława Zemana w Lucku“ (1888-90), kde vyráběl pivo značek „Sakura“, „Stolní“, „Ležák“, „Extra“, „Zdroj“, „Granat“, „Porter“ a „Bok-Bir“ a vyvážel ho do velkých měst v Polsku a Rusku a do Francie. Byl činný v českém krajanském hnutí v Polsku. Za První světové války v r. 1915 v pivovaru pracoval Jaroslav Hašek. Josef Zeman, o kterém jsem se zmínil v textu, byl bratranec Václava Zemana a syn spisovatele Antala Staška. O jeho otci můžu jen říci, že určitě byl statkářem vedle Lvova a v Kvasilově a pravděpodobně také členem České besedy ve Lvově, tedy nikoliv sládkem. Ale Jarda Hašek určitě znal pravě Václava Zemana a ne jeho otce nebo bratrance. Kdo je na fotce se musí ještě zjistit. Vždyť se ani neví přesně kde to je: v Zdolbunově nebo Lucku. Je také možně, že Václav Zeman měl v Zdolbunově filiálku! Řekl bych, že na fotce je Václav Zeman, ale to chce analýzu.

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Source: Josef Švec, Alexandr Drbal, Milan Hodik, Jan Profous

Quote from the novel
[2.1] Když odcházel, řekl důvěrně k Švejkovi: „Tak vojáčku, jak vám povídám, jestli budete v Rusku v zajetí, tak pozdravujte ode mne sládka Zemana v Zdolbunově. Máte to přece napsané, jak se jmenuji. Jen buďte chytrý, abyste dlouho nebyl na frontě.“ „Vo to nemějte žádnej strach,“ řekl Švejk, „je to vždycky zajímavý, uvidět nějaký cizí krajiny zadarmo.“
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Hammel was a squad leader from the 21st artillery regiment depicted on a lithography in the military section of Tábor railway station. He is mentioned in the same breath corporals Paulhart and Bachmayer.

Quote from the novel
[2.1] Dobrého vojáka Švejka uvítal obraz znázorňující dle nápisu, jak četař František Hammel a desátníci Paulhart a Bachmayer od c. k. 21. střeleckého pluku povzbuzují mužstvo k vytrvání. Na druhé straně visel obraz s nadpisem: „Četař Jan Danko od 5. pluku honvédských husarů vypátrá stanoviště nepřátelské baterie.“
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Paulhart was depicted on a litograpy in the military part of the Tábor railway station, mentioned together with Hammel and Bachmayer.

Quote from the novel
[2.1] Dobrého vojáka Švejka uvítal obraz znázorňující dle nápisu, jak četař František Hammel a desátníci Paulhart a Bachmayer od c. k. 21. střeleckého pluku povzbuzují mužstvo k vytrvání. Na druhé straně visel obraz s nadpisem: „Četař Jan Danko od 5. pluku honvédských husarů vypátrá stanoviště nepřátelské baterie.“
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Bachmayer was depicted on a litograpy in the military part of the Tábor railway station, mentioned together with Hammel and Paulhart.

Quote from the novel
[2.1] Dobrého vojáka Švejka uvítal obraz znázorňující dle nápisu, jak četař František Hammel a desátníci Paulhart a Bachmayer od c. k. 21. střeleckého pluku povzbuzují mužstvo k vytrvání. Na druhé straně visel obraz s nadpisem: „Četař Jan Danko od 5. pluku honvédských husarů vypátrá stanoviště nepřátelské baterie.“
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Oesterreichische Volks-Zeitung, 21.10.1914

Danko was a squad leader from Honvédhusarenregiment Nr. 5, depicted on a litography in the military section of Tábor railway station.

Background

Danko was exactly what the author described him as: squad leader in Honvédhusarenregiment Nr. 5. On 21 October 1914 Oesterreichische Volks-Zeitung reported that he had been awarded the gold medal for bravery. The description in the newspaper is very close to the author's version. The regiment was stationed in Kassa (Košice) and the name indicates that Danko was a Slovak.

Quote from the novel
[2.1] Na druhé straně visel obraz s nadpisem: „Četař Jan Danko od 5. pluku honvédských husarů vypátrá stanoviště nepřátelské baterie.“
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Brünner Zeitung, 26.1.1915

bong2.png

Pester Lloyd, 28.2.1915

Bong was a soldier in Traineskadron Nr. 3 who was described in praising terms on a propaganda poster at Tábor station. He had saved the valuable harness of his dead horse, despite being shot at by Russian madmen. He was awarded a 2nd class silver medal for bravery.

Background

Bong was a real person and what the author reproduces is merely a more colourful variation of snippets that appeared in the press in January and February 1915. News about him having been awarded the silver medal 2nd class had been reported in newspapers in early December, amongst them Neue Freie Presse.

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Quote from the novel
[2.1] Zatímco šikovatel šel shánět nějakého důstojníka, Švejk si přečetl na plakátu:

VOZATAJEC JOSEF BONG

Vojáci zdravotního sboru dopravovali těžce raněné k vozům, připraveným v kryté úžlabině. Jakmile byl plný, odjelo se s ním na obvaziště. Rusové, vypátravše tyto vozy, počali je obstřelovati granáty. Kůň vozatajce Josefa Bonga od c. a k. 3. vozatajské švadrony byl usmrcen střepinou granátu. Bong bědoval: „Ubohý můj bělouši, je veta po tobě!“ Vtom sám zasažen byl kusem granátu. Přesto vypřáhnul svého koně a odtáhl trojspřeží za bezpečný úkryt. Nato se vrátil pro postroj svého usmrceného koně. Rusové stříleli stále. „Jen si střílejte, zpropadení zuřivci, já postroj tady nenechám!“ a snímal dál postroj s koně, bruče si ona slova. Konečně byl hotov a vláčel se s postrojem zpět k vozu. Zde mu bylo vyslechnouti hromobití od zdravotních vojínů pro jeho dlouhou nepřítomnost. „Nechtěl jsem tam nechat postroj, je skoro nový. Bylo by ho škoda, pomyslil jsem si. Nemáme nazbyt takových věcí,“ omlouval se statečný vojín, odjížděje k obvazišti, kde se teprve hlásil jako raněný. Jeho rytmistr ozdobil později prsa jeho stříbrnou medalií za statečnost.
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Vojna is mentioned in an anecdote by Švejk about an example of courage that surpassed even that of Bong. Švejk had read a story in Pražské úřední listy that could reveal that the head of one-year volunteer Vojna had extorted great deeds even after it was shot off.

Quote from the novel
[2.1] Takhle budou u nás v armádě samý nový postroje na koně, ale když jsem byl v Praze, tak jsem čet v Pražskejch úředních listech ještě hezčí případ vo nějakým jednoročním dobrovolníkovi Dr Josefu Vojnovi.
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Petrlík is a shoemaker mentioned by Švejk when he tries, in his long-winded way, to explain the lieutenant at the railway station in Tábor why he missed his train.

Background

Petrlík is a name the author may have borrowed from Jaroslav Salát-Petrlík who worked for the Czech social democrats (communists) in Moscow at the time Hašek returned from Russia in 1920. His original name was Petrlík.

Dokument československého parlamentu, 15 May 1921: Za nimi pak jel 11. října 1920 nynější vůdce československé kolonie v Moskvě, známý Salát-Petrlík, který byl určen, aby osobně řídil revoluční akci. Po nezdařeném pokusu se pak Salát opět vrátil do Moskvy, kamž přibyl 17. ledna 1920.

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SourceRadko Pytlík

Quote from the novel
[2.1] „Poslušně hlásím, pane lajtnant, že vono je třeba, aby to lezlo ze mě jako z chlupatý deky, aby byl přehled vo celý události, jak to vždycky říkal nebožtík švec Petrlík, když poroučel svýmu klukovi, než ho začal řezat řemenem, aby si svlíkl kalhoty.“
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Palánek was given the task to get Švejk a ticket onwards to Budějovice. He didn't have any money so his superior decided that Švejk had to continue on foot.

Quote from the novel
[2.1] Poněvadž se Švejk nehýbal a stále držel ruku na štítku čepice, poručík zařval: „Marsch hinaus, neslyšel jste, abtreten? Korporál Palánek, vezměte toho chlapa blbého ke kase a kupte mu lístek do Českých Budějovic!“ Desátník Palánek se za chvíli objevil opět v kanceláři. Pootevřenými dveřmi nakukovala za Palánkem dobromyslná tvář Švejkova.
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The Judgement of Solomon by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo.

Solomon is mentioned by the author when he describes the lieutenants drastic decision to let Švejk walk to Budějovice. He uses the expressions "Solomonic solution".

Background

Solomon was king of Judea in the Old Testament, the son of David. He was famed for his wisdom. Whether or not he existed is debateable.

A Solomonic Judgement is a fair and wise solution to a difficult problem. The saying is based upon the Biblical passage in 1 Kings 3:16-28, where king Solomon decided a disagreement between two mothers about a child which both claimed was their.

Quote from the novel
[2.1] Poručík dlouho nedal na sebe čekat se šalomounským rozřešením trudné otázky. „Tak ať jde pěšky,“ rozhodl, „ať ho zavřou u pluku, že se opozdil; kdo se s ním tady bude tahat.“

Also written:Šalomoun cz Salomo de

Index Back Forward II. At the front Hovudpersonen

2. Švejk's budějovická anabasis

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*430 BC Athen - †355 BC ?
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Xenophon is mentioned by the author when he introduces the reader to the term "anabasis". Xenophon exemplified the anabasis by travelling around anywhere without a map.

Background

Xenophon was a Greek commander, author and historian. He was particulalrly known for his historical descriptions of ancient Greece, his writings on Socrates, and for the first eyewitness account of a battle in ancient times. Xenophon's language is clear and concise, and has set standards on writing style. The book "Anabasis" describes the Greek mercenaries treacherous road back home though Asia Minor after a failed mission against the King of Persia. It is a seven-volume work and is considered Xenophon's best.

Hašek and Xenofon

The theme Xenophon and his Anabasis was evidently well known to Jaroslav Hašek. In Letters from the front, Čechoslovan 26 September 1916 (9 October), his name also appears, one of many testimonies to the author's interest in ancient Greece. It is also one of many examples in Švejk of reuse of fragments from Hašek,s earlier writing.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Starověký válečník Xenofon prošel celou Malou Asii a byl bůhvíkde bez mapy. Staří Gotové dělali své výpravy také bez topografické znalosti. Mašírovat pořád kupředu, tomu se říká anabase. Prodírat se neznámými krajinami. Být obklíčeným nepřáteli, kteří číhají na nejbližší příležitost, aby ti zakroutili krk.

Also written:Xenofón cz Xenophon de

Julius Caesarnn flag
*13.7.100 BC ? Roma - †15.3.44 BC Roma
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Julius Caesar is mentioned by the author when he introduces the reader to the term "anabasis". Caesars legions got all the way to the Gallic Sea without maps. Caesar is also mentioned on one of the last pages of the novel.

Background

Julius Caesar was a roman commander, politician and author. He had become most potent citizen of the empire when he was murdered by senator Brutus in 44 BC. At that time he held the title "dictator in perpeteo". During his reign he undertook extensive reforms, centralising the administration. The area of the empire was greatly extended, including Britannia.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Tam někde na severu u Galského moře, kam až se také dostaly římské legie Caesarovy bez mapy, řekly si jednou, že se zas vrátí a pomašírujou jinou cestou, aby ještě víc toho užily, do Říma. A dostaly se tam také. Od té doby se říká patrně, že všechny cesty vedou do Říma.

Also written:Julius Caesar cz Julius Cäsar de Gaius Iulius Caesar la

Mašků, Toníčeknn flag
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Mašků had ran away from the "Landwehr" but was caught soon after. He was the husband of a niese of the old lady who helped Švejk by Vráž. The latest news was that he had lost a leg at the front.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] „U nás byl taky jeden takovej nezbeda. Ten měl ject do Plzně k landvér, nějakej Toníček Mašků,“ povzdechla si babička, „von je vod mojí neteře příbuznej, a vodjel. A za tejden už ho hledali četníci, že nepřijel ku svýmu regimentu. A ještě za tejden se vobjevil u nás v civilu, že prej je puštěnej domů na urláb. Tak šel starosta na četnictvo, a voni ho z toho urlábu vyzdvihli. Už psal z fronty, že je raněnej, že má nohu pryč.“
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Melichárek was a farmer and brother of the old woman from Vráž. He lived in Radomyšl in Dolejší ulice. He was very suspicious of Švejk who he assumed had defected from the army.

Background

Melichárek is supposed to have been Václav Melichar and lived in Dolejší ulice, just as the author writes. According to his descendants, Hašek was in Radomyšl in 1915 and Melichár's wife is said to have made him bramborovka. The mystery is how the author got this far from Budějovice without being noticed (60 km).

Source: Ivana Šibková

Quote from the novel
[2.2] V Radomyšli Švejk našel k večeru na Dolejší ulici za Floriánkem pantátu Melichárka. Když vyřídil mu pozdrav od jeho sestry ze Vráže, nijak to na pantátu neúčinkovalo. Chtěl neustále na Švejkovi papíry. Byl to nějaký předpojatý člověk, poněvadž mluvil neustále něco o raubířích, syčácích a zlodějích, kterých se síla potlouká po celém píseckém kraji.
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Herrmann was a Jew in Vodňany who bought military euipment that he sold on to the army. In the opinion of the tramp at Švarcenberský ovčín, he would also buy Švejk's uniform.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] „Tak ten si nech. V tom se na venkově chodí. Potřebuješ kalhoty a kabát. Až budeme mít ten civil, tak kalhoty a kabát prodáme židovi Herrmanovi ve Vodňanech. Ten kupuje všechno erární a zas to prodává po vesnicích.
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Jareš was a pond warden from Ražice whose grandfather was executed for desertion during the Napoleonic Wars. This is according to a story by the old shepherd at the Švarcenberský ovčín.

Background

(Antonín) was the author's grandfather. See Jareš.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Z Ražic za Protivínem syn Jarešův, dědeček starýho Jareše, baštýře, dostal za zběhnutí prach a volovo v Písku. A před tím, než ho stříleli na píseckých šancích, běžel ulicí vojáků a dostal 600 ran holema, takže smrt byla pro něho vodlehčením a vykoupením.
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Jareš was the grandfather of the pond warden from Ražice, and was executed as a deserter during the Napoleonic wars. This is revealed during the conversation at Švarcenberský ovčín.

Background

(Antonín) was the author's grandfather. See Jareš.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Z Ražic za Protivínem syn Jarešův, dědeček starýho Jareše, baštýře, dostal za zběhnutí prach a volovo v Písku. A před tím, než ho stříleli na píseckých šancích, běžel ulicí vojáků a dostal 600 ran holema, takže smrt byla pro něho vodlehčením a vykoupením.
Fürst Schwarzenberg, Johann Nepomuknn flag
*29.5.1860 Wien - †1.10.1938 Wien
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Schwarzenberg is mentioned by the old shepherd in Švarcenberský ovčín. He tells us that at least the old Schwarzenberg moved around in an ordinary carriage but nowadays the young prince drives around in an automobile, and that the Good Lord will rub his snout in petrol one day.

Background

Schwarzenberg is probably the person referred to as old prince Schwarzenberg. He was head of the Krummau barnch of the Schwarzenbergs who owned large properties in Bohemia until 1918. He was the 9th prince of Schwarzenberg and 7th duke of Krummau (Krumlov).

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Dyť vona i ta naše vrchnost už roupama nevěděla co dělat.Starej pán kníže Švarcenberg, ten jezdil jen v takovým kočáře, a ten mladej knížecí smrkáč smrdí samým automobilem. Von mu pánbůh taky ten benzin vomaže vo hubu.“
Fürst Schwarzenberg, Adolf Johannnn flag
*18.8.1890 Hluboká nad Vltavou - †27.2.1950 Bordighera
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Schwarzenberg is mentioned by the old shepherd in Švarcenberský ovčín. He tells us that at least the old Schwarzenberg moved around in an ordinary carriage but nowadays the young prince drives around in an automobile.

Background

Schwarzenberg is probably the person referred to as the young prince Schwarzenberg. He was the 10th prince of Schwarzenberg and 8th duke of Krummau (Krumlov). The family estate was first confiscated by the Nazi's in 1938 and in 1945 he was expelled on background of the Beneš-decrees.

Another possible candidate is Karl V. Schwarzenberg from the Orlík branch of the family. He died near the Serbian front in 1914. In that case the old Schwarzenberg was Karl IV who passed away the year before.

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Quote from the novel
[2.2] Dyť vona i ta naše vrchnost už roupama nevěděla co dělat.Starej pán kníže Švarcenberg, ten jezdil jen v takovým kočáře, a ten mladej knížecí smrkáč smrdí samým automobilem. Von mu pánbůh taky ten benzin vomaže vo hubu.“
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Kořínek was arrested for sedition in Skočice after saying that after the war one would get rid of Emperors, and that the nobility would have their estates confiscated. This is what the tramp told Švejk and the old shepherd in the Schwarzenberg speep-pen.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] „Na to se mu, hochu, teď každej vykašle,“ rozdrážděně promluvil ovčák, „máš bejt při tom, když se sejdou sousedi dole ve Skočicích. Každej tam má někoho, a to bys viděl, jak ti mluvějí. Po tejhle válce že prej bude svoboda, nebude ani panskejch dvorů, ani císařů a knížecí statky že se vodeberou. Už taky kvůli takovej jednej řeči vodvedli četníci nějakýho Kořínka, že prej jako pobuřuje. Jó, dneska mají právo četníci.“
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Flanderka guarding Švejk

Flanderka was head of the gendarmerie in Putim and suspected Švejk of being a Russian spy. He considered himself a master of interrogation techniques and it soon became clear to him that Švejk was indeed a spy. The more he tanked up, the clearer it all became. He and his deputy also made complete arses of themselves with extremely seditious talk when they had had a drop too much. Austria was going to loose the war, a Russian prince would become king of Bohemia and Emperor Franz Joseph I., was shitting all over Schönbrunn. The petrified old servant Pejzlerka who had witnessed it all, had to swear never to tell a living soul what she had heard.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Četnickému strážmistrovi Flanderkovi se situace, čím déle psal tou podivnou úřední němčinou, vyjasňovala, a když skončil: „So melde ich gehorsam, wird der feindliche Offizier heutigen Tages, nach Bezirksgendarmeriekommando Písek, überliefert,“ usmál se na své dílo a zavolal na četnického závodčího. „Dali tomu nepřátelskému důstojníkovi něco jíst?“
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Berger was a duty-conscious obrlajtnant from the artillery who according to Národní politika had established an observation post in a tree, and hid there for two weeks to avoid captivity. When his own troops returned he fell down and killed himself. The story is told by Flanderka at Putim gendarmerie station.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] To jsou, pane závodčí, povahy. K tomu je třeba ocelových nervů u takového člověka, sebezapírání, tvrdosti a nadšení. Kdyby bylo v Rakousku takové nadšení... ale nechme toho raději. I u nás jsou nadšenci. Četli v ,Národní politice’ o tom obrlajtnantovi Bergrovi od dělostřelectva, který si vylezl na vysokou jedli a zřídil si tam na větví beobachtungspunkt?
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Bürger was Flanderka's predecessor as head of the gendarmerie in Putim. He never interrogated anyone, just sent them on to Písek.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Vzpomněl si na svého předchůdce strážmistra Bürgera, který se zadrženým vůbec nemluvil, na nic se ho netázal a hned ho poslal k okresnímu soudu s krátkým raportem: „Dle udání závodčího byl zadržen pro potulku a žebrotu.“ Je to nějaký výslech?
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Flanderka instructs Pepík Vyskoč

vyskoc2.jpg

K.L. Kukla, "Konec bahna Prahy", 1927, s.312

vyskoc.png

Polední list, 19.4.1936

Pepík Vyskoč was a village idiot who Flanderka tried to hire as an informer. He was told to report anyone who said the Emperor was a piece of cattle. Pepík took this literally, he told others that Sergeant Flanderka had said that the Emperor was cattle and that the thing couldn't be won. He was arrested and sentenced to twelve years by the military court in Prague. He got the nick-name because he bleated like a goat and jumped in the air when someone talked to him.

Background

This is a character that almost certainly was inspired by Václav Kompert (or Kompich?), also known as Venca Vyskoč. Firm evidence is provided by Sergey Soloukh (2015) who points to him as a curious character from Prague with some striking similarities with the character from the novel. "Venca" even frequented U Fleků, a tavern the author knew very well. Vyskoč is mentioned in several books that have been published over the past 30 years, and the information is more or less the same. In the book Jak se bavila Praha (2009) the authors Miloš Heyduk and Karel Sýs state directly (p. 137) that Venca was the model for Pepík.

When "Venca" died on 18 September 1916 at the age of 65, several national newspaper printed the news. Lidové noviny even provided a more detailed obituary. Václav Kompert was a former waiter who had some bad luck in life that affected him mentally. He started to walk around pubs and café's, bleated and jumping at the tables and collected money for his spectacle. He became a well-known but tragic characters in the streets of Prague. His main area of operation was around Václavské náměstí. The description in this obituary is so close to Jaroslav Hašek's own that there is not even the slightest doubt where the inspiration for the name, the jumping and the bleating came from.

Augustín Knesl also made a note on the connection between "Venca Vyskoč" and Pepík Vyskoč in his serial in Večerní Praha (1983), and refers to an article by Karel Ladislav Kukla in České Slovo from 1924.

A dubious link to Lipnice

Far less credible is Vladimír Stejskal (1953) and his claim that the inspiration was a character from the area around Lipnice nad Sázavou. The evidence is weak: not much more than pure hearsay.

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Source: Sergey Soloukh, Karel Ladislav Kukla, Augustín Knesl

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Toho si dal zavolat a řekl k němu: „Víš, Pepku, kdo to je starej Procházka?“ „Méé.“„Nemeč, a pamatuj si, že tak říkají císaři pánu. Víš, kdo je to císař pán?“ „To je číšaš pán.“ „Dobře, Pepku. Tak si pamatuj, že když někoho uslyšíš mluvit, když chodíš po obědech od domu k domu, že je císař pán dobytek nebo podobně, hned přijď ke mně a oznam mně to.

Also written:Pepek Vyskoč Parrott Pepku Hopp Reiner Joey Jump Sadlon

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Starej Procházka is mentioned by Flanderka when he recruits Pepík Vyskoč.

Background

Starej Procházka was a Czech nickname for emperor Franz Joseph I. In 1901 he visited Prague and a picture of him appeared walking on Most císaře Františka I., now Most Legii. The picture had the title Procházka na mostě, and was from the opening of the bridge on 14 June. "Procházka" is a common Czech surname which rougly means "walk" (noun) or "walkabout".

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Toho si dal zavolat a řekl k němu: „Víš, Pepku, kdo to je starej Procházka?“ „Méé.“„Nemeč, a pamatuj si, že tak říkají císaři pánu. Víš, kdo je to císař pán?“

Also written:Old Procházka English Alte Prochazka Reiner

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Rampa was a gendarm (četnik) in Putim who was on inspection-duty of the neighbouring villages when Švejk was there, but was right now playing cards in U černého koně in Protivín.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Strážmistr zůstal sedět na strážnici vedle Švejka na kavalci prázdné postele četníka Rampy, který měl do rána službu, obchůzku po vesnicích, a který v tu dobu klidně seděl „U černého koně“ v Protivíně a hrál s obuvnickými mistry mariáš, vykládaje v přestávkách, že to Rakousko musí vyhrát.
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Pejzlerka was an old woman who served at the police station in Putim. She went back and forth to Na Kocourku bringing beer. Unfortunately she overheard the politically suspect conversation between the drunk gendarmes and had to swear to the cross not to say a word.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] A bába Pejzlerka, která jim posluhovala, se opravdu proběhla. Po večeři se cesta mezi četnickou stanicí a hospodou „Na Kocourku“ netrhla. Neobyčejně četné stopy těžkých velkých bot báby Pejzlerky na té spojovací linii svědčily o tom, že strážmistr si vynahražuje plnou měrou svou nepřítomnost „Na Kocourku“.
Nicholas Nikolaevichnn flag
*18.11.1856 St.Petersburg - †5.1.1929 Antibes
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Nicholas Nikolaevich is mentioned when it is revealed what unpatriotic views were uttered during the drinking bout at the gendarmerie station. Nicholas Nikolaevich would soon be in Přerov, Flanderka is reported to have said.

Background

Nicholas Nikolaevich was Russian commander in chief from the outbreak of war until August 1915 when his cousin czar Nicholas II personally took charge. This was a result of the setbacks suffered during the summer of 1915 when Russia was forced out of Poland and Galicia.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Nakláněje se k uchu strážmistra, šeptal: „Že jsme všichni Češi a Rusové jedna slovanská krev, že Nikolaj Nikolajevič bude příští týden v Přerově, že se Rakousko neudrží, aby jen, až bude dál vyšetřován, zapíral a pletl páté přes deváté, aby to vydržel do té doby, dokud ho kozáci nevysvobodí, že už to musí co nejdřív prasknout, že to bude jako za husitských válek, že sedláci půjdou s cepy na Vídeň, že je císař pán nemocný dědek a že co nejdřív natáhne brka, že je císař Vilém zvíře, že mu budete do vězení posílat peníze na přilepšenou a ještě víc takových řečí...“

Also written:Nikolaj Nikolajevič cz Nikolai Nikolajewitsch de Николай Николаевич ru

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Chaura was a butcher from Kobylisy, part of a story Švejk tells his guard on the way from Putim to Písek.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] „To byl bych si nikdy nemyslil,“ vykládal Švejk, „že taková cesta do Budějovic je spojena s takovejma vobtížema. To mně připadá jako ten případ s řezníkem Chaurou z Kobylis. Ten se jednou v noci dostal na Moráň k Palackýho pomníku a chodil až do rána kolem dokola, poněvadž mu to připadalo, že ta zeď nemá konce.