Hovudpersonen

The Good Soldier Švejk

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Franz Ferdinand and Sophie leave the Sarajevo Town Hall, five minutes before the assassination, 28 June 1914.

The Fateful Adventures of the Good Soldier Švejk is a novel with an unusually rich array of characters. In addition to the many who directly form part of the plot, a large number of fictive and real people (and animals) are mentioned; either through Švejk's anecdotes, the narrative or indirectly through words and expressions.

This web page contains short write-ups on the persons the novel refers to; from Napoléon in the introduction to captain Ságner in the last few lines of the unfinished Book Four. The list is sorted in to the order of which the names first appear. The chapter headlines are from Zenny K. Sadlon's recent translation and will in most cases differ from Cecil Parrott's version from 1973. In January 2014 there were still around twenty entries to be added.

  • The quotes in Czech are copied from the on-line version of the novel provided by Jaroslav Šerák and contain links to the relevant chapter
  • The tool-bar has links for direct access to Wikipedia, Google search and Švejk on-line

The names are colored according to their role in the novel, illustrated by the following examples: Doctor Grünstein who is directly involved in the plot, Heinrich Heine as a historical person, and Ferdinand Kokoška as an invented person. Note that a number of seemingly fictive characters are modelled after very real living persons. See for instance Lukáš and Wenzl.

>> The Good Soldier Švejk index of people mentioned in the novel (585) Show all
>> I. In the rear
>> II. At the front
>> III. The famous thrashing
Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

9. Švejk in the garrison prison

Klíma, Jaroslavnn flag
*1879 Kostelec nad Černými lesy - †5.5 1927 Menton
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Moravská orlice, 8.5.1927

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Rovnost, 13.7.1923

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Information from 1906

Klíma is mentioned by the author when he writes about policemen in the Austrian power structure who kept their positions in the new Czechoslovakia.

Background

Klíma was a lawyer and high commissioner in K.u.k. Staatspolizei which career was very similar to that of Slavíček. According to Václav Menger he was the policeman who interrogated Jaroslav Hašek after the famous incident at U Valšů in November 1914, where Hašek pretended to be a trader from Russia.

Klíma takes a more extensive role in Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí than in the novel; now he personally leads the interrogation of Švejk at Policejní ředitelství. He also features in the story Kolik kdo má kolem krku. See Slavíček.

In Czechoslovakia he continued to serve in the police but was like his colleague "exiled" to Slovakia. In 1927 he fell ill with because of after effects of the Spanish flu, was sent abroad for recuperation but died soon after, at the age of 48. His was succeeded as Bratislava police chief by Slavíček.

Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí, 1917

Bude-li to někoho zajímat, poznamenávám, že Klíma i Slavíček bydlí naproti Riegrovým sadům a že mají vyhlídku na dva jasany v parku. Jsou to zdravé stromy se silným větvemi. Komisař Klíma má kolem krku 40 cm, komisař Slavíček 42 cm.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.9] Státní policie dodávala také na garnison materiál, pánové Klíma, Slavíček & Comp. Vojenská censura dopravovala sem autory korespondence mezi frontou a těmi, které doma zanechali v zoufalství. Sem vodili četníci i staré výměnkáře, kteří posílali psaní na frontu, a vojenský soud házel jim na krk za jich slova útěchy a líčení bídy domácí po dvanácti letech.
Slavíček, Karelnn flag
*23.1 1874 Vodňany - †21.10 1929 Bratislava
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Expres, 21.10.1929

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Čechoslovan, 19.2.1917 (ort. kal)

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Sebrané spisy Jaroslava Haška, 1925

Slavíček is mentioned when the author informs that Klíma and Slavíček were still working for the state police in the new Czechoslovak Republic.

Background

Slavíček was a police officer, lawyer and civil servant in K.u.k. Staatspolizei where he was employed from 1900 until 1918. He held a degree in law from Universita Karlova and joined the police when he was 26. His career progressed rapidly within the security police where he also came across Jaroslav Hašek, for instance after the famous episode at U Valšů on 24 November 1914. He was promoted to commissioner in 1909, to high commissioner in 1913 and in 1915 he succeeded Viktor Chum as head of the state police in Prague.

Slavíček was married to Bohumila (born Vaníčková in 1884) and in 1912 the couple had one child, Karel (born in 1905).

Serving Czechoslovakia

Slavíček was investigated by the new Czechoslovak authorities in 1919, but was allowed to continue in the police, albeit in "exile" in Bratislava. Here he played a major part in organising and "demagyarizing" the police in Slovakia. From 1923 he was stationed in Košice. From 1927 he was back in Bratislava as Police Director (head of the police). Two years later he suddenly died from a stroke, at the age of 55.

In Hašek's focus

Dr. Slavíček is given a more prominent place in Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí where he interrogates Švejk in person. The author also dishes out a thinly veiled death threat: he knows that Slavíček and Klíma live near Riegrové sady and that in this park there are trees with branches strong enough to carry their weight.

It appears obvious that publisher Adolf Synek or editor Antonín Dolenský didn't want to offend the two policemen who were still alive and held important positions in the police in Slovakia. Perhaps they feared a law-suit? In Spisy Jaroslava Haška from 1973 the rewritten names are still not corrected, so the editors had obviously not bothered to read Čechoslovan too closely. A certain commissioner Knotek has also been renamed (to Snopek).

Changed spelling

In the story Kolik kdo má kolem krku Slavíček and Klíma arrested Kramář and Klofáč and sent them on to Vienna. The author additionally relates from his own encounter with them during a house search at the end of 1914. The same death threat is included; the stories were written during the same period. When this story appeared in Sebrane spisy in 1925 Slavíček had been renamed Klabíček and Klima became Slíva. But in the original printed in Čechoslovan (19 February 1917) the author used their real names!

Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí, 1917

Bude-li to někoho zajímat, poznamenávám, že Klíma i Slavíček bydlí naproti Riegrovým sadům a že mají vyhlídku na dva jasany v parku. Jsou to zdravé stromy se silným větvemi. Komisař Klíma má kolem krku 40 cm, komisař Slavíček 42 cm.

Links

SourceJaroslav Šerák,Zdeněk Kárník

Quote from the novel
[1.9] Státní policie dodávala také na garnison materiál, pánové Klíma, Slavíček & Comp. Vojenská censura dopravovala sem autory korespondence mezi frontou a těmi, které doma zanechali v zoufalství. Sem vodili četníci i staré výměnkáře, kteří posílali psaní na frontu, a vojenský soud házel jim na krk za jich slova útěchy a líčení bídy domácí po dvanácti letech.
Stabsprofus Slavíknn flag
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Slavík was a brutal "stabsprofus" (staff guard) at the garrison jail at Hradčany. He was the first who received Švejk in the prison and was also present at the Holy Mess in the jail chapel, served by Katz for the prisoners. Slavík was imprisoned for theft after the war.

Background

Slavík is described as a real person, but it has not been possible to determine who the author had in mind. In 1906 there were two "stabsprofus" at the prison: Jan Frkal and Josef Bureš. Otherwise Slavík is a very common surname, and it has not been possible to establish any obvious candidate amongst the many entries in the address books from 1907, 1910 and 1924.

Quote from the novel
[1.9] Je úplně přirozené, že štábní profous Slavík, když přejímal Švejka, vrhl na něho pohled plný němé výčitky:„I ty máš porouchanou pověst, že jsi se dostal až sem mezi nás? My ti, chlapečku, pobyt zde osladíme, jako všem, kteří upadli v naše ruce, a ty naše ruce nejsou nějaké dámské ručky.“ Aby pak dodal váhy svému pohledu, přiložil svou svalnatou, tlustou pěst Švejkovi pod nos a řekl: „Čichni si, lumpe!“ Švejk si čichl a poznamenal: „S tou bych nechtěl dostat do nosu, to voní hřbitovem.“
Feldwebel Řepann flag
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Řepa was a sergeant at the garrison jail (on one instance a corporal), a torturer with many lives on his conscience. His specialty was breaking the ribs of prisoners by jumping on them. He was also called "the executioner". Řepa returned to his profession as bricklayer after the war.

Background

It has not been possible to pin-point any real life individual that might have inspired the author's creation of this character.

Quote from the novel
[1.9] A v garnisoně trojice: štábní profous Slavík, hejtman Linhart a šikovatel Řepa, přezdívaný též „kat“, vykonávali již svou úlohu. Kolik jich umlátili v samovazbě!
Hauptmann Linhartnn flag
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Linhart was a captain at the garrison prison, but little involved in the plot apart from a less than cordial phone conversation with prosecutor Bernis about Švejk's documents.

Background

This is another character without an identifiable real life model. One Karel Linhart served in the police in Smíchov (Jaroslav Hašek lived here in 1910-11) but the connection to the literary figure is difficult to established although it is likely that Hašek knew or knew about him. Linhart was a very common name in Prague and the author may have been aware of several of them.

Quote from the novel
[1.9] A v garnisoně trojice: štábní profous Slavík, hejtman Linhart a šikovatel Řepa, přezdívaný též „kat“, vykonávali již svou úlohu. Kolik jich umlátili v samovazbě!
Feldkurat Katz, Ottonn flag
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Katz is a field chaplain in Prague and no doubt one of the most famous characters in the novel. He was of Jewish origin but converted to the Roman-Catholic church. Otto Katz was a notorious drunkard and with questionable moral, but a colourful and intelligent person who the author clearly has some sympathy for.

Katz is the only one of Švejk's superiors who never shouts or swears at him. The field chaplain plays a pivotal role in this ([1.10]) and the next four chapters. He saved Švejk from the garrison prison by taking him on as an officer's servant and the soldier largely enjoyed good times when serving Katz. Together they served field masses, provided the last rites, took part on the same side in a religious debate, and consumed whatever alcohol they could get their hands on. This blissful existence ended miserably in [I.14] where Katz gambled away his servant to obrjlajtnant Lukáš in a game of cards.

The author provides a number of biographical details on Otto Katz. It is revealed that he had studied at some commercial academy, served in K.u.k. Heer as a one-year volunteer, inherited his father's trading company Katz a spol., and drove it to bankruptcy within a year. His father settled with the creditors behind closed doors and emigrated to North America leaving his son with nothing to inherit.

Thus Otto Katz saw no other option but to enlist in the army as a professional. Before that he had the brilliant idea to convert to the Roman-Catholic church, and was baptised by pater Alban (Schachleiter) in Emauzský klášter. His entry exam as an officer was successful, so he continued in the army and even planned to enlist in a staff course.

But one sunny day he got drunk and exchanged the sword with the cassock. He studied for priest at the Archsbishop's seminary (see Seminář) and was ordained. After completing his studies and being ordained, he turned back to the amrmy. At his old regiment he obtained the rank that eventually made him famous.

As a field chaplain he worked in Prague and lived in Královská třída in Karlín. It is not known at which unit he served as the author merely informs that he was assigned to one regiment. He boght a horse, lived a debaucherous life with card games, drink and prostitutes, often on borrowed money that he never intended to pay back. Amongst the officers in his regiment he was known as "Holy Father".

Katz disappears from the story after the disastrous gambling event, but is mentioned by the author in the epilogue to book one. Here it is revealed that he had lived through the war unhurt, had left the church after the war, and had become a "prokurista" (agent) at a paint factory in North Bohemia. He wrote the author an angry and threatening letter after having read about himself in the translation of one of the chapters in a certain German newspaper. The two still met, were reconciled, and it turned out that his drinking habits of the former field chaplain hadn't changed one bit.

During the remainder of the novel his name reappears a few times, but now in the stories that Švejk entertains his fellow soldiers with.

Background

Any obvious model fro Otto Katz has so far been impossible to pinpoint. At least four persons with this name lived in Prague in 1910 and are possible inspirations, but notably in his role as namesake, Jew and trader, but not as a field chaplain. At least three of them ran their own companies during Hašek's lifetime and were also Jews, so we are going to limit the investigation to these.

Searching a prototype for field chaplain Katz has on the other hand been futile. Not a single person person with the surname Katz is listed as a cleric in K.u.k. Heer in 1914 (Schematismus), so if any real field chaplain has inspired the author he must have carried a very different name.

Augustín Knesl's research
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Augustín Knesl, Večerní Praha, 1983

In the series Josef Švejk a ti druzí, published in Večerní Praha in 1983, Augustín Knesl identifies an Otto Katz who he claims was the inspiration for Hašek's field chaplain Katz. This person was born in 1864 in Prague, son of Leopold. He studied at the Českoslovanské akademie obchodní and Knesl provides many details about his years at the academy, including his marks who his teachers were.

Then the years after Otto Katz graduated in 1881 and until 1920 are left blank apart from the "literary facts" that Knesl without reservations borrows from the novel. His next step are some adverts for a firm in Celetná ulice 14, Staré Město. These were printed in České Slovo in 1920 and 1921. Knesl also notes that the firm appeared to have closed down in January 1923. Combining this with the information from the novel, he concludes that Katz went bankrupt twice. He he has obviously not considered that there could me more than one firm named Otto Katz in Prague.

Rapeseed oil in Libeň
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Adresář Praha, 1910

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The house where Otto was born

Recent investigations in newspapers and police records reveal that a certain Otto Katz was the co-owner of a company that manufactured oil from vegetables. This enterprise was located in Královská třída in Libeň and operated from 1893 until at least 1899. By 1902 the company was not listed any more but Otto Katz still owned the premises. A curious link to the the novel is the street where the firm was located. The literary field chaplain and the real life factory owner both lived in Královská třída, albeit at opposite ends.

It can now be concluded that the oil manufacturer in Libeň (in some documents named Otta) was indeed identical to the man Knesl mentioned (see link A). He was born 6 December 1864 in Prague, of Jewish confession, son of Leopold and Matylda. He married Marie Moravetz in 1894, which rules out that he ever was a Catholic priest.

On 1 March 1893 he and Josef Gross from Karlín registered the company Grossmann a Katz, manufacturer of rapeseed oil. In 1896 Katz is listed as the sole proprietor and in 1899 an advert confirms the existence of the firm. The advert is however not for oil, but for some furniture, so it might have been a closing down sale. In 1902 Otto Katz is listed as the owner of the same property (Královská třída 358) but there is no mention of any firm or factory any more. This year he lives in Podskalská ul. in Praha II., indeed very close to the Českoslovanské akademie obchodní where Jaroslav Hašek studied from 1899 to 1902.

In the 1910 address book he is listed again, now as "disponent" and house owner. He is also chairman of the Association of Czech rapeseed oil producers. His address is now Hybernská 40 and he had lived here at least since 1905. In 1915 Katz was still married, and still recorded with "Israelite confession", so as opposed to his literary counterpart he never converted. As late as 1932 he still owned the property in Libeň. Katz died on 16 June 1935 and his wife Marie was in 1942 deported by the Nazis and murdered in Treblinka (Jaroslav Šerák).

Leopold Katz

According to the novel Katz's father was the owner of a trading company. The real Leopold Katz, born in Poděbrady in 1831, died 22 April 1909, indeed ran his own firm, but traded in leather. He passed away in Prague so it is unlikely that he ever emigrated to North America. Nor is there any trace of any Leopold Katz from Prague in the passenger lists for New York arrivals. Moreover we have seen no evidence that his son Otto ever inherited the company or that it went broke. When Otto Katz was born the family lived at Pořící (Praha II., č.p.1071).

Sewing and embroidery

The address book from 1910 lists another Otto Katz who ran his own company. By comparing police records and address books we know that one Otto Katz from Sedlec lived in Ferdinandova tř. 25 in 1910, and ran a sewing and embroidery enterprise. He was married to Božena who converted to Jewish confession when they married. In 1913 he is registered in Staré Město No. 387 (Provaznická 2). His name appears here as late as 1916.

A flood of adverts
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Budweiser Zeitung, 7.2.1919

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Národní politika, 27.2.1921

The third firm was a weaver and linen manufacturer in Celetná ulice 14 and is no doubt the firm that Knesl refers to in regards to the adverts in 1920. It existed at least from January 1918 when it advertised aprons in Lidové noviny, and may have operated already in 1916, but in Josefovská ulice in Josefov (this address also appears in adverts from 1918).

From 1918 the firm often advertised in the newspapers, particularly in 1920 and 1921, including during spring and summer 1921 when the author introduced Otto Katz for his readers. Jaroslav Hašek may well have noticed these as he eagerly read newspapers, including the adverts. Otto Katz advertised in regional and national newspapers, and even abroad. They were also seen in German-language newspapers like Budweiser Zeitung and Dorfsbote, and in Slovenia's Maribor Zeitung. Prager Tagblatt reported on 28 November 1922 that a fire damaged the store on the 2nd floor and in a note in Lidové noviny 25 January 1923 it is revealed that the firm had gone broke, information that fits well with Knesl's version. In 1924 the firms property was auctioned off.

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Prager Presse, 13.6.1924

The identity of this Otto Katz is somewhat unclear. At first glance he seems to have been born in 1870 in Sedlec (link B). He specialised in embroidery, also on an industrial scale, but the information from the address book entry from 1924 shows him and the factory owner in Celetná ul. as different people (it might be an error in the address book). Several others named Otto Katz lived in Prague, some of them potential factory owners by 1918. One of them was born in 1886 and is listed as obchodník (trader) in 1915 and lived in Praha I./čp. 920.

Fraudster in uniform
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Národní listy, 7.4.1915

In April 1915 newspapers reported on a certain Otto Katz from Plzeň who defrauded a number of hotels while dressed in the uniform of a Fähnrich. That Jaroslav Hašek read the story is quite likely as he was marod (ill) in Budějovice at the time (and he was an avid newspaper reader). We also know that snippets from newspaper from this period appear elsewhere in the novel. The story may thus have lent drops of inspiration to Otto Katz (negligence of financial duties and visit to brothels), but this is mere speculation.

"Field chaplain" Mojžíš
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A most unlikely model for Katz

In his book (Jaroslav Hašek und sein „braver Soldat“ Schwejk, 2011) Jan Berwid-Buquoy claims that the model of Katz was Lev Mojžíš, "a cleric from Břevnov and notorious drunkard". His servant in Prague towards the end of the war was allegedly Zdeněk Matěj Kuděj, one of Jaroslav Hašek's closest friends.

That the chaplain Leo Josef Mojžíš actually lived is beyond dispute. He was born in Česká Skalice on 1 April 1863, served at Břevnovský klášter from 1888 until 1920, and at the parish at Bílá Hora from 1924 to 1948. Newspaper clips during the war always refer to him as a priest from Břevnov, but never as a military chaplain. Apart from the name there is no indication that he was of Jewish origin and he survived the Nazi occupation (died 1 May 1948). One point from Berwid-Buquoy's book is however worth recognising: that Zdeněk Matěj Kuděj from his experiences with Militärgeistlichkeit may have inspired Hašek when he created his military chaplains.

Mojžíš is not mentioned in the unpublished memoirs from Kuděj, who never mentions serving any field chaplain in Prague. He did however served at Militärgeistlichkeit, but never as an officer's servant. In 1918 he worked for the field bishop in Vienna, writing death certificates. Here he simulated a nervous breakdown after a serious clash with a superior. He then returned to his regiment in Beroun and Rumburk, and was given in Litoměřice around 25 July 1918 given a years sick leave. He returned to Praha but fell ill for real and spent three months in hospital in the clinic of Dr Thomayer. The information from Jan Berwid-Buquoy that Kuděj served "field chaplain Mojžíš" in Praha can therefore not be true and appears to be based on hearsay

Considering his age it is unlikely that Mojžíš was drafted as a field chaplain, and "Schematismus" from 1914 can confirm that he didn't serve in K.u.k. Heer and he doesn't even appear in the list of reserve field chaplains. "Schematismus" does however list another reserve field chaplain with a Jewish sounding surname: Jan Mojžíš. This one actually served in Budějovice and Jaroslav Hašek is likely to have been aware of him so he could, at least in theory, have lent a trait or two to Katz.

An unclear picture

As opposed to his colleagues Lacina and to a lesser extent Ibl, field chaplain Katz has no obvious real life model. Katz as a Jewish merchant may have a few plausible models, Katz as an army cleric no-one that springs to mind. In 1914 there was, according to "Schematismus", not a single army cleric called Katz in K.u.k. Heer. Some of the field chaplain's less admirable traits may even hail from the author himself: cynicism, drunkenness and a tendency to shirk financial obligations. It is obvious that field chaplain Katz is Jaroslav Hašek's main instrument in his mocking of the Catholic church and military clergy, and that inspiration has been drawn from many sources (including the author's vivid imagination) to create this grotesque but interesting figure.

Links

SourceJaroslav Šerák, Augustín Knesl, Václav Petera, Jan Berwid-Buquoy

Quote from the novel
[1.9] Potom ještě to kázání, ta zábava a legrace. Polní kurát Otto Katz byl přece jen roztomilý člověk. Jeho kázání byla neobyčejně poutavá, legračná, osvěžující tu nudu garnisonu. Uměl tak krásně žvanit o neskonalé milosti boží, sílit zpustlé vězně a muže zneuctěné. Uměl tak krásně vynadat od kazatelny i od oltáře. Uměl tak báječně řvát u oltáře své: „Ite, missa est“, celé bohoslužby provést originelním způsobem a přeházet celý pořádek mše svaté, vymyslit, si, když už byl hodně opilý, úplně nové modlitby a novou mši svatou, svůj ritus, něco, co zde ještě nebylo.
[1.16] Potom je Otto Katz je též na živu. Je to skutečná figurka polního kuráta. Hodil to všechno po převratě na hřebík, vystoupil z církve, dělá dnes prokuristu v jedné továrně na bronz a barviva v severních Čechách. Psal mi dlouhý dopis, ve kterém vyhrožuje, že si to se mnou spořádá. Jeden německý list přinesl totiž překlad jedné kapitoly, kde je vylíčen, jak skutečně vypadal. Navštívil jsem ho tedy a dopadlo to s ním velice dobře. Ve dvě hodiny v noci nemohl stát na nohou, ale kázal a říkal: „Já jsem Otto Katz, polní kurát, vy gypsové hlavy.“ště to kázání, ta zábava a legrace.
Arcibiskup Kohn, Theodornn flag
*22.3.1845 Březnice - †3.12.1915 Ehrenhausen
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Das interessante Blatt, 16.2.1915

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Národní Politika, 9.11.1892

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Wiener Zeitung, 4.12.1915

Kohn is given as an example of someone who was a Jew like Katz, but that this in itself was not very important. The author also adds that Kohn even was a friend of Machar. Moreover he informs that Katz had an even more colourful past than the famous archbishop.

Background

Kohn was professor of church law and theology, and between 1892 and 1904 archbishop of Olomouc. He was of Jewish descent but his grandfather had converted to Catholicism. The family were Czech-speaking and of humble origins but thanks to grants the gifted and diligent young man got a good education and we was consecrated as a priest in 1871. After serving in various parishes, holding positions at the university of Olomouc and at the city's archdiocese, he was finally elected archbishop in 1892. He was the first non-noble holding the seat for 300 years, and his election was therefore popular amongst the population, particularly the Czechs.

Kohn gradually fell out with parts of the Catholic church hierarchy, he was for instance not well thought of in Vienna due to his common and Jewish background. Kohn notes in his autobiography that Eduard Taaffe, the Minister-President in Cisleithanien commented about his election as archbishop: Und hat er sich schon getauft lassen? (and has he already had himself baptised?)

Kohn was a capable administrator and the economy of the archdiocese improved, but soon revealed himself as headstrong and even despotic, and often took disciplinary measures against those he thought undermined him. He was increasingly criticised, also in the press, and after the so-called Rectus affair in 1903 he was called to Roma for a consultation with the Pope. The case even appeared in Reichsrat, see Parlament. In this particular controversy Kohn had sued based on a critical anonymous letter to a newspaper Rectus, but it soon became obvious that he had accused the wrong person.

He was summoned to Roma and the Pope asked Kohn to give up his position and in 1904 he bowed to the pressure, and moved to the castle Ehrenhausen in Styria. Here he spent the rest of his life and dedicated his time to scientific studies. In his will the left parts of his fortune to the Czech university in Brno.

Support from J. S. Machar

It was at the height of this affair that he received support from an unexpected direction - from the strongly anti-clerical writer Machar. On 5 May 1903 who wrote a long article that was printed in Die Zeit, a newspaper in Vienna that already had written about Kohn. In 1909 the two were involved in another controversy: Kohn received a visit from the above mentioned Machar in Ehrenhausen and the news caused a stir despite attempts by the former archbishop to be discrete about the visit.

Links

Source: Jitka Jonová

Quote from the novel
[1.9] Polní kurát Otto Katz, nejdokonalejší vojenský kněz, byl žid. To ostatně není nic divného. Arcibiskup Kohn byl také žid a ještě dokonce Macharův kamarád. Polní kurát Otto Katz měl ještě pestřejší minulost než slavný arcibiskup Kohn.
Machar, Josef Svatopluknn flag
*29.2.1864 Kolín - †17.3.1942 Praha
Wikipedia czdeen Google search
kohnpucflek.png

Machar is mentioned by Jaroslav Hašek as a friend of archbishop Kohn.

Background

Machar was a Czech poet and satirist. He was like Jaroslav Hašek strongly anti-Austrian, anti-clerical and a master in the use of colloquial Czech. He was for a while one of the favourites of Masaryk, member of his Realist Party and contributed to the party newspaper Čas. After the war he fell out with the president and oriented himself towards the political far right.

The friendship with Kohn that the author refers to is probably based on events in 1903 at the height of so-called Rectus affair when controversy around Kohn reached a critical point. Machar defended the archbishop in a newspaper article in Die Zeit, printed on 5 May. He also visited the now deposed Kohn in Ehrenhausen in 1909. Both these events were widely reported in the press and Jaroslav Hašek would surely have been well informed about the case.

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Source: Jitka Jonová

Quote from the novel
[1.9] Polní kurát Otto Katz, nejdokonalejší vojenský kněz, byl žid. To ostatně není nic divného. Arcibiskup Kohn byl také žid a ještě dokonce Macharův kamarád. Polní kurát Otto Katz měl ještě pestřejší minulost než slavný arcibiskup Kohn.
Páter Schachleiter, Albannn flag
*20.1.1861 Mainz - †20.6.1937 Feilnbach
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© Langhans Praha

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Národní politika, 7.11.1908

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Národní listy, 5.12.1918

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Národní listy, 21.6.1937

Schachleiter was the priest who baptised Katz after the latter's conversion from Judaism. In the novel referred to as páter Albán, he ceremoniously dipped Katz in the baptismal font in Emauzský klášter.

Background

Schachleiter (born Johann Jakob) was a German Benedictine monk and from 1908 abbot at Emauzský klášter. In 1886 he was ordained as a priest, and he was associated with the monastery in various roles from 1892 to 1918. He was very involved in church music, played the organ himself and was also an expert on the instrument. He was also involved in politics, and was for instance one of the leaders of the German nationalistic Los-von-Rom-Bewegung that worked for closer links with Germany both religiously and politically.

Schachleiter was an affluent man - in 1908 he bought a sumptuous car from Laurin a Klement, the firm that was later to become Škoda. In August 1914 he converted the work-shop of the monastery into a hospital that could receive up to 50 patients. Due to his German nationalism Pater Alban was unpopular amongst the Czech part of the population and despite his many years in Prague he never bothered to learn Czech. The population register shows that his home address was the very monastery (1902) but in 1915 he was not registered as a resident of Prague any more.

The new state

In the tense situation after the collapse of Austria-Hungary and the creation of Czechoslovakia 28 October 1918, Schachleiter was from part of the Czech press subjected to accusations, one of them being espionage. Already on 31 October a delegation named by the newly created National Committee appeared to investigate the claims but let itself be convinced that they were without substance. The Emaus monastery still became a victim of the fervent moods that that prevailed these days. It was surrounded by crowds, occupied and guarded by Sokol and the so-called Academic League (students).

To refute the claims he had a proclamation printed (dated 5 November) in Národní politika, Prager Tagblatt and Bohemia. This made scant impressions and the abbot was confined to his house and in the hostile environment he chose to leave the country as the National Committee couldn't guarantee his safety. When leaving on 9 December he was recognised in Benešov and arrested. On intervention from higher authorities he was released and could continue to Linz where he arrived on 10 December 1918. It turned out that the abbot had left the country for good and in 1920 he resigned his position at the monastery. All the German monks likewise left the Emaus monastery and emigrated.

He was never taken to court and there is no indication that any proofs were ever put on the table. Schachleiter himself claimed that members of the atheist organisation Volná myšlenka were behind the smear campaign, and also emphasised the that the Czechoslovak authorities were not directly involved in the harassment of him and Emauzský klášter.

Nazi association

Schachleiter settled in Bavaria and if he had been a nationalist in Prague, he soon took it a bit further. For posterity he has become notorious due to his open co-operation with the Nazis and Adolf Hitler personally, a connection that had been established as early as 1923. On several pictures he is seen shaking hands with Der Führer. His political involvement led him into direct conflict with the Catholic church and he was briefly suspended. On his 74th birthday Schachleiter received personal greetings from Adolf Hitler, Rudolf Hess and several others from the NSDAP hierarchy and in 1937 he was honoured with a state funeral.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.9] Křtili ho slavnostně v Emauzích. Sám páter Albán ho na máčel do křtitelnice. Byla to nádherná podívaná, byl u toho jeden nábožný major od pluku, kde Otto Katz sloužil, jedna stará panna z ústavu šlechtičen na Hradčanech a nějaký otlemený zástupce konsistoře, který mu dělal kmotra.

Also written:Páter Albán Hašek

Francis de Salesnn flag
*21.8.1567 Chateau de Sales - †28.12.1622 Lyon
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Wiener allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung, 11.10.1816

Francis de Sales had his portrait displayed on the wall of the sacristy of the garrison chapel at Hradčany. He even witnesses Švejk's first conversation with field chaplain Katz. See also Vězeňské kaple.

Background

Francis de Sales was a French bishop and theologian, later to be canonised. He was a distinguished counter-reformist, notable for his stand against Calvinism. He is the patron saint of the deaf, writers and journalists.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.9] Seskočil se stolu a cukaje Švejkovi za rameno křičel pod velkým, zasmušilým obrazem Františka Sáleského: „Přiznej se, lumpe, žes brečel jen tak kvůli legraci?!“ A František Sáleský díval se tázavě z obrazu na Švejka.

Also written:František Saleský cz Franz von Sales de Frans av Sales no

Auditor Bernisnn flag
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Bernis was judge advocate at the military court at Hradčany. He was a libertine who had his focus anywhere but in court. He mislaid most court documents and often had to invent accusations to get the trials done.

Quote from the novel
[1.9] Vyšetřující auditor Bernis byl muž společnosti, půvabný tanečník a mravní zpustlík, který se zde strašně nudil a psal německé verše do památníků, aby měl pohotově vždy nějakou zásobu. Byl nejdůležitější složkou celého aparátu vojenského soudu, poněvadž měl tak hrozné množství restů a spletených akt, že uváděl v respekt celý vojenský soud na Hradčanech. Ztrácel obžalovací materiál a byl nucen vymýšlet si nový.
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Jaroslav Hašek, 1921. © LA-PNP.

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Adolf Synek, 1930

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Vydavatelstvo ROH, 1955

Říha was also employed at the garrison prison. He is mentioned briefly in an anecdote that one of the prisoners in cell 16 relates (from his stay in cell number 12).

Background

Also in this case there is no obvious link to any living person although people with the surname Říha were quite a few in Prague at the time. He was probably not an active soldier, so looking for him in pre-war address books yields no results. In 1915 several with the surname Říha served in IR91, so the name may have been borrowed from one of these.

In post WW2 editions of the novel Říha is simply replaced by Řepa in his role. The editors must have thought that the author really meant the latter and corrected the "error" (which it probably was). More than one hundred minor changes were done to the text in the early nineteen-fifties: removing "russisisms", adapting to modern Czech and Hungarian orthography, and on at least one occasion spelling mistakes in German were corrected.

The revision of the novel means that Říha also has disappeared from both post-war English translations, as well as most other modern translations, and even translations that were done in the inter-war years but have been revised after. In the most recent German translation (2014) Říha has resurfaced.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.9] Tak tam hned přilítli, zavolali štábního profousa a kaprála Říhu. My všichni jeden jako druhý říkáme, že se zbláznil, že včera i dlouho do noci žral a že to všechno sežral.
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Koudela was an inmate at garrsion prison who fell victim to Bernis' disorderliness. The latter had swapped his acts with those of Švejk. Documents found after the war indicated that this Koudela was executed.

Quote from the novel
[1.9] Spisy byly zastrčeny do spisů týkajících se jakéhosi Josefa Koudely. Na obálce byl křížek a pod ním „Vyřízeno“ a datum.)
Maixnernn flag
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Maixner was an infantryman who stood accused at the same time as Švejk. This is revealed in a telegram Bernis receives from Policejní ředitelství just when Švejk was to be in his office for interrogation.

Quote from the novel
[1.9] Po odchodu polního kuráta dal si auditor Bernis předvésti Švejk a nechal ho stát u dveří, poněvadž právě dostal telefonogram od policejního ředitelství, že vyžadovaný materiál k obžalovacímu spisu čís. 7267, týkající se pěšáka Maixnera, byl přijat v kanceláři čís. 1 s podpisem hejtmana Linharta.
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9. Švejk in the garrison prison


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