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The Good Soldier Švejk

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Franz Ferdinand and Sophie leave the Sarajevo Town Hall, five minutes before the assassination, 28 June 1914.

The Fateful Adventures of the Good Soldier Švejk is a novel with an unusually rich array of characters. In addition to the many who directly form part of the plot, a large number of fictive and real people (and animals) are mentioned; either through Švejk's anecdotes, the narrative or indirectly through words and expressions.

This web page contains short write-ups on the persons the novel refers to; from Napoléon in the introduction to captain Ságner in the last few lines of the unfinished Book Four. The list is sorted in to the order of which the names first appear. The chapter headlines are from Zenny K. Sadlon's recent translation and will in most cases differ from Cecil Parrott's version from 1973. In January 2014 there were still around twenty entries to be added.

  • The quotes in Czech are copied from the on-line version of the novel provided by Jaroslav Šerák and contain links to the relevant chapter
  • The tool-bar has links for direct access to Wikipedia, Google search and Švejk on-line

The names are coloured according to their role in the novel, illustrated by the following examples: Doctor Grünstein who is directly involved in the plot, Heinrich Heine as a historical person, and Ferdinand Kokoška as an invented person. Note that a number of seemingly fictive characters are modelled after living persons. See for instance Lukáš and Wenzl.

>> The Good Soldier Švejk index of people mentioned in the novel (582) Show all
>> I. In the rear
>> II. At the front
>> III. The famous thrashing
Index Back Forward II. At the front Hovudpersonen

2. Švejk's budějovická anabasis

Xenophonnn flag
*430 BC Athen - †355 BC ?
Wikipedia czdeenno Google search
xenofon.jpg

John Steeple Davies, 1900.

Xenophon is mentioned by the narrator when he introduces the reader to the term "anabasis". Xenophon exemplified the anabasis by travelling around God knows where without a map. Hašek uses this symbolism in the chapter header Švejkova budějovická anabase and also in the short follow-up where he explains what the word means.

Background

Xenophon was a Greek commander, author and historian, best known for his historical descriptions of ancient Greece, his writings on Socrates, and for the first eyewitness account of a battle in ancient times. His best known book is "Anabasis". It describes the Greek mercenaries treacherous road back home though Asia Minor after a failed military mission against Persia. It is a seven-volume work and is considered Xenophon's best. It was translated into Czech already in 1853.

Anabasis: A dig at the Legions?
anabase1.png

Břetislav Hůla was probably the first who in writing aired the view that Hašek used "anabasis" as subtle kick at the Czechoslovak Legions (1951). His conclusion was in 1953 made public in a collection of explanations that were part of a new edition of Švejk.

© LA-PNP

Xenophon's anabasis and Jaroslav Hašek's symbolic use of the term has over the years led to speculation about the author's intentions when he wrote the chapter about Švejk's own anabasis. It has from certain quarters been claimed that the author by using the term "anabasis" in a subtle way made fun of the Legions.

In his explanations to a 1953 edition of the novel Švejk Zdena Ančík Czech journalist and author (1900-1972). He collected a huge amount of information about Hašek, published one book about him, and also wrote numerous newspaper articles. Throughout the 1950ies he wrote introductions and edited explanations to editions of the novel Švejk. The explanations were originally provided by Břetislav Hůla. His writing is heavily coloured by Communist ideology. assesses the connection as "obvious" and more was to follow, albeit half a century later. Polish translator of Švejk Antoni Kroh (2002) and literature scholar Abigail Weil (2019) both without reservation postulate that Hašek's use of the term "anabase" was a dig at the Legions and that the author had their so-called Siberian anabasis from Kiev to Vladivostok in 1918 in mind when he penned this chapter.

Obviously no-one knows for sure what went through Hašek's mind when he wrote these lines so the link can't be ruled out. On the other hand we have never seen any trustworthy evidence that could underpin the claim. One would at least expect quotes from the author himself or at least from people who knew him? If not there would surely exist proof that the reading public at the time perceived Švejk's anabasis as a dig at the Legions? None of it seems to be the case. The following paragraphs shall therefore analyse the origin and development of the claim, and also: a verdict on the various attempts to underpin it.

Fiala
kroh.jpg

This otherwise excellent book contains far-fecthed claims regarding Hašek and his use of the term "anabasis".

In 2004 professor Jiří Fiala (Olomouc) published a thorough analysis of "anabasis" and other motifs from the novel[1]. He reveals that Zdena Ančík Czech journalist and author (1900-1972). He collected a huge amount of information about Hašek, published one book about him, and also wrote numerous newspaper articles. Throughout the 1950ies he wrote introductions and edited explanations to editions of the novel Švejk. The explanations were originally provided by Břetislav Hůla. His writing is heavily coloured by Communist ideology. in explanatory notes in the 1953 edition of the book concludes that anabasis "obviously is an ironic reference the Legions and their fight against the Red Army, by nationalistic novel writers who coined the term Siberian anabasis"[2]. Fiala compares this to later explanations from Radko Pytlík Prominent Czech publicist and literary historian (1928-), leading expert on Hašek, author of numerous books and articles about the author of Švejk. Considered the foremost living authority on Hašek and his life and writing. [3] and Milan Hodík Czech military historian (1933-), publisher of three books on Švejk, focussing on the backdrop. Best known is his two-volume encyclopaedia of explanations to themes is the novel. [4]. He notes that neither of the two draw similar conclusions and Fiala himself leaves the question open. He then proceeds with reproducing an excerpt from the book O Szwejku i o nas by Kroh[5], from a chapter titled "Two Generals".

Kroh
kroh.png

O Szwejku i o nas, s.45

© Antoni Kroh

Kroh's text, as translated by Fiala, is the starting point for the following analysis. He juxtaposes Rudolf Medek and Jaroslav Hašek in the context of the anabasis but even the title Two Generals is ground for concern. Medek did eventually advance to general, but to associate this rank with Hašek is downright absurd.

Even more questionable is Kroh's conclusion. The reader is left with the impression that the hostility that Hašek encountered in Czechoslovakia after his return from Russia in 1920 was caused solely by his publishing of the anabasis chapter in Švejk, and that this triggered an avalanche of criticism, insults and harassment. Kroh's conclusion even found its way into the endnotes of the latest translation of Švejk into English[6].

anabase3.png

Rudolf Medek lashing out at Hašek, two years before the anabase chapter in Švejk.

Československý deník, 6.4.1918.

There is no denying that Hašek was subjected to nasty attacks and insults, but the worst of these came to the fore already when he was still in Russia, and more than a year before he penned Švejk's anabasis. In the article "Průkopníci", published in Československý voják 6 April 1918, Medek delivered a cruel character assassination, and worse was to come. In Venkov 19 January 1919 Jaroslav Colman-Cassius wrote an obituary titled Zrádce (Traitor), obviously because he thought Hašek was dead. Cassius was every bit as unforgiving as Medek: writing about "small chubby hands", a clown and drunkard, a man without spine and character.

anabase2.png

Extracts from Cassius' nasty "obituary". Hašek read it in Irkutsk in 1920 and was deeply hurt.

Venkov, 19.1.1919.

When Kroh attempts to link Czech society's hostility to Hašek to the anabasis chapter he uses the phrase drunkard with chubby hands as one of the examples. The term was indeed used but pre-dated Švejk. It was coined in 1920 in Irkutsk by Hašek himself, provoked by the mentioned "obituary" that he somehow got his hand on in while still in Russia[7]. His response was the story Dušička Jaroslava Haška vypravuje (The little soul of Jaroslav Hašek tells) and here this insulting phrase appears.

The links that Kroh draws to Rudolf Medek and his "Anabase" novels are timing-wise equally irrelevant: except the first they were published after Hašek's death[8]. As we have seen Medek attacked Hašek sharply at times, but as we have seen this happened already in 1918. According to Zdeněk Matěj Kuděj the two met in Prague in 1921 and after a first heated encounter they were reconciled. The conclusion is that Kroh is unable to prove that the spiteful attacks on Jaroslav Hašek and his publishing of Švejkova budějovicka anabase coincided.

Weil
anabase4.png

Výbor ze spisů Xenofontových, Anabase, Kyrupaideie, Apomnemoneumat, Hellenik a Symposia..

A novelty appeared at Harvard Univeristy in 2019 through a dissertation thesis on Hašek by Abigail Weil[9]. Here the motif anabasis and Hašek's alleged dig at the Legions is given ample space. Whereas as Kroh attempts to explain why there is a connection Weil simply assumes that there is, without asking further questions. Nor does she makes any reference to Kroh's book (or Fiala's discussion of it) so we must assume that she is unaware of it.

Perhaps this confidence is inspired or underpinned by Zdena Ančík Czech journalist and author (1900-1972). He collected a huge amount of information about Hašek, published one book about him, and also wrote numerous newspaper articles. Throughout the 1950ies he wrote introductions and edited explanations to editions of the novel Švejk. The explanations were originally provided by Břetislav Hůla. His writing is heavily coloured by Communist ideology. (read Hůla) and his comment in the Švejk edition from 1953? (Weil explicitly refers to it as "the standard edition").

As one would expect from a literary scholar her thesis is strong on analysis and literary context but marred by errors and inaccuracies on the factual part (some of them admittedly "inherited" from Radko Pytlík Prominent Czech publicist and literary historian (1928-), leading expert on Hašek, author of numerous books and articles about the author of Švejk. Considered the foremost living authority on Hašek and his life and writing. and Cecil Parrott British diplomat and academic (1909-1984), biographer of Hašek, translator of Švejk and several short stories. Author of a conceptual study on Švejk and the short stories. ).

Ančík

So what about Břetislav Hůla's explanation from 1951, published by Zdena Ančík Czech journalist and author (1900-1972). He collected a huge amount of information about Hašek, published one book about him, and also wrote numerous newspaper articles. Throughout the 1950ies he wrote introductions and edited explanations to editions of the novel Švejk. The explanations were originally provided by Hůla. His writing is heavily coloured by Communist ideology. in 1953 (17th edition, Státní nakladatelství)? It was written at a time when anything that could put the pre-war "bourgoise" republic and the Legions in a bad light was the order of the day. It is also striking that by 1955 (22nd edition, Práce), the same Ančík has removed the reference to the Legions. Nor do a completely differents set of notes by Milan Jakovič (26th edition, Odeon) contain any mention of the Legions.

Hašek and Xenofon
anabase5.png

Xenofon was on the curriculum when Hašek was a pupil at the gymnasium.

Devátá výroční zpráva cís. král. vyššího gymnasia v Žitné ulici v Praze za školní rok 1896.

The term "anabase" was by no means unknown in Czech literature even before the deluge of legionnaire novels appeared in Czechoslovakia in the twenties. One of the teachers at the gymnasium in Žitná ulice, where Hašek studied from 1893 to 1898, was the famous author Alois Jirásek. He was teaching geography and history and already in 1886 he wrote a book with the theme anabasis. Xenophon's own magnum opus had been translated into Czech even earlier. Classical Greek was one of the subjects at the gymnasium and Xenofon was on the curriculum. That said the subject was introduced from the 5th form, a step Hašek never reached as he was forced to leave in the 4th. Jirásek didn't teach the classes of young Jaroslav (Ia, IIa, IIIa and IVa), despite Václav Menger Czech actor and writer, childhood friend of Hašek (1888-1947). Author of two books and a number of newspaper articles about him. a.o. claiming he opposite[10]. Still the fact that Xenofon was in the curriculum shows that he must have been quite well known amongst educated Czechs. It should be added that Greek was taught from the 3rd form so Xenofon's name may have been introduced already at this stage.

anabase6.png

Xenofon and his anabasis was a known theme for Hašek five years before he wrote Švejk.

Jaroslav Hašek / Čechoslovan, 25.9.1916.

Even though Hašek probably didn't study Xenophon as a subject at school there is no doubt that he had a good general knowledge of and interest in the history of ancient Greece. This is obvious already in the introduction to the novel. But even more importantly: Jaroslav Hašek's awareness of Xenophon was totally independent of the anabasis of the Legions. In Dopis z fronty (Letter from the front), Čech The entry "Čech" will be added in the future. oslovan Czech weekly, published in Kiev from 1911 to 1918 , 25 September 1916, both Xenophon and his anabasis are mentioned. Thus it can never be a question of making fun of a Siberian anabasis that was to take place two years later. This is a fact none of the mentioned literary scholars seem to have been aware of.

Conclusion

Hašek's letter from the front is of course no proof that he later didn't poke fun at the Legions, but it does show that he could easily have used Xenophon and his anabasis in Švejk without any ironic intent. Hereby the claims from Zdena Ančík Czech journalist and author (1900-1972). He collected a huge amount of information about Hašek, published one book about him, and also wrote numerous newspaper articles. Throughout the 1950ies he wrote introductions and edited explanations to editions of the novel Švejk. The explanations were originally provided by Břetislav Hůla. His writing is heavily coloured by Communist ideology. (i.e. Hůla), Antoni Kroh and Abigail Weil ought to have been put where they rightly belong: in the category speculative.

We have in vain searched digitalised newspaper from 1921 or 1922 for any sign that any writers or critics connected Švejk's anabasis with the Legions. Even extending the search to 1950 and including the extensive inter-war legionnaire literature has proved futile. There must also be a reason why explanations to Švejk published from 1955 onwards don't connect the Legions and Švejk's anabasis? The answer is surely that the Communist publishers no longer believed in the hypothesis (perhaps they had by now discovered "Letters from the front"?). If there had been any substance they surely would have used Švejkova budějovická anabase for what it was worth.


[1]Jiří Fiala, Několik editologických poznámek k románu Jaroslava Haška Osudy dobrého vojáka Švejka za světové války, 2008.

[2]Even though Zdena Ančík Czech journalist and author (1900-1972). He collected a huge amount of information about Hašek, published one book about him, and also wrote numerous newspaper articles. Throughout the 1950ies he wrote introductions and edited explanations to editions of the novel Švejk. The explanations were originally provided by Břetislav Hůla. His writing is heavily coloured by Communist ideology. is credited with authorship of the explanations they were almost entirely the work of Hůla. He passed his typewritten notes on to Ančík in 1951 and the latter only did some minor editing.

[3]Radko Pytlík, Kniha o Švejkovi, 1982.

[4]Milan Hodík, Encyklopedie pro milovníky Švejka, 1998.

[5]Antoni Kroh, O Szwejku i o nas, 2002.

[6]Zdeněk K. Sadloň, The Fateful Adventures of the Good Soldier Svejk During the World War Book Two Rev. 10/23/08, endnotes. The reference to the Legions has since been deleted (2020).

[7]The story was first printed in Večerní Právo lidu 31 December 1920 but was dated 25 August so it must have been written in Irkutsk. This means that Hašek must have read his own obituary already there. It was also the first story Hašek had printed after his return to Prague.

[8]Rudolf Medek, Anabase, 1927.

[9]Abigail Weil, Man Is Indestructible: Legend and Legitimacy in the Worlds of Jaroslav Hašek, 2019.

[10]Jaroslav Hašek had to repeat the 4th year and finally left the gymnasium in February 1898. This school year Jirásek actually taught class IVa so Menger may still be correct.

Sergey Soloukh's notes

1. The term itself "anabasis" for any long and hard journey of armed man was quite standard for the epoch. For example it was widely used in Russian literature about Great and Civil wars (generals Denikin and Krasnov, writer and lit.critic Shklovsky). And all of them without any connection to Cz.Legion. So it was very standard in war-torn Russia of the time and not specifically used for particular Legion affair. And quite vice-versa, was rather used by Cz.Legion as a standard for "the journey of armed men" then something born and particularly and uniquely attributed to Legion move.

2. If it would be interpreted as an insult to Cz,Legion or an attempted joke on it at the moment of appearance of this chapter it definitely would be noted as such and discussed in Cz.press of epoch. But we know it didn't. It means and confirms my p.1. the term "anabasis" at that time was not considered specific and unique for depiction of Cz.Legion adventure only, it was freely used standard term for any "journey of the armed men". And only 30 years later it was interpreted as unique and specific to Legion adventure for the goals of communist propaganda.

Dva generálové (extr.). Antoni Kroh, transl. Jiří Fiala

Slovo „anabáze" mělo tehdy v češtině jediný, a to samozřejmý význam: znamenalo prodírání se česko- slovenských legií z Ukrajiny přes Sibiř do Vladivostoku. Kapesní slovník cizích slov (vydaný v Praze roku 1971) již objasňuje toto slovo subtilním a diskrétním způsobem: „Anabáze — probíjení se velkých vojenských oddílů do vlasti." 21 Legenda „anabáze", zvláště živá ve dvacátých letech, byla živena a pěstována po celé období meziválečného Československa. Rudolf Medek je současně jeden z jejích tvůrců i její i hrdina. A nyní si připomeňme kapitolu Švejkova budějovická anabáze (II, 2). Švejk jel spolu s nadporučíkem Lukášem vlakem z Prahy do Budějovic. Po incidentu se záchrannou brzdou byl vysazen v Táboře a uvězněn. Když se ukázalo, že nemá peníze ani dokumenty, podporučík sloužící na nádraží mu přikázal, aby šel do Budějovic pěšky. „A čert ví, jak se to stalo, že dobrý voják Švejk místo na jih k Budějovicím šel pořád rovně na západ." Není známo, jak se to stalo, ale je známo, že se to stalo nevědomky, poněvadž Švejk byl přece na západ." Není známo, jak se to stalo, ale je známo, že se to stalo nevědomky, poněvadž Švejk byl přece dobrý voják, žádný dezertér; on vskutku chtěl dorazit do Budějovic! Proč tam tedy nešel přímo, jen pořád kroužil a kroužil dokola? Protože byl idiot? Mnoho polských milovníků Švejka, jichž jsem se dotazoval, to právě tak vysvětluje. Ale kapitole Švejkova budějovická anabáze je možné porozumět teprve tehdy, když si uvědomíme, kdy a za jakých okolností byla napsána. Je to jedna z nejskvostnějších pasáží románu. Jako každé velké umělecké dílo se vymyká jednoznačným výkladům. Můžeme ji označit za panorama českého venkova, zvěčněním lidových typů a tehdejších nálad. Je to rovněž radostný hymnus ke cti životu, nespoutaný smích jakoby z Rabelaise. Rovněž groteska. Lze tam najít reminiscence na autorova dobrodružství. Ale to vše je málo. Švejkova budějovická anabáze je současně politický pamflet, bravurní publicistika na aktuální téma. Hašek jako první propíchl balon, který Medek se svými věrnými tak zdatně nafukoval. Přirovnání k balonu není trefné, problém vězel mnohem hlouběji; ve dvacátých letech nebyla legenda „anabáze" nafukovaným balonem, ale velikou radostí znovuzrozeného státu, důvodem hrdosti, léčbou několikasetletého komplexu zotročence, reakcí na nedávná pokořování. A tu do samého středu národní slavnosti vchází Švejk, který velice touží dorazit do Budějovic, ale dostává se kamsi úpině jinam a čert ví, proč se tak děje... Vybuchl skandál — zvlášť když autora obklopovala aura bolševického komisaře, a co horšího, kapitola byla znamenitě napsána... Na Haška se sesypaly přívlastky jako nihilista, dekadent, pijan s opuchlýma rukama; velké obžaloby ze zrady národa i drobné šikany. A současně — první entuziastické recenze.

External Links

SourceRadko Pytlík Prominent Czech publicist and literary historian (1928-), leading expert on Hašek, author of numerous books and articles about the author of Švejk. Considered the foremost living authority on Hašek and his life and writing. , Jaroslav Hašek, Jiří Fiala, Antoni Kroh, Abigail Weil, Ferdinand Hoffmeister, Sergey Soloukh (Сергей Солоух) Russian author and expert on Hašek and Švejk (1959-). Has published a book with extensive exlanations to the novels, and another one featuring Hašek and Prague. Since 2009 in close co-operation with the author of this web site, and with his expert knowledge in the fields of history and literature he has provided important contributions and feedback.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Starověký válečník Xenofon prošel celou Malou Asii a byl bůhvíkde bez mapy. Staří Gotové dělali své výpravy také bez topografické znalosti. Mašírovat pořád kupředu, tomu se říká anabase. Prodírat se neznámými krajinami. Být obklíčeným nepřáteli, kteří číhají na nejbližší příležitost, aby ti zakroutili krk.

Also written:Xenofón cz Xenophon de

Julius Caesarnn flag
*13.7.100 BC ? Roma - †15.3.44 BC Roma
Wikipedia czdeenlano Google search

Julius Caesar is mentioned by the author when he introduces the reader to the term "anabasis". Caesars legions got all the way to the Gallic Sea without maps. Caesar is also mentioned on one of the last pages of the novel.

Background

Julius Caesar was a roman commander, politician and author. He had become most potent citizen of the empire when he was murdered by senator Brutus in 44 BC. At that time he held the title "dictator in perpeteo". During his reign he undertook extensive reforms, centralising the administration. The area of the empire was greatly extended, including Britannia.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Tam někde na severu u Galského moře, kam až se také dostaly římské legie Caesarovy bez mapy, řekly si jednou, že se zas vrátí a pomašírujou jinou cestou, aby ještě víc toho užily, do Říma. A dostaly se tam také. Od té doby se říká patrně, že všechny cesty vedou do Říma.

Also written:Julius Caesar cz Julius Cäsar de Gaius Iulius Caesar la

Mašků, Toníčeknn flag
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Mašků had ran away from Landwehr K.k. Landwehr
The territorial army of the Austrian part of the Dual Monarchy.
but was caught soon after. He was the husband of a niese of the old lady who helped Švejk by Vráž. The latest news was that he had lost a leg at the front.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] „U nás byl taky jeden takovej nezbeda. Ten měl ject do Plzně k landvér, nějakej Toníček Mašků,“ povzdechla si babička, „von je vod mojí neteře příbuznej, a vodjel. A za tejden už ho hledali četníci, že nepřijel ku svýmu regimentu. A ještě za tejden se vobjevil u nás v civilu, že prej je puštěnej domů na urláb. Tak šel starosta na četnictvo, a voni ho z toho urlábu vyzdvihli. Už psal z fronty, že je raněnej, že má nohu pryč.“
Melicháreknn flag
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Melichárek was a farmer and brother of the old woman from Vráž. He lived in Radomyšl in Dolejší ulice. He was very suspicious of Švejk who he assumed had defected from the army.

Background

Melichárek is supposed to have been Václav Melichar and lived in Dolejší ulice, just as the author writes. According to his descendants, Hašek visited Radomyšl in 1915 and Melichár's wife is said to have made him bramborovka. The mystery is how the author got this far from Budějovice without being noticed (60 km). No-one else have confirmed that Hašek ever got this far and it is tempting to suggest that this history is a result of attempts to adapat reality to the novel and not the opposite.

Source: Ivana Šibková

Quote from the novel
[2.2] V Radomyšli Švejk našel k večeru na Dolejší ulici za Floriánkem pantátu Melichárka. Když vyřídil mu pozdrav od jeho sestry ze Vráže, nijak to na pantátu neúčinkovalo. Chtěl neustále na Švejkovi papíry. Byl to nějaký předpojatý člověk, poněvadž mluvil neustále něco o raubířích, syčácích a zlodějích, kterých se síla potlouká po celém píseckém kraji.
Herrmannnn flag
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Herrmann was a Jew in Vodňany who bought military euipment that he sold on to the army. In the opinion of the tramp at Švarcenberský ovčín, he would also buy Švejk's uniform.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] „Tak ten si nech. V tom se na venkově chodí. Potřebuješ kalhoty a kabát. Až budeme mít ten civil, tak kalhoty a kabát prodáme židovi Herrmanovi ve Vodňanech. Ten kupuje všechno erární a zas to prodává po vesnicích.
Jarešnn flag
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Jareš was a pond warden from Ražice whose grandfather was executed for desertion during the Napoleonic Wars. This is according to a story by the old shepherd at the Švarcenberský ovčín.

Background

(Antonín) was the author's grandfather. See Jareš.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Z Ražic za Protivínem syn Jarešův, dědeček starýho Jareše, baštýře, dostal za zběhnutí prach a volovo v Písku. A před tím, než ho stříleli na píseckých šancích, běžel ulicí vojáků a dostal 600 ran holema, takže smrt byla pro něho vodlehčením a vykoupením.
Jarešnn flag
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Jareš was the grandfather of the pond warden from Ražice, and was executed as a deserter during the Napoleonic wars. This is revealed during the conversation at Švarcenberský ovčín.

Background

(Antonín) was the author's grandfather. See Jareš.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Z Ražic za Protivínem syn Jarešův, dědeček starýho Jareše, baštýře, dostal za zběhnutí prach a volovo v Písku. A před tím, než ho stříleli na píseckých šancích, běžel ulicí vojáků a dostal 600 ran holema, takže smrt byla pro něho vodlehčením a vykoupením.
Fürst Schwarzenberg, Johann Nepomuknn flag
*29.5.1860 Wien - †1.10.1938 Wien
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Schwarzenberg is mentioned by the old shepherd in Švarcenberský ovčín. He tells us that at least the old Schwarzenberg moved around in an ordinary carriage but nowadays the young prince drives around in an automobile, and that the Good Lord will rub his snout in petrol one day.

Background

Schwarzenberg is probably the person referred to as old prince Schwarzenberg. He was head of the Krummau barnch of the Schwarzenbergs who owned large properties in Bohemia until 1918. He was the 9th prince of Schwarzenberg and 7th duke of Krummau (Krumlov).

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Dyť vona i ta naše vrchnost už roupama nevěděla co dělat.Starej pán kníže Švarcenberg, ten jezdil jen v takovým kočáře, a ten mladej knížecí smrkáč smrdí samým automobilem. Von mu pánbůh taky ten benzin vomaže vo hubu.“
Fürst Schwarzenberg, Adolf Johannnn flag
*18.8.1890 Hluboká nad Vltavou - †27.2.1950 Bordighera
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Schwarzenberg is mentioned by the old shepherd in Švarcenberský ovčín. He tells us that at least the old Schwarzenberg moved around in an ordinary carriage but nowadays the young prince drives around in an automobile.

Background

Schwarzenberg is probably the person referred to as the young prince Schwarzenberg. He was the 10th prince of Schwarzenberg and 8th duke of Krummau (Krumlov). The family estate was first confiscated by the Nazi's in 1938 and in 1945 he was expelled on background of the Beneš-decrees.

Another possible candidate is Karl V. Schwarzenberg from the Orlík branch of the family. He died near the Serbian front in 1914. In that case the old Schwarzenberg was Karl IV who passed away the year before.

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Quote from the novel
[2.2] Dyť vona i ta naše vrchnost už roupama nevěděla co dělat.Starej pán kníže Švarcenberg, ten jezdil jen v takovým kočáře, a ten mladej knížecí smrkáč smrdí samým automobilem. Von mu pánbůh taky ten benzin vomaže vo hubu.“
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Kořínek was arrested for sedition in Skočice after saying that after the war one would get rid of Emperors, and that the nobility would have their estates confiscated. This is what the tramp told Švejk and the old shepherd in the Schwarzenberg speep-pen.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] „Na to se mu, hochu, teď každej vykašle,“ rozdrážděně promluvil ovčák, „máš bejt při tom, když se sejdou sousedi dole ve Skočicích. Každej tam má někoho, a to bys viděl, jak ti mluvějí. Po tejhle válce že prej bude svoboda, nebude ani panskejch dvorů, ani císařů a knížecí statky že se vodeberou. Už taky kvůli takovej jednej řeči vodvedli četníci nějakýho Kořínka, že prej jako pobuřuje. Jó, dneska mají právo četníci.“
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Flanderka guarding Švejk

Flanderka was head of the gendarmerie in Putim and suspected Švejk of being a Russian spy. He considered himself a master of interrogation techniques and it soon became clear to him that Švejk was indeed a spy. The more he tanked up, the clearer it all became. He and his deputy also made complete arses of themselves with extremely seditious talk when they had had a drop too much. Austria was going to loose the war, a Russian prince would become king of Bohemia and Emperor Franz Joseph I., was shitting all over Schönbrunn. The petrified old servant Pejzlerka who had witnessed it all, had to swear never to tell a living soul what she had heard.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Četnickému strážmistrovi Flanderkovi se situace, čím déle psal tou podivnou úřední němčinou, vyjasňovala, a když skončil: „So melde ich gehorsam, wird der feindliche Offizier heutigen Tages, nach Bezirksgendarmeriekommando Písek, überliefert,“ usmál se na své dílo a zavolal na četnického závodčího. „Dali tomu nepřátelskému důstojníkovi něco jíst?“
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Berger was a duty-conscious obrlajtnant from the artillery who according to Národní politika had established an observation post in a tree, and hid there for two weeks to avoid captivity. When his own troops returned he fell down and killed himself. The story is told by Flanderka at Putim gendarmerie station.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] To jsou, pane závodčí, povahy. K tomu je třeba ocelových nervů u takového člověka, sebezapírání, tvrdosti a nadšení. Kdyby bylo v Rakousku takové nadšení... ale nechme toho raději. I u nás jsou nadšenci. Četli v ,Národní politice’ o tom obrlajtnantovi Bergrovi od dělostřelectva, který si vylezl na vysokou jedli a zřídil si tam na větví beobachtungspunkt?
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Bürger was Flanderka's predecessor as head of the gendarmerie in Putim. He never interrogated anyone, just sent them on to Písek.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Vzpomněl si na svého předchůdce strážmistra Bürgera, který se zadrženým vůbec nemluvil, na nic se ho netázal a hned ho poslal k okresnímu soudu s krátkým raportem: „Dle udání závodčího byl zadržen pro potulku a žebrotu.“ Je to nějaký výslech?
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Flanderka instructs Pepík Vyskoč

vyskoc2.jpg

K.L. Kukla, "Konec bahna Prahy", 1927, s.312

vyskoc.png

Polední list, 19.4.1936

Pepík Vyskoč was a village idiot who Flanderka tried to hire as an informer. He was told to report anyone who said the Emperor was a piece of cattle. Pepík took this literally, he told others that Sergeant Flanderka had said that the Emperor was cattle and that the thing couldn't be won. He was arrested and sentenced to twelve years by the military court in Prague. He got the nick-name because he bleated like a goat and jumped in the air when someone talked to him.

Background

This is a character that almost certainly was inspired by Václav Kompert (or Kompich?), also known as Venca Vyskoč. Firm evidence is provided by Sergey Soloukh (Сергей Солоух) Russian author and expert on Hašek and Švejk (1959-). Has published a book with extensive exlanations to the novels, and another one featuring Hašek and Prague. Since 2009 in close co-operation with the author of this web site, and with his expert knowledge in the fields of history and literature he has provided important contributions and feedback. (2015) who points to him as a curious character from Prague with some striking similarities with the character from the novel. "Venca" even frequented U Fleků, a tavern the author knew very well. Vyskoč is mentioned in several books that have been published over the past 30 years, and the information is more or less the same. In the book Jak se bavila Praha (2009) the authors Miloš Heyduk and Karel Sýs state directly (p. 137) that Venca was the model for Pepík.

When "Venca" died on 18 September 1916 at the age of 65, several national newspaper printed the news. Lidové noviny even provided a more detailed obituary. Václav Kompert was a former waiter who had some bad luck in life that affected him mentally. He started to walk around pubs and café's, bleated and jumping at the tables and collected money for his spectacle. He became a well-known but tragic characters in the streets of Prague. His main area of operation was around Václavské náměstí. The description in this obituary is so close to Jaroslav Hašek's own that there is not even the slightest doubt where the inspiration for the name, the jumping and the bleating came from.

Augustín Knesl Czech Švejkologist who for some period did research on the backdrop to the novel, concentrating on people. He published his findings in Večerní Praha in 1983. also made a note on the connection between "Venca Vyskoč" and Pepík Vyskoč in his serial in Večerní Praha (1983), and refers to an article by Karel Ladislav Kukla in České Slovo The main newspaper of the Czech National Social Party. from 1924.

A dubious link to Lipnice

Far less credible is Vladimír Stejskal (1953) and his claim that the inspiration was a character from the area around Lipnice nad Sázavou. The evidence is weak: not much more than pure hearsay.

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SourceSergey Soloukh (Сергей Солоух) Russian author and expert on Hašek and Švejk (1959-). Has published a book with extensive exlanations to the novels, and another one featuring Hašek and Prague. Since 2009 in close co-operation with the author of this web site, and with his expert knowledge in the fields of history and literature he has provided important contributions and feedback. , Karel Ladislav Kukla, Augustín Knesl Czech Švejkologist who for some period did research on the backdrop to the novel, concentrating on people. He published his findings in Večerní Praha in 1983.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Toho si dal zavolat a řekl k němu: „Víš, Pepku, kdo to je starej Procházka?“ „Méé.“„Nemeč, a pamatuj si, že tak říkají císaři pánu. Víš, kdo je to císař pán?“ „To je číšaš pán.“ „Dobře, Pepku. Tak si pamatuj, že když někoho uslyšíš mluvit, když chodíš po obědech od domu k domu, že je císař pán dobytek nebo podobně, hned přijď ke mně a oznam mně to.

Also written:Pepek Vyskoč Parrott Pepku Hopp Reiner Joey Jump Sadlon

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Starej Procházka is mentioned by Flanderka when he recruits Pepík Vyskoč.

Background

Starej Procházka was a Czech nickname for emperor Franz Joseph I. In 1901 he visited Prague and a picture of him appeared walking on Most císaře Františka I., now Most Legii. The picture had the title Procházka na mostě, and was from the opening of the bridge on 14 June. "Procházka" is a common Czech surname which rougly means "walk" (noun) or "walkabout".

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Toho si dal zavolat a řekl k němu: „Víš, Pepku, kdo to je starej Procházka?“ „Méé.“„Nemeč, a pamatuj si, že tak říkají císaři pánu. Víš, kdo je to císař pán?“

Also written:Old Procházka English Alte Prochazka Reiner

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Rampa was a gendarm (četnik) in Putim who was on inspection-duty of the neighbouring villages when Švejk was there, but was right now playing cards in U černého koně in Protivín.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Strážmistr zůstal sedět na strážnici vedle Švejka na kavalci prázdné postele četníka Rampy, který měl do rána službu, obchůzku po vesnicích, a který v tu dobu klidně seděl „U černého koně“ v Protivíně a hrál s obuvnickými mistry mariáš, vykládaje v přestávkách, že to Rakousko musí vyhrát.
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Pejzlerka was an old woman who served at the police station in Putim. She went back and forth to Na Kocourku bringing beer. Unfortunately she overheard the politically suspect conversation between the drunk gendarmes and had to swear to the cross not to say a word.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] A bába Pejzlerka, která jim posluhovala, se opravdu proběhla. Po večeři se cesta mezi četnickou stanicí a hospodou „Na Kocourku“ netrhla. Neobyčejně četné stopy těžkých velkých bot báby Pejzlerky na té spojovací linii svědčily o tom, že strážmistr si vynahražuje plnou měrou svou nepřítomnost „Na Kocourku“.
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*18.11.1856 St.Petersburg - †5.1.1929 Antibes
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Nicholas Nikolaevich is mentioned when it is revealed what unpatriotic views were uttered during the drinking bout at the gendarmerie station. Nicholas Nikolaevich would soon be in Přerov, Flanderka is reported to have said.

Background

Nicholas Nikolaevich was Russian commander in chief from the outbreak of war until August 1915 when his cousin czar Nicholas II personally took charge. This was a result of the setbacks suffered during the summer of 1915 when Russia was forced out of Poland and Galicia.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Nakláněje se k uchu strážmistra, šeptal: „Že jsme všichni Češi a Rusové jedna slovanská krev, že Nikolaj Nikolajevič bude příští týden v Přerově, že se Rakousko neudrží, aby jen, až bude dál vyšetřován, zapíral a pletl páté přes deváté, aby to vydržel do té doby, dokud ho kozáci nevysvobodí, že už to musí co nejdřív prasknout, že to bude jako za husitských válek, že sedláci půjdou s cepy na Vídeň, že je císař pán nemocný dědek a že co nejdřív natáhne brka, že je císař Vilém zvíře, že mu budete do vězení posílat peníze na přilepšenou a ještě víc takových řečí...“

Also written:Nikolaj Nikolajevič cz Nikolai Nikolajewitsch de Николай Николаевич ru

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Chaura was a butcher from Kobylisy, part of a story Švejk tells his guard on the way from Putim to Písek.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] „To byl bych si nikdy nemyslil,“ vykládal Švejk, „že taková cesta do Budějovic je spojena s takovejma vobtížema. To mně připadá jako ten případ s řezníkem Chaurou z Kobylis. Ten se jednou v noci dostal na Moráň k Palackýho pomníku a chodil až do rána kolem dokola, poněvadž mu to připadalo, že ta zeď nemá konce.
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*14.6.1798 Hodslavice - †26.5.1876 Praha
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Palacký is mentioned by Švejk in the story about the butcher Chaura who walked round the Palacký-monument at Moráň the whole night. In Book Three in Budapest he is quoted by Dub as follows: "if there weren’t Austria we’d have to create it.

Background

Palacký was a Czech historian and politician who played a pivotal role in the Czech National Revival. He was also called otec národa, the father of the nation. He was loyal to the Empire although he became more radical after Ausgleich (Lit. evening out). The Vienna accord of 1867 that put Hungary on an equal footing with Austria. In practical term it led to the creation of the Dual Monarchy. in 1867. Most Czechs resented that Ungarn achieved a special status within the Empire, and these feelings were aggravated as Franz Joseph I. didn't want to be crowned King of Bohemia.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] „To byl bych si nikdy nemyslil,“ vykládal Švejk, „že taková cesta do Budějovic je spojena s takovejma vobtížema. To mně připadá jako ten případ s řezníkem Chaurou z Kobylis. Ten se jednou v noci dostal na Moráň k Palackýho pomníku a chodil až do rána kolem dokola, poněvadž mu to připadalo, že ta zeď nemá konce.
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König was Station Commander (rytmistr) at Bezirksgendarmeriekommando in Písek, and very diligent, an outstanding bureaucrat. “If we want to win the war,” he said, “an ‘a’ must be an ‘a’, a ‘b’ a ‘b’, and everywhere there has to be a dot over the ‘i’.” He received Švejk and correctly sent him south to join his regiment which he for many days had looked for in vain.

Background

is surely an invented person. The position in question was held by none other than Theodor Rotter, throughout the whole war.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] A opravdu bylo to hrozné, když strážmistr poslal pro velitele stanice, rytmistra Königa. První slovo rytmistrovo bylo: „Dýchněte na mne.“ „Teď to chápu,“ řekl rytmistr, zjistiv nesporně situaci svým bystrým, zkušeným čichem, „rum, kontušovka, čert, jeřabinka, ořechovka, višňovka a vanilková. Pane strážmistr,“ obrátil se na svého podřízeného, „zde vidíte příklad, jak nemá četník vypadat. Takhle si počínat je takový přečin, že o tom bude rozhodovat vojenský soud. Svázat se s delikventem želízky. Přijít ožralý, total besoffen. Přilézt sem jako zvíře! Sundejte jim to!“
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Matějka was master sergeant at Bezirksgendarmeriekommando in Písek. He was keen on getting off for a game of "Schnaps" down by the Otava but König held him back, and thought to himself that the police chief could kiss his arse with all these reports.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Rytmistr studoval „bericht“ četnického strážmistra z Putimě o Švejkovi. Před ním stál jeho četnický strážmistr Matějka a myslel si, aby mu rytmistr vlezl na záda i se všemi berichty, poněvadž dole u Otavy čekají na něho s partií „šnopsa“.
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Hercules at work

Hercules is mentioned by rytmistr König when Švejk tells him about his efforts to join his regiment. The term is: "a Herculian job".

Background

Hercules was a Greek demigod, son of Zeus, known for his strength. There were twelwe of the tasks mentioned in the novel, each and one of them quite a challenge.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] „To byla herkulovská práce,“ řekl konečně, když se zalíbením naslouchal Švejkovu líčení, jak ho to mrzí, že se nemohl tak dlouho dostat k pluku, „na vás musela být mohutná podívaná, když jste se kroutil kolem Putimi.“

Also written:Héraklés cz Hercules la

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Rampa was a pubowner in Vinohrady, mentioned by Švejk when he tells rytmistr König at Bezirksgendarmeriekommando Písek that there would have been no point in telling vachmajstr Flanderka in Putim his name or what regiment he belonged to.

Background

Rampa (Josef) actually owned a pub in Vinohrady as the address bok from 1910 here shows.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] „Proč jste v Putimi neupozornil, že se jedná o omyl?“ „Poněvadž jsem viděl, že je to marný, s ním mluvit. To už říkal starej hostinskej Rampa na Vinohradech, když mu chtěl někdo zůstat dlužen, že přijde někdy na člověka takovej moment, že je ke všemu hluchej jako pařez.“
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Koťátko was an ensign in IR91 K.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 91
(Royal and Imperial Infantry Regiment No. 91). One of 102 regular Austro-Hungarian infantry regiments, recruitment district Budweis. This is the regiment where Švejk and also Hašek served. A complete description of the regiment will follow later.
who witnessed Švejk's appearance at the barracks in Budějovice, and watched Lukáš passing out as a result of seeing his servant again. Later he related about the incident, for instance that Švejk saluted during the whole sequence.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] U celé té scény byl praporčík Koťátko, který později vypravoval, že po tom hlášení Švejkově nadporučík Lukáš vyskočil, chytil se za hlavu a upadl naznak na Koťátko, a že když ho vzkřísili, Švejk, který po celou tu dobu vzdával čest, opakoval: „Poslušně hlásím, pane obrlajtnant, že jsem opět zde!“
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Materna was a one-year volunteer and an acquaintance of Marek. The latter mistook Materna for an artillery officer, knocked his cap off as a friendly gist, but this was a costly mistake. He was now sharing a cell with Švejk.

Background

A certain František Materna was owner of U Valšů (address book from 1910) and hence a person Jaroslav Hašek surely knew, and might have served as an inspiration. Whether or not this Materna was a one-year volunteer and served in Budějovice in 1915 can however not be established.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Stalo se to tak, že ten poručík od dělostřelectva stál v noci pod podloubím a patrně čekal na nějakou prostitutku. Byl obrácen k němu zády a jednoročnímu dobrovolníkovi připadal, jako by to byl jeho jeden známý jednoročák, Materna František.
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Anton was the artillery officer Marek mistook for Materna.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Může být,“ připouštěl jednoroční dobrovolník, „že při té tahanici padlo pár pohlavků, ale to myslím nic na věci nemění, poněvadž je to vyložený omyl. On sám přiznává, že jsem řekl: ,Servus, Franci’ a jeho křestní jméno je Anton. To je úplně jasné. Mně snad může škodit jenom to, že jsem utekl z nemocnice, a jestli to praskne s tím ,krankenbuchem’...
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Masák was a doktor from Žižkov, brother-in-law of Marek who helped him prolong his stay in the military hospital in České Budějovice.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Do Budějovic byl přeložen můj pošvagřenec Dr Masák ze Žižkova a tomu mohu děkovat, že jsem se tak dlouho v nemocnici udržel. Byl by to se mnou dotáhl až k supravisitě, když jsem to ale tak zkazil s tím nešťastným ,krankenbuchem’!
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Icarus is mentioned ny Marek when relating about his misadventures and that "Pride preceedes the fall".

Background

Icarus is a character in Greek mythology. He is the son of Daedalus and is commonly known for his attempt to escape Crete by flight. He stuck wings to his body by wax, was warned not to fly too close to the soon, ignored this advice with the result that the wax melted and he fell in the sea and drowned.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Pýcha předchází pád. Všechna sláva polní tráva. Ikarus si spálil křídla. Člověk by chtěl být gigantem - a je hovno, kamaráde.

Also written:Ikaros cz

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Josef Lada, 1930.

Schröder was colonel and commander of EB91 Ersatzbataillon des 91.Infanterieregimentes
Replacement battalion of the 91st infantry regiment. Unit tasked with training reserve troops. To offset the losses in the war these were then dispatched to the front in in so-called march battalions, roughly once a month.
in Budějovice and Bruck an der Leitha and plays a prominent role in the four chapters where the action takes place in those places. He is described as a bully and a swine but the author later assigns him a partial sense of justice. His incompetence is never in doubt, a distinction he shares with most officers in k.u.k. Heer.

In [2.4], during the investigation into the letter scandal in Királyhida, he is more kindly treated by the author: although still a swine, it becomes clear that he defends his own men, even the Czechs. He clearly doesn't like Hungarians and it is evident that he has previously served in Hungary, and Eger is specifically mentioned.

Schröder appreciated Švejk's courage and loyalty when he swallowed the letter Lukáš wrote Mrs EtelkaK and thus protected his obrlajtnant. He the personally named the good soldier company messenger. Schröder disappears from the plot when the march battalion departs for the front.

Parts of the information we have about Schröder comes from Marek's telling Švejk about the state of the regiment and the mood in the unit. This happened when the two shared a cell in the prison in Budějovice.

Background

The identity of Schröder has long been unclear, but he was, according to Bohumil Vlček, commander of EB91 Ersatzbataillon des 91.Infanterieregimentes
Replacement battalion of the 91st infantry regiment. Unit tasked with training reserve troops. To offset the losses in the war these were then dispatched to the front in in so-called march battalions, roughly once a month.
in Budějovice and then for a short period in Bruck an der Leitha. This fits well with the novel, but it still appears that Vlček mixes up names: the colonel who was in charge of replacement battalion at the time was named Schlager. For more extensive information, see Karl Schlager.

Source: Bohumil Vlček, VÚA Vojenský ústřední archiv (Central Military Archive) in Prague. , ÖStA

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Obrst Schröder přijel na mne přímo na koni a div mne nepovalil na zem. ,Donnerwetter,’ zařval, až to bylo slyšet jistě na Šumavě, ,was machen Sie hier, Sie Zivilist?’ Odpověděl jsem mu slušně, že jsem jednoroční dobrovolník a že se zúčastňuji cvičení.
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Wohltat was a one-year volunteer, later corporal, who Schröder, bellowing at Marek, informed him was a prime examples of military heroic deeds, as opposed to Marek himself. Wohltat was promoted again, five minutes after having been torn apart by a grenade.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Jednoroční dobrovolník Wohltat, byv po odbyté zkoušce povýšen na kaprála, dobrovolně přihlásil se na frontu a zajal 15 nepřátel a při odevzdávání jich byl roztržen granátem. Za pět minut došel pak rozkaz, že jednoroční dobrovolník Wohltat je povýšen na kadeta.
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*20.1.1211 Praha - †6.3.1282 Praha
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Saint Agnes was used ironically by Marek when he addressed the guard contemptuously as "Saint Agnes of the 91st Regiment".

Background

Saint Agnes may refer to a daughter of king Otakar I of Bohemia, who renounced a life in the circles of power and dedicated herself to religion and caring for the ill.

There are several other Saint Agnes around, so it is not 100 per cent certain that this is the person Marek has in mind.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Aniž by vstal ze slamníku, oslovil jednoroční dobrovolník profousa touto řečí: „Jak jest to vznešené a krásné, vězně navštěvovati, svatá Anežko 91. regimentu! Buď vítán, anděli dobročinnosti, jehož srdce jest naplněno soucitem. J

Also written:Svatá Anežka cz Heilige Agnes de

Pushkin, Alexandrnn flag
*6.6.1799 Moskva - †10.2.1837 Sankt Petersburg
Wikipedia czdeennoru Google search

Pushkin is mentioned by Marek who compares the monarchy to Pushkin's uncle who has as good as become a carcass.

Background

Pushkin was a Russian author of the Romantic era who is considered by many to be the greatest Russian poet and the founder of modern Russian literature.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] „Milý příteli,“ vykládal dál, „pozorujeme-li to všechno v měřítku naší milé monarchie, dospíváme neodvolatelně k tomu závěru, že je to s ní právě tak jako se strýcem Puškina, o kterém ten napsal, že nezbývá jen, poněvadž strýc je chcíplotina,

Also written:Puškin cz Puschkin de

Kočí, Bedřichnn flag
*2.3.1869 Mladá Boleslav - †17.1.1955 Praha
Wikipedia cz Google search

Kočí published the book Sources of economic prosperity which Marek refers to when describing the language the lower-rank officers use. This consists mainly of names of animals.

Background

Kočí was a Czech publisher, book trader and author. He often used pseudonyms. Today he is best known for theosophical writing and his work on mental health.

The book that Marek mentions was published in 1906 and contains 910 pages. It is an encyclopedia covering forestry, animal breeding, sugar growing, poultry and a range of other subjects.

Zdroje hospodářského blahobytu: kniha pro každého kdo chce brzo a poctivě zbohatnout (B. Kočí 1906) pův. vazba, 910 stran. Témata jsou uspořádána abecedně A–Ž: cukrovarnictví, dobytek, lesní hospodářství, půda atd.

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Quote from the novel
[2.2] Vytřískat nový válečný živý materiál a vojensky uvědomělá sousta pro jícny děl, k tomu je třeba důkladných studií přírodopisu nebo knihy ,Zdroje hospodářského blahobytu’, vydané u Kočího, kde vyskytuje se na každé stránce slovo: dobytek, prase, svině.
Korporal Althofnn flag
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Althof used the innovative swearing expression "You Engandin Goat" at the soldiers. This is a part of Mareks lecture to Švejk on the language employed by the lower rank officers.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] U 11. kompanie kaprál Althof používá slova: engadinská koza. Svobodník Müller, německý učitel z Kašperských Hor, nazývá nováčky českými smraďochy, šikovatel Sondernummer volskou žábou, yorkshirským kancem a slibuje přitom, že každého rekruta vydělá.
Gefreiter Müllernn flag
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Müller was a lance corporal from Kašperské Hory, teacher in civilian life, who used to call the recruits Czech stinkbags.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] U 11. kompanie kaprál Althof používá slova: engadinská koza. Svobodník Müller, německý učitel z Kašperských Hor, nazývá nováčky českými smraďochy, šikovatel Sondernummer volskou žábou, yorkshirským kancem a slibuje přitom, že každého rekruta vydělá.
Feldwebel Sondernummernn flag
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Sondernummer was a sergeant who used to address the recruits as Yorkshire boars and also promised to flay and stuff them.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] U 11. kompanie kaprál Althof používá slova: engadinská koza. Svobodník Müller, německý učitel z Kašperských Hor, nazývá nováčky českými smraďochy, šikovatel Sondernummer volskou žábou, yorkshirským kancem a slibuje přitom, že každého rekruta vydělá.
Fähnrich Dauerling, Konradnn flag
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drill_dauerling.png

A book that Dauerling read but hardly absorbed

Dauerling is never part of the plot, but is described by Marek as a particularly stupid and brutal ensign. He got a knock on his head when he was little and his mental horizon had suffered ever since.

According to Marek this made him perfectly suitable for a military career, and the fact that his father was a colonel pre-determined his destiny. He had attended Pionierkadettenschule Hainburg, where he distinguished himself through his gross stupidity, and when the war started he arrived at IR91 K.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 91
(Royal and Imperial Infantry Regiment No. 91). One of 102 regular Austro-Hungarian infantry regiments, recruitment district Budweis. This is the regiment where Švejk and also Hašek served. A complete description of the regiment will follow later.
in Budějovice as an instructor. There he became notorious for his brutality towards the Czech recruits until one day major Wenzl had enough and put a stop to his behaviour once and for all.

Background

This despicable ensign has in the secondary literature about Švejk never been associated with any particular real person, although his negative qualities (obviously caricatured) are surely inspired by one or more officers that the author knew or had heard about.

The Good Soldier Švejk in captivity
zajeti_dauerling.png

From "The Good Soldier Švejk in captivity", 1917

When investigating Dauerling it is of interest to compare the novel with Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí The Good Soldier Švejk in captivity (1917). (1917) where the junior officer is assigned a much more important role.

The author’s description of him is nearly identical to Marek’s version from the novel: accident as a child that led to a malformed skull, exceptionally stupid and brutal, educated at Pionierkadettenschule Hainburg, had read Drill oder Erziehung (see Orth), quoted Conrad, rank Fähnrich etc.

Thereafter there are however big differences. In Királyhida and at the front Dauerling is the main character alongside Švejk. He actually takes on part of the role that Lukáš has in the novel. Our good soldier is his servant and steals a dog for him, the affair with Kákonyi is there with similar details. It is also striking that the author assigned an servant to such a low ranking officer as an ensign. This may not mean much, but could also indicate that Dauerling's model(s) had a higher rank.

The similarities with Lukáš are limited to situations and circumstances. Dauerling, as opposed to Lukáš, remains a detestable figure all the way until the plot is concluded at the front when he commands Švejk to shoot him in the arm so he can escape the fighting. The soldier ends up killing him instead, but the question whether or not this was intentional is left open by the author …

A rare surname

The family name Dauerling is extremely rare, underpinned by the fact that neither the address books of Prague nor Vienna from the period in question contain any such entry. Modern name databases show up less than ten hits. It is therefore to be expected that there is no Dauerling in neither officer's lists nor casualty lists.

Tragedy in Hollfeld
dauerling1.png

Arbeiter-Zeitung, 13.2.1908

dauerling.png

Čech, 15.2.1908

One can imagine that the author borrowed the name by chance from news reports that mentioned some Dauerling. These were still few, but one such case springs to the eye: the music teacher Dauerling in Hollfeld in Bavaria beat a nine-year old girl so severely that she died. This happened on 11 February 1908 in front of the whole class and was reported in many newspapers in Austria, including Czech publications. Most German-language newspapers also added that Dauerling was a Jew.

The reports from the Hollfeld tragedy also reveal a possible misspelling. Most newspaper in fact referred to the teacher as Deuerling. Čech The entry "Čech" will be added in the future. and Lidové noviny used Dauerling whilst Národní politika and most German language newspapers used Deuerling. The latter is also a more common name, but still not widespread. There are in fact Deuerlings living in Hollfeld to this day.

In the entire armed forces of Austria-Hungary there was only one officer named Deuerling. He served in Landwehr K.k. Landwehr
The territorial army of the Austrian part of the Dual Monarchy.
and can hardly have been known to Hašek.

Hauptmann Wimmer, an undeserved reputation
wimmer1.jpg

Captain Wimmer: Morávek gave him an undeservedly bad reputation (Bestand Rudolf Kiesswetter). © ÖStA

As no Dauerling or anyone with a similarly sounding name can be located to IR91 K.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 91
(Royal and Imperial Infantry Regiment No. 91). One of 102 regular Austro-Hungarian infantry regiments, recruitment district Budweis. This is the regiment where Švejk and also Hašek served. A complete description of the regiment will follow later.
, possible inspirations may be any officer in the regiment with a some reputation as a tyrant. In his series in Večerní České Slovo The main newspaper of the Czech National Social Party. in 1924 Jan Morávek mentions a certain captain Wimmer. Jan Vaněk remembers him as commander of his march company in IR91 11th march battalion. Morávek describes Wimmer as "a lunatic who tyrannised the soldiers and even pulled his horse to battalion report". Immediately before the departure to he front he was replaced by Rudolf Lukas.

There was only one officer in IR91 K.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 91
(Royal and Imperial Infantry Regiment No. 91). One of 102 regular Austro-Hungarian infantry regiments, recruitment district Budweis. This is the regiment where Švejk and also Hašek served. A complete description of the regiment will follow later.
that fits the name and rank described by Jan Morávek. This was Hauptmann Captain (cz. hejtman), rank no. 9, commissioned officer. At the start of the war typically company cmmanders, in 1915 often battalion commanders. The rank above Oberleutnant and below Major. Otto Wimmer who in the summer of 1915 became commander of the 13th march battalion. They arrived at the front by Bug on 15 August 1915 so from then on Jan Vaněk may again have had to deal with him.

The connection between Dauerling and Wimmer is still only vague; there is for instance a great difference in rank between the two (without this necessarily have been seen as important by the author).

Hauptmann Wurm
wurm1.jpg

Captain Wurm. From the book "Jednadevadesátníci", Jan Ciglbauer, 2018.

We do not know of alternative sources that confirm captain Wimmer's alleged brutality, and recently published information actually clears his name entirely.

Thanks to information in the book Jednadevadesátníci (Jan Ciglbauer, 1918) we can now conclude that Morávek referred to captain Hans Wurm, an officer who according to several witnesses was notoriously cruel, bordering on madness.

The key phrase is "pulling his horse to battalion report". This is exactly what Wurm did in Királyhida in 1916, and soldiers from IR91 K.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 91
(Royal and Imperial Infantry Regiment No. 91). One of 102 regular Austro-Hungarian infantry regiments, recruitment district Budweis. This is the regiment where Švejk and also Hašek served. A complete description of the regiment will follow later.
later remembered both this incident and other examples of his senseless brutality.

Still it would be far fetched to claim that Wurm was a model for Dauerling. Apart from their common cruel behaviour their life and army career had little in common. Dauerling thus joins the list of figures in the novel who are without an obvious real-life counter-part: Katz, Wendler, Chodounský, Baloun, Jurajda, Dub etc.

External Links

SourceJan Morávek, Jan Ciglbauer

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Když vypukla válka a všecky mladičké kadetíky udělali fähnrichy, dostal se do archu hainburských povýšenců i Konrád Dauerling a tak se dostal k 91. regimentu.“Jednoroční dobrovolník si oddechl a vypravoval dál: „Vyšla nákladem ministerstva vojenství kniha ,Drill oder Erziehung’, ze které vyčetl Dauerling, že na vojáky patří hrůza. Podle stupňů hrůzy že má též výcvik úspěch.

Also written:Konrád Dauerling cz

Feldmarschall Conrad von Hötzendorf, Franz Xaver Josephnn flag
*11.11.1852 Penzing - †25.8.1925 Bad Mergentheim
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hotzendorf.jpg

Conrad in 1915.

Conrad is mentioned in connection with Dauerling who recited parts of Conrad's infamous quote: Die Soldaten müssen sowieso krepieren. (Soldiers must peg out anyway).

The authenticity of this quote has not been verified. It should also be noted that Conrad obtained the rank Field Marshall only in 1916, so Marek was looking well into the future during this dialogue with Švejk that logically must have taken place in 1915.

A similar situations and an equally grotesque quote can be found in Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí The Good Soldier Švejk in captivity (1917). (1917). Here the author is more direct and claims that Conrad said that "Die Tschechen müssen so wie so krepieren" and that this utterance took place in early January 1916 in Innsbruck in presence of the 8th Infantry Division. Dauerling is like in the novel linked to the quote but it has not been possible to verify even this one. It is tempting to suggest that it is a product of the author's imagination or forwarding rumours. It seems altogether unlikely that Conrad uttered such phrases publicly.

Conrad reappears during Biegler's dream on the train to Budapest. There is a picture of him on the wall of k.u.k. Gottes Hauptquartier. Here he is referred to as Chief of General Staff.

Background

Conrad was an Austrian Field Marshal who was Chief of Staff at k.u.k. Generalstab when war broke out in 1914. He was known for his aggressive stance in foreign policy matters and advocated preventive warfare as a solution to the "Serbian question". He was head of the general staff until 1 March 1917, when the new emperor Karl I. dismissed him. Conrad is seen by many as carrying a major responsibility for the disastrous policies that led to the outbreak of World War I World wide armed conflict that took place from 1914 to 1918. Is the backdrop of the novel these web pages are dedicated to. .

Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí

"Die Tschechen müssen so wie so krepieren." To řekl též polní maršálek Conrad z Hötzendorfu počátkem ledna roku 1916 před 8. pěší divizí v Inšpruku.

External Links

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Jednou, když rozbil oko jednomu rekrutovi, vyjádřil se: ,Pah, was für Geschichte mit einem Kerl, muß so wie so krepieren.’ To říkal též polní maršálek Konrád z Hötzendorfu: ,Die Soldaten müssen so wie so krepieren.’
[3.1] Uprostřed pokoje, ve kterém po stěnách visely podobizny Františka Josefa a Viléma, následníka trůnu Karla Františka Josefa, generála Viktora Dankla, arcivévody Bedřicha a šéfa generálního štábu Konráda z Hötzendorfu, stál pán bůh.

Also written:Konrád z Hötzendorfu Hašek

Hauptmann Adamičkann flag
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Adamička was an unusually apathetic captain at the garrison in Budějovice. Marek tells Švejk about him when they are locked up together, and how Adamička avoids dealing with the brutality of Dauerling. Marek also reveals that Captain Adamička has already been sent to the front, and in his shoes stepped major Wenzl who put Dauerling firmly in his place.

Background

The officer Josef Adamička from IR91 K.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 91
(Royal and Imperial Infantry Regiment No. 91). One of 102 regular Austro-Hungarian infantry regiments, recruitment district Budweis. This is the regiment where Švejk and also Hašek served. A complete description of the regiment will follow later.
without doubt served as the prototype of Hašek's captain Adamička.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] „To bylo za hejtmana Adamičky, to byl člověk úplně apatický. Když seděl v kanceláři, tu se obyčejně díval do prázdna jako tichý blázen a měl takový výraz, jako by chtěl říct: ,Sežerte si mě, mouchy.’ Při batalionsraportu bůhví na co myslel. Jednou se hlásil k batalionsraportu voják od 11. kumpanie se stížností, že ho nazval fähnrich Dauerling na ulici večer českým prasetem. Byl to v civilu knihař, uvědomělý národní dělník.
Major Wenzlnn flag
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wenzel_ir91.jpg

Franz Wenzel, first on the right.
Obrana lidu, 15 January 1972

Wenzl was a major at the garrison in Budějovice, who replaced captain Adamička when the latter was sent to the front due to his alleged sense of justice. Wenzl was the one that finally put fähnrich Dauerling in his place. Major rank no. 8, commissioned officer. In 1914 typically battalion commanders. Due to the lack of officers they could later also command entire regiments. The rank above Hauptmann and below Oberstleutnant. Wenzl had a Czech wife so his greatest fear was disputes between the nationalities. He also hated lower rank officers after an unfortunate episode years ago, when being drunk at a hotel in Kutná Hora. Wenzl held the rank of captain in Kutná Hora so he had obviously been promoted since. He only appears directly in the plot once, in a conversation with Schröder and Ságner at the hotel in Budějovice.

In Királyhida his name reappears but this time he does not take part in the plot. He is mentioned during Švejk and Lukáš' episode with Wenzl's servant Mikulášek. The author provides some additional information: Wenzl had showed himself utterly incompetent by the Drina, he had ordered the destruction of a pontoon bridge whilst half his battalion was stuck on the other side of the river. Here in Királyhida he was getting back on his feet; he had been assigned administrative duties, and was also commander of the camp's shooting range. Wenzl is seemingly not part of Švejk's march battalion and disappears from the story before their departure to the front.

Wenzl is introduced also in Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí The Good Soldier Švejk in captivity (1917). and plays a very similar role. At times the text of the two books is nearly identical.

Background

The prototype of major Wenzl was no doubt Franz Wenzel, a professional officer from Liberec.

Source: Bohumil Vlček, ÖStA

Quote from the novel
[2.2] O tom hejtmanovi Adamičkovi se pak říkalo, že má smysl pro spravedlnost, milý kamaráde, tak ho poslali do pole a namístě něho přišel sem major Wenzl. A to byl čertův syn, pokud se týkalo národnostních štvanic, a ten zaťal tipec fähnrichovi Dauerlingovi. Major Wenzl má za manželku Češku a má největší strach z národnostních sporů.
Kadetstellvertreter Zítkonn flag
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Zítko was a reserve cadet from the school of one-year volunteers in Kutná Hora. He had gone to the press with the story about captain Wenzl having insulted a Czech waiter when drunk. The two had been enemies since Zítko had uttered something along these lines at a party where Wenzl was present: "What is any captain compared to the splendour of nature? The same nobody as any kadetstellvertreter".

Quote from the novel
[2.2] ,Stačí,’ povídal kadetstellvertreter Zítko, ,zamyslit se nad tím, co je každý hejtman proti velebné přírodě. Stejná nula jako každý kadetstellvertreter.’ Poněvadž všichni vojenští páni byli tenkrát namazaní, chtěl hejtman Wenzl nešťastného filosofa Zítka zmlátit jako koně, a nepřátelství toto se stupňovalo a hejtman sekýroval Zítka, kde mohl, tím víc, poněvadž výrok kadetstellvertretera Zítka stal se pořekadlem. ,Co je hejtman Wenzl proti velebné přírodě?’ to znali po celé Kutné Hoře.
Mlíčkonn flag
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Mlíčko was a carpenter from Vávrova třída who was the first war wounded from his regiment. Someone tore off his wooden leg and whacked him on his head with during a brawl at Apollo. All this is according to a story Švejk tells Marek in the arrest in Budějovice.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] „O velkej stříbrnej medalii za udatnost, kterou dostal jeden truhlář z Vávrovy ulice na Král. Vinohradech, nějakej Mlíčko, poněvadž byl první, kterému u jeho regimentu utrh na začátku války granát nohu
Kanonýr Jabůreknn flag
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jaburek.png

Postkarte Kanonýr Jabůrek. Verlag: M. Schultz, Prag 1914 (ÖNB)

jaburek2.png

Národní listy, 17.2.1886

Jabůrek was an artilleryman Marek and Švejk sang about in the cell in Budějovice. The singing provoked a visit from the officer on guard-duty, lieutenant Pelikán. The refrain of the song is accuratly reproduced in the novel, fragments of verse 12 less so.

Background

Kanonýr Jabůrek was a figure from a song story (cantastoria) Udatný rek kanonýr Jabůrek which had its background from the Austro-Prussian war of 1866. It is unclear whether it had any factual foundation, but in any case it appeared as a parody around 1884, perhaps even before. Jabůrek took part in the deciding battle by Hradec Králové on 3 July 1866. He keeps loading his cannon even as his limbs and other parts of the body are torn off, until his head is blown off and it reports to the general that he is no longer able to salute. The song is written in colloquial Czech.

The first verse of the song was printed on a postcard from 1914, but in formal written Czech. It was part of a series of patriotic songs issued on post-cards in Prague after outbreak of war. Why this obviously satirical song was included in the collection begs a good answer. In 1986 Franz Hiesel made a radio play based on the song. It was broadcast both in West Germany (WDR) and Austria (ORF). Over the years the cannoneer has been mentioned numerous times in the Czech press and other publications.

a u kanonu stál
a pořád ládoval
a u kanonu stál
a furt jen ládoval

External Links

SourceJaroslav Šerák Czech Hašek-expert, owner and editor of Virtuální muzeum Jaroslava Haška. Publisher of a compilation of Hašek's poems. Since 2009 in close cooperation with the owner of this web site, and content is regularly exchanged and inter-linked. , Hans-Peter Laqueur German historian and orientalist (1949-), author of a conceptual study on Turkish themes in Švejk. Using his thorough knowledge on European and Turkish history, he has helped improve this web site significantly.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Tak mně připadá,“ řekl jednoroční dobrovolník po krátké pomlčce, „že duch vojenský v nás upadá, navrhuji, milý příteli, abychom v noční tmě, v tichu našeho vězení si zazpívali o kanonýrovi Jabůrkovi.

Also written:Kanonier Jabůrek de Cannoneer Jabůrek en Kanonér Jabůrek no

Leutnant Pelikán, Františeknn flag
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Pelikán was a lieutenant and reserve officer, mathematician in civilian life. He knew Marek and helped the two prisoners with cigarettes.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] „To je profous,“ řekl jednoroční dobrovolník, „jde s ním lajtnant Pelikán, který má dnes službu. Je to reservní důstojník, můj známý z ,České besedy’, v civilu je matematikem v jedné pojišťovně. Od toho dostaneme cigarety. Řveme jen dál.“
Oberleutnant Kretschmannnn flag
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Kretschmann was a senior lieutenant which at the hotel in Budějovice related to his officer colleagues how he had witnessed an attack on Serbian positions. He had returned returned from Serbia with a sore leg after having been gored by a cow.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Zatímco jednoroční dobrovolník pronášel zdrcující kritiku poměrů v kasárnách, plukovník Schröder seděl v hotelu ve společnosti důstojníků a poslouchal, jak nadporučík Kretschmann, který se vrátil ze Srbska s bolavou nohou (trkla ho kráva), vypravoval, jak se díval od štábu, ku kterému byl přidělen, na útok na srbské posice:
Hauptmann Spíronn flag
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Spíro was a captain who at the hotel in Budějovice reeled off the most incoherent of observations. Banging his fist on the table, he concluded: "the Land Defense serves the land in peacetime".

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Hejtman Spíro udeřil pěstí do stolu. „Zeměbrana vykonává službu v zemi v čas míru.“
Hauptmann Ságnernn flag
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Ságner was captain in IR91 K.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 91
(Royal and Imperial Infantry Regiment No. 91). One of 102 regular Austro-Hungarian infantry regiments, recruitment district Budweis. This is the regiment where Švejk and also Hašek served. A complete description of the regiment will follow later.
and takes part in the plot from Budějovice until the very last section of the novel. He is actually the last person being mentioned. Later on it is revealed that he has a past as a Czech patriot but lets his career take preference. He had attended cadet school in Prague together with Lukáš (see K.u.k. Infanteriekadettenschule Prag). In general the author's attitude towards Ságner is fairly neutral.

Captain Ságner is first introduced by Marek but enters the plot soon after when the author relates from an officers party at a hotel in Budějovice. Marek also reveals that he was commander of the school for one-year volunteers.

In Királyhida he was appointed commander of Švejk's march battalion and led the unit until the end of the novel. Soon after departure he was severely embarrassed by cadet Biegler in the mix-up with the decryption keys involving the book by Ganghofer.

According to Rechnungsfeldwebel Vaněk, captain Ságner had served at the front in Montenegro, and had reportedly proved himself incompetent.

Background

The prototype of Ságner is no doubt the Austrian (from 1918 Czechoslovak) officer Čeněk Sagner. He was Hašek's battalion commander from 11 July to 24 September 1915, and before that they had served simultaneously in Budějovice and Királyhida.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] „On skládá básničky,“ posměšně se ozval hejtman Ságner, „sotva přijel, tak se zamiloval do paní inženýrové Schreiterové, s kterou se setkal v divadle.“ Plukovník se zachmuřeně podíval před sebe: „Prý umí zpívat kuplety?“ „Už v kadetce nás velice bavil kuplety,“ odpověděl hejtman Ságner, „a anekdoty zná, jedna radost. Proč nejde mezi nás, nevím.“
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Schreiterová was an engineers' wife which Lukáš had fallen in love with after meeting her at the theatre in Budějovice.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] „On skládá básničky,“ posměšně se ozval hejtman Ságner, „sotva přijel, tak se zamiloval do paní inženýrové Schreiterové, s kterou se setkal v divadle.“
Oberleutnant Danklnn flag
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Dankl was a senior lieutenant who used to entertain at the officers club by sticking a herrings tail up his bottom to do a mermaid performance. This is what colonel Schröder told when reminiscing about the good old days.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Jeden, pamatuji se, nějaký nadporučík Dankl, ten se svlékl do naha, lehl si na podlahu, zastrčil si do zadnice ocas ze slanečka a představoval nám mořskou pannu.
Leutnant Schleisnernn flag
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Schleisner was a lieutenant who could wiggle his ears, whinny like a stallion, miaow like a cat and hum like a bumblebee. Again it is colonel Schröder remembering the old days.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Jiný zas, poručík Schleisner, uměl střihat ušima a řičet jako hřebec, napodobovat mňoukání koček a bzučení čmeláka.
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Skoday was a captain who brought to the officers club three girls he had trained like dogs. There they engaged in debauched forms of entertainment. Schröder remembers this with joy as he thniks back of the old days.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Pamatuji se také na hejtmana Skodayho. Ten vždy, když jsme chtěli, přivedl do kasina holky, byly to tři sestry, a měl je nacvičené jako psy. Postavil je na stůl a ony se začaly před námi obnažovat do taktu. Měl takovou malou taktovku, a všechna čest, kapelník byl znamenitý. A co s nimi prováděl na pohovce! Jednou dal přinést vanu s teplou vodou doprostřed místnosti a my jeden po druhém museli jsme se s těma holkama vykoupat a on nás vyfotografoval.“
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marek1.jpg

Večerní Praha, 11.4.1983 (Augustin Knesl).

© MKP

Marek was a fat one-year volunteer who Švejk met for the first time in the garrison arrest at Mariánská kasárna in Budějovice. They shared a cell for three days and entertained themselves hugely. Marek is the first person in the novel who is an outspoken opponent of the war. In civilian life he studied classical philosophy. It is never said where he lives.

Marek appears regularly throughout the rest of the novel, but rarely in such a prominent role as here. His real name is only revealed when he goes on report, so far he had been referred to as "the fat one-year volunteer". He had been arrested after knocking the cap off an artillery officer by mistake, which led to the discovery that he had forged the hospital sick book to get away and take part in the nocturnal delights of the southern Czech metropolis. For this he got 21 days severe and subsequent kitchen service. This suited him perfectly, it was far better to peel potatoes than to be commanded to attack under enemy fire with his trousers full.

He re-appears in Királyhida in the cell with Švejk og Vodička because he has refused to clean the latrines. In Budapest he is finally released and becomes Battallionsgeschichteschreiber, a duty he fulfils honourably: he writes the history of the battalion in advance. Marek is from then on part of the story all the way to the final pages of the novel.

Background

Marek has many traits in common with the author. From a purely biographical point of view, these are: one year volunteer, served in IR91 K.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 91
(Royal and Imperial Infantry Regiment No. 91). One of 102 regular Austro-Hungarian infantry regiments, recruitment district Budweis. This is the regiment where Švejk and also Hašek served. A complete description of the regiment will follow later.
, expelled from the reserve officer's school, stay in the military hospital in Budějovice, imprisoned in the garrison arrest, editor of Svět zvířat The Animal World
Popular science magazine focussing on animals and animal breeding. A full description will be added later.
where he was dismissed after inventing new animals. Jaroslav Hašek turned up at the Budějovice garrison in civilian clothes and a cylindre hat, just like Marek.

On ideas and personal qualities, these fit: hatred of the monarchy and its institutions, anti-war attitudes, glittering rhetoric, fat, unusually good memory and grasp of detail. It is also obvious that Marek is a mouthpiece for Jaroslav Hašek's personal views.

Karel Marek

Experts seem to agree that the name of the one-year volunteer is borrowed from Karel Marek (1884-1945), a friend of Jaroslav Hašek from his youth. Václav Menger Czech actor and writer, childhood friend of Hašek (1888-1947). Author of two books and a number of newspaper articles about him. relates that the young Hašek often visited the Marek family at Vinohrady and that he particularly enjoyed listening to the stories Karel's father told from his experience in the Prussian War of 1866. From him the young author also learnt many of the army songs that he was so fond of singing. Karel Marek actually was a one-year volunteer but in IR28 The entry "IR28" will be added in the future. , Prague's own regiment.

Karel Marek was, according to Augustín Knesl Czech Švejkologist who for some period did research on the backdrop to the novel, concentrating on people. He published his findings in Večerní Praha in 1983. , born in 1884, son of Jan and Anna Marek. Like Jaroslav Hašek, young Karel studied at the Českoslovanská akademie obchodní Czechoslavonic Commercial Academy, founded in 1872. Amongst its students were Jaroslav Hašek (1899-1902). in Resslova ulice, albeit two years later (i.e. 1901-1904). He worked as an official but was also an artist, mastering painting and writing. He met with Hašek also after the war and some material about the author was kept by his wife Marie Marková. At the end of World War II World wide armed conflict that took place from 1939 to 1945. The bloodiest war the world has ever seen. Marek was interned in Terezín and 15 May 1945 he died as the result of mistreatment he suffered in the camp.

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SourceVáclav Menger Czech actor and writer, childhood friend of Hašek (1888-1947). Author of two books and a number of newspaper articles about him. , Augustín Knesl Czech Švejkologist who for some period did research on the backdrop to the novel, concentrating on people. He published his findings in Večerní Praha in 1983.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] A právě takovým hlasem pronesl plukovník: „Jednoroční dobrovolník Marek odsuzuje se: jednadvacet dní verschärft a po odpykání trestu do kuchyně škrábat brambory.“ ... A lump Marek stál vedle Švejka a tvářil se úplně spokojeně. Lépe to už s ním dopadnout nemohlo. Je rozhodně lepší škrábat v kuchyni brambory, modelovat blbouny a obírat žebro než řvát s plnými kaťaty pod uraganním ohněm nepřítele: „Einzelnabfallen! Bajonett auf!“
Index Back Forward II. At the front Hovudpersonen

2. Švejk's budějovická anabasis


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