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The Good Soldier Švejk

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Map of Austria-Hungary in 1914. The itinerary of Jaroslav Šerák took place entirely within the borders of the Dual Monarchy.

The Fateful Adventures of the Good Soldier Švejk is a novel which contains a wealth of geographical references - either directly through the plot, in dialogues or in the authors own observations. HAJ: was himself unusually well travelled and had a photographic memory of geographical (and other) details. It is evident that he put great emphasis on this: 8 of the 27 chapter headlines in Švejk contain place names.

This web page will in due course contain a full overview of all the geographical references in the novel; from Prague in the introduction to Klimontów in the unfinished Book Four. Countries, cities, towns, villages, mountains, oceans, lakes, rivers, islands, buildings are included. Note that from 14 September 2013, institutions (including pubs) have been moved to the new 'Institutions' page. The list is sorted according to the order in which the names appear through the novel. The chapter headlines are from Zenny K. Sadlon's recent translation and will in most cases differ from Cecil Parrott's version from 1973.

  • The facts are mainly taken from Internet sources but cross-verified when possible
  • The quotes in Czech are copied from the online version of sv: provided by Jaroslav Šerák and contain links to the relevant chapter
  • The toolbar has links for direct access to Wikipedia, Google maps, Google search, svejkmuseum.cz and Švejk online

The names are coloured according to their role in the novel, illustrated by these examples: Sanok as a location where the plot takes place, Dubno mentioned in the narrative, Zagreb as part of a dialogue, and Pakoměřice as mentioned in an anecdote.

>> The Good Soldier Švejk index of places mentioned in the novel (578) Show all
>> I. In the rear
>> II. At the front
>> III. The famous thrashing
Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

Introduction

Macedoniann flag
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Macedonia is used as an adjective through the author's term for Alexander the Great, Alexandr Macedonský.

Background

Macedonia was an ancient kingdom with its origin in the northern part of the Greek peninsula. During the reign of Philip II of Macedon and his son Alexander the Great it became an enormous empire, stretching all the way to the river Indus. The capital at the time (400 BC to 300 BC) was Pella. Macedonia is the first of more than eight hundred geographical reference in the novel, and it appears already in the third sentence!

Links

Quote from the novel
[Úvod] Velká doba žádá velké lidi. Jsou nepoznaní hrdinové, skromní, bez slávy a historie Napoleona. Rozbor jejich povahy zastínil by slávu Alexandra Macedonského. Dnes můžete potkat v pražských ulicích ošumělého muže, který sám ani neví, co vlastně znamená v historii nové velké doby.

Also written:Macedonie Hašek Makedonie cz Makedonien de Μακεδονία gr Македонија mk

Praguenn flag
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praha.jpg

Social-Demokraten, 21.12.1920

praha1.jpg

Krásná Praha, 1907

praha3.jpg

Světozor, 20.2.1914

Prague is mentioned already in the introduction, and later on the action of the entire first part of the novel takes place in the home city of Švejk. The author knew Prague extremely well, and he refers to nearly 140 places in the city during the novel. The action takes place in the districts of Nové Město, Staré Město, Malá Strana and Hradčany. The principal area is Nové Město where it all starts. Švejk probably lived very close to the street Na Bojišti in Nové Město. The plot also strays into suburbs that in 1922 became part of Greater Prague: Karlín, Vršovice, Žižkov, Motol, and Břevnov. Švejk also sets many of his innumerable stories in Prague and adjoining suburbs.

Background

Prague is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic. It is located on the river Vltava and the population is about 1.2 million. After 1648 Prague has been little exposed to warfare and as a result the old city centre is very well preserved. The city can thus offer intact architecture from several eras and is considered one of the most beautiful in Europe. The inner city area has since 1992 been on UNESCO's World Heritage List.

Prague was already in the Middle Ages an important city and reached its summit during the reign of Charles IV, who was also Holy Roman emperor. After Bohemia came under Habsburg rule from 1526 onwards, it gradually lost its importance and was by the outbreak of WW1 reduced to being one of several Austrian regional capitals.

Prague in 1914

At the outbreak of WW1 the city was much smaller than today, consisting of the districts I. Staré Město, II. Nové Město, III. Malá Strana, IV. Hradčany, V. Josefov, VI. Vyšehrad, VII. Holešovice-Bubny and VIII. Libeň. The city was officially called Královské hlavní město Praha (Royal Capital Prague). The numbering of the districts also differed from today; Malá Strana, for instance, was Prague III whereas it is now part of Praha I. The population count in 1910 was appx. 224,000, with suburbs included 476,000. More than 90 per cent were of Czech nationality, the rest predominantly German (including Jews). The city was also seat of Generalkommando des VIII. Armeekorps, the unit IR91 belonged to. In 1922 several adjoining districts were incorporated into the new Czechoslovak capital. The new administrative unit became known as Velká Praha.

Hašek's home city

Jaroslav Hašek was born in Školská 16 in Praha II. 30 April 1883. He lived in Prague and the nearby districts of Královské Vinohrady and Smíchov until February 1915. From 19 December 1920 to 25 August 1921 he also resided in the city, although mostly in Žižkov which was still to become part of the capital. Part one and the beginning of part two of The Good Soldier Švejk were written here from March to August 1921.

Links

Source: Radko Pytlík, Baedekers Österreich 1910

Quote from the novel
[Úvod] Dnes můžete potkat v pražských ulicích ošumělého muže, který sám ani neví, co vlastně znamená v historii nové velké doby.

Also written:Praha cz Prag de

Austriann flag
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cisleithanien.png

Austria shown in red, Hungary in grey.

Austria is briefly mentioned in the introduction, but plays a key role throughout the novel and is mentioned many times. The Dual Monarchy, Austria-Hungary, is the main target of Jaroslav Hašek's satire. The author often uses the term Austria even when referring to the entire monarchy. The bulk of the novel takes place on Austrian territory: part one, half of part two, the final chapter of part three and all of part four. The rest of the plot is set in the Hungarian part of the empire.

Background

Austria was the political entity that ruled Bohemia from 1526 to 1918. From 1804 to 1867 the term applied to the entire Habsburg empire, but after the "Ausgleich" in 1867 it applied only to the Austrian part of what had now become Austria-Hungary. Vienna was capital throughout both periods.

A much used unofficial term for Austria from 1867 to 1918 was Cisleithanien. The official name until 1915 was Die im Reichsrat vertretenen Königreiche und Länder, from 1915 again Österreich. The latest name change took place despite strong protests from the Czech deputies in the Reichsrat. The area was officially an empire and Franz Joseph I. was emperor until his death in 1916.

The result of the defeat in WW1 was the empire's disintegration; the area was split between the new republic of Austria, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Poland, Italy and Romania.

Links

Quote from the novel
[Úvod] A tento tichý, skromný, ošumělý muž jest opravdu ten starý dobrý voják Švejk, hrdinný, statečný, který kdysi za Rakouska byl v ústech všech občanů Českého království a jehož sláva nezapadne ani v republice.

Also written:Rakousko cz Österreich de Ausztria hu

Kingdom of Bohemiann flag
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bohmen.png

Ottův slovník naučný

Kingdom of Bohemia is just about mentioned in the introduction but plays otherwise a minor role, at least when it comes to direct references. Still a substantial part of the plot and almost all the anecdotes take place on the territory of the former kingdom.

Background

Kingdom of Bohemia was a historical kingdom that existed from 1198, and from 1526 to 1918 it was a political entity (crown land) ruled by the Habsburg Empire. Some of the Habsburg emperors were also crowned as kings of Bohemia. Franz Joseph I refused coronation and this caused a great deal of resentment amongst Czechs.

The emperor's executive in the kingdom was the "Statthalter" (governor) who held residence in Prague. The official languages were Czech and German. The kingdom was dissolved in 1918 and it's territory became the most influental region in the newly proclaimed Czechoslovakia.

Links

Quote from the novel
[Úvod] A tento tichý, skromný, ošumělý muž jest opravdu ten starý dobrý voják Švejk, hrdinný, statečný, který kdysi za Rakouska byl v ústech všech občanů Českého království a jehož sláva nezapadne ani v republice.

Also written:České království cz Königreich Böhmen de

Czechoslovakiann flag
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Czechoslovakia is indirectly mentioned by the author through the term "The Republic". Later on there are several references, particularly in bitter outbursts against people who had worked for the Austrian oppressors and now lived comfortably in the new republic. See Slavíček and Klíma.

Background

Czechoslovakia was a historic state in Central Europe. It was established on 28 October 1918 as a consequence of the collapse of Austria-Hungary at the end of WW1.

Czechoslovakia consisted the regions of Bohemia, Moravia, Slovakia, Carpathian Ruthenia, and a small part of Silesia. Until the Munich agreement destroyed the state in 1938, Tsjekkoslovakia was a highly developed democracy with a strong industrial base.

After the defeat of the Nazis, Czechoslovakia was restored with a democratic government, but in February 1948 the communists took power in a coup and a one-party state was established. In 1989 democracy was restored, but the state was split in the Czech Republic and Slovakia 1 January 1993. This was one of the world's few peaceful political divorces.

Quote from the novel
[Úvod] A tento tichý, skromný, ošumělý muž jest opravdu ten starý dobrý voják Švejk, hrdinný, statečný, který kdysi za Rakouska byl v ústech všech občanů Českého království a jehož sláva nezapadne ani v republice.
[1.14.2] Dnes jsou důstojničtí sluhové roztroušeni po celé naší republice a vypravují o svých hrdinných skutcích.

Also written:Československo cz Tschechoslowakei de

Ephesusnn flag
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Ephesus is mentioned in connection with Herostratus, the vain fool who here gets compared to Švejk and stated to be his complete opposite. The terms "herostratic fame" refers to Herostratos setting fire to the temple in Ephesus to achieve fame.

Background

Ephesus was in ancient times an important port on the western coast of Asia Minor with around 250,000 inhabitants. The city was Ioanian Greece's economic centre and later one of the most important cities of the Roman Empire. The city housed one of the seven wonders of the worlds; the Temple of Artemis.

Quote from the novel
[Úvod] On nezapálil chrám bohyně v Efesu, jako to udělal ten hlupák Herostrates, aby se dostal do novin a školních čítanek.

Also written:Efesos cz Ephesos de Efes tr

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

1. The good soldier Švejk acts to intervene in the world war

Konopištěnn flag
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konopiste.jpg

Světozor, 2.9.1910

konopiste1.jpg

Venkov, 19.6.1914

Konopiště is mentioned by Müllerová already in the opening passage as she explains Švejk which Ferdinand has been murdered: "the Archduke Ferdinand, the one from Konopiště, the fat one, the religious one".

Background

Konopiště is a village and castle by Benešov that from 1887 to 1914 was owned by Franz Ferdinand, then Austrian heir to the throne. He and his family lived there for long periods. The castle is now a museum which exhibits amongst other items, Franz Ferdinand's around 475,000 hunting trophies and large amounts of classic furniture and paintings.

In 1913 the village had 115 inhabitants, spread across 13 houses. It belonged to okres og hejtmanství Benešov. The municipality of the same name was somewhat larger: 484 souls living in 53 houses.

Ottův slovník naučný

Konopiště: ves a panství v Čechách, hejt., okr., fara a pš. Benešov; 23 d., 391 ob. č. (1890), 2tř. šk., 2 mlýny. Alod. panství (5397,48 ha) s krásným letním zámkem náleží arcivév. rak. Františkovi Ferdinandovi. R. 1898 zámek nádherně opraven a panské průmyslové závody v Konopišti zrušeny a převedeny do Benešova. … more

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.1] „Ale, milostpane, pana arcivévodu Ferdinanda, toho z Konopiště, toho tlustýho, nábožnýho.“ „Ježíšmarjá,“ vykřikl Švejk, „to je dobrý. A kde se mu to, panu arcivévodovi, stalo?“ „Práskli ho v Sarajevu, milostpane, z revolveru, vědí. Jel tam s tou svou arcikněžnou v automobilu.“

Also written:Konopist Bang-Hansen Konopischt de

Sarajevonn flag
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Sarajevo is first mentioned by Müllerová as she tells Švejk about the assassination of Franz Ferdinand. Later in the chapter the conversation at U kalicha revolves around the murder on the emperor-to-be and Sarajevo is mentioned many times by Bretschneider, Švejk and Palivec.

Background

Sarajevo was in 1914 as now the capital of Bosnia­-Hercegovina­. In 1878 Austria-Hungary occupied Bosnia­-Hercegovina­ although it formally remained a part of Turkey until 1908 when it was annexed by the Dual Monarchy. The annexation caused resentment in Serbia. The Bosnian capital was on 28 June 1914 the scene of the murder of Franz Ferdinand, an act that indirectly led to the outbreak of World War I. The killing was carried out by serb extremists.

The murders in Sarajevo is very directly the starting point of the novel these web pages are about.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.1] „Práskli ho v Sarajevu, milostpane, z revolveru, vědí. Jel tam s tou svou arcikněžnou v automobilu.“ „Tak se podívejme, paní Müllerová, v automobilu. Jó, takovej pán si to může dovolit, a ani nepomyslí, jak taková jízda automobilem může nešťastně skončit. A v Sarajevu k tomu, to je v Bosně, paní Müllerová. To asi udělali Turci. My holt jsme jim tu Bosnu a Hercegovinu neměli brát.
Bosniann flag
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Bosnia is first mentioned by Švejk when he states to Mrs Müllerová that Sarajevo is in Bosnia. Later, during the conversations at U kalicha mellom Bretschneider, Palivec and Švejk, and the area is mentioned several times. In Budapest a Bosnian regiment is mentioned.

Background

Bosnia is often mentioned together with Hercegovina as Bosnia and Hercegovina. This is the political unit that both areas belong to. Bosnia and Hercegovina have long been purely geographical terms.

The area was annexed by Austria-Hungary in 1908. This led to widespread dissatisfaction amongst serbs and is arguably the main reason for the grievances that led terrorists to plot and execute the murder of Franz Ferdinand.

Quote from the novel
[1.1] „A v Sarajevu k tomu, to je v Bosně, paní Müllerová. To asi udělali Turci. My holt jsme jim tu Bosnu a Hercegovinu neměli brát."

Also written:Bosna cz Bosnien de Bosna hr Босна sr

Bosnia and Hercegovinann flag
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Bosnia and Hercegovina is first mentioned by Švejk when he states to Müllerová at Sarajevo ligg i Bosnia and that Austria-Hungary shouldn't have taken it from the Turks. Later on the area is mentioned in the conversation at U kalicha between Bretschneider, Palivec og Svejk.

Background

Bosnia and Hercegovina was (and is) is the political entity consisting of Bosnia and Hercegovina. The area was annexed by Austria-Hungary in 1908. This led to widespread dissatisfaction amongst Serbs and is arguably the main reason for the grievances that led terrorists to plot and carry out the murder of Franz Ferdinand.

Quote from the novel
[1.1] „A v Sarajevu k tomu, to je v Bosně, paní Müllerová. To asi udělali Turci. My holt jsme jim tu Bosnu a Hercegovinu neměli brát."

Also written:Bosna a Hercegovina cz Bosnien und Herzegowina de Bosna i Hercegovina hr Bosnia og Hercegovina nn Босна и Херцеговина sr

Nuslenn flag
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Nusle is first mentioned by Müllerová when she refers to an assault with a revolver which took place there in her home town. The area is later referred to by landlord Palivec at U kalicha and it is obvious that Nusle had a bad reputation at the time. There are several references to locations in Nusle later in the novel, the tavern U Bansethů being amongst them.

Background

Nusle was from 1898 a town in the Prague conurbation belonging to hejtmanství Královské Vinohrady. In 1922 it became part of the capital. It grew during the industrial revolution and in 1913 it counted 22,755 souls where nearly all registered Czech as their mother tongue. Riegrovo náměstí (now Náměstí Bratří Synků) was regarded the centre of the town.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.1] Nedávno taky si hrál jeden pán u nás v Nuslích s revolverem a postřílel celou rodinu i domovníka, kterej se šel podívat, kdo to tam střílí ve třetím poschodí.“
Switzerlandnn flag
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sveits.jpg

General Ulrich Wille, Swiss commander-in-chief during WW1.

sveits.png

Národní listy, 6.11.1904

Switzerland provides in an anecdote by Švejk refuge for a guard who had lent his braces to an inmate who had murdered a captain. The prisoner hung himself in the braces. The guard got 6 months but escaped to Switzerland.

Background

Switzerland was neutral during WW1 and was in 1914 like today a federal republic. As a curiosity it must be mentioned that the Habsburg family hailed from Switzerland. During WW1 Lenin lived in Switzerland. He was from 1917 to play an important role in the events leading to Russia's withdrawal from the war.

In addition Switzerland was during the war at times a place of refuge for Masaryk and other Czechs who worked for national independence.

Hašek in Switzerland

Jaroslav Hašek wrote several stories set in Switzerland and by all accounts he visited the country in 1904. Although this can't be confirmed by other sources than the author himself, the fact that he usually stories from places he had seen himself, gives a strong indication. In one story he wrote that he walked from Switzerland through Bavaria back to Domažlice. The trip must have taken place in the time-span July to September.

The first story with a Swiss setting was published in Národní listy already on 6 November 1904 and was called Oslík Guat (Guat the Donkey) and takes place in the Bernese Alps. None of the places where the plot takes place can be identified according to the author's spelling. These places were "Dünsingen", "Tillingen", "Stroschein" and "Gallensheim". Mentioned in passing are Bern and Lake Constance. In the story Výprava na Moasserspitze the narrator writes that he stayed in Bern and prepared an excursion to "Moasernspitze, six hours away, in the canton Bern". The summit is said to have been pointed, but none of the spelling variations give an indication to which mountain was meant. The narrator also informs that the stay took place at the end of June, a timing that is at odds with the author's known whereabouts at the time.

Links

SourceRadko Pytlík

Quote from the novel
[1.1] To vědí, paní Müllerová, že v takový situaci jde každému hlava kolem. Profousa za to degradovali a dali mu šest měsíců. Ale von si je nevodseděl. Utek do Švejcar a dneska tam dělá kazatele ňáký církve.

Also written:Švýcarsko cz Schweiz de Suisse fr Svizzera it Švejcar Švejk

Portugalnn flag
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portugal.jpg

Hoisting the Portuguese flag during WW1.

Portugal is referred to by Švejk when he talks about the killing of a fat king of Portugal. This surely refers to the assassination of Carlos I of the house Bragança in 1908.

Background

Portugal was in 1914 a republic which still kept some colonies, mostly in Africa. At the beginning of the 20th century Portugal experienced a power struggle between reformist and conservative groups. The republicans gained the upper hand, and a republic was established in 1910, two years after the murder of the king and the crown prince.

On 9 March 1916 Germany declared war on Portugal and Portuguese forces took part in Africa and on the western front. Several Portuguese ships were sunk by German U-boats during the war.

After the war, Karl, the last Habsburg emperor, sought refuge in Portugal and he died at Madeira. See Karl Franz Joseph.

Quote from the novel
[1.1] Jestli se pamatujou, jak tenkrát v Portugalsku si postříleli toho svýho krále. Byl taky takovej tlustej.

Also written:Portugalsko cz

Waterloonn flag
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Waterloo and the famous battle there is mentioned by the author when he describes the pub landlord Palivec and his knowledge of Victor Hugo. Svejk also mentions it in [2.1] when on the train to Tábor.

Background

Waterloo is a town in Walloon-Brabant in Belgium, near Brussels. The town is known because of the famous battle that took place here on 18 June 1815, when Wellington and Blücher were victorious against Napoléon's French army. The battle meant the end of Napoleon's political and military career.

Quote from the novel
[1.1] Palivec byl známý sprosťák, každé jeho druhé slovo byla zadnice nebo hovno. Přitom byl ale sečtělý a upozorňoval každého, aby si přečetl, co napsal o posledním předmětě Victor Hugo, když líčil poslední odpověď staré gardy Napoleona Angličanům v bitvě u Waterloo.
Balkansnn flag
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balkan.png

The New York Times Current History, March 1915

Balkans is mentioned once by Švejk in the conversation at U kalicha. Later the peninsula appears in the conversation between Wendler and Lukáš.

Background

Balkans was at the start of the 20th century the least stable part of Europe. The two Balkan Wars had been fought in 1912 and 1913; first Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria and Montenegro against Turkey, then Serbia, Montenegro and Greece against Bulgaria.

In the Second Balkan War, Romania and Turkey joined the war against Bulgaria when they realised that these were about to loose. Serbia got out of these wars politically strengthened, a fact which made Austria-Hungary increasingly uneasy and which may have contributed to their uncompromising stance in 1914.

Quote from the novel
[1.1] A Švejk vyložil svůj názor na mezinárodní politiku Rakouska na Balkáně. Turci to prohráli v roce 1912 se Srbskem, Bulharskem a Řeckem. Chtěli, aby jim Rakousko pomohlo, a když se to nestalo, střelili Ferdinanda.
[1.14.5] Pro chmel je nyní ztracena Francie, Anglie, Rusko i Balkán.

Also written:Balkán cz

Serbiann flag
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serbia.png

Österreichische Illustrierte Zeitung, 9.8.1914

Serbia is first mentioned in the conversation at U kalicha between Švejk and Bretschneider about the Balkans. Thereafter it reappears repeatedly, the slogan Heil, nieder mit den Serben! is quoted a few times. From book two onwards the Serbian army, irregulars and civilians are often mentioned in stories told by veterans from the campaign against Serbia.

Background

Serbia was in 1914 a kingdom on the Balkans that played a crucial role during the outbreak of WW1. Austria-Hungary made the Serb government responsible for the murder of Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Austrian and Hungarian thrones. Serbia was the first country declared war on, and the first country to see fighting. Serbia stood up well against K.u.k. Heer and repelled three invasions in 1914, despite suffering heavy losses themselves. But after Bulgaria entered the war and German forces assisted the Austrians, resistance was broken in October 1915.

Serbia was the country that relative to population figures suffered the worst losses in the war (indeed in any modern European conflict): roughly 27% of of the population perished, many of them in the worst typhus epidemic known in history. The borders of Serbia were in 1914 somewhat different from today. The kingdom included Macedonia but not Vojvodina and Banat which at the time were part of Austria-Hungary. The capital was (and still is) Belgrade.

The 91st regiment in Serbia

IR91 was sent to the Serbian front immediately after the outbreak of war and took part in all three invasions. They spent most of the time between 15 August and 15 December 1914 on Serbian territory. Their losses were frightening and when they finally withdrew across the Danube by Belgrade they were, like the rest of the invading army, utterly decimated. Several officers that later provided prototypes for Švejk's superiors took part in the campaign: Franz Wenzel, Čeněk Sagner, Rudolf Lukas, Josef Adamička and Jan Eybl. Every one of them apart from Eybl (he was there only the last three weeks) were at some stage injured or reported sick.

At the beginning of October 1918 the regiment was, as part of the 9th Infantry Division, sent back to Serbia (Vranje south of Niš) because Bulgaria had pulled out of the war and their forces needed to be replaced. This was eventually one long retreat northwards in a K.u.k. Heer that was by now disintegrating.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.1] A Švejk vyložil svůj názor na mezinárodní politiku Rakouska na Balkáně. Turci to prohráli v roce 1912 se Srbskem, Bulharskem a Řeckem. Chtěli, aby jim Rakousko pomohlo, a když se to nestalo, střelili Ferdinanda.
[1.13] Nadporučík Machek zajat v Srbsku, dluhuje mně 1500 korun. Je zde víc takových lidí. Ten padne v Karpatech s mou nezaplacenou směnkou, ten jde do zajetí, ten se mně utopí v Srbsku, ten umře v Uhrách ve špitále.
[1.14.4] Švejk posadil se na lavici ve vratech a vykládal, že v bitevní frontě karpatské se útoky vojska ztroskotaly, na druhé straně však že velitel Přemyšlu, generál Kusmanek, přijel do Kyjeva a že za námi zůstalo v Srbsku jedenáct opěrných bodů a že Srbové dlouho nevydrží utíkat za našimi vojáky.
[1.14.5] Kromě toho naše manévry na Srbsku pokračují velice úspěšně a odchod našich vojsk, který jest fakticky jen přesunutím, vykládají si mnozí zcela jinak, než jak toho vyžaduje naprostá chladnokrevnost ve válce.

Also written:Srbsko cz Serbien de Србија sr

Bulgariann flag
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Bulgaria is mentioned during the conversation at U kalicha about Balkans.

Background

Bulgaria was a kingdom on the Balkans that was neutral during the first year of WW1. In September 1915 the country entered the war on the side of the Central Powers. Her main motive to join was to repair the damage after the defeat by Serbia in the second Balkan War. Bulgaria took part in the attack on Serbia in October 1915, the offensive that finally broke Serbia's resistance. Bulgaria was in 1914 slightly larger than today, she had to cede Thrace to Greece in 1918.

Quote from the novel
[1.1] A Švejk vyložil svůj názor na mezinárodní politiku Rakouska na Balkáně. Turci to prohráli v roce 1912 se Srbskem, Bulharskem a Řeckem. Chtěli, aby jim Rakousko pomohlo, a když se to nestalo, střelili Ferdinanda.

Also written:България bg Bulharsko cz Bulgarien de

Greecenn flag
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Greece is mentioned in the conversation at U kalicha about the Balkans.

Background

Greece was neutral at the start of the war but in November 1916 it joined the Entente, strongly influenced by prime minister Venizelos. Greece was at the time a kingdom ruled by the House of Glücksburg. The country was in 1914 slightly smaller than today, it acquired Thrace from Bulgaria in 1923.

Quote from the novel
[1.1] A Švejk vyložil svůj názor na mezinárodní politiku Rakouska na Balkáně. Turci to prohráli v roce 1912 se Srbskem, Bulharskem a Řeckem. Chtěli, aby jim Rakousko pomohlo, a když se to nestalo, střelili Ferdinanda.

Also written:Řecko cz Griechenland de Ελλάδα el

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Vltava from Žďákovský most, august 2009.

Vltava is first mentioned in the anecdote about the man who jumped from the bridge in Krumlov. The river is mentioned several times later in the novel and Švejk must have crossed it twice during his anabasis in [2.2], without it being explicitly stated. The first crossing was between Květov and Vráž, the second on the train just before arriving in Budějovice.

Background

Vltava is the longest river in Bohemia. From its sources in Šumava, it passes Krumlov, Budějovice and Prague, before flowing into the Elbe by Mělník. The river's length is 430 km, and the catchment area is 28,090 km². In foreign languages the German name Moldau is frequently used.

Quote from the novel
[1.1] Musel skočit v Krumlově s toho mostu do Vltavy a museli ho vytáhnout, museli ho křísit, museli z něho pumpovat vodu a von jim musel skonat v náručí lékaře, když mu dal nějakou injekci.“

Also written:Moldau de

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Postcard from 1910

Krumlov is mentioned in the anecdote about Ludvík and also a few times in book two. The miller Baloun, a central character in the latter part of the novel, comes from the area around Krumlov.

Background

Krumlov was until 1920 the name of Český Krumlov, a town not far from the Austrian border. In 1913 the population count was 8,716 of which 7,367 were Germans. The town was seat of both hejtmanství and soudní okres of the same name. The district of Krumlov was located in the recruitment area of IR91, so Jaroslav Hašek would have known many fellow soldiers from there. See Ergänzungskommando.

The medieval structure of the town has been preserved and it is on the world heritage list of UNESCO. It has become a major tourist attraction.

Ottův slovník naučný

Krumlov Český, (Böhmisch-Krumau, lat. Crumlovium), město v již. Čechách, 475 m n. m., na Vltavě, při stanici spol. Rak. míst. drah (Budějovice-Zelnava), má 770 d., 1402 obyv. č., 6882 n. (1890), hejtmanství, okr. soud … more

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Quote from the novel
[1.1] Musel skočit v Krumlově s toho mostu do Vltavy a museli ho vytáhnout, museli ho křísit, museli z něho pumpovat vodu a von jim musel skonat v náručí lékaře, když mu dal nějakou injekci.“

Also written:Krumau de

Most v Krumlověnn flag
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Most v Krumlově is mentioned in the anecdote about Ludvík who jumped from the bridge in Krumlov into the Vltava.

Background

Most v Krumlově was according to the story a bridge across the Vltava in Krumlov. The story does not reveal which one the author has in mind, but it is probably Lazebnický most in the centre which is the oldest and best known bridge there. In this mainly German-speaking town the bridge was at the time also called Baderbrücke.

Quote from the novel
[1.1] Musel skočit v Krumlově s toho mostu do Vltavy a museli ho vytáhnout, museli ho křísit, museli z něho pumpovat vodu a von jim musel skonat v náručí lékaře, když mu dal nějakou injekci.“

Also written:Bridge in Krumlov en Brücke in Krumau de Bru i Krumlov no

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Zliv is mentioned in an anecdote by Švejk, told to Bretschneider. It was about a gamekeeper who was shot by poachers.

Background

Zliv is a village in South Bohemia, situated 10 km north west of Budějovice and 4 km west of Hluboká.

During the summer of 1896 (or 1897), Hašek's mother Kateřina took the children on a trip to the area around Protivín to visit relatives. Both his parents were from this area. They visited Zliv, Mydlovary, Hluboká, Budějovice, Putim, Skočice, Krč, Protivín, Ražice, and Vodňany. All of these places appear in Švejk and some of them even in the short stories. In the spring of 1915 Jaroslav Hašek appeared in Zliv again, now on an unauthorised "excursion" from the Budějovice garrison.

In 1913 Zliv had 1324 inhabitants of which 1307 gave their mother tongue as Czech. It was an administrative sub-division of Okres Hluboká, Okresní hejtmanství Budějovice.

Links

SourceRadko Pytlík, Václav Menger, Jaroslav Šerák

Quote from the novel
[1.1] To byl ve Zlivi u Hluboké před léty jeden hajný, měl takové ošklivé jméno Pinďour.

Also written:Zliw Reiner

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Hluboká is mentioned in the same anecdote as Zliv, about the widow after the gamekeepers who turns up at the office of The prince at Hluboká to ask for advice.

Background

Hluboká is a small town in South Bohemia, 15 km north of Budějovice. It was one of the favourite haunts of German-Roman Emperor Charles IV, who often visited when he resided in Budějovice. Nowadays Hluboká is best known for its Windsor-style chateau which until 1938 belonged to the House of Schwarzenberg.

The town was an administrative sub-division of Okres Hluboká and Okresní hejtmanství Budějovice. Aalso called Podhradí, it counted 1,472 inhabitants in 1913, and including Podskal and Zámost it reached 2,835. Nearly all the inhabitants were Czechs, most of the remaining few were Germans.

Jaroslav Hašek visited Hluboká during his childhood (1896 or 1897), probably also in 1915. See Zliv.

Ottův slovník naučný

Hluboká nad Vltavou, dř. Hluboká, též Podhradí, sídlo soud. okr., v polit. okr. českobuděj., 2927 ob. (1921), z nich nár. čsl. 2851, 2735 ob. (1930), z nich nár. čsl. 2648. Cís. výsad. listem z 20. květ. 1908 povýšen městys.

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Quote from the novel
[1.1] Byla až v kanceláři knížete pána na Hluboké a stěžovala si, že má s těmi hajnými trápení. Tak jí odporučili porybnýho Jareše z ražické bašty.

Also written:Frauenberg de

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Josef Hašek (1843-1896)

Mydlovary is mentioned by Švejk in a story about he tells Bretschneider about U kalicha, about the gamekeeper.

Background

Mydlovary is a village 16 km north west of Budějovice and the birthplace of Josef Hašek, the father of Jaroslav Hašek. He was born in house number 8. The budding satirist visited Mydlovary during his childhood (1896 or 1897) and couldn't have been far away in 1915. See Zliv.

The fact that his father was born in Mydlovary is significant. This meant that Jaroslav Hašek had right of domicile here so he, just like his literary hero, was drafted into IR91.

In 1913 the community consisted of two villages that was recorded with 687 inhabitants of which 680 were Czechs. It had a church, a school and four pubs. The closest railway station and post office were found in Zliv. Zaháj was actually the largest of the two and the church was located here. Mayor at the time was Jan Kolář (relevant to the story about the scouts who were spanked with birch branches, see Okresní hejtmanství Budějovice).

Early story

In 1911 Hašek wrote a story centred around Mydlovary: Vislingská aféra v Mydlovarech. It was first printed in Karikatury 7 March 1911 and soon after it appeared in Šípy in Chicago!

Ottův slovník naučný

Mydlovary, ves v Čechách, hejtm. Č. Budějovice, okr. a pš. Hluboká, fara Zahájí; 34 d., 319 ob. č. (1890), dobývání hlíny na výrobu zemitých barev a ložisko železné rudy.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.1] Zastřelili ho pytláci a zůstala po něm vdova s dvěma dítkami a vzala si za rok opět hajného, Pepíka Šavlovic z Mydlovar.

Also written:Mydlowař Reiner Mydlowar de

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Ražická bašta is mentioned by Švejk in an anecdote about the pond warden Jareš, no doubt inspired by the author's grandfather, Antonín Jareš. This connection appears again in chapters [I.14] and [II.2].

Background

Ražická bašta was a fishpond construction between Ražice and Putim that belonged to the Schwarzenberg family. The authors grandfather was pond warden here and Hašek wrote a few stories about him in Veselá Praha in 1908 (Historky z ražické bašty). The pond and barrier is still there but is no longer used for fish-farming. The pond wardens building is not there, but is still visible on an army-map from 1928.

The young Jaroslav Hašek visited the place in 1896 or 1897 together with his family. See Zliv.

Links

SourceRadko Pytlík, Jaroslav Šerák

Quote from the novel
[1.1] Tak jí odporučili porybnýho Jareše z ražické bašty.
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Mexico is mentioned in the conversation between Švejk and Bretschneider. The brother of Franz Joseph I, Maximiliano I, was emperor of the country from 1863 to 1867. Here he is simply referred to as the emperor of Mexico.

Mexico is mentioned again in [II.2] when Marek tells Švejk about conditions in IR91.

Background

Mexico was in 1914 a republic suffering turmoil after the dictatorship of Porfirio Diaz had been overthrown in the revolution in 1911. In the period from 1864 to 1867 Maximiliano I av Mexico was emperor, and it is in this context the country is mentioned in the novel.

Quote from the novel
[1.1] Manželku Alžbětu mu propíchli pilníkem, potom se mu ztratil Jan Orth; bratra, císaře mexického, mu zastřelili v nějaké pevnosti u nějaké zdi.

Also written:Mexiko cz Mexiko de México es

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Cerro de las Campanas is mentioned indirectly in the conversation between Švejk and Bretschneider where it is stated that the brother of Franz Joseph I was executed at "some fortress by some wall".

Background

Cerro de las Campanas is a hill in Queretaro where emperor Maximiliano I was executed in 1867 after having lost the war against the republican rebels led by Benito Juárez.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.1] Manželku Alžbětu mu propíchli pilníkem, potom se mu ztratil Jan Orth; bratra, císaře mexického, mu zastřelili v nějaké pevnosti u nějaké zdi.
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Russia is briefly touched upon during the conversation U kalicha about the political situation after the assassinations in Sarajevo. The next brief mention is in [I.14,1] when Katz has lost Švejk in a game of cards "as if he was a serf from Russland".

Later on in the novel the country is mentioned several times; it was after all Russia the main protagonists were sent to fight against. Russian citizens take part in the plot directly when Švejk is assigned to a transport of Russian prisoners in Chyrów. The author at least once adds fragments from his own experiences in Russia (see Dubno). The original advertising poster for the novel makes it clear that Jaroslav Hašek planned to stage the latter part of the plot on Russian territory - the poster mentions the Russian civil war explicitly.

Background

Russia (rus. Россия) was in 1914 an empire ruled by the Romanov family and was far larger than the current Russian Federation. It included all of the later Soviet Union, all of Finland and the greater part of current Poland. The empire was at its largest in 1866 when it sold Alaska. Russia's support to Serbia during the July crisis in 1914 is one of the prime reason why a regional conflict on the Balkans developed into a world war.

Russia were ill prepared for a prolonged war, serious supply problems and inept military leadership soon led to catastrophic losses. Still they managed to invade Galicia and Bukovina in 1914 and for a while they even threatened to cross the Carpathians. On 2 May 1915 the central powers launched a successful offensive by Gorlice and Tarnów and 1915 turned out to be a disaster for Russland who had to withdraw from Poland and Galicia. During that year the lack of equipment took its toll, and many soldiers were sent into action without firearms.

In 1916 the situation improved somewhat as the Brusilov-offensive inflicted such heavy losses on Austria-Hungary that a collapse threatened. German reinforcements however stabilised the front and Russia spent much of her diminishing strength on futile break-through attempts. The tsarist empire fell in March 1917 but the new provisional government decided to continue the war. A last offensive got under way on 1 July 1917 but soon ground to a halt. During this fighting Czech volunteers (including Jaroslav Hašek) for the first time operated as a unit against the Dual Monarchy (Zborów 2 July). A German counter-offensive from 19 July led to a complete meltdown of a Russian army that already was badly affected by mass desertions and breakdown in discipline.

In the aftermath of the October Revolution (7 November) a ceasefire was concluded, and the new communist authorities had to accept harsh terms in the peace treaty of Brest-Litovsk (signed 3 March 1918). All of the Baltics, Finland, Poland and Ukraine were ceded (Ukraina was recovered after the war). The subsequent civil war prolonged the suffering of the peoples of Russia with many years and in 1921 a massive hunger catastrophe hit some regions. The Russian defeat in the world war had fatal consequences; it paved the way for 70 years of Communist rule, and at times an extremely brutal.

Hašek in Russia

Jaroslav Hašek served as a messenger on the front against Russia from 11 July 1915 and at the end of the month he participated in the bloody battle against the Russian 8th army by Sokal. On 27 August 1915 his IR91 crossed the border and from that day he was continuously on Russian soil until around 4 December 1920. It was on Russian territory he let himself get captured (Chorupan on 24 September 1915.

After 9 months as a prisoner of war Jaroslav Hašek was from June 1916 until March 1918 a volunteer in the Czech forces in Russia (see České legie), and was therefore formally a Russian soldier. After breaking with the legions in April 1918 he became of journalist, agitator and recruiter for the Czech communists, later directly for the Bolsheviks - positions he held until he was sent back to his homeland as agitator at the end of 1920. He had learnt Russian already as a youngster and reportedly mastered the language very well, and by his return he had adapted to the degree that even his novel contains “russianisms”. During his 5-year stay in Russland his travels covered extensive areas, mostly in Ukraine, in the Volga region and in Siberia. On 15 May 1920 he married a Russian woman, Alexandra Lvova. She followed him back to Prague later that year.

Quote from the novel
[1.1] „Vy myslíte, že to císař pán takhle nechá bejt? To ho málo znáte. Vojna s Turky musí být. Zabili jste mně strejčka, tak tady máte přes držku. Válka jest jistá. Srbsko a Rusko nám pomůže v té válce. Bude se to řezat!“
[1.14.1] Polní karát prodal Švejka nadporučíkovi Lukášovi, čili lépe řečeno, prohrál ho v kartách. Tak dřív prodávali na Rusi nevolníky.
[1.14.5] Francie, Anglie i Rusko jsou příliš slabé proti rakousko-turecko-německé žule.
[1.14.5] Pro chmel je nyní ztracena Francie, Anglie, Rusko i Balkán.

Also written:Rusko cz Russland de Россия ru

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Prager Tagblatt, 30.10.1914

tyrkia1.jpg

Der Krieg, Zweiter Band, 1915

tyrkia2.png

Čech, 31.10.1918

Turkey is theme of the conversation at U kalicha about the political situation after the assassination in Sarajevo. Švejk blames the Turks for the murder of Franz Ferdinand.

The country is mentioned again in [I.14] during Lukáš' long lecture to hop-trader Wendler about the war situation. This conversation also mention a number of distinguished Ottoman politicians and officers. Amongst them are the Sultan, Enver Paşa, Cevat Paşa, Hali Bey, and Ali Bey. Also mentioned are Constantinople, Dardanelles and the Turkish Parliament.

Background

Turkey (the Ottoman Empire) was a state that existed until 1922 and was succeeded by modern Turkey. The area was still in 1914 far larger than that of the current republic and included great parts of the Middle East. It was a multi-ethnic empire, consisting of Turks, Arabs, Armenians, Albanians, Greeks, Jews etc. The capital was Constantinople.

The first world war

From 29 October 1914 the Ottoman Empire entered the war as one of the Central Powers. It started with an attack on Russian Black Sea ports, and a few days later Russia declared war, and soon after Turkey was also at war with England and France.

Turkey fought on several fronts: against Russia in Caucasus, against the British in Egypt and Mesopotamia, against the Russians and British in Persia. In 1915 the allied attempt to force the Dardanelles opened another front, although short-lived. Moreover the empire had to fight uprisings on the Arab Peninsula and elsewhere.

Several high ranking Germans served in the Ottoman armed forces, both as commanders and advisors. Amongst them were Liman, Goltz Paşa and Usedom Paşa. A lasting shadow over the final years of the Ottoman Empire was cast by the genocide of Armenians in 1915.

Turkey had only minor military success in the war, but a major exception was the defence of the Dardanelles and the Gallipoli Peninsula in 1915. By the end of 1917 Allied forces stood deep in Ottoman territory: Palestine and also in Mesopotamia.

After Bulgaria pulled out of the war in September 1918 Turkey's position became untenable and the armistice was signed on 30 October 1918. The defeat in the World War meant the end of the empire and the loss of all her Arabic possessions. The core Turkish areas of the empire was transformed into a republic and was to become the pillar of modern Turkey.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.1] „Může být,“ pokračoval v líčení budoucnosti Rakouska, „že nás v případě války s Tureckem Němci napadnou, poněvadž Němci a Turci drží dohromady. Jsou to takový potvory, že jim není v světě rovno. Můžeme se však spojit s Francií, která má od 71. roku spadeno na Německo. A už to půjde. Válka bude, víc vám neřeknu.“
[1.14.5] „A co Turecko?“ otázal se obchodník s chmelem, uvažuje přitom, jak začít, aby se dostal k jádru věci, pro kterou přijel.

Also written:Turecko cz Türkei de Tyrkiye tr

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France is mentioned in the conversation between Švejk and Bretschneider at U kalicha about the political situation after the assassinations in Sarajevo. Many French people are mentioned in the novel: Napoléon, Hugo, Papin and Rabelais are amongst them.

In the conversation between Wendler and Lukáš in [I.14] French places are mentioned, all along the front in northern France. The officer also mentions the country itself and Wendler mentions these places along the front: Combres, Woëvre, Marchéville and Vosges. The rivers Meuse and Mosel that partly flow through the country are mentioned in the same sequence.The culinary connections are mentioned through Cognac and Bordeuax.

Background

France France was in 1914 a democratic republic of nearly 40 million inhabitants and also ruled over a large colonial empire, mainly in Africa.

was one of the main participants in WW1. Germany declared war on her on 3 August 1914, on 11 August France declared war on Austria-Hungary. Already from 1894 France had signed a military alliance with Russia, and from 1907 England joined them in the so-called Triple Entente, albeit with fewer military obligations. The rising power of Germany was the reason why these former rival powers now joined forces.

Throughout the war nearly the whole the Western Front cut through northern France, and the area where the fighting took place was devastated. French war casualties totalled 1.7 million dead, and out of these 1.4 million were soldiers. The losses made up more than 4 per cent of the population. France was close to collapse both in 1914 and 1918 when the German army reached the river Marne, north-east of Paris.

France was the first state to recognize the Czech and Slovak claim for an independent state, and the Czechoslovak National Council was seated in Paris from 1916. On 7 February 1918 the Czechoslovak Army Corps in Russia formally became part of the French army and were to be transferred to the Western Front. See České legie. This was a decision Jaroslav Hašek disagreed with and it was the main reason why he left the army corps two months later.

After the Treaty of Versailles France was given back Alsace and Lorraine, provinces that had been ceded to Germany in 1871.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.1] „Může být,“ pokračoval v líčení budoucnosti Rakouska, „že nás v případě války s Tureckem Němci napadnou, poněvadž Němci a Turci drží dohromady. Jsou to takový potvory, že jim není v světě rovno. Můžeme se však spojit s Francií, která má od 71. roku spadeno na Německo. A už to půjde. Válka bude, víc vám neřeknu.“
[1.14.5] Francie, Anglie i Rusko jsou příliš slabé proti rakousko-turecko-německé žule.
[1.14.5] Stejně Francouzům hrozí v nejkratší době ztráta celé východní Francie a vtržení německého vojska do Paříže.
[1.14.5] Pro chmel je nyní ztracena Francie, Anglie, Rusko i Balkán.

Also written:Francie cz Frankreich de La France fr

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Germany is first mentioned at the conversation at U kalicha about the political situation after the assassinations of Sarajevo. The country then appears repeatedly throughout the novel, particularly during the march battalion's journey to the eastern front in 1915. Towards the end of the novel Švejk even meets German soldiers. The author notes how well they are provided for compared with their allies from Austria-Hungary.

Many German nationals are mentioned; amongst them emperor Wilhelm II. and Hindenburg. A number of German cities also appear: amongst them Berlin. It also revealed that Švejk once visited Bremen, and this is as far as we know the only time he ever ventured beyond the borders of Austria-Hungary.. When forging of the pedigree of Fox Švejk mentions the name of several institutions in Germany related to dog-breeding (see Nuremberg). A few places in Elsass (Alsace) are mentioned in the conversation between Lukáš and Wendler, amongst them Mühlhausen (Mulhouse). During his famous dream Biegler refers to some smaller places in his account of the battle by Leipzig in 1813 (see Wachau). The last time we hear about Germans is when Švejk arrives at Żółtańce where he has to witness that the Germans get draught beer, a luxury he and his comrades can only dream of. We are also told that men from his regiment have been in a brawl with the Bavarians at the town square.

Background

Germany was in 1914 a constitutional monarchy with the emperor as head of state, officially named Das Deutsche Kaiserreich. She entered the war as an ally of Austria-Hungary in 1 August 1914 when she declared war on Russia. The two Central European powers had been allies since 1879, and Germany’s explicit support was one of the reasons that the Dual Monarchy risked to "teach Serbia a lesson" in 1914. Two days later the two-front war became a reality through the French declaration of war. The German attack on Belgium on 4 August 1914 landed an even more powerful enemy: England and its vast British Empire.

In 1914 Germany possessed the strongest army in the world but despite her military might she could ill sustain a prolonged conflict where the adversaries were superior in industrial resources, manpower and not the least in raw materials. The British naval superiority was also a determining factor; the blockade was soon to lead to serious shortages and later outright destitution.

From 1915 onwards Germany repeatedly had to act to help its weaker ally Austria-Hungary. At the section of the front in Galicia and Volyn where Jaroslav Hašek and his IR91 took part in 1915, the troops of the Dual Monarchy were supported by German units and three of these are mentioned in the novel (see Posen, Hanover and Brandenburg). Although Tyskland plays a peripheral role in the novel, it appears considerably more often in the stories Jaroslav Hašek wrote when serving in the Czech exile organisations in Russia in 1916 and 1917. In these stories whose purpose mainly is propaganda against the Central Powers, Germany is as one would expect portrayed in a negative way. Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí is an example of this. In the autumn of 1916 the author spent much of his time at the front by the river Stochod (now Stochid), where they faced the German army.

The defeat in 1918 meant the end of imperial Germany which was succeeded by the Weimar republic. The Versailles peace treaty of 1919 forced Germany to cede large areas; mostly to Poland and France but also smaller areas to Denmark, Belgium and Czechoslovakia. Germany suffered more than 2 million fallen and in addition a few hundred thousand civilians who died due to hunger and shortages. The economic, social and political consequences of the of defeat were fatal and to a great extent it paved the way for Nazism and the resulting Second World War.

Jaroslav Hašek and Germany

Serving the Bolsheviks in 1919 and 1920 Jaroslav Hašek worked closely with German internationalists (communists), recruited from POW camps. There is every indication that he closely followed the revolutionary movement in Germany and at this time he even wrote a poem in German. It was called Spartaks Helden and was a homage to the murdered communists Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht. The poem is however dangerously close to being a copy of Erich Mühsam's Generalstreik - Marsch.

Jaroslav Hašek visited Germany in the summer of 1904, and he probably only visited Bavaria where he at least must have spent a few weeks. He wrote a handful of short stories about this trip. He knew German well although quotes from the novel indicate certain shortcomings (in the German translation numerous German-language quotes are corrected). In another story he indicates that he visited Dresden, which is also very probable.

On 8 December 1920 he was again on German soil. He and his wife Alexandra arrived from Tallinn to Swinemünde (now Swinoujście). They were returning from Russia and took the train onwards from Stettin (now Szczecin) in the evening on 9 December. The stay on German soil was brief, probably less than 48 hours, with a likely change of trains in Berlin before they travel onwards to Pardubice where they arrived in the evening of the "second day” (probably 10 December).

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.1] „Může být,“ pokračoval v líčení budoucnosti Rakouska, „že nás v případě války s Tureckem Němci napadnou, poněvadž Němci a Turci drží dohromady. Jsou to takový potvory, že jim není v světě rovno. Můžeme se však spojit s Francií, která má od 71. roku spadeno na Německo. A už to půjde. Válka bude, víc vám neřeknu.“
[1.14.3] A vopravdu, lidi hned byli rádi, že to tak dobře dopadlo, že mají doma čistokrevný zvíře, a že jsem jim moh nabídnout třebas vršovickýho špice za jezevčíka, a voni se jen divili, proč takovej vzácnej pes, kerej je až z Německa, je chlupatej a nemá křivý nohy.

Also written:Německo cz Deutschland de

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

2. The good soldier Švejk at police headquarters

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Holice was the home of a farmer who was the victim of a failed robbery and murder. The attacker was one of the six who was locked up with Švejk at Policejní ředitelství. He kept away from the other prisoners to avoid being suspected of having committed a political crime.

Background

Holice is a small town by Pardubice. In 1913 the population count was 5988. The town gave name to its own okres and belonged to hejtmanství Pardubice.

Ottův slovník naučný

Město v Čechách nad Ředickým potokem, v hejt. pardubickém, sídlo okr. soudu a berního úřadu, má farní kostel sv. Martina bisk. (z r. 1738), 5tř. a 4tř. školu obec. a 3tř. měšť. pro chl. a dív., pš., teleg., obč. a okr. hospodář. záložnu, cukrovar, cihelnu, výrobu hospodář. strojů, 6 továren na obuv, výrobu kopyt a desk do obuvi, továrnu na ceresin, mazadla a voskové zboží; nad městem pěkný hřbitov »na Kostelíku« s kaplí, nedaleko lázně »pod Javorkou«. Holice děłí se na [Holice] Nové s 323 d., 2354 obyv. č., 5 n. a Holice Staré s 303 d., 1885 ob. č. (1890).

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.2] „Kvůli Sarajevu!“, „kvůli Ferdinandovi!“, „kvůli té vraždě na panu arcivévodovi!“, „pro Ferdinanda!“, „za to, že pana arcivévodu odpravili v Sarajevu!“ Šestý, který se těch pěti stranil, řekl, že s nimi nechce nic mít, aby na něho nepadlo nijaké podezření, on že tu sedí jen pro pokus loupežné vraždy na pantátovi z Holic.

Also written:Holitz de

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Řetězová ulice in the guise of Café Montmartre was where a fat owner of a paper shop had been observed drunk by detective Brixi in the company of two Serb students. This led directly to the cell at Policejní ředitelství.

Background

Řetězová ulice is a street right in the centre of Prague, next to the current tourist track. Café Montmartre was at the time located here, and is now (2010) open again on the same premises.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.2] Výjimku dělal neobyčejně tlustý pán s brýlemi, s uplakanýma očima, který byl zatčen doma ve svém bytě, poněvadž dva dny před atentátem v Sarajevu platil „U Brejšky“ za dva srbské studenty, techniky, útratu a detektivem Brixim byl spatřen v jejich společnosti opilý v „Montmartru“ v Řetězové ulici, kde, jak již v protokole potvrdil svým podpisem, též za ně platil.

Also written:Kettengasse de

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Hodkovičky was where the chairman of the local charity Spolek Dobromil was unlucky with his statements as the police arrived to ask them to stop the festivities as Austria was in a state of sorrow. The chairman ended up in the cell at Policejní ředitelství with Švejk and the other conspirators.

Background

Hodkovičky is a district on the southern outskirst of Prague and part of Prague IV. Hodkovičky was in 1914 still a village, administratively in okres Nusle, hejtmanství Královské Vinohrady. The population count in 1913 was a mere 719. It became part of the capital in 1949.

Ottův slovník naučný

Ves na pr. bř. Vltavy, hejt. a okr. Kr. Vinohrady, fara Modřany, pš. Bráník; 39 d., 269 ob. č. (1890), kaple sv. Bartoloměje, telegra žel. stan. rak. st. dr. (Praha-Modřany), stan, pražské paroplavby (Praha-Štěchovice); popl. dvůr Fr. a Marie Tomášů, letohrádky, zelinářství.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.2] Třetí spiklenec byl předseda dobročinného spolku „Dobromil“ v Hodkovičkách. V den, kdy byl spáchán atentát, pořádal „Dobromil“ zahradní slavnost spojenou s koncertem. Četnický strážmistr přišel, aby požádal účastníky, by se rozešli, že má Rakousko smutek, načež předseda „Dobromilu“ řekl dobrácky: „Počkají chvilku, než dohrajou ,Hej, Slované’.“
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London is a side-theme when one of Švejk's inmates at Policejní ředitelství states that no assasinations interest him whatsoever, be it in Prague, Vienna, Sarajevo or London.

Background

London was in 1914 not only capital of England but also the vast British Empire. The declaration of war against Germany on 4 August 1914 and against Austria-Hungary on 12 August were issued from here. The city was from 1915 onwards exposed to German air raids and 670 were killed. Counting the fallen soldiers, the losses reached 124,000. Other references connected to London in the novel are: Edward Grey and the magazine Country Life.

Quote from the novel
[1.2] „Mne vůbec žádná vražda nezajímá, ať je třebas v Praze, ve Vídni, v Sarajevu nebo v Londýně. Od toho jsou úřady, soudy a policie. Jestli někde někoho zabijou, dobře mu tak, proč je trouba a tak neopatrný, že se dá zabít.“

Also written:Londýn cz

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Záběhlice in 1917

Záběhlice is mentioned in an anecdote by Švejk where the question of guilt is on the agenda. Švejk "encouraged" his cell-mates with the fact that Jesus Christ was also innocent, but was sentenced nevertheless, just like the hapless gypsy in Záběhlice. In [II.3] there is direct refrence to a restaurant in the town, Na růžovém ostrově.

Background

Záběhlice is an urban area in south-eastern Prague which has been part of the capital since 1922. During the time of Jaroslav Hašek it was still a minor town with 2669 inhabitants (1913). It was part of okres Vršovice and hejtmanství Královské Vinohrady. Other place with this name also existed (Ledeč, Příbram, Smíchov, Sedlčany), but this is by far the most likely candidate.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.2] Nebo ten nevinnej cikán v Záběhlicích, co se vloupal do toho hokynářskýho krámu na Boží hod vánoční v noci. Zapřísáh se, že se šel vohřát, ale nic mu to nepomohlo.
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© Richard Ruppe

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Břetislav Hůla

Kočevje is indirectly mentioned through the term Kočevje-basket. This is when a Bosnian entered Policejní ředitelství and was afraid to loose his basket.

Background

Kočevje is a town and region in southern Slovenia that gave rise to the Czech expression Kočevje-basket. It was a basket that pedlars wore on their chest, supported by a belt around the shoulder.

The area around Kočevje was for 600 years a German-speaking enclave, known as Gottschee. The language Gottscheerisch is classed as Oberbairisch (Upper Bavarian) but over the centuries in isolation it grew more and more distinct from its origin.

After devastation by the Turks around 1500, the impoverished inhabitants were given imperial privileges to trade in the neighbouring areas, and they eventually expanded their trade as far as Vienna and Prague, carrying their characteristic baskets. The pedlars from Gottschee became a regular occurrence across large parts of the Habsburg empire, particularly in winter. The trade started to suffer with the advance of the industrial revolution and better transport, but the final blow was the dissolution of Austria-Hungary, which left most of the Gottscheerer's markets behind the new national borders.

It seems that the term Kočevje basket is particular to the Czech language and to my knowledge no similar term exist in German. In Grete Reiner's translation of the novel, a footnote is added to explain the meaning of Gottscheerkorb. The generic term in German is Hausiererkorb (pedlar's basket). None of the three English translations convey the geographical origin of the term, and Paul Selvers's translation has no reference to the basket at all.

The dissolution of Austria-Hungary was only the first in a series of setbacks for the Gottschee community. They suffered severe discrimination in inter-war Yugoslavia, and in 1941 a disaster hit the region: the still numerous Gottschee inhabitants were forcibly moved after an agreement between Hitler and Mussolini decided that Kočevje was to become part of Italy. In post-war Yugoslavia the language was even forbidden. Today the language is close to extinction; only scattered individuals in the USA, Austria, Slovenia and Germany master it. According to UNESCO Gottscheerisch is amongst the world's critically endangered languages.

Gottscheerkorb: Hausiererkorb: Viele Einwohner der Gottschee, einer Sprachinsel in Slowenien, zogen besonders im Winter als Wanderverkäufer durch die Länder der alten Monarchie. Grete Reiner

Ottův slovník naučný

Kočevje leží 460 m n. m., nedostatku vody a kamenitosti málo úrodná, mající celkem asi na 705 km2 25.000 většinou něm. obyvatel, kteří tak tvoří značný ostrov v živlu slovinském. Území to (několika ponornými říčkami a jeskyněmi-pěkná zejména ledová jeskyně Friedrichsteinská-památné) bývá zváno rovněž Kočevje nebo Kočevarsko, něm. Land Gottschee.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.2] Zatím přivedli nové dva. Jeden z nich byl Bosňák. Chodil po komoře, skřípal zuby a každé jeho druhé slovo bylo: „Jeben ti dušu.“ Mučilo ho pomyšlení, že se mu na policejním ředitelství ztratí jeho kočebrácký košík.

Also written:Gottschee de Cocevie it

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Eliščin most is mentioned in an anecdote by Švejk about how well prison inmates are treated nowadays. The story refers to Jan Nepomucký who is said to have been thrown off this bridge and drowned.

The body of the saint was in fact thrown off Karlův most. The bridge is mentioned again in Book Three, now by Lieutenant Dub who uses the formal term Most císaře Františka Josefa I.

Background

Eliščin most was the colloquial name for Most císaře Františka Josefa I. across Vltava in the northern part of Prague. It was demolished in 1947 and in it's place the current Štefánikův most was built. Both the old and the new bridge have been renamed several times, the latest such occurrence was in 1997.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.2] Nebo mu dali nohy do španělský boty a natáhli ho na žebřík, když se nechtěl přiznat, nebo mu pálili boky hasičskou pochodní, jako to udělali svatému Janu Nepomuckému. Ten prej řval při tom, jako když ho na nože bere, a nepřestal, dokud ho neshodili s Eliščina mostu v nepromokavým pytli.

Also written:Eliška's bridge Parrott the Eliška bridge Sadlon Elisabethbrücke de

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Golgotha is handled symbolically by the author: Švejk bore his cross to his Golgotha in the third department of Policejní ředitelství.

Background

Golgotha was an execution ground outside Jerusalem where Jesus was crucified between two rebels. The name is a Greek form of the Arameic version Gûlgaltâ, which means «skull», and the name might refer to natural formations that resemble a skull or a place where many skulls are found. Golgotha is believed to have been near Jerusalem, but the location has not been confirmed.

Quote from the novel
[1.2] A tak, stoupaje po schodišti do III. oddělení k výslechu, Švejk nesl svůj kříž na vrchol Golgoty, sám ničeho nepozoruje o svém mučednictví.

Also written:Golgota cz Golgatha de

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

3. Švejk before the court physicians

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Roman Empire is first mentioned at Zemský trestní soud when the author describes the prosecutors as "the 1914 versions of Pontius Pilatus". Later on the empire is mentioned by the pious field chaplain in [I.12], by the author again in [I.14] (see Gallic Sea) and also on several other occasions. Overall this surely reflects the author's interest in ancient history and history in general.

Background

Roman Empire was a civilisation that developed from the city state of Roma, founded on the Italian peninsula in the 8th century before Christ. Through its life span of 1200 years, the Roman civilisation changed from being a monarchy to a republic to become an empire. It came to dominate Western Europe and the area around Mediterranean Sea by conquest and integration. The empire collapsed through foreign invasions in the 5th century, known as the end of the Roman Empire and start of medieval times.

The Romarriket left a lasting legacy and is together with ancient Greece regarded the cradle of European civilisation. Formal remnants of the empire lasted until the age of Napoléon in guise of the Holy German-Roman Empire where several Habsburg rulers were nominal heads. Czech king Karel IV was also Roman Emperor.

Imperium Romanum fuit res publica antiqua, cuius caput erat Roma, olim maxima mundi occidentalis urbs, et quae tempore maximae suae potestatis a Britannia usque ad Mesopotamiam extensa est. Ab Augusto Caesare imperium Romanum sic institutum est, ut gubernare rem publicam uni principi solo sit.

Quote from the novel
[1.3] Vracela se slavná historie římského panství nad Jerusalemem. Vězně vyváděli i představovali je před Piláty roku 1914tého dolů do přízemku.

Also written:Starověký Řím cz Römisches Reich de Impero romano it Imperium Romanum la

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Jerusalem is mentioned by the author when he describes the staff of Zemský trestní soud as "1914's variation on Pontius Pilatus".

Background

Jerusalem was at the time of Pontius Pilate capital of the Roman province of Judea.

Quote from the novel
[1.3] Vracela se slavná historie římského panství nad Jerusalemem. Vězně vyváděli i představovali je před Piláty roku 1914 tého dolů do přízemku.

Also written:Jeruzalém cz

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The Pilsner Urquell brewery in 1914

Plzeň is mentioned indirectly in connection with the Pilsner beer that the staff of the Zemský trestní soud get from Teissig. Later in the novel the city's name appears again when Švejk mentions the execution of the gypsy Janeček.

Background

Plzeň was one of the most important industrial centres in Austria-Hungary. It was the monarchy's primary weapons forge and Škoda delivered the bulk of the heavy artillery to K.u.k. Heer, and even supplied Germany.

The city is nowadays best known for having given name to the Pilsner beer that has been brewed since 1842 and has now become a somewhat imprecise term for pale, bottom-fermented beers. The best known brands that are made in the city today are Pilsner Urquell and Gambrinus.

Plzeň was in 1913 a city of 80,343 inhabitants of more than 85 per cent registered as Czech nationals. It was the centre of the hetjmanství and okres of the same name. More than 1,000 military personnel were at the time stationed in Plzeň, which was also home of the 35th infantry regiment. The Pilsen hetjtmanství counted 156,073 souls.

Hašek in Plzeň

Jaroslav Hašek visited Plzeň in summer 1913 together with Zdeněk Matěj Kuděj. The two writers sought out Karel Pelant, editor of the weekly Směr. He owed Hašek money for a couple of short stories but tried his best to avoid meeting the two. In the they tricked him into appearing at U Salzmannů and he ended up paying the restaurant bill for his guests after an allmighty party.

The two stayed there for a couple of days and visited an impressive number of pubs. Plzeň was the final destination of a trip that had started in Prague and gone via Loděnice, Beroun, Nový Jáchymov, Rakovník, Ziroh and Rokycany. Most of it was done on foot and Kuděj describes the trip in his book Ve dvou se to lépe táhne (1923-24). Hašek mentions the editor in the story O upřímnem přátelství, albeit without mentioning his name (nor does Kuděj).

Links

SourceRadko Pytlík, Jaroslav Šerák, Z.M. Kuděj

Quote from the novel
[1.3] A vyšetřující soudcové, Piláti nové doby, místo aby si čestně myli ruce, posílali si pro papriku a plzeňské pivo k Teissigovi a odevzdávali nové a nové žaloby na státní návladnictví.

Also written:Pilsen de

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Botič is mentioned in the anecdote Švejk tells his cell-mates at Zemský trestní soud. He had been assaulted by a bridge over this stream in Nusle, having been mistaken for someone else.

Background

Botič is a stream in the south-eastern part of Prague. It ends in the Vltava by Vyšehrad after flowing through Vršovice and Nusle.

Quote from the novel
[1.3] Jako jednou v Nuslích, právě u mostu přes Botič, přišel ke mně v noci jeden pán, když jsem se vracel od Banzetů, a praštil mě bejkovcem přes hlavu, a když jsem ležel na zemi, posvítil si na mne a povídá: ,Tohle je mejlka, to není von.’
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© Archiv Hlavního Města Prahy

Most přes Botič is mentioned in the anecdote Švejk tells his cell-mates at Zemský trestní soud. He had been assaulted by the bridge across Botič in Nusle.

Background

Most přes Botič was one of the bridges across Botič in Nusle. The main bridge for pedestrians was the one carrying Havlíčkova třída from Královské Vinohrady to Nusle. This was also the bridge that was closest to the centre of the town.

Quote from the novel
[1.3] Jako jednou v Nuslích, právě u mostu přes Botič, přišel ke mně v noci jeden pán, když jsem se vracel od Banzetů, a praštil mě bejkovcem přes hlavu, a když jsem ležel na zemi, posvítil si na mne a povídá: ,Tohle je mejlka, to není von.’

Also written:Bridge across Botič en Bru over Botič no

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Podolí is mentioned is the same anecdote as U Bansethů and Botič, indirectly through the local church: Podolský kostelík.

Background

Podolí is since 1922 a district of Prague. It is located on the eastern bank of the Vltava between Vyšehrad to the north and Braník to the south. To the east is Pankrác and Nusle. Podolí was until 1922 administratively part of Královské Vinohrady.

In 1913 it was a town of 4,038 inhabitants in hejtmanství Královské Vinohrady, okres Nusle.

Ottův slovník naučný

far. ves na pravém bř. Vltavy pod posvátným Vyšehradem, hejtm. a okr. Král. Vinohrady, pš. Pankrác; 110 d., 1854 ob. č. (1890), s Dvorci 187 d., 3515 obyv. č., 13 n., 6 ciz. (1900), starožitný kostel sv. Michala archanděla ze XIII. stol., šk. o 10 tř., průmyslová pokračovací škola, zastávka parníků, čtvery vápenice (v nichž se vyrábí též hydraulické vápno, zvané »podolské«, a portlandský cement), cihelna, továrny na dlaždice, falcované tašky z cementu, fermeže, oleje a tuky, čistírna peří, pražská a vinohradská vodárna.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.3] Votevřel si klíčem podolskej kostelík, poněvadž myslel, že je doma, zul se v sakristii, poněvadž myslel, že je to u nich ta kuchyně, a lehl si na voltář, poněvadž myslel, že je doma v posteli, a dal na sebe nějaký ty dečky se svatými nápisy a pod hlavu evangelium a ještě jiný svěcený knihy, aby měl vysoko pod hlavou.
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Kladno, 1920

Kladno is partly a theme in Švejk's story about the police chief Rotter who trained his dogs on tramps.

Background

Kladno is an industrial city west of Prague and was a vital hub of the labour movement even under Austria-Hungary. It was from here that a failed Communist coup and general strike was organised in December 1920. Hašek was designed by Komintern to play a role in it but arrived a few days after the coup had been put down. Hašek knew Kladno from before the war, and on 29 June 1914 he and Josef Lada visited Rotter, the above mentioned policeman!

In 1913 Kladno's population was 19,369, and nearly exclusively Czech. There was also a certain military presence. The town has the seat of both the hejtmasntví and okres carrying its name. Militarily it was part of Ergänzungsbezirk 28, Prague.

Links

Source: Josef Lada

Quote from the novel
[1.3] Taky vám dám příklad, jak se na Kladně zmejlil jeden policejní pes, vlčák toho známého rytmistra Rottera.
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Unhošť

Kladensko is part of the anecdote about Rotter and his police dogs and the experiments with letting the dogs chase down tramps.

Background

Kladensko is the Czech name of the Kladno district west of Prague. Jaroslav Hašek visited the area on 28 June 1914 together with Josef Lada. See Kačák for more information.

Kladensko was probably a term that was synonymous with okreshejtmanství Kladno, a region counting 80,785 inhabitants distributed across the two judicial districts Kladno and Unhošť, totalling 45 local communities (1913).

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.1.3] Taky vám dám příklad, jak se na Kladně zmejlil jeden policejní pes, vlčák toho známýho rytmistra Rottra. Rytmistr Rotter pěstoval ty psy a dělal pokusy s vandráky, až se Kladensku počali všichni vandráci vyhejbat.
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Lánské lesy is mentioned in the same story as Kladno, about police chief Rotter and his dogs.

Background

Lánské lesy is a forested area by Kladno, named after the nearby town of Lány. See Klandesnko.

Quote from the novel
[1.3] Tak mu přivedli jednou tak dost slušně ošaceného člověka, kterého našli v lánských lesích sedět na nějakém pařezu.

Also written:Laner Wäldern de Lány-skogane no

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SMS Kaiserin Elisabeth

Pacific Ocean briefly enters the story when the commission of court doctors ask Švejk how deep the Pacific is at its deepest. In [III.3] the ocean is mentioned again in the anecdote about Koudela.

Background

Pacific Ocean is the largest of the world oceans and also the deepest ocean on earth. The point Švejk is asked about is the 10,911 metres deep Mariana Trench.

In 1914 fighting occurred in the Pacific Ocean and Germany was soon forced to abandon her colonies there, almost without bloodshed. At the outbreak of war, the German "Pacific Fleet" (Ostasiengeschwader) was ordered to sail home, but nearly all the ships were sunk on the way. Austria-Hungary had one vessel in the Pacific. S­MS Kaiserin Elisabeth was sunk by its own crew on 2 November 1914 during the Japanese siege of the German navy base Tsingtao.

Quote from the novel
[1.3] Soudní lékaři podívali se významně na sebe, nicméně jeden s nich dal ještě tuto otázku: „Neznáte nejvyšší hloubku v Tichém oceáně?“ „To prosím neznám,“ zněla odpověď, „ale myslím, že rozhodně bude větší než pod vyšehradskou skálou na Vltavě.“

Also written:Tichý Oceán cz Pazifische Ozean de

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Vyšehrad enters the dialogue when Švejk answers the psychiatric commission that Pacific Ocean must be deeper than Vltava below Vyšehrad.

Background

Vyšehrad is the oldest part of Prague, known for the historic fortress. It is located on a rock by Vltava, between the current districts of Nové Město and Nusle. The national cemetery is also located here.

In 1913 this city district was identical to the VI. district in the royal capital, officially called Královské Vyšehrad. The district had 5,252 inhabitants, and almost all of them were Czechs.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.3] Soudní lékaři podívali se významně na sebe, nicméně jeden s nich dal ještě tuto otázku: „Neznáte nejvyšší hloubku v Tichém oceáně?“ „To prosím neznám,“ zněla odpověď, „ale myslím, že rozhodně bude větší než pod vyšehradskou skálou na Vltavě.“

Also written:Wyschehrad de

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

4. They threw Švejk out of the madhouse

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England is first mentioned indirectly at Blázinec where the inmates could pretend to be King of England without any repercussions. Later England appears through the propaganda expression Gott strafe England. Still there is very little connection with England in the novel - amongst the few references are London, Grey, Shrapnel, Dalton, Darwin, Yorkshire (pig) and the magazine Country Life.

Background

England was in 1914 centre of the British Empire, the largest colonial power the world has ever seen. The empire entered the war on 4 August, through the alliance with France and Russia (The Entente), provoked by the German attack on Belgium. The declaration of war on Austria-Hungary followed on 12 August.

There was little of fighting between British and Austro-Hungarian forces as the former mostly fought on the Western Front, in the Middle East, in the colonies and on the seas. By the end of 1914 allmost all the German colonies had been conqured. The British Empire's economic power and its control of the seas were crucial to the outcome of the war. Particularly effective was the naval blockade of the Central Powers.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.4] Člověk se tam může vydávat za pánaboha nebo za panenku Marii, nebo za papeže, nebo za anglickýho krále, nebo za císaře pána, nebo za sv. Václava, ačkoliv ten poslední byl pořád svázanej a nahej a ležel v isolaci.
[1.14.5] Francie, Anglie i Rusko jsou příliš slabé proti rakousko-turecko-německé žule.
[1.14.5] Pro chmel je nyní ztracena Francie, Anglie, Rusko i Balkán.

Also written:Anglie cz Angleterre fr

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Krkonoše is mentioned when it is revealed that a professor at Blázinec claimed that the cradle of the gypsys was in these very mountains.

Background

Krkonoše is a mountain range on the border between Poland and the Czech Republic, in 1914 the border between Austria-Hungary and Germany. The name is very old, was mentioned by Ptolemaios, and may be of indo-european origin. The interpretation of the name has been preserved, and the latin name was Gigantei montes. These are the highest mountains in the Czech Republic, Sněžka reaches 1602 metres.

Quote from the novel
[1.4] Taky jsem se tam sešel s několika profesory. Jeden s nich pořád chodil za mnou a vykládal, že kolíbka cikánů byla v Krkonoších, a ten druhý mně vysvětloval, že uvnitř zeměkoule je ještě jedna mnohem větší než ta vrchní.

Also written:Giant Mountains en Riesengebirge de Karkonosze pl

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K.k. LIR Jičín, August 1914

Jaroměř is mentioned when Švejk, during his interrogation, list the songs he knows. Immediately after he is thrown out of Blázinec.

Background

Jaroměř is an old town near Hradec Králové in eastern Bohemia. Today (2017) the town has around 12,000 inhabitants.

In 1913 Jaroměř was part of hejtmanství Dvůr Králové nad Labem. The population in the town itself counted 7,859 and almost all of them were registered with Czech nationality. 181 were listed as military personnel, no doubt due to the proximity to the garrison town Josefov. Jaroměř was located within the okres of the same name and also hosted a parish and a post office.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.4] „Znám ještě první sloku z ,Kde domov můj’ a potom ,Jenerál Windischgrätz a vojenští páni od východu slunce vojnu započali’ a ještě pár takových národních písniček jako ,Zachovej nám, Hospodine’ a ,Když jsme táhli k Jaroměři’ a ,Tisíckrát pozdravujeme Tebe’...“
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Salmovská towards Ječná, marking the site of the former police station.

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Pokrok západu, 2.4.1902

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Národní listy, 6.6.1891

Salmova ulice is first mentioned at the end of [I.4] when Švejk was sent to the police station in this street after being thrown out of the madhouse. Here he encounters the brutal inspector Braun and shares the cell with a good citizen who has ended on a slippery slope after a company party. The date of his stay must be just after 28 June 1914 because Švejk reads the declaration of war as he is escorted onwards to Policejní ředitelství. Nearly all of [I.5] takes place at this police station.

Background

Salmova ulice is the author's way of writing Salmovská ulice, a short and curved street in Nové Město, not far from U kalicha. At the time there was a police station at the corner of Ječná ulice (see Policejní komisařství Salmova ulice). The street is named after Franz Altgraf von Salm-Reifferscheid who at the end of the 18th century laid out a large garden behind house No. 506.

Naming conclicts

Why the author used the name Salmova ulice is not clear. The name of the street was changed from Salmova til Salmovská already in 1870 but newspaper adverts show that Salmova was in use well into the interwar years. Thus the name was used side-by-side with the official Salmovská, so the use of Salmova is surely the author's choice (and not a typing mistake).

The wood trader Švejk

Interesting enough an advert from 1891 was placed by a certain Josef Švejk who lived in No. 14. He put beech planks up for sale.

Links

Source: Jaroslav Šerák

Quote from the novel
[1.4] Švejk prohlásil, že když někoho vyhazují s blázince, že ho nesmějí vyhodit bez oběda. Výtržnosti učinil konec vrátným přivolaný policejní strážník, který Švejka předvedl na policejní komisařství do Salmovy ulice.

Also written:Salmgasse de

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

5. Švejk at the district police station in Salmova street

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1896 Olympic Marathon

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Národní Politika, 26.10.1908

Marathon is mentioned indirectly by the author through the term marathon Run. The arrested family father at the police station in Salmova ulice runs around is if he wants to win a marathon and screams: "Let me out!"

Background

Marathon is the former name of Marathónas, a small town north of Athens that has been widely known through the marathon run. According to legend a messenger ran to Athens with the news of victory at the battle of Marathon in 490 BC.

The marathon run was introduced during the first Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens. In the beginning the distance varies slightly until it was fixed at the current 42,195 metres in 1921. In 1914 the distance was 40.2 kilometres. The first official run in Kingdom of Bohemia took place on 25 October 1908 between Smíchov and Dobříš. It was arranged by S.K. Slavia and the distance was 40 km.

Today marathon is a big sport with hundreds of runs annually around the world. The largest take place in New York with more than 50,000 finishers (2013). Within old Austria-Hungary there are annual runs in, amongst others, Prague, Vienna, Budapest and Bratislava. Every year there is also a classic marathon along the presumed original route.

Quote from the novel
[1.5] Muž, který běhal mezi dveřmi a pryčnou, jako by chtěl vyhrát maratónský běh, se zastavil a udýchán se posadil opět na své staré místo, složil hlavu do dlaní a náhle zařval: "Pusťe mne ven!" "Ne, oni mne nepustí," mluvil pro sebe, "nepustí a nepustí. Už jsem zde od rána od šesti hodin."
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Kravín, where Hašek's party held pre-election meetings

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Populuation statistics and administrative sub-division in 1913

Královské Vinohrady is the district where Švejk's cell-mate is said to have made an exhibition of himself in a decent establishment. Královské Vinohrady is mentioned again when Dr Pávek arrives to cure Svejk's rheumatism in [I.7] and later the name appears in several anecdotes. The plot never explicitly takes place here.

Background

Královské Vinohrady is a former city and current cadastral area of Prague, south east of the centre. Administratively it is split between Prague 2, 3 and 10. After 1968 the official name has been Vinohrady, and this short form is also used by the author throughout. In 1922 it became part of the capital.

Královské Vinohrady achieved status as "royal town" in 1879 and grew quickly to become the third largest city of Kingdom of Bohemia. In 1913 it had 77,120 inhabitants where Czechs made up the overwhelming majority. Its was also the centre of the local government district (okreshejtmanství) of the same name and the town was the only sub-division of its judicial district (soudní okres).

Jaroslav Hašek lived in various locations at Vinohrady from 1896 to 1908 and in shorter periods later. On 23 May 1910 he married Jarmila Mayerova in Kostel svaté Ludmily. His famous "party" Strana mírného pokroku v mezích zákona held many of their election meetings here, mainly before the elections of 1911 where he also stood as a candidate.

In the second version of Švejk, Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí, the main character lives in Vinohrady. Here his occupation was a cobbler, not a dog trader as he became known as later.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.5] Tak jsme ho šli opět všude hledat a nakonec jsme se ztratili jeden druhému, až nakonec jsem se ocitl v jedné z nočních kaváren na Vinohradech, velmi slušné místnosti, kde jsem pil nějaký likér přímo z láhve.

Also written:Vinohrady Hašek Königliche Weinberge de

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Ražice is first mentioned by Švejk in an anecdote about scouts he tells his fellow prisoner at the police station at Salmova ulice. The place also appears in [I.14] and [II.2] and the good soldoer must have been within a few kilometres of it on his anabasis in Book Two.

Background

Ražice is a village in the Písek district. It is an important railway junction between Písek, Budějovice and Plzeň. In 1913 the village counted 398 inhabitants, all listed with Czech as their mother tongue. Jaroslav Hašek knew the village very well and mentions it both in Švejk and in some of his stories. See also Ražická bašta.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.5] Potom na trápení u starosty, pod rákoskou, doznali, že není ani jedna louka v okolí, kterou by nebyli zváleli, když se vyhřívali na slunci, dále že ten lán žita nastojatě, právě před žněmi u Ražic, vyhořel čirou náhodou, když si v žitě pekli na rožni srnku, ku které se přikradli s noži v obecním lese.

Also written:Ražitz de

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Some of the places Švejk mentions

Okres Hluboká is mentioned in the story about scouts that Švejk tells the unhappy family father in the cell at Policejní komisařství Salmova ulice.

Background

Okres Hluboká refers to the soudní okres (judicial district) named after its seat Hluboká. The district belonged to Okresní hejtmanství Budějovice as Švejk clearly states. The district counted 26 municipalities that were almost exclusively inhabited by Czechs: Bavorovice, Břehov, Čejkovice, Češnovice, Dasný, Dobřejice, Dříteň, Hluboká, Hosín, Hrdějice, Chlumec, Chotýčany, Jaroslavice, Jeznice, Česká Lhota, Lišnice, Munice, Mydlovary, Nakří, Opatovice, Pištín, Plastovice, Purkarec, Velice, Nová Ves, Volešník, Vyhlavy, Zbudov, Zliv.

Mydlovary plays a particularly prominent role because this is where Jaroslav Hašek had right of domicile and was thus under jurisdiction of the recruitment region of IR91. See Ergänzungskommando.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.5] "U skautů?" zvolal Švejk. "O těch skautech rád slyším. Jednou v Mydlovarech u Zlivi, okres Hluboká, okresní hejtmanství České Budějovice, právě když jsme tam měli jednadevadesátí cvičení, udělali si sedláci z okolí hon na skauty v obecním lese, kteří se jim tam rozplemenili.
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Okresní hejtmanství Budějovice is mentioned in the story about the unfortunate scouts Švejk tells the unhappy family father in the cell at Policejní komisařství Salmova ulice.

Background

Okresní hejtmanství Budějovice was the local government district in the area around Budějovice. Apart from the district capital there were no major towns within its boundaries. In 1910 the region had a population of more than 120,000 of which 80 per cent were Czechs. In the Budějovice itself the ethnic balance was more even as nearly the entire German minority in the region lived here.

The district consisted of four soudní okres (judicial district): Budějovice, Hluboká, Lišov and Trhové Sviny. The office was located in Střelnická ulice, now třída 28. října.

Bezirkhauptmannschaft

This term (cz. okreshejtmanství) needs clarification. The two most recent English translations of the novel interpret it as "police district", something that it definitely is not. It is rather the third level of government administration in Cisleithanien (i.e. the Austrian part of the Dual Monarchy). The next level up was the Statthalter (cz. místodržitel) who again reported directly to central government in Vienna. In the Hungarian part of the empire the equivalent to the Bezirk was Komitat. The Kingdom of Bohemia consisted of nearly 100 politické okresy (politische Bezirke). These were often made up 3-4 soudní okresy (Gerichtsbezirke) but the number could vary. Often used in Czech is the shortened variation hejtmanstvi, for instance in Ottův slovník naučný. Likewise soudní okres is referred to as simply okres.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.5] "U skautů?" zvolal Švejk. "O těch skautech rád slyším. Jednou v Mydlovarech u Zlivi, okres Hluboká, okresní hejtmanství České Budějovice, právě když jsme tam měli jednadevadesátí cvičení, udělali si sedláci z okolí hon na skauty v obecním lese, kteří se jim tam rozplemenili.

Also written:Bezirkhauptmannschaft Budweis de Okresní hejtmanství České Budějovice Švejk

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The corner of Ječná and Karlovo náměstí.

Ječná ulice is one of the street Švejk walks though with police escort, on his way from Salmova ulice police station back to Policejní ředitelství. The date must have been around 28 July 1914.

Background

Ječná ulice is a busy street in Nové Město, leading from Karlovo náměstí to IP Pavlova. The family of Hašek lived in no. 7 for a while in 1884, the year after he was born.

Quote from the novel
[1.5] Ukloniv se uctivě, odcházel s policejním strážníkem dolů na strážnici a za čtvrt hodiny bylo již vidět na rohu Ječné ulice a Karlova náměstí Švejka v průvodu druhého policejního strážníka, který měl pod paždí objemnou knihu s německým nápisem „Arrestantenbuch“.

Also written:Gerstengasse de

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The author with his wife Jarmila at Karlovo náměstí

Karlovo náměstí is another place Švejk passes with police escort, on his way from Salmova ulice police station back to Policejní ředitelství. The date must have been around 28 July 1914, the day of the declaration of war against Serbia.

The place is mentioned several times in book one, and appears already in the first chapter, through the colloquial expression "Karlák".

In [I.13] the plot is again located here as Švejk and Katz go to the military hospital to perform the last rites. See Vojenská nemocnice Karlovo náměstí.

Background

Karlovo náměstí is the centre of Nové Město and is one of the largest city squares in Europe. Today it appears more like a park than a square. It was founded by king Charles IV in 1348.

The square is right in the area where Jaroslav Hašek grew up and this is reflected in the number of places here that are mentioned in the novel: Zemský trestní soud, Černý pivovar, Vojenská nemocnice Karlovo náměstí, U mrtvoly, Kostel svátého Ignáce. Both the gymnasium and the commercial academy (Českoslovanské akademie obchodní) where the author completed his education are located off the square.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.5] Ukloniv se uctivě, odcházel s policejním strážníkem dolů na strážnici a za čtvrt hodiny bylo již vidět na rohu Ječné ulice a Karlova náměstí Švejka v průvodu druhého policejního strážníka, který měl pod paždí objemnou knihu s německým nápisem „Arrestantenbuch“.
[I.13] Potom přečetl polní kurát ještě jednou předpis, ve kterém se mu oznamuje, že zítra má jít na Karlovo náměstí do Vojenské nemocnice zaopatřovat těžce raněné.

Also written:Charles Square en Karlsplatz de Karlák Švejk

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Spálená ulice appears in the plot when Švejk and his police escort stop at the corner of Karlovo náměstí - Spálená ul. to read the declaration of war on Serbia. The date here is probably 28 July 1914.

Background

Spálená ulice is a street in Nové Město leading from Karlovo náměstí north towards Národní třída (then Ferdinandova třída). The name means "Burnt Street".

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.5] Na rohu Spálené ulice setkal se Švejk se svým průvodčím s tlupou lidí, kteří se tlačili kolem vyvěšeného plakátu. „To je manifest císaře pána o vypovězení války,“ řekl policejní strážník k Švejkovi.

Also written:Brenntegasse de

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Europe is mentioned by the author in conjunction with the news that Austria-Hungary had declared war on Serbia: "and somewhere from distant history it dawned on Europe that tomorrow would obliterate the plans of today."

Background

Europe was at the outbreak of war far less fragmented than today, not the least because of Austria-Hungary which covered areas that now belong to 11 different states. Germany and Russia were also much larger than they are today. The great war turned Europe upside down. The empires of Germany, the Dual Monarchy, Turkey and Russia all collapsed and the human and material losses were enormous, around 15 millions is the estimated death toll. Only Spain, Netherlands, Switzerland, Sweden, Denmark and Norway managed to preserve their neutrality.

Quote from the novel
[1.5] A kdesi v dálných dálavách historie snášela se k Evropě pravda, že zítřek rozboří i plány přítomnosti.

Also written:Evropa cz

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

6. Švejk at home again, having broken through the vicious circle

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Příčná ulice is mentioned by Mrs Palivcová who could tell Švejk that an upholsterer from there was the only one who had latched on to Bretschneider's bait since Švejk's and Palivec's arrest. The street later appears in the anecdote about the bookbinder Božetěch in [IV.1].

Background

Příčná ulice is a very short street Nové Město slightly east of Karlovo náměstí. It connects Žitna ulice and Navrátilova ulice (then Hopfenstockova ulice).

According to the address book from 1910 there was no upholsterer in this street, the closest were a few in Žitná ulice.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.6] Za tu celou dobu dostal na lep jen čalouníka z Příčné ulice.

Also written:Quergasse de

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Račiněves is briefly mentioned in an advert Švejk reads aloud at U kalicha to divert Bretschneider's attention. See Straškov.

Background

Račiněves is a village by Roudnice nad Labem, 47 km north of Prague.

In 1913 the place counted 840 heads, all Czechs. It was part of okres and hejtmanství Roudnice, and as correctly pointed out in the novel it had a school and a railway station.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.6] Švejk sňal s věšáku nějaké noviny a prohlížeje si zadní stranu inserátů, ozval se: „Tak vida, tenhle Čimpera v Straškově č. 5, p. Račiněves, prodá hospodářství s třinácti korci vlastních polí, škola a dráha na místě.“
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Straškov is briefly mentioned in an advert from a certain Čimpera that Švejk reads aloud at U kalicha in order to distract Bretschneider. See Račiněves.

Background

Straškov is a village by Roudnice nad Labem, 47 km north of Prague. The nearby mountain Říp is according to legend the first place in Bohemia where arriving Czechs settled.

In 1913 the place counted 509 heads, all Czechs. It was part of okres and hejtmanství Roudnice, and as correctly pointed out in the novel the post office was in Račiněves (and it indeed had a railway station).

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.6] Švejk sňal s věšáku nějaké noviny a prohlížeje si zadní stranu inserátů, ozval se: „Tak vida, tenhle Čimpera v Straškově č. 5, p. Račiněves, prodá hospodářství s třinácti korci vlastních polí, škola a dráha na místě.“
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Dejvice appears when Švejk tells Bretschneider that he is aware of a toothless dog there which he can provide him with.

Background

Dejvice is an urban area and cadastral district in western Prague between the centre and the airport. It is administratively part of Prague 6, and is regarded as one of the more exclusive parts of the capital. The district became part of Prague in 1922 and Vítězné náměstí is regarded its focal point.

In 1913 Dejvice was still a separate entity, although it was part of the Prague conurbation. It belonged to hejtmanství and okres Smíchov. The population counted 6,582 of which all but 268 were Czechs.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.6] „Já bych chtěl špice,“ s klidnou umírněností řekl Bretschneider, „špice, kterej by nekousal.“ „Přejete si tedy bezzubého špice?“ otázal se Švejk, „vím o jednom. Má ho jeden hostinský v Dejvicích.“
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Svět zvířat, 1910.

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Světozor, 6.8.1915

Great St Bernard Pass is mentioned indirectly through the dog breed St Bernard (or Bernardiner) that has its name from the well known mountain pass in the Alps.

The dog breed first appears in [I.6] when Švejk avoids Bretschneider's attempts to trick him into compromising himself. This he duly achieves by giving totally off-topic responses, in this case a story about a Bernardiner puppet. In the same chapter Müllerová reveals that she had a visit from the police when Švejk sat arrested and a Bernardiner bit a policeman before it ran away.

Later in the novel the dog breed appears several times, included in [I.14] during a conversation with Lukáš and also during the preparation of the dog theft. Factory owner Vydra owned a Bernardiner that Blahník stole.

Background

Great St Bernard Pass is a mountain pass in the western Alps that has given name to the mentioned dog bread. The highest point is 2,469 metres above sea level and the pass connects Switzerland and Italy. It is named after Bernard of Aosta, better known as Saint Bernhard.

The dog breed

The St.Bernhard dogs are considered the largest of all dog breeds and may weight up to one hundred kilo and reach a height of one metre. It was originally bred by the sanctuary at Great St Bernard Pass and used for rescue duties in the mountains. One hundred years ago the dogs were much smaller than today, but because of the increased weight they are not longer suitable as avalanche- and rescue dogs.

Hašek and St.Bernhard dogs
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Václav Menger, "Jaroslav Hašek doma"

At the time when Jaroslav Hašek edited the magazine Švět zvířat (Animal World), the St Bernard dog appeared repeatedly on its pages, in text and photos. Further Václav Menger writes that Hašek once wrote an invented story about such a dog in České slovo, much to the annoyance of the dog's owner, the hotel proprietor Karel Černý from Černošice. The latter even appeared in the editorial offices in an agitated mood, with his enormous dog on a lead!

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.6] Švejk prohlásil, že neměl se státem co dělat, ale že jednou měl na ošetřování slabé štěně bernardýna, které krmil vojenskými suchary, a že také chcíplo.
[1.6] Pak šla stlát postel, neobyčejně pečlivě uváděla všechno do pořádku a vrátivši se ke Švejkovi do kuchyně se zaslzeným zrakem poznamenala: „Ty dvě štěňata, milostpane, co jsme měly na dvoře, chcíply. A ten bernardýn, ten nám utek, když tady dělali domovní prohlídku.“
[1.14.3] Kam se na něj hrabe takovej pitomej bernardýn. Je ještě chytřejší než foxteriér. Já jsem znal jednoho...
[1.14.6] „Pohostím ho hovězíma,“ rozhodl se Blahník, „na ty jsem už dostal bernardýna továrníka Vydry, náramně věrný zvíře. Zejtra ti psa přivedu v pořádku.“

Also written:Velký Svatobernardský průsmyk cz Grosser St. Bernhard de Col du Grand St-Bernard fr Colle del Gran San Bernardo it

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Postcard from Hašek in 1902

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Baedekers Oesterreich 1910, s.332

Brno is mentioned by Müllerová when she tells Švejk about the police interrogation after the latter had been arrested by Bretschneider. She was asked by the police if she had received money from abroad, and she said: "Yes, from Brno".

The city is mentioned only once more, in connection with field chaplain Matyáš who died there without having paid off his debts.

Background

Brno is the second largest city of the Czech Republic with a population population count of around 380,000. The city has a strong industrial tradition is also seat of the country's most important legal institutions.

In 1914 Brno was the capital of Moravia, but the city was much smaller than today, also in area. At the time a majoriy of the 123,000 inhabitants was German (this number also includes the 15,000 Jews).

Jaroslav Hašek visited Brno in 1902 on his way back from Slovakia. He wrote a post-card from here, addressed to his cousin Marie who at the time lived in Jaroměř. The card is also signed by Viktor Janota and Jan Čulen.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.6] Se mnou také dělali výslech, kdo k nám chodí, jestli nedostáváme nějaké peníze z ciziny, a potom dělali narážky, že jsem hloupá, když jsem jim řekla, že peníze z ciziny chodějí jen zřídka, posledně od toho pana řídícího z Brna ta záloha šedesát korun na angorskou kočku, kterou jste inseroval v Národní politice a místo toho jste mu poslal v bedničce od datlí to slepé štěňátko foxteriéra.
[1.13] „Vidíte: Polní kurát Matyáš v Brně, zemřel v isolační nemocnici před týdnem. Já bych si rval vlasy. Nezaplatil mně 1800 korun, a jde do cholerového baráku zaopatřovat nějakého člověka, po kterém mu nic nebylo.“

Also written:Brünn de

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Národní politika, 26.7.1908

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Svět zvířat, 22.2.1909

Angora is here used as an adjective to denote a breed of cats, Angora. The cat race is mentioned several times in the novel.

It first appears when Müllerová tells Švejk that she told the police that he had received for cat that he had advertised in Národní politika. The money were from "abroad", from a businessman in Brno.

The second cat [1.14] belonged to senior lieutenant Lukáš and takes part in the plot directly. It devours his canary bird after Švejk had the idea to let the cat and the bird together "to get used to each other". The cat soon after ended its life by eating shoe polish [I.15].

Background

Angora is the historical name of Ankara, the capital of Turkey. Ankara is the second largest city in the country and has been capital since 1923. The Angora cat is a breed of domestic cats originating from central Asia Minor.

Pictures of Angora-cats appeared on the pages of the animal magazine Svět zvírat during the time Jaroslav Hašek edited the periodical (1909-1910). At the same time he wrote a story about the Angora tomcat Bobeš, a cat that could talk. The story's title was O domýšlivém kocouru Bobešovi (About the vain tomcat Bobeš) and was printed in Svět zvířat on 1 March 1910.

The Angora Cat also appears in altogether six (or more) pre-war stories. One of them is Má drahá přitelkyně Julča (My dear friend Julie) that was printed in three issues of Zlatá Praha in April/May 1915. This story is also set during Hašek's time as animal trader at Košíře and contains themes known from the novel (Brehm and Klamovka are mentioned). The story O nejošklivějším psu Balabánovi (Svět zvířat, 1913) also contains a reference to an Angora cat. Another talking cat Markus features in another story, there is also a cat Lili in the story about Axamit. See links below for a full list.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.6] Se mnou také dělali výslech, kdo k nám chodí, jestli nedostáváme nějaké peníze z ciziny, a potom dělali narážky, že jsem hloupá, když jsem jim řekla, že peníze z ciziny chodějí jen zřídka, posledně od toho pana řídícího z Brna ta záloha šedesát korun na angorskou kočku, kterou jste inseroval v Národní politice a místo toho jste mu poslal v bedničce od datlí to slepé štěňátko foxteriéra.
[1.14.3] Neobyčejně rád měl zvířata. Měl harckého kanárka, angorskou kočku a stájového pinče.
[1.14.3] A angorská kočka si opět vlezla pod pohovku.
[1.15] „Poslušně hlásím, pane obrlajtnant, že jste přišel o kočku. Sežrala krém na boty a dovolila si chcípnout. Hodil jsem ji do sklepa, ale do vedlejšího. Takovou hodnou a hezkou angorskou kočku už nenajdete.“
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Národní politika, 28.8.1910

Leonberg is mentioned indirectly through the dog breed Leonberger when Švejk tells Bretschneider that he once sold a Leonberger to an anarchist. for 100 crowns.

Background

Leonberg is a town in Swabia that gave its name to the mentioned do breed. This is a very large and fury dog breed, that appeared through breeding in 19th century. It can weigh up to 80 kilos.

Leonberger-dogs are written about in Svět zvířat at the time when Jaroslav Hašek was editor of this weekly. The author had good knowledge of dog-breeding, something that is reflected in the many references to dogs throughout the novel and otherwise in his literary output.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.6] Když měli každý pátou čtvrtku, prohlásil se Bretschneider za anarchistu a ptal se Švejka, do které organisace se má dát zapsat. Švejk řekl, že si jednou jeden anarchista koupil od něho leonbergera za sto korun a že mu zůstal poslední splátku dlužen.
Scotlandnn flag
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Scotland is mentioned indirectly through the dog breed Scottish sheepdog when the author describes Švejk's dog deals with detective Kalous.

Background

Scotland is a nation occupying the nortern part of the island Great Britain that since 1707 has been in a union with England. As a member of the United Kingdom, Scottish forces took part fully in the first world war.

The Scottish sheepdog (border collie) was mentioned in the late 19th century. It is regarded the worlds most popular shepherds dog.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.6] Pak tam šel koupit psa detektiv Kalous a vrátil se s vyjevenou potvorou, připomínající hyenu skvrnitou, s hřívou skotského ovčáka, a v položkách tajného fondu přibyla nová: D...90 K.

Also written:Skotsko cz Schottland de

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

7. Švejk goes in the military

Rabann flag
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Raba by Dobczyce.

raba.png

Finljandskaja Gazeta, 30.11.1914

raba2.png

Map appendix to "Kaiserbericht", 26 November 1914. © ÖSTA

Raba is mentioned by the author at the beginning [I.7]. Austrian troops fled across the river and Austria was in a very bad way. The author calls it Ráb, which can easily be confused with the better known river Raab which flows through Austria and Hungary.

In [I.14] the river is mentioned again in a similar description. See Dunajec.

Background

Raba is a river in Galicia which flows into Vistula east of Kraków, in the south of current Poland. In 1914 the entire river flowed on Austrian territory.

The event referred to in the novel is by near certainty the situation on the Galician battlefield in late November 1914. On the 26 November, during the advance on Kraków, the Russian 3rd Army led by Radko Dimitriev crossed the river, some units having reached and crossed it the evening before by Mikluszowice. According to Russian reports the Austro-Hungarian army retreated in disorder and suffered from low morale. They took up new defensive positions west of the river, on the line Dobczyce - Niepołomice, and by the end of the month they had retreated to Wieliczka, only 13 kilometres south-east of Kraków.

This situation persisted until 8 December when the Russians were pushed eastwards towards Dunajec during the battle of Limanowa. It was during the advance on Kraków that Czech volunteers in the Russian army, Česká Družina, first were in action against K.u.k. Heer. Wieliczka was also the westernmost point the imperial Russian army ever reached.

Mentioned in a short story

The river was mentioned by the author already in 1908 in the story Ve vesnici u řeky Rábu (In a village by the river Raba), printed in Besedy lidu. This strongly suggests that Jaroslav Hašek had visited the area by the river, most likely during the summer of 1903 when he stayed in Kraków.

Österreich-Ungarns letzter Krieg, Band I.

Südlich der Weichsel hatte sich im Verlaufe des 25. das Vorgehen des Russen zunächst nicht geltend gemacht. Erst am 26. vordem Hellwerden überschritt das XI. Korps die untere Raba und drängte die Gruppe Obst. Brauner auf die Linie Dziewin-Grobla zurück. Zu derselben Stunde griff das feindliche IX. Korps Bochnia an, das von der 11. ID. verteidigt wurde. Weiter südlich rückten stärkere russische Kräfte von Lipnica her gegen die 30. ID. vor. Die auf Rajbrot entsandte 10. KD. war schon in der Nacht zum 25. auf Dobczyce zurückgenommen worden, da sie dringend einiger Erholung bedurfte. In solcher Lage meldete FZM. Ljubičić um 9h vorm., daß seine völlig erschöpften Truppen zu einem nachhaltigen Widerstand in der weitausgedehnten Front zwischen der Weichsel und der Straße Gdów-Muchówka nicht mehr befähigt seien. Inzwischen hatte die 11. ID. unter erheblichen Verlusten dem schweren russischen Druck bei Bochnia nachgeben müssen. FZM. Ljubičić ordnete daher um 9h45 vorm. den Rückzug seiner ganzen Gruppe in die vorbereitete Stellung Dobczyce-Niepołomice an.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.7] V době, kdy lesy na řece Rábu v Haliči viděly utíkat přes Ráb rakouská vojska a dole v Srbsku rakouské divise jedna za druhou dostávaly přes kalhoty to, co jim dávno patřilo, vzpomnělo si rakouské ministerstvo vojenství i na Švejka, aby pomohl mocnářství z bryndy.
[1.14.5] Zatímco masy vojsk připnuté na lesích u Dunajce i Rábu stály pod deštěm granátů a velkokalibrová děla roztrhávala celé setniny a zasypávala je v Karpatech a obzory na všech bojištích hořely od požárů vesnic i měst, prožíval nadporučík Lukáš se Švejk nepříjemnou idylu s dámou, která utekla svému muži a dělala nyní domácí paní.

Also written:Ráb Hašek

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galicia2.png

Some places in Galicia mentioned in the novel (orange).

galicia3.png

Venkov, 5.7.1908

Galicia is mentioned first time by the narrator at the start of [I.7]. Here he informs the reader that Austrian forces are fleeing across the river Raba in Galicia. Towards the end of the novel, from [III.4] and throughout the unfinished [IV.1-3] the plot takes in its entirety place in Galicia. Many places in the region are mentioned, or form part of the plot. The most important of these are Kraków, Sanok, Przemyśl, Lwów and Sokal. The plot itself ends in Galicia, near Żółtańce.

Background

Galicia was until 1918 an Austrian "Kronland" north of the Carpathians. As a political unit it was known as Königreich Galizien und Lodomerien from 1846 until 1918. The population at the time was mixed: Poles, Germans, Jews and Ukrainians were the largest groups. Galicia enjoyed a large degree of autonomy and Polish had status as official language within the administration. The "polonisation" of the region enjoyed support even from the emperor. The administrative capital was Lwów which was a Polish enclave in an otherwise Ukrainian dominated region.

In September 1914 Russia occupied eastern Galicia, and by the 12th k.u.k. Heer had withdrawn behind the river San. By late November the enemy had advanced much further west and even threatened Kraków, the second large city in the crown land. From 2 May 1915 and throughout the summer most of Galicia was reconquered by the Central Powers. It was during these offensives that Jaroslav Hašek took part as a soldier from 11 July to 24 September.

From 1918 the region became part of Poland, and in 1939 and it was partitioned between Germany and the Soviet Union. From 1945 it was again split between Poland and the USSR (from 1991 between Poland and Ukraine).

Hašek in Galicia

Apart from his stay during the war the author knew Galicia well from his wanderings just after the turn of the century. He traveled in the "Kronland" both in 1901 and 1903; more precisely in and around Kraków and Tarnów. He wrote several stories set in the region, two of them with Jewish themes from the town of Zapustna (not identified).

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.7] V době, kdy lesy na řece Rábu v Haliči viděly utíkat přes Ráb rakouská vojska a dole v Srbsku rakouské divise jedna za druhou dostávaly přes kalhoty to, co jim dávno patřilo, vzpomnělo si rakouské ministerstvo vojenství i na Švejka, aby pomohl mocnářství z bryndy.

Also written:Halič cz Galizien de Galicja pl Галичина ua

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Kraków is mentioned by Švejk in conversation with Müllerová when he informs her that he has been called up for service. Here it is revealed that the Russians have almost reached the city, something that corresponds with the actual situation around 1 December 1914.

Background

Kraków is a city in southern Poland and the second largest city in the country with more than 700,000 inhabitants. It has a well preserved historic core and is on UNESCO's World Heritage list. It is also a major tourist attraction.

Until 1918 Kraków was part of Austria-Hungary og and the biggest city in western Galicia. Jaroslav Hašek was arrested here in July 1903 and he had previously visited the area in the summer of 1901 [4].

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.7] „Panenko Maria,“ vykřikla paní Müllerová, „co tam budou dělat?“ „Bojovat,“ hrobovým hlasem odpověděl Švejk, „s Rakouskem je to moc špatný. Nahoře nám už lezou na Krakov a dole do Uher.

Also written:Krakov cz Krakau de

Hungarynn flag
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Hungary is mentioned by Švejk in the conversation with Müllerová when he informs her that he has been called up for military service. The Russians are said to be in Hungary already. Later on, the action in parts of Book II and nearly all of Book III takes place in the kingdom of Hungary. Švejk had his first encounter with Hungary in Királyhida and left its territory in Palota. It is also revealed that he has been in Hungary before the war during manoeuvres: he mentions Veszprém. Note that the common Czech term for Hungary, Maďarsko, is never used in the novel.

Background

Hungary (Magyar Királyság) is in this context the historical kingdom that from 1867 to 1918 was in a royal union with the Austria and which together with them constituted Austria-Hungary. The kingdom of Hungary roughly included modern Hungary, Slovakia, Burgenland, Transylvania and the parts of present Ukraine which lies west of the Carpathians. In addition Croatia was a nominal kingdom under Hungarian rule.

The population in 1910 was slightly above 21 million of which less than half were ethnic Hungarians. The capital during this period was Budapest. The kingdom was also known as Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of Saint Stephen, and after 1867 also as Transleithania, the land beyond the Leitha.

After the 1867 "Ausgleich" Hungary used its new found autonomy to impose a policy of magyarisation on its inorities, causing widespread resentment amongst the other nationalities of the kingdom. The Treaty of Trianon in 1920 stripped Hungary of two thirds of its population and territory, but the kingdom continued to exists formally until 1946 (although without a king).

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.7] „Panenko Maria,“ vykřikla paní Müllerová, „co tam budou dělat?“ „Bojovat,“ hrobovým hlasem odpověděl Švejk, „s Rakouskem je to moc špatný. Nahoře nám už lezou na Krakov a dole do Uher.

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[I.13] Ten padne v Karpatech s mou nezaplacenou směnkou, ten jde do zajetí, ten se mně utopí v Srbsku, ten umře v Uhrách ve špitále.

Also written:Uhry Hašek Magyaria Sadlon Maďarsko/Uhersko/Uhry cz Magyar Királyság hu

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piemonte.jpg

Places occupied by Austria in May 1859 highlighted red

Piedmont appears in the popular folk song Jenerál Windischgrätz a vojenští páni that Švejk sings in his sick-bed after having been called up by the army for a medical examination.

Background

Piedmont was in 1914 as today a province of Italy. It is located in the north-western part of the country and borders France and Switzerland. The capital is Torino.

The song refers to events during the second Italian war of independence in 1859. On 27 April war erupted between Austria and the kingdom of Sardinia (that Piedmont was part of). At the start of the war, before Sardinia's ally France had come to her aid, Austrian forces crossed into Piedmont. They crossed the border river Ticino on 29 April, and occupied Novara, Montara, Vercelli and a the surrounding land west of the river. The four bridges the song mentions may well refers to the river Ticino or the river Sesia to the west (which was as far as the invaders got). By early June the Austrian forces had withdrawn east of Ticino and all of Piedmont was again under allied control.

The war ended in victory for Sardinia and France, and as a result Austria had to cede most of Lombardia. The decisive battle stood at Solferino on 24 June 1859, mentioned in the same song. The ceasefire was effectuated on 12 July (il armistizio de Villafranca).

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.7] Uděšená paní Müllerová pod dojmem strašného válečného zpěvu zapomněla na kávu a třesouc se na celém těle, uděšena naslouchala, jak dobrý voják Švejk dál zpívá na posteli:

S panenkou Marií a ty čtyry mosty,
postav si, Pimonte, silnější forposty,
hop, hop, hop!

Also written:Pimonte Hašek Piemont cz Piemont de Piedmont fr

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Solferino is mentioned in the song jenerál Windischgrätz a vojenští páni that Švejk patriotically tunes up after having been called up for army service and immediately is struck by a fit of rheumatism.

Background

Solferino is a small town in Italy, slightly south of Lake Garda. During the second war of Italian independence Austria lost the decisive battle here against France and the Sardinia (24 June 1859). Austria was forced to cede Lombardia and this outcome paved the way for the unification of Italy.

Henry Dunant took part on the battle and moved by witnessing the sufferings of the soldiers he was later to found the Red Cross. This was the last major battle in history where the monarchs commanded their armies directly. Emperor Franz Joseph I withdrew as Austrian commander-in-chief after this.

Quote from the novel
[1.7]
Byla bitva, byla, tam u Solferina, 
teklo tam krve moc, krve po kolena, 
hop, hop, hop! 

Krve po kolena a na fůry masa, 
vždyť se tam sekala vosumnáctá chasa, 
hop, hop, hop!
Austria-Hungarynn flag
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Austria-Hungary is mentioned first time by the author in this way: "and so, at a time when Vienna wished that all the nations of Austria-Hungary would offer to the empire its most exquisite specimens of loyalty and dedication, Doctor Pávek prescribed bromide against Švejk's patriotic enthusiasm. He also recommended that this brave and good former infantryman think no more about the military".

Otherwise the state of Austria-Hungary and its institutions is the butt of Jaroslav Hašek's satire throughout the novel. The entire plot takes place on the territory of the Dual Monarchy, from Prague in the west to the river Bug to the east. It also passes important cities like Vienna, Lwów and Budapest. The monarchy's most important traffic route, the Danube, is also included. The novel has hundreds of references to places in the monarchy.

Background

Austria-Hungary was a political unit that existed from 8 June 1867 to 31 October 1918 in the form of a personal union between Austria and Hungary. By area and population (about 52 million) it was one of the largest states in Europe. Austria-Hungary was a multi-ethnic state with 12 official languages ​​and even more ethnic groups. It was a constitutional monarchy with freedom of worship and universal suffrage, although with authoritarian leanings. This was first and foremost the case in Hungary where the ethnic minorities had a far weaker position than in the Austrian part of the empire.

With its mixed population Austria-Hungary was vulnerable to internal strife, which was particularly evident in times of crisis. There were also large differences in economic and social development between the various parts of the monarchy. The present Czech Republic and Austria had mostly reached an advanced stage of industrial development, whereas the Balkans, parts of Hungary and Galicia were relatively backward agrarian societies.

Until the "Ausgleich" (Vienna accord) in 1867 the Habsburg state was known as the Austrian Empire. Hungary took advantage of defeat by Prussia the previous year to force through a redistribution of power that put them on equal terms with Austria. These privileges granted to the Hungarians provoked great resentment amongst the other peoples of the empire, particularly the Slavs. The Czechs felt particulalrly aggrieved as they contributed nearly 25 per cent of the tax income (although this number includes the Germans of Bohemia and Moravia).

The state was also called the Dual Monarchy or the Danube Monarchy. Franz Joseph I was emperor of Austria and king of Hungary respectively. The river Leitha formed in part the boundary between the two parts of the monarchy, which therefore were unofficially referred to by the Latin terms Cisleithania and Transleithania.

The official name in German was Die im Reichsrat vertretenen Königreiche und Länder und die Länder der heiligen ungarischen Stephanskrone.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.7] A tak v době, kdy Vídeň si přála, aby všichni národové Rakousko-Uherska dávali nejskvělejší příklady věrnosti a oddanosti, předepsal doktor Pávek Švejkovi proti jeho vlasteneckému nadšení brom a doporučoval statečnému a hodnému vojínu Švejkovi, aby nemyslil na vojnu.

Also written:Rakousko-Uhersko cz Österreich-Ungarn de Ausztria-Magyarország hu Austerrike-Ungarn nn

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Bergens Tidende, 30.7.1914

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Böhmerwalds Söhne im Felde

Belgrade is in the novel expressed first time through Švejk's patriotic rallying cry from the wheelchair: "To Belgrade, to Belgrade!". The city is also mentioned in Királyhida when the author relates the story about the false one year volunteer Teveles.

Background

Belgrade was in 1914 capital of the kingdom of Serbia and after the war it became capital of Yugoslavia. Its strategic position was very exposed, right on the border with Hungary which at the time ruled Vojvodina and Banat on the opposite banks of the rivers Sava and Danube. The current urban district of Zemun west of Sava at the time belonged to Ungarn. The first shots of the world war were fired against Belgrade from river boats (monitors) on 29 July 1914.

In late November the city was abandoned, and K.u.k. Heer duly entered on 2 December 1914. But facing a Serbian counter-attack their position became untenable and the occupiers were forced out by the 15th. Belgrade didn't succumb again until 9 October 1915 when Serb resistance collapsed after Bulgaria and Germany came to the aid of Austria-Hungary. Belgrade was liberated on 1 November 1918 by Serb and French forces.

IR91 and Belgrade

IR91 was fighting by the river Kolubara at the time Belgrade was occupied, and during the next two weeks they moved north towards the city. It was from here they escaped across the Sava to safety on 14 and 15 December. The regiment was totally decimated after the battle and retreat from Kolubara, and by the time they withdrew from Belgrade they were in disarray, split into smaller groups, and according to regiment commander major Kießwetter his men also suffered breakdown in discipline and cases of plundering were observed even back on Austro-Hungarian soil in Zemun, accompanied by widespread drunkenness. Three entire companies fell in captivity during the retreat. Four of the officers we know as models for characters from Švejk took part in the battle of Kolubara and the traumatic retreat: Rudolf Lukas, Čeněk Sagner (until 27 November) and Jan Eybl (from 30 November). The commander of the 2nd battalion, Franz Wenzel, reported ill during the last week of the retreat.

Links

Source: Rudolf Kießwetter

Quote from the novel
[1.7] Stará žena, strkající před sebou vozík, na kterém seděl muž ve vojenské čepici s vyleštěným „frantíkem“, mávající berlemi. A na kabátě skvěla se pestrá rekrutská kytka. A muž ten, mávaje poznovu a poznovu berlemi, křičel do pražských ulic: „Na Bělehrad, na Bělehrad!“

Also written:Bělehrad cz Belgrad de Београд se

Václavské náměstínn flag
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Václavské náměstí is mentioned in the famous scene when Švejk was wheeled down the square in a wheelchair by Mrs Müllerová, on the way to the call-up board. A crowd of a few hundred had gathered round them.

Background

Václavské náměstí is the most famous square in Nové Město (New Town) if not in the whole of Prague. The square is the centre of Prague's commercial district and stretches from the National Museum north towards Staré Město (Old Town). It is named after the Czech national saint, the Holy Václav.

Jaroslav Hašek was well known in the editorial offices in the street as he worked with both České slovo and Národní politika. These newspapers printed many of his stories before the war.

Quote from the novel
[1.7] Na Václavském náměstí vzrostl zástup kolem vozíku se Švejkem na několik set hlav a na rohu Krakovské ulice byl jím zbit nějaký buršák, který v cerevisce křičel k Švejkovi: „Heil! Nieder mit den Serben!“ Na rohu Vodičkovy ulice vjela do toho jízdní policie a rozehnala zástup.

Also written:Wenceslas Square en Wenzelplatz de

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krakovska.jpg

Corner of Václavské nám. and Krakovská ulice

Krakovská ulice is mentioned because a German-speaking student was beaten up by the crowd on the corner between Krakovská and Václavské náměstí. He had shouted "Heil! Nieder mit den Serben!"

Background

Krakovská ulice is a side street to Václavské náměstí, leading northwards, ending at the southern end of the latter.

Quote from the novel
[1.7] Na Václavském náměstí vzrostl zástup kolem vozíku se Švejkem na několik set hlav a na rohu Krakovské ulice byl jím zbit nějaký buršák, který v cerevisce křičel k Švejkovi: „Heil! Nieder mit den Serben!“ Na rohu Vodičkovy ulice vjela do toho jízdní policie a rozehnala zástup.

Also written:Krakow street en Krakauerstrasse de

Vodičkova ulicenn flag
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum

Vodičkova ulice is mentioned becaused the crowd that followed Švejk were dispersed by mounted police on the corner between Vodičková and Václavské náměstí.

The street appears again in [I.13] when Katz and Švejk drive through in a horse cab on the way Vojenská nemocnice Karlovo náměstí to administer the last rites.

Background

Vodičkova ulice is the busiest side street to Václavské náměstí on the north-western side. Many tram lines pass through this street which is also in a busy shopping area.

Quote from the novel
[1.7] Na Václavském náměstí vzrostl zástup kolem vozíku se Švejkem na několik set hlav a na rohu Krakovské ulice byl jím zbit nějaký buršák, který v cerevisce křičel k Švejkovi: „Heil! Nieder mit den Serben!“ Na rohu Vodičkovy ulice vjela do toho jízdní policie a rozehnala zástup.

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[I.13] A Švejk do toho zvonil, drožkář sekal bičem dozadu, ve Vodičkové ulici nějaká domovnice, členkyně mariánské kongregace, ...

Also written:Wassergasse de

Střelecký ostrovnn flag
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strelos4.jpg

The mustering took place in the garden restaurant

Střelecký ostrov was the location where Švejk appeared before the medical examination board. He was pushed there in a wheelchair by Mrs Müllerová, guarded by two mounted policemen. Here he was welcomed by Bautze who uttered the now famous words: "Das ganze tschechische Volk ist eine Simulantenbande" (The whole Czech nation is a pack of malingerers).

Background

Střelecký ostrov is an island in Vltava in Prague, located below Most Legií (in 1914 Most císaře Františka I.) near the western bank of the river. In 1914 the island was already a popular recreation spot with a large restaurant located at the southern tip.

Landsturmmusterung

From 1 September 1914 this restaurant assumed a new role: the Landsturm (Home Guard) medical examination took place here and continued at least through 1915. The first group called up were born in 1892, 1893 and 1894. The pass rate amongst them was above 50 per cent. Between 16 November and 31 December it was the turn of those born between 1878 and 1890.

In this age group the pass rate was much lower, around 30 per cent. Note that these call-ups only applied to men who had previously either been declared unfit for service, or had initially been deemed Tauglich, but were released from service later - in other words superarbitrated. Ordinary Landsturm soldiers above the age of 32 and who had always been fit were called up earlier in the war, and often fought as separate Landsturm regiments. See also Odvodní komise.

Hašek as domobranec
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Prager Tagblatt, 17.11.1914

Army files refer to Jaroslav Hašek as Landsturminfanterist, later Landsturm Gefreiter mit Einjährig-Freiwilliger Abzeichen. It is therefore assumed that he was examined at Střelecký ostrov, and several sources confirm that he indeed was, amongst them Ludvík. The examination that affected the age group of Jaroslav Hašek was announced in newspapers on 12 November 1914.

At Střelecký ostrov the following were to appear: those born between 1878 and 1990 who lived in Prague with right of domicile there AND those born between 1878 and 1883 resident in Prague but who had "Heimatrecht" elsewhere. Jaroslav Hašek, born in 1883 and with domicile rights in Mydlovary, indeed belonged to the latter category. The younger age-groups (1884-1990) with domicile rights outside Prague reported at Beseda. Those born in 1883 with domicile right outside Prague were examined from 13 to 15 of December and the author was surely amongst them. Those in his group who were deemed fit for service had to report on 15 February 1915.

Landšturmák Švejk
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Čech, 12.11.1914

Švejk no doubt had "Heimatrecht" in the Czech south, otherwise he would not have served with IR91. This gives an indication of Švejk's age. Had he been more than 36 he wouldn't have been called up in this round, and had he been younger than 30 he would have reported at Beseda. The fact that Švejk was superarbitrated and had to report at Střelecký ostrov means that he necessarily must have been a landšturmák aged between 30 and 36. That unless the belonged to the younger group (aged 20-22) that reported in October. This is however unlikely, because it is explicitly stated that Švejk was called up when the Austrians were fleeing across the Raba (which they did in late November).

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.7] Když Švejk revírnímu inspektorovi ukázal, že to má černé na bílém, že dne musí před odvodní komisi, byl revírní inspektor trochu zklamán; kvůli zamezení výtržnosti dal doprovázet vozík se Švejkem dvěma jízdními strážníky na Střelecký ostrov.

Also written:Schützeninsel de

Bayonnenn flag
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Mannlicher M95 bayonet

Bayonne is indirectly mentioned through the "bayonet", a weapon that is believed to have got its name from this French town. The weapon obviously appears throughout the novel, but is first mentioned as the two soldiers with mounted bayonets escort Švejk from Střelecký ostrov to Posádková věznice at Hradčany.

Background

Bayonne is a town in France that is believed to have provided the name for the bayonet, a bladed weapon typically mounted on rifles and used in close-quarter combat.

The bayonet was invented in the 17th century and was widely used in WW1 as is evident from the text of the novel. The stock rifle of K.u.k. Heer, Mannlicher M95, could be supplied with several varieties. The weapon is in use also in moderne armies (2017).

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.7] Dva vojáci s bajonety odváděli Švejka do posádkové věznice. Švejk šel o berlích a s hrůzou pozoroval, že jeho revmatismus začíná mizet.
Most císaře Františka I.nn flag
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Zlatá Praha, č.33, 1901

Most císaře Františka I. was the bridge above Střelecký ostrov where Müllerová waited in vain for Švejk after his examination. It's name is not mentioned directly in the text, but the description leaves no doubt to what bridge is in question.

Background

Most císaře Františka I. is the former name of Most Legií, a bridge across Vltava in Prague, named after the last German-Roman emperor Franz I.. It was opened by emperor Franz Joseph I. on 14 June 1901. It is a stone bridge, later renamed several times. It replaced a former chain bridge from 1841. See also Starej Procházka.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.7] Paní Müllerová, která čekala nahoře na mostě s vozíkem na Švejka, když ho viděla pod bajonety, zaplakala a odešla od vozíku, aby se vícekrát k němu nevrátila.
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Malostranské náměstí and the Radetzky monument.

malastrana2.png

Malá Strana around 1910 with the important k.u.k. government institutions. © AHMP.

Malá Strana is mentioned as Švejk was led through this area on his way to the prison on Hradčany. Švejk definitely passed Malostranské náměstí on the way to jail, because he saluted the Radetzky monument that stood here until 1918. The plot briefly takes place in Malá Strana again in [I.10] when Švejk is escorted to Katz and in [I.14] when he and Blahník plan the dog theft. Otherwise the places in the district appear in various anecdotes. See U Montágů, U krále brabantského, U svatého Tomáše.

Background

Malá Strana is one of the oldest districts of Prague. The name means "The Little Side" and was originally a short version of "Menší město pražské", "The lesser town of Prague". The district is situated on the western bank of the Vltava below Prague Castle. It borders Hradčany and Smíchov. Today it is no longer an administrative unit but still has status as a cadastral district. Until 1922 the district was equivalent to Praha (III).

Government institutions

In the times of the Dual Monarchy Malá Strana housed three of the empires most powerful representatives in Bohemia: K.u.k. Statthalterei, K.u.k. Landesgericht, and 8. Armeekorps. The first represented Vienna's executive power, during the war a dictatorship for all practical purposes. The second represented the judiciary, and the third the military authorities. The 8th Army Corps's domain was Prague and the areas to the south and west to the borders of Austria and Bavaria. The rest of Bohemia belonged to 9. Armeekorps in Litoměřice (Leitmeritz). The 8th army corps also commanded 9. Infanterietruppendivision to which IR91 reported. The entire corps was mobilised on 26 July 1914 and sent to Serbia where it suffered disastrous losses throughout the autumn.

Quote from the novel
[1.7] Bajonety svítily v záři slunce a na Malé Straně obrátil se Švejk před pomníkem Radeckého k zástupu, který je vyprovázel: „Na Bělehrad! Na Bělehrad!“

Also written:Kleinseite de

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

8. Švejk as a malingerer

Piešťanynn flag
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Hašek's post-card from Piešťany, 1902

piestany2.png

Národní politika, 25.7.1914

Piešťany is mentioned by doctor Grünstein when he informs Švejk that healing his rheumatism here at the military hospital here (in Prague) would be much quicker than at Piešťany.

Background

Piešťany is a spa in western Slovakia known for its treatment of rheumatism. Until 1920 it was part of Hungary, like the rest of Slovakia.

Jaroslav Hašek visited the place himself; on 28 September 1902 he sent a post-card from here to his cousin Marie. He was here together with Viktor Janota, Ján Čulen and Štefan Čulen.

Source: Radko Pytlík, Václav Menger, Jaroslav Šerák, LA PNP

Quote from the novel
[1.8] „A celé noci nemůže spát, není-liž pravda? Rheuma je velice nebezpečná, bolestná a těžká nemoc. My už tady máme s rheumatiky dobré zkušenosti. Naprostá dieta a jiný náš způsob léčení se velice dobře osvědčil. Budete zde dřív zdravější než v Píšťanech a mašírovat budete na posice, jen se za vámi zapráší.“

Also written:Pišťany Hašek Pistyan de Pöstyén hu

Hradčanynn flag
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hradcany.jpg

Hradčany seen from Strahov

Hradčany is where the plot in this and the next chapter takes place. Švejk is first placed in the sick-bay of Posádková věznice to get a cure for his rheumatism, thereafter locked up in the very prison, suspected of malingering. Švejk also appears in other places at Hardčany: Vojenský soud, Vězeňské kaple and probably Vojenská nemocnice Hradčany.

Background

Hradčany is a cadastral district in Prague which includes the castle area. This is where the offices of the president, St.Vitus Cathedral and many other famous buildings are located. Hradčany is situated on a hill west of the Vltava and borders Dejvice, Strahov and Malá Strana. In 1914 the district was equivalent to Praha IV.

Quote from the novel
[1.8] Konečně poptávkou na policejním ředitelství zjištěno bylo, že to byl Švejk, a dále bylo už lehké pátrat. Baronka von Botzenheim vzala s sebou společnici a komorníka s košem a jeli na Hradčany.

Also written:Hradschin de

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Flag of Siam until 1916

Siam is mentioned indirectly through the term Siam elephant, used as a word of abuse against Švejk. See Vojenská nemocnice Hradčany.

Background

Siam is the former name of Thailand or roughly the area that corresponds to the modern state. Siam was never colonised but lost some territory to European imperial powers in the 19th century. The capital was always Bangkok.

The term Siam elephant mostly refers to white (albino) animals that were regarded as holy. It was even on the flag of Siam until 1916. Thus Siam elephant is not an animal breed.

Quote from the novel
[1.8] „Poslušně hlásím, že já vůbec nemyslím.“ „Himmeldonnerwetter,“ hulákal jeden z členů komise, břinkaje šavlí, „tak von vůbec nemyslí. Pročpak, vy jeden siamskej slone, nemyslíte?“
Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

9. Švejk in the garrison prison

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motol2.png

Prager Tagblatt, 19.7.1914

Motolské cvičiště is mentioned by the narrator as he informs that the Motol military training ground is used for executions of people who are sentenced by Vojenský soud.

We must also assumed that the plot took place here in [I.11] and [I.12]: the field masses described very probably took place here, that Katz and Švejk went to nearby Břevnovský klášter to pick up the monstrance and siborium underpins this theory.

Background

Motolské cvičiště was an exercise ground in Motol, a district in western Prague that became part of the capital in 1922. During WW1 several executions took place here, the most infamous of these being that of Kudrna on 7 May 1915. This incident is mentioned in the novel during the train journey from Budějovice to Bruck an der Leitha.

During the first field mass the author also mentions a plum-tree alley. In adverts in Prager Tagblatt Korpskommando tries to lease out fruit from the trees at the exercise ground. It is not stated directly, but they are very probably dealing with plums!

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.9] [I,9] Z hradčanského garnisonu vedla také cesta přes Břevnov na motolské cvičiště. Napřed šel v průvodu bodáků člověk s řetízky na rukách a za ním vůz s rakví. A na motolském cvičišti úsečný povel: „An! Feuer!“ A po všech regimentech a batalionech četli plukovní rozkaz, že zas jednoho zastřelili pro vzpouru, když narukoval a pan hejtman sekl šavlí jeho ženu, která se nemohla od muže rozloučit.
[1.9] [I,11] Vypadalo to jako indiánský tanec kolem obětního kamene, ale dělalo to dobrý dojem, zaplašujíc nudu zaprášeného, smutného cvičiště s alejí stromů švestkových vzadu a latrinami, jejichž vůně zastupovala mystickou vůni kadidla gotických chrámů.
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Břevnov is mentioned by the narrator as he informs the road from the Hradčany garrison to the Motol military training ground goes across Břevnov. It reappears in [I.11] when Katz and Švejk pass by the monastery to fetch the required gear for the field mass.

Background

Břevnov is a district in western Prague, between Střešovice and Motol. Administratively it is part of Prague 6. It is best known for its monastery. See Břevnovský klášter.

In 1907 Břevnov obtained city status and that year even His Imperial Highness Franz Joseph I visited! The city was part of hejtmanství and okres Smíchov. In 1913 it counted 11,116 souls, and those were almost exclusively of Czech nationality.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.9] Z hradčanského garnisonu vedla také cesta přes Břevnov na motolské cvičiště. Napřed šel v průvodu bodáků člověk s řetízky na rukách a za ním vůz s rakví.
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North America is mentioned because Katz' father had emigrated there to avoid the consequences of his son's spectacular bankrupcy.

Background

North America denotes a geographical area, the American continent north of the Panama Canal. There are many definitions but the simplest one describes the area north of the Panama Canal and includes the Carribean Islands. The largest states are the United States, Canada and Mexico. The former two both took part in WW1, Cananda already from 1914 as part of the British Empire.

Quote from the novel
[1.9] Studoval obchodní akademii a sloužil jako jednoroční dobrovolník. A vyznal se tak dobře v směnečném právu a ve směnkách, že přivedl za ten rok obchodní firmu Katz a spol. k bankrotu tak slavnému a podařenému, že starý pan Katz odjel do Severní Ameriky, zkombinovav nějaké vyrovnání se svými věřiteli bez vědomí posledních i svého společníka, který odjel do Argentiny.

Also written:Severní Amerika cz Nordamerika de Norteamérica es

Argentinann flag
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Argentina is mentioned by the author when he relates the story of Katz's firm. His companion decided to emigrate to Argentina after their company's spectacular bankrupcy.

Background

Argentina was until 1916 governed by a conservative elite, and was at the time a relatively wealthy republic. General male suffrage was introduced in 1912. The country was neutral in the world war and benefited greatly economically. A dispute with Germany occured because some Argentian ships were sunk, but it never came to any formal declaration of war.

The country's capital is Buenos Aires and the official language is Spanish. The population is almost entirely of European descent, predominantly through immigration from Spain and Italy.

Quote from the novel
[1.9] Studoval obchodní akademii a sloužil jako jednoroční dobrovolník. A vyznal se tak dobře v směnečném právu a ve směnkách, že přivedl za ten rok obchodní firmu Katz a spol. k bankrotu tak slavnému a podařenému, že starý pan Katz odjel do Severní Ameriky, zkombinovav nějaké vyrovnání se svými věřiteli bez vědomí posledních i svého společníka, který odjel do Argentiny.

Also written:Argentinien de

South Americann flag
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South America as he relates the story of how the compnay Katz & Co now had moved to Amerika, north as well of south.

Background

South America is the southernmost of the two continents that make up Amerika. In 1914 it consisted of the same countries as today, it was only in Gyuana thta colonies remained. The other countries except Brasil (and the three mentioned colonies) had Spanish as official language.

During WW1 all the states except Brasil preserved their neutrality. They entered the war on the side of the Entente in 1917 and sent auxiliary personell to the western front and the navy took over patroling duties in the south Atlantic. Fighting around the continent only took place at sea and were limited to 1914 when British and German naval forces clashed. The German Pacific Fleet (on their way home) was destroyed by the Falkland Islands on December 8 1914.

Quote from the novel
[1.9] Když tedy mladý Otto Katz podělil firmou Katz a spol. nezištně Ameriku Severní i Jižní, octl se v situaci člověka, který nemá vůbec co dědit, neví, kam hlavu složit, a musí se dát na vojně aktivovat.

Also written:Jižní Amerika cz Südamerika de Sudamérica es América do Sul pt

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Ethnic Slovak areas in 1910

Slovakia is mentioned in the narrative as a gypsy was accused by lawyer Bernis for having spoken in the pub about a future Czech-Slovak state under a common Slavic king. The gypsy was actually arrested for theft, but Bernis always mixed up the documents of the criminal proceedings.

Later some of the action in C (III, 4) takes place in eastern Slovakia, mainly in Humenné and Medzilaborce. Otherwise many places in the country are mentioned through anecdotes and stories from the winter battle in the Carpathians in 1914-15.

Background

Slovakia was in 1914 part of Austria-Hungary and was governed from Budapest. It was also referred to as Upper Hungary. From "Ausgleich" in 1867 onwards Slovakia was subjected to increased magyarization, with oppression and discrimination, economically as well as culturally. Schools were closed and the Slovak language suppressed. During this period international names like Bjørnson, Seton-Watson and Tolstoy came to the aid of the Slovak cause. The biggest city was Pozsony (ge. Pressburg), after the war renamed Bratislava.

From November 1914 to the spring of 1915 Russian forces occupied a smaller part of Slovak territory, but were finally pushed out in early May 1915. In 1918, Slovakia together with Bohemia, Moravia, Ruthenia and a small part of Silesia formed the new state of Czechoslovakia.

Hašek and Slovakia

Jaroslav Hašek knew Slovakia very well due to four extensive trips he did in the summers from 1900 to 1903. He wrote several stories that were inspired by these trips. In 1915 he again entered Slovakia, but now as a soldier. His march battalion actually stopped in Humenné on 2 July 1915. They travelled through the Laborec valley with train and this short through-trip is reproduced precisely in the novel (in a geographical sense at least).

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.9] Jeho prozíravost a znalost lidí byla tak veliká, že jednoho cikána, který se dostal od svého pluku na garnison pro krádež několika tuctů prádla (byl k ruce skladníkovi ve skladišti!), obvinil z politických zločinů, že prý někde v hospodě mluvil s vojáky o zřízení samostatného národního státu ze zemí koruny české a Slovenska se slovanským králem v čele.

Also written:Slovensko cz Slowakei de Szlovákia hu Slovensko sk

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Libeň is mentioned Švejk when he is interrogated by Bernis. In an anecdote he emphasizes that he, just as the kid who was found in Libeň is an orphan and doesn't know why he is found and arrested. Libeň is mentioned in a few more anecdotes but the plot is never set there. See also U Exnerů, Boušek and Na Zavadilce.

Background

Libeň is an urban district and cadastral area in the north-eastern parts of Prague. It was granted town rights in 1898 but was included in Prague only three years later and administratively it became Praha VIII. In 1913 the population number was 27,192 of which all but 420 were registered with Czech nationality.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.9] „Poslušně hlásím, že to mohu vysvětlit náramně jednoduchým způsobem. U nás v ulici je uhlíř a ten měl úplně nevinnýho dvouletýho chlapečka a ten se jednou dostal pěšky z Vinohrad až do Libně, kde ho strážník našel sedět na chodníku.
[I.13] „Poslušně hlásím, pane feldkurát,“ poznamenal Švejk, „že je to hotovej nezmar, jako nějakej Boušek z Libně. Vosumnáctkrát za večer ho vyhodili od ,Exnerů’, a vždycky se jim tam vrátil, že tam zapomněl fajfku.

Also written:Lieben de

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

10. Švejk as a military servant to the field chaplain

Karlův mostnn flag
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karluvmost.jpg

Karlův most viewed eastwards towards Staré Město.

Karlův most is part of the plot in a single brief sentence when Švejk is escorted to field chaplain Katz: "they went across the Charles Bridge in absolute silence". The bridge has previously been mentioned in [I.4] where Švejk during his stay in the madhouse mentions some baths near the bridge.

Background

Karlův most is the oldest and most famous bridge in Prague and the second oldest bridge in the Czech Republic after the one in Písek. It connects the Malá Strana and Staré Město. As a landmark and tourist attraction it belongs to the most famous in the country.

Construction was started in 1357 under Charles IV's reign and the bridge is named after him. Around 1700 it was given the shape known today and the barock statues were erected in this period. The bridge has repeatedly been threatened by high water levels but escaped the great flood of 2002 without damage, but in 1890 it was partly destroyed.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.10.1] Šli přes Karlův most za naprostého mlčení. V Karlově ulici promluvil opět malý tlustý na Švejka: „Nevíš, proč tě vedem k polnímu kurátovi?“

Also written:Charles Bridge en Karlsbrücke de Karlsbrua no

Karlova ulicenn flag
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Karlova ulice is the scene of the plot as Švejk is led through Karlova ulice on the way to field chaplain Katz in Karlín. The guards ask Švejk why they were taking him to the chaplain. "Because I'm going to be hanged tomorrow", was the answer. Thus he got their sympathy and they ended up in merry company in Na Kuklíku.

Background

Karlova ulice is a street in Staré Město (Old Town) in Prague. It leads from Karlův most to Staroměstské náměstí.

Quote from the novel
[1.10.1] Šli přes Karlův most za naprostého mlčení. V Karlově ulici promluvil opět malý tlustý na Švejka: „Nevíš, proč tě vedem k polnímu kurátovi?“ „Ke zpovědi,“ řekl ledabyle Švejk, „zítra mě budou věšet. To se vždycky tak dělá a říká se tomu duchovní outěcha.“

Also written:Karlstrasse de

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josefov.png

Seidels kleines Armeeschema, August 1914.

Josefov is mentioned by Švejk's fat and optimistic escort, on the way to Katz. He came from the area around this town.

In [I.10] the name appears again in during Švejk's final visit to U kalicha. Here met meets a locksmith from Smíchov who thinks the soldier is a deserter, tells him that his son has run away from the army, and now stays with his grandmother at Jasenná by Josefov.

Background

Josefov is a fortress and former garrison town in eastern Bohemia, near the border with Poland. It is now part of Jaroměř.

In 1913 Josefov was part of hejtmanství Dvůr Králové nad Labem and okres Jaroměř. The population counted 5,438 of which 2,612 were army personnel. Due to the military presence the number of Germans inhabitants was unusually high for this very Czech part of Bohemia, close to one quarter of the total. Josefov was the seat of the 10th infantry division.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.10.1] „Asis se narodil na nešťastné planetě,“ znalecky a se soucitem poznamenal malinký, „u nás v Jasenné u Josefova ještě za pruský války pověsili také tak jednoho. Přišli pro něho, nic mu neřekli a v Josefově ho pověsili.“

Also written:Josefstadt de

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Jasenná was the home village of the fat and optimistic guard who escorted Svejk to Katz.

In [I.10] the name appears again in during Švejk's final visit to U kalicha. Here met meets a locksmith from Smíchov who thinks the soldier is a deserter, tells him that his son has run away from the army, and now stays with his grandmother at Jasenná by Josefov.

Background

Jasenná is a village located 8 km south east of Jaroměř. In August 1914 Jaroslav Hašek visited his friend Václav Hrnčíř here, no doubt an inspiration for this reference in the novel. The stay lasted for about a month. The theme also appears in the story Nebezpečný pracovník that was printed in Humoristické listy on 28 August 1914.

In 1913 Jasenná was part of hejtmanství Dvůr Králové nad Labem and okres Jaroměř. Of the 1,354 inhabitants only one confessed to being of German nationality, the rest were Czechs.

Toulavé house, kap. Sarajevo

V Praze začíná to být pro rebela a bývalého anarchistu nebezpečné. Kamarádi radí, aby zmizel z Prahy. Hašek odjíždí hned po vyhlášení války v létě 1914 k příteli Václavu Hrnčířovi do Jasené u Jaroměře. Příhody, které zažil na žních u Samků (jejichž Aninka byla Hrnčířovou nevěstou), popsal v povídce Nebezpečný pracovník. Zdržel se zde asi měsíc.

Links

Source: Radko Pytlík

Quote from the novel
[1.10.1] „Asis se narodil na nešťastné planetě,“ znalecky a se soucitem poznamenal malinký, „u nás v Jasenné u Josefova ještě za pruský války pověsili také tak jednoho. Přišli pro něho, nic mu neřekli a v Josefově ho pověsili.“

Also written:Jasena de

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Prussia is first mentioned in the novel in connection with the "Prussian War", a colloquial term for the so-called German war of 1866. This war is the theme of the conversation between Švejk and his escort on the way from Hradčany to Katz.

In [I.11] the country is referred to directly, now in connection with the author's description of religious rituals at executions.

Background

Prussia was until 1947 a geographical and political unit, and had been a separate kingdom from 1701 til 1871. Prussia was the leading state in Germany until 1945. The area is today split between Germany, Poland and Russia. The capital was Berlin.

The "Prussian War", more commonly known as the German war, was a month-long armed conflict between Prussia and Italy on one side and Austria and their mainly south German allies on the other. The war took place in 1866 and ended quickly with a Prussian victory. The deciding battle was fought by Hradec Králové (Königgrätz) on 3 July 1866. The outcome had wide-reaching political repercussions in Austria; Hungary exploited the defeat to demand parity within the monarchy, thus the war led directly to the creation of Austria-Hungary as a political unit.

Quote from the novel
[1.10.1] „Asis se narodil na nešťastné planetě,“ znalecky a se soucitem poznamenal malinký, „u nás v Jasenné u Josefova ještě za pruský války pověsili také tak jednoho. Přišli pro něho, nic mu neřekli a v Josefově ho pověsili.“
[I.11] V Prusku vodil pastor ubožáka pod sekyru...

Also written:Prusko cz Preußen de

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Hradec Králové

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Národní politika, 5.12.1915

Královéhradecko is the home region of the two soldiers who escorted Švejk from Hradčany to Katz.

Background

Královéhradecko is now an administrative region in Bohemia that borders Poland. It is named after the main city of Hradec Králové, one of the 10 most populous cities in the Czech Republic.

Newspaper clips from from the first world war indicate that the term okres Hradec Králové is meant, an area that doesn't include Jasenná og Josefov where the author indicates that Švejk's escort is from. The administrative unit was hejtmanství Hradec Králové that counted 74,125 inhabitants (1913) and also the smaller okres with 55,521 inhabitants, og which the city itself counted 11,065.

It is however unlikely that the author got this is wrong, solid as his knowledge of geography was. Královéhradecko was the name of a former kraj, a long established administrative unit that was abolished in 1862 but obviously lingered as a term for many years. The kraj (Kreis) was a much larger unit than hejtmanství and in this case id did include Jasenná. In 1862 there were a total of 13 kraj in Bohemia. Ottův slovník naučný also refers to Hradec Králové as a "kraj capital" so the word was still in use even in formal literature. As a judicial division the term was still in use, as in krajský soud (Kreisgericht). In 1920 the kraj resurfaced as ab administrative unit so Královéhradecko existed also formally when the novel was written.

The city is in history best known for the battle between Austria og Prussia i 1866, abroad known as the battle of Königgrätz. The Austrian defeat was exploited by Hungary to demand parity within the Habsburg monarchy. This so-called "Ausgleich" led to the creation of Austria-Hungary in 1867.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.10.1] Zakouřili si všichni a průvodčí počali sdělovat jemu o svých rodinách na Královéhradecku, o ženách, dětech, o kousku políčka, o jedné krávě.

Also written:Region Königgrätz de

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Vilímek's Führer durch Prag und die Ausstellung, 1891

Pankrác is introduced already by Palivec in the first chapter, but here he obviously refers to Věznice Pankrác. This is also the case in [I.3] where the unfortunate lathe operator who broke into Podolský kostelík where imprisoned and later died.

The place itself is introduced through the popular song "Na Pankráci" when the author and his entourage enters Na Kuklíku.

The fourth time Pankrác is mentioned is when the author informs that one of Švejk's predecessors as servant of Lukáš had sold his master's s dog to the knacker at Pankrác (see Pohodnice Pankrác) and even pocketed the proceeds.

Background

Pankrác is a district in Prague, named after Saint Pancras, located in the upper parts of Nusle. The district is best known for its prison, was also an important industrial area, but is now (2015) a business and administrative district where many multinational firms have their Czech headquarters. See also Věznice Pankrác.

Pankrác was in 1913 a district in the town and okres of Nusle, hejtmanství Královské Vinohrady. The population count was 8,119 and there were 170 houses. The vast majority of the inhabitants were Czechs. Pankrác was part of Nusle Catholic parish but had its own post office.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.10.1]
Na Pankráci, tam na tom vršíčku, 
stojí pěkné stromořadí...
[1.14.3] Kanárka mořili hladem, jeden sluha angorské kočce vyrazil jedno oko, stájový pinč byl od nich práskán na potkání a nakonec jeden z předchůdců Švejka odvedl chudáka na Pankrác k pohodnému, kde ho dal utratit, nelituje dát ze své kapsy deset korun.
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Prager Abendblatt, 23.3.1915

Florenc is where Švejk and his two by now sozzled escort dropped by a café, actually behind Florenc. This was their last stop on the way to field chaplain Katz. The fat guard sold his silver watch here so he could amuse himself further.

Background

Florenc is a district of Prague, east of the centre towards Karlín. Today it is a traffic machine and Prague's enormous coach station is also located here. The entire district was inundated during the great flood in august 2002.

The name Florenc appeared in the 15th century, believed to be named after Italian workers who settled here. As Florenc was not an administrative unit the borders are only loosely defined but the quarter is in Praha II. and the street Na Florenci defines it approximately. The best known building was (and still is) Museum města Prahy (Prague City Museum).

Quote from the novel
[1.10.1] Stavili se za Florencí v malé kavárničce, kde tlustý prodal své stříbrné hodinky, aby se mohli ještě dále veselit.
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Karlín 1909

Karlín was the district where Katz lived, more precisely in Královská třída (now Sokolovská třída). We must assume that his office was near Ferdinandova kasárna. Part of the action in [I.10-13] takes place in Karlín, mostly in the flat of Katz. The town itself and places within it are mentioned numerous times later in the novel (through anecdotes).

Background

Karlín is a district in Prague that borders Vltava, Praha II., Žižkov and Libeň. It was until 1922 a separate town.

Ferdinandova kasárna (also Karlínska kasárna) was located here and was the main seat of IR91 until August 1914. See Regimentskanzlei IR91. Karlín was an industrial town where large plants like Daňkovka were located. Another important institution in town was Invalidovna. During the world war it served as a military hospital, and it was until 2013 the site of VÚA (The Central Military Archive).

Karlín town had 24,230 inhabitants in 1913, of these 15 per cent recorded their nationality as German. The town was also home to 1,773 military personnel, amongst these these distribution between Czechs and Germans was nearly equal. Karlín was also seat for "hejtmanství" and "okres" of the same name - and the two were identical in geographical extent. The district counted 69,184 people and the largest communities were Troja, Kobylisy and Vysočany.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.10.1] Na úsměvy diváků odpovídal Švejk měkkým úsměvem, teplem a něhou svých dobráckých očí. A tak šli do Karlína, do bytu polního kuráta. První promluvil na Švejka malý tlustý. Byli právě na Malé Straně dole pod podloubím. „Odkud jseš?“ otázal se malý tlustý. „Z Prahy.“

Also written:Karolinenthal de

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Královská třída was the street in Karlín where Katz lived. The exact address is not known, but the field chaplain's flat was probably near Ferdinandova kasárna (where he probably served).

Background

Královská třída (now Sokolovská) is a long avenue in Prague that connects Praha II., Karlín, Libeň and Vysočany.

Quote from the novel
[1.10.1] Švejk je neustále musel upozorňovat, když šel naproti důstojník nebo nějaká šarže. Po nadlidském úsilí a namáhání podařilo se Švejkovi přivléct je k domu v Královské třídě, kde bydlel polní kurát.

Also written:Königstraße de

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Vatican is mentioned by Katz in when he talks drunk drivel in the cab home from Helmich. He claims that the Vatican shows an interest in him.

Background

Vatican is the centre of the Roman-Catholic Church, and the name of the associated micro-state located in the middle of Roma. Here it is probably meant The Holy See as an institution rather than the Vatican State. Pope from 1904 until 20 August 1914 was Pius X, who was succeeded by Benedict XV. See also The Pope.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.10.2] Já byl u arcibiskupa,“ hulákal, drže se vrat v průjezdu. „Vatikán se o mne zajímá, rozumíte?“

Also written:Vatikán cz

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Domažlice is mentioned in a song Katz attempts to sing when in an inebriated state in the back from Helmich. The town is mentioned in several anecdotes later in the novel, for instance by Marek in the story about the editor that invented new animals. One of Hašek's closest friend, Hájek, appears in some of these stories.

Background

Domažlice is a town with around 11,000 inhabitants in Plzeňský kraj in western Bohemia, less than 20 km from the Bavarian border. Jaroslav Hašek visited the town in 1904 on the way back from his wanderings in Bavaria. He stayed with his friend Hájek and his family.

Domažlice town had 8,170 inhabitants in 1913, of which almost all where Czechs. The town was also the seat of hejtmanství and okres of the same name. The town was part of the recruitment area for IR35 (Ergänzungsbezirk Nr. 35, Pilsen).

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.10.2] Vzpomínám na zlaté časy, když mne houpal na klíně, bydleli jsme toho času u Domažlic v Merklíně.

Also written:Taus de

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Merklín is mentioned in a song that Katz sings when inebriated in the horse-drawn cab.

Background

Merklín is a village between Domažlice and Plzeň. At the latest population count (2006) the village had 1,035 inhabitants.

Merklín was part of hejtmanství and okres Přestice near Plzeň. The 1913 population count was 1,789 and more than nine of ten professed to Czech nationality.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.10.2]
Vzpomínám na zlaté časy, 
když mne houpal na klíně, 
bydleli jsme toho času 
u Domažlic v Merklíně.
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Nymburk appears as Katz, during the cab drive back from senior lieutenant Helmich, talks drunken drivel about Nymburk station.

Background

Nymburk is a town with around 14,000 inhabitants by the Elbe. It is located 45 km east of Prague and is amongst other things known as the town where Bohumil Hrabal grew up. He was an author who was strongly influenced by Jaroslav Hašek.

Nymburk town had 10,169 inhabitants in 1913, of which almost all where Czechs. It was centre of the okres carrying its name and was part of hejtmanství Poděbrady.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.10.2] Potom počal považovat drožku za vlak, a nahýbaje se ven, křičel do ulice česky a německy: „Nymburk, přestupovat!“

Also written:Nimburg de

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Podmokly is mentioned by Katz when he wants to jump out of the cab because he thinks he is on a train. It occurs to him that he is in Podmokly instead of Budějovice.

Background

Podmokly is the name of four places in the Czech Republic. Here the place in question has a railway station, so it is by near certainty Podmokly by Děčín. The German translation by Grete Reiner underpins this assumption by using the name Bodenbach.

The town was until 1945 predominantly populated by German-speakers. Podmokly is now part of Děčín and the station has been renamed Děčín hlavní nádraží. It is the last stop before the German border and all trains from Prague to Berlin stop here.

The town of Bodenbach had 12,471 inhabitants in 1913, of which almost all where Germans. It belonged to okres and hejtmanství Děčín (Tetschen).

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.10.2] Jen jednou učinil pokus se vzbouřit a vyskočit z drožky, prohlásiv, že dál již nepojede, že ví, že místo do Budějovic jedou do Podmoklí.

Also written:Bodenbach de

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Národní politika, 8.12.1908

Gorgonzola is mentioned by Katz in the cab on the way home from Helmich. The drunk Katz asks Švejk various questions: if he is married, if he enjoys eating gorgonzola cheese, and even if his home has ever been infested with bed bugs!

Background

Gorgonzola her refers to the famous blue cheese from Gorgonzola by Milan. The cheese has a history that goes back more than one thousand years and was obviously very well known also in Austria-Hungary. It was amongst other places produced at the dairy in Hall in Tirol (who also produced Emmental and many other well known cheeses).

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.10.2] Byl také zvědav, není-li prosinec nebo červen, a projevil velkou schopnost klásti nejrůznější otázky: „Jste ženat? Jíte rád gorgonzolu? Měli jste doma štěnice? Máte se dobře? Měl váš pes psinku?“
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Moravia is first mentioned by Katz when he tells Švejk that he here had drunk the best borovička (juniper spirits) ever. The region enters the discussion a few more times, for instance in Putim in [II.3] and in a conversation with field chaplain Martinec in [IV.2].

Many locations in Moravia are mentioned in the novel; amongst them Brno, Moravská Ostrava, Jihlava, Hodonín, Přerov, Hostýn, Šternberk and Nový Jičín.

Background

Moravia is a historic region in Central Europe which is no longer an administrative unit. Together with Bohemia and a small part of Silesia it makes up the Czech Republic. The capital is Brno and the region is named after the river Morava (German March).

Other important cities were Moravská Ostrava (industry) and old and beautiful Olomouc which is the Czech arch-bishop's seat and a prominent centre of education. Olomouc was also the reserve capital of the Habsburgs in periods when Vienna was under threat. During the times of Austria-Hungary Moravia had status as Kronland. In 1910 Czechs made up over 70 per cent of the population, but Germans formed a substantial minority. In cities like Brno, Olomouc, Vyškov and Jihlava they were in majority.

Jaroslav Hašek travelled here far less frequently than in Bohemia but passed by on his trips to Galicia and Slovakia each year from 1900 to 1903, and in 1905 he visited Jihlava. In early August 1903 his stay was involuntarily extended; he was arrested for vagrancy in Frýdek-Místek [4].

Quote from the novel
[1.10.3] Taková borovička není ani chutná, nemá ani barvu, pálí v krku. A kdyby byla aspoň pravá, destilát z jalovce, jakou jsem jednou pil na Moravě. Ale tahle borovička byla z nějakého dřevěného lihu a olejů.
[1.14.3] Nejvíc mně dalo práce ho přebarvit, aby měl barvu pepř a sůl. Tak se dostal se svým pánem až na Moravu a vod tý doby jsem ho neviděl

Also written:Morava cz Mähren de

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Výroba lihovin na studené cestě, 1877

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Břetislav Hůla. Vysvětlíky. © LA-PNP

Josefov is first mentioned through the term "of the Jews" when Katz tells Švejk how spirits ought to be manufactured, and not cold distilled in a factory by the Jews.

The district is mentioned again using the same term when Švejk is introduced to Lukáš. The latter gives his "pucflék" a lecture in proper behaviour, which does not include stealing his masters parade uniform and sell it "in the Jews" (i.e. Josefov), like one of his previous servants did.

Later on, in [IV.2], the same expression is used in an anecdote Švejk tells feldkurát Martinec in the cell in Przemyśl (see Faustýn). The word Josefov is never explicitly used in the novel.

Background

Josefov is part of Prague, Staré Město. Until 1922 it was a separate urban district also known as Praha V. From the late 19th century onwards it went through a redevelopment that changed the character of the quarter drastically, and few of the old buildings survived.

Prague V. was the smallest of the districts in the city, in 1913 it had only 3,376 inhabitants. Of those 678 were registered as Germans, the highest proportion of non-Czechs of any district in the city. This was no doubt due to the high number of Jewish inhabitants. Josefov roughly consisted of the area west of Mikulášská třída towards Vltava.

The Jewish community in Prague was next to extinguished by the Nazis during the occupation from 1939 to 1945. The most famous resident of the area was arguably Franz Kafka.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.10.3] Kořalka je jed,“ rozhodl se, „musí být původní originál, pravá, a nikoliv vyráběná ve fabrice na studené cestě od židů. To je jako s rumem. Dobrý rum je vzácností.
[1.14.3] "U mě musíte si čistit boty, mít svou uniformu v pořádku, knoflíky správné přišité a musíte dělat dojem vojáka, a ne nějakého civilního otrapy. Jest to zvláštní, že vy neumíte se žádný držet vojensky. Jen jeden měl ze všech těch mých sluhů bojovné vzezření, a nakonec mně ukradl parádní uniformu a prodal ji v Židech.
[4.2] Já dál na světě bejt živ nemůžu, já poctivej člověk sem žalovanej pro kuplířství jako ňákej pasák ze Židů.

Also written:JosefovP cz Jüdisches Viertel de Jødekvarteret no

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Vršovice 1910

Vršovice was where Švejk dropped by to borrow money from senior lieutenant Mahler. There is another and longer visit in the next chapter when the field chaplain and his servant go there to recuperate the field altar. See Vršovice kostel. In [I.14] and [I.15], the plot for the most part takes place in Vršovice, without this being stated explicitly. This was when Švejk was a servant for Lukáš.

Background

Vršovice is from 1922 a district in Prague, now contained entirely within the capital's 10th district.

Vršovice was at Švejk's time a separate town of almost 25,000 inhabitants, belonging to hejtmanství Královské Vinohrady. More than 1,000 of these were military personnel. There were two barracks in town and IR73 ("Egerregiment"), was located here with staff and three battalions. Vršovice was also a separate okres, the population count in 1913 was 31,284. See also Vršovice kasárna.

Hašek in Vršovice

Jaroslav Hašek lived in Vršovice with his wife Jarmila in 1911 and 1912, and it was here in house no. 363 (Palackého třída, now Moskevská) that his son Richard was born on 2 May 1912. The author was registered at this address on 28 December 1911, but already on 29 July 1912 he was listed in Královské Vinohrady. His wife had also moved, to her parents in Dejvice. The split must obviously have happened very shortly after their son was born.

Links

SourceRadko Pytlík, Jaroslav Šerák

Quote from the novel
[1.10.3] Jestli tam nepochodíte, tak půjdete do Vršovic, do kasáren k nadporučíkovi Mahlerovi.
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Zbraslav is mentioned in Katz's drunken drivel in the cab when he thinks Švejk is a lady who owns a villa in Zbraslav.

Background

Zbraslav is an area of Prague, 10 km south of the centre, where the river Berounka flows into Vltava. Zbraslav became part of Prague as late as 1974.

Zbraslav was in 1913 a community of 1,772 inhabitants in the okres of the same name, hejtmanství Smíchov. Zbraslav had both a parish and a post office. The district was however much larger with its 28,094 inhabitants. It contained several places that are mentioned in the novel: Záběhlice, Všenory, Mníšek and Chuchle.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.10.3] Vy máte vilu na Zbraslavi. A můžete jezdit parníkem po Vltavě. Víte, co je to Vltava?“

Also written:Königsaal de

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Was Thalerhof the "K.u.k Konzentrationslager Steinhof" that Hašek had in mind?

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Salzburger Chronik, 13.12.1914

Steinhof was the concentration camp where Müllerová was interned without ever having been convicted. She had been taken away the same evening as she had pushed Švejk to the draft commission in a wheelchair.

Background

Steinhof is referred to by the author as a concentration camp, but it is unclear which place he has in mind. Steinhof by Vienna is an unlikely candidate although the name fits. From 1907 it was the location of the largest psychiatric institution in the Dual Monarchy, but there was no concentration camp here during WW1.

Shots in the dark

Milan Hodík thinks he may have had Stein an der Donau in mind, there was a prison there. Radko Pytlík suggests Kamenný Dvůr (former Steinhof) by Cheb but is unsure. Antonín Měšťan claims that there was a concentration camp in Steinhof, but he does not indicate where this "Steinhof" actually was.

Thalerhof

A much more solid indicator is Jaroslav Hašek and his Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí, a short novel from 1917. Here the camp Thalerhof by Graz is mentioned directly and the author even lets Švejk get interned here. This was one of the first concentration camps in Europe, operating from 5 September 1914. Most of the inmates were politically suspect Ukrainians (Russophiles) but Czechs also found their way here. One can thus imagine that the author had Thalerhof in mind but somehow twisted the name.

Steinklamm

Jaroslav Šerák (2019) points to another possible mix-up with names. Her the possibility is Steinklamm, a camp in (Bezirk St. Pölten) that in 1914 was opened to cater for refugees but that later was used for prisoners, also for politically suspect civilians. As in Thalerhof cases of spotted typhus were recorded and in early May 1915 reported in several newspapers.

Last minute name change
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Klosterneuburg replaced with Steinhof in the manuscript

© LA-PNP

The manuscript of Švejk is also worth a study. The author has actually started off by locating the camp in Klosterneuburg before he struck the word and changed it to Steinhof. It might therefore be prudent not to read too much into the choice of name for the camp where Müllerova's was interned.

Antonín Měšťan

So gab es in Steinhof in der Tat während des Ersten Weltkriegs ein österreichisches Konzentrationslager (I. 113/118) sowie in Hainburg eine Kadettenschule (I. 268/274).

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.10.4] Starou paní soudili vojenskými soudy a odvezli, poněvadž jí nic nemohli dokázat, do koncentračního tábora do Steinhofu.
[1.10.4] A přes celý lístek růžové razítko: Zensuriert. K. u. k. Konzentrationslager Steinhof.
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Smíchov is briefly mentioned when a locksmith from the district approaches Švejk outside U kalicha when he was back there for the last time. Otherwise Smíchov rarely figures in the novel, but in [III.4] it is revealed that lieutenant Dub lived here. In the famous farewell scene between Švejk and Vodička in Királyhida [II.4] the Smíchov beer is mentioned.

Background

Smíchov is a district of Prague, located west of the Vltava, in the southern part of the city. Smíchov has a major railway station, is an industrial area, and is the home of the Staropramen brewery. Smíchov became part of Prague in 1922.

In 1913 Smíchov was a town which with its surrounding district contained large part of what is now the western part of Prague. It was centre of hejtmanství and okres of the same name, and hetjmanství Smíchov was very populous with 167,830 inhabitants - in effect larger than any district in Bohemia apart from Prague. Okres Smíchov alone counted 139,736 of which around 95 per cent were Czechs. The town itself was also sizeable with its 51,791 inhabitants, again making it one of the largest in Bohemia. The hejtmanství also contained okres Zbraslav. Within okres Smíchov itself several places we know from the novel were located. Amongst those are Břevnov, Dejvice, Klamovka, Kobylisy, Košíře, Motol, Roztoky and Horní Stodůlky.

Hašek and Smíchov
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"Pod černým vrchem" in 1912

Jaroslav Hašek lived in Smíchov frå 1909 til 1911, or more precisely in Košíře where he was editor of the magazine Svět zvírat and later ran his Cynological Institute. There are many places in Smíchov associated with the author, not least the pub Pod černým vrchem where Strana mírného pokroku v mezích zákona held some of their meetings and where the famous picture of the four party members with the four beers was taken.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.10.4] Při té rozmluvě byl jeden starší pán, zámečník ze Smíchova, který šel ke Švejkovi a řekl k němu: „Prosím vás, pane, počkejte na mne venku, já s vámi musím mluvit.“
Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

11. Švejk rides with the field chaplain to serve a field mass

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German reservists in New Guinea in 1914

New Guinea is mentioned by the author in connection with the religious rituals of cannibals, compared to current rituals related to the war. This is his introduction to Katz' og Švejk's field mass.

Background

New Guinea was by 1914 split between the Netherlands, the British Empire and Germany but Australian forces occupied the German part already in 1914.

New Guinea is the second largest island in the world and is located just north of Australia. Today the island is divided between Papua New Guinea and Indonesia.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.11.1] Lidožrouti ostrovů Guinejských a Polynesie, než sežerou slavnostně své zajatce či lidi nepotřebné, jako misionáře, cestovatele a jednatele různých obchodních firem či prosté zvědavce, obětují předtím svým bohům, vykonávajíce nejrozmanitější náboženské výkony. Poněvadž k nim nepronikla ještě kultura ornátů, vyzdobují své hyždě věnci z pestrého péří lesního ptactva.

Also written:Guinea Hašek Nová Guinea cz Neuguinea de

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Polynesia is named when the author expands his opinion on religious rituals in connection with executions.

Background

Polynesia is a subregion of Oceania, made up of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. The term "Polynesia" was originally applied to all the islands of the Stillehavet. The only major political and geographical entity is New Zealand. The American state of Hawaii is also in Polynesia. The islands are partly independent, partly belonging to other states (USA, Chile, France and Australia). Until 1914 Germany was also present (Samoa).

Quote from the novel
[1.11.1] Lidožrouti ostrovů Guinejských a Polynesie, než sežerou slavnostně své zajatce či lidi nepotřebné, jako misionáře, cestovatele a jednatele různých obchodních firem či prosté zvědavce, obětují předtím svým bohům, vykonávajíce nejrozmanitější náboženské výkony.

Also written:Polynésie cz Polynesien de Polynésie fr

Spainnn flag
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Spain is mentioned by the author when he tells about methods for executing people, and accompanying rituals where clerics take part. In this case there is talk "of a chair where the victim is strangled", certainly the garrote (el garrote). This execution device has been in use until present times, and not only in Spain.

The country was mentioned indirectly already in [I.2] through the term "the Spanish boot", an instrument of torture. Some geographical points in Spain also appear in the novel: Madrid, Toledo and Seville. Amongst historical figures Ignatius of Loyola is the only one referred to. Literary figures on the other hand are better represented: Don Quijote, Sancho Panza and the still unidentified Almavira (Duke of) and his servant Fernando.

Background

Spain was in 1914 a kingdom and preserved its neutrality throughout the world war. Conflicts with Germany occurred because some Spanish ships were sunk, but there was never any armed action taken from the Spanish side.

Quote from the novel
[1.11.1] V Prusku vodil pastor ubožáka pod sekyru, v Rakousku katolický kněz k šibenici, ve Francii pod gilotinu, v Americe kněz na elektrickou stolici, ve Španělsku na židli, kde byl důmyslným způsobem uškrcen, a v Rusku bradatý pop revolucionáře atd.

Also written:Španělsko cz Spanien de España es

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Bremen is mentioned by Švejk when tells Katz that he learned to make grog in Bremen. He was there on his wanderings a few years back. Bremen is one of the few places outside Bohemia that Švejk explicitly says he has visited.

Background

Bremen is a city and port in north west Germany, 60 km south of the mouth of the river Weser. During the times of Švejk it had status as a Freie Hansestadt (Free Hanseatic city).

Although Švejk says he has been to Bremen, there is no evidence that the author himself ever went there, so it is not clear what might have inspired this story. A possible source is Zdeněk Matěj Kuděj who traveled to New York from Cuxhaven on 17 March 1906 and may well have visited nearby Bremen on the way.

What Jaroslav Hašek no doubt was well informed about was the Bremer Räterepublik from early 1919, one of the two best known Soviet Republics on German territory. The revolutionary republic lasted for only one month.

Quote from the novel
[1.11.2] „Když jsem před léty vandroval,“ odpověděl Švejk, „v Brémách od jednoho zpustlýho námořníka, který říkal, že grog musí být tak silný, aby, když někdo spadne do moře, přeplaval celej kanál La Manche. Po slabým grogu se utopí jako štěně.“

Also written:Brémy cz

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The English Channel is mentioned when Švejk tells Katz that grog must be so string that one can swim across the Channel with one a these inside.

Background

The English Channel is a strip of sea that separates England and France. It is part of the Atlantic Ocean, and connects this to the North Sea. The channel is at its narrowest between Dover and Calais where it is 34 km wide.

Quote from the novel
[1.11.2] „Když jsem před léty vandroval,“ odpověděl Švejk, „v Brémách od jednoho zpustlýho námořníka, který říkal, že grog musí být tak silný, aby, když někdo spadne do moře, přeplaval celej kanál La Manche. Po slabým grogu se utopí jako štěně.“

Also written:kanál La manche cz Ärmelkanal de La Manche fr Den engelske kanal nn

Mödlingnn flag
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Mödling 1908. © Ulf Seidl

Mödling is mentioned by the author in connection with the race Vienna - Mödling where senior lieutenant Witinger had won the cup that field chaplain Katz used as a chalice at the field mass. Witinger reportedly ran 40 km in 1 hour 48 minutes.

Background

Mödling is a town in Niederösterreich, with a population number (in 2007) of around 21,000. The town is situated 16 kilometres south of Vienna and is often called Perle des Wienerwaldes.

Witinger allegedly ran 40 km in 1 hours 48 minutes, which suggests that the author's imagination was in full flow or that he knew facts that have been lost for later generations. The marathon (41,185 metres) world record per 2016 is 2.02.57 and was claimed by Dennis Kimetto in Berlin in 2014. This is the first example in the novel of the author's disregard for chronological accuracy. Obviously Jaroslav Hašek could also have got the distance wrong, the actual distance between the towns (16 km) gives an indication.

That said it may well be that the author was perfectly aware of the distances and times involved and that he was simply making fun of the boastful Witinger.

Quote from the novel
[1.11.2] Tak dostaneme sportovní pohár od nadporučíka Witingra od 75. pluku. On kdysi před lety běhal o závod a vyhrál jej za ,Sport-Favorit’. Byl to dobrý běžec. Dělal čtyřicet kilometrů Vídeň-Mödling za 1 hodinu 48 minut, jak se nám vždycky chlubí. Jsem hovado, že všechno odkládám na poslední chvíli. Proč jsem se, trouba, nepodíval do té pohovky.“
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Zhoř is mentioned in an anecdote Švejk tells the priest in Vršovice, where he implicitly threatens with the worst if the field altar, the property of the army, doesn't appear again. The place is mentioned again in the story about Špatina in [III.2].

Background

Zhoř is the name of several places in Bohemia. The author has surely been aware of most of these, so it's anybody's guess which one he has in mind. It should still be assumed that it is from an area he knew well, for instance Vysočina or South Bohemia. Zhoř by Vilémov is a clear candidate as it is mentioned in the same series of anecdotes as Chotěboř.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.11.2] Jeden člověk ve Zhoři taky vyoral nějakej kalich na poli, kterej pocházel ze svatokrádeže a byl tam schovanej na lepší doby, až se na to zapomene, a považoval to taky za pokyn boží a šel, místo aby jej rozšmelcoval, k panu faráři s tím kalichem, že prý ho chce darovat kostelu.
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Panský dům. Fotografie László Polgár

Chotěboř is mentioned in Švejk's conversation with the priest in Vršovice, relating to a certain Pivoňka.

Background

Chotěboř is a town in Vysočina with 9,633 inhabitants (2011). It is located 14 km north east of Havlíčkův Brod and belongs to the district of that same name.

In 1913 the town was the centre of hejtmanství and okres of the same name. The population count was 4,481 and all of them apart from 9 were registered as Czech nationals.

Hašek in Chotěboř

Jaroslav Hašek visited Chotěboř in the summer of 1912 and this stay no doubt inspired the story Zrádce národa v Chotěboři (The traitor of the nation in Chotěboř). It was printed in the satirical magazine Kopřivy on 10 October that year. The author stayed at Panský dům and the building boasts a memorial plaque in his honour.

Links

SourceRadko Pytlík, László Polgár

Quote from the novel
[1.11.2] Nějakej Pivoňka z Chotěboře považoval jednou také za boží řízení, když se mu do rukou připletla ohlávka s cizí krávou.
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Zambezi is mentioned in the author's description of the field altar, which just as well could have been used by pagans from that area.

Background

Zambezi is Africa's fourth longest river and flows from west to east in the southern part of Africa.

Quote from the novel
[1.11.2] Nebylo také možno zjistit bez fantasie, co vlastně představují obrazy namalované na těch třech dílech. Jisto je, že to byl oltář, kterého by mohli stejně používat nějací pohani na Zambezi či šamáni Burjatů i Mongolů.

Also written:Sambesi de

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Gusinoye Ozero (Гусиное Озеро)

Buryatia is mentioned in the authors description of the field altar which according to him just as well could have been used by Buryat and Mongol shamans.

Background

Buryatia is an autonomous republic in Siberia between Baikal-sjøen and Mongolia. The Burjats is a people of mongolian descent, no in a minority in the republic. In 1923 Buryatia became an autonomous Soviet republic (ASSR). The capital is Ulan-Ude and the Trans-siberian railway goes through the republic.

In 1920 Jaroslav Hašek ran propaganda activities amongst the Burjats and even taught himself some of the language. It is proven that he visited the region and at least got as far as Гусиное Озеро (Gusinoye Ozero), close to the Mongolian border.

Links

Source: Pavel Gan

Quote from the novel
[1.11.2] Nebylo také možno zjistit bez fantasie, co vlastně představují obrazy namalované na těch třech dílech. Jisto je, že to byl oltář, kterého by mohli stejně používat nějací pohani na Zambezi či šamáni Burjatů i Mongolů.

Also written:Буряад Республика bu Burjatsko cz Burjatien de Республика Бурятия ru

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Gers in Songal, Northern Mongolia

Mongolia is mentioned by Jaroslav Hašek in his description of the field altar "that just as well could have meen used by Buryatian and Mongolian shamans".

Background

Mongolia is a republic in Asia between Russia and China that broke away from Kina in 1911. During the Russian civil war Mongolia changed hands several time, but from 1921 the communists led by Damdin Sükhbaatar got the upper hand, something that led to nearly 70 years of communist rule and strong links to the Soviet Union. A legacy from this period is the use of the Cyrillic alphabet.

In 1920 Jaroslav Hašek was involved on the periphery of the political struggle for Mongolia and he indeed knew Sükhbaatar in person. In the story Malé nedorozumění (Small misunderstandings), printed in Tribuna in 1921, he writes that he travelled all the way to Urga (now Ulaanbaatar). This story has not been verified and is surely an example of "mystifikace", such a journey would during the short time he stayed in Irkutsk in 1920 been practically impossible.

Links

Source: Pavel Gan

Quote from the novel
[1.11.2] Nebylo také možno zjistit bez fantasie, co vlastně představují obrazy namalované na těch třech dílech. Jisto je, že to byl oltář, kterého by mohli stejně používat nějací pohani na Zambezi či šamáni Burjatů i Mongolů.

Also written:Mongolsko cz Mongolei de Монгол Улс mn Монголия ru

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Svět zvírat, 29.1.1909

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Národní politika, 11.8.1910

Wyandotte is mentioned indirectly through the Wyandotte chicken who cackle themselves into the story twice. First when the author describes the altar that Katz uses for his field mass, and then when Marek tells about his unfortunate experiences as editor of Svět zvířat (Animal World).

Background

Wyandotte is the name of several places in the US, but the name of this chicken breed is taken from the Huron tribe who also call themselves Wyandotte. The tribal headquarters are located in Wyandotte, Oklahoma.

The breed of chicken was officially recognised in 1883 and borrowed the name from the above-mentioned Indian tribe. In Europe a midget-variation was bred later.

Jaroslav Hašek obviously knew about this animal breed (and many others) from his time as editor of Svět zvířat in 1909-1910. During his time as an editor the magazine printed a few stories on "wyandottek" and even provided photos.

Quote from the novel
[I.11] Namaloval nějakého ptáka, který mohl být stejně holubicí jako slepicí bílých wyandotek.
[II.3] Opět mne přerušil a řekl, že mu to úplně stačí, a jestli jen polovičku toho podaří se mně splnit, že mně daruje párek trpasličích wyandotek z poslední berlínské výstavy drůbeže, které obdržely první cenu a majitel zlatou medalii za výborné spáření.
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View from Lipnice across the Sázava valley

Posázaví is mentioned by the author when he describes the field altar and where he compares some of its motives with the landscape by the Sázava.

Background

Posázaví is a region in the Vysočina region, and is the name of the area by the river Sázava. The river flows from east to west, the source is the lake Velké Dářko and it flows into the Vltava by Davle south of Prague.

This was an area Jaroslav Hašek knew very well from the time he lived in Lipnice nad Sázavou, near the upper part of the river valley.

Quote from the novel
[1.11.2] Vojáci se vždy hádali a luštili ten rebus. Někdo myslel dokonce, že je to krajinka z Posázaví.
Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

12. A religious debate

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Cognac is mentioned indirectly because Švejk had cognac in his flask during the second field mass with Katz. The field chaplain gallantly offered his pious companion a swig of the bottle. The latter perceived this conspicuous enough to justify a visit to his colleague to try to talk him away from the thornful path of sin. This visit led to the religious debate that [I.12] is all about.

Background

Cognac in this context refers to a group of grape spirits from the region around Cognac in France. The drink is produced here and stored (at least two years) in oak vessels to achieve the particular cognac taste.

Quote from the novel
[1.12] Švejk sloužil s polním kurátem ještě jednu polní mši u zákopníků, kam byl omylem pozván ještě jeden polní kurát, bývalý katecheta, neobyčejně nábožný člověk, dívající se na svého kolegu velice udiveně, když ten mu nabízel ze Švejkovy polní láhve, kterou ten vždy nosil na takové náboženské úkony s sebou, doušek koňaku.

Also written:Koňak cz Konjakk no

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1910

Nová Paka is mentioned by Švejk in anecdote he tells Katz. At U zlatého věnce he had spoken to a man from the countryside who had gone to their offices of OHNovaPakato ask why his carriage had been requisitioned for war duty. Here he was unceremoniously thrown out. Then he continued to the town square (see Náměští Nová Paka) where a stranger asked if he could look after his horses. The other man never returned and the poor man was left with the horses and eventually he ended up in Hungary.

Background

Nová Paka is a town in north Bohemia in okres Jičín. It is located 22 km north of the district capital. As of 2016 the population is 9,208. The town hosts a museum and a historic town square.

In 1913 Nová Paka counted 6,057 inhabitants, and all apart from 12 were Czechs. The town was the centre of okres and hejtmanství of the same name.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.12] Včera jsem mluvil v hospodě ,U zlatého věnce’ s jedním člověkem z venkova, je mu už šestapadesát let, a ten šel se optat na okresní hejtmanství do Nové Paky, proč mu rekvisírovali bryčku.

Also written:Neu-Paka de

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1916

Náměští Nová Paka is mentioned by Švejk in anecdote he tells Katz. At U zlatého věnce he had spoken to a man from the countryside who had gone to their offices of OHNovaPakato ask why his carriage had been requisitioned for war duty. Here he was unceremoniously thrown out. Then he continued to the town square where a stranger asked if he could look after his horses. The other man never returned and the poor man was left with the horses and eventually he ended up in Hungary.

Background

Náměští Nová Paka is the town square of Nová Paka, today Masarykovo náměští.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.12] Včera jsem mluvil v hospodě ,U zlatého věnce’ s jedním člověkem z venkova, je mu už šestapadesát let, a ten šel se optat na okresní hejtmanství do Nové Paky, proč mu rekvisírovali bryčku. Na zpáteční cestě, když ho z okresního hejtmanství vyhodili, díval se na trén, který právě přijel a stál na náměstí. Nějaký mladý muž poprosil ho, aby mu chvíli počkal u koní, že vezou pro vojsko konservy, a víckrát už nepřišel. Když se pak hnuli, musel s nimi a dostal se až do Uher, kde někde poprosil taky někoho, aby mu počkal u vozu, a tím se jedině zachránil, a to by ho táhli do Srbska. Přijel celý vyjevený a víckrát nechce mít nic s vojenskejma věcma.“
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Zlatá Praha, 8.8.1929

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Národni listy, 5.12.1889

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Le Matin, 2.11.1914

Cologne is indirectly mentioned through the term water from Cologne, in other words Eau de Cologne, the world famous perfume.

Background

Cologne is a city on the middle stretch of the Rhine, with currently in excess of 1 million inhabitants. It was in 2016 the 4th largest city in Germany.

Since becoming part of Prussia in 1815 Cologne had experienced an enormous growth and become an important industrial and transport centre, and by 1913 the population count was nearly 700,000. It was at the outbreak of WW1 also the largest fortress complex in Germany, occupying a strategic position on the Rhine. From 1918 until 1926 the city was occupied by British troops. The later so famous Konrad Adenauer was mayor from 1917 until he was dismissed by the Nazis in 1933.

Eau de Cologne

The famous perfume was invented in 1709 by Giovanni Maria Farina and soon trickled down through the various underlying layers of society. The original outlet in Cologne still exists and before WW1 the company had a sales office in Vienna.

The brand Eau de Cologne was one of the early victims of the renaming frenzy during WW1. This happened in France in November 1914 as it after a vote was decided to rename the fragrance "Eau de Lovain" after the Belgian city of Lovain (Leuven) that was destroyed and looted by the Germans in late August that year. Other candidates were also considered but didn't get as many votes. Amongst them was Eau de Pologne (Polish Water).

The best known example of degermanisation is surely Sankt Peterburg which as early as 1914 was renamed Petrograd, but it was not alone. In USA the mildly amusing name "liberty cabbage" was proposed as a substitute for sauerkraut, but it is unclear if it was ever introduced.

Links

Quote from the novel

Notice: Undefined offset: 1 in /var/www/honsi.org/public_html/svejk/source/php/book.php on line 288
[I.12] V ráji účinkují rozprašovače kolínské vody a filharmonie hraje tak dlouho Brahmsa, že raději dáte přednost peklu a očistci. Andílkové mají v zadnici vrtuli od aeroplánu, aby se tolik nenadřeli se svými křídly. Pijte, pane kolego, Švejku, nalejte mu koňak, mně se zdá, že mu není dobře.“

Also written:Kolín nad Rýnem cz Cologne fr

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Das interessante Blatt, 18.2.1904

japan.jpg

Österreichische Illustrierte Zeitung, 6.9.1915

Japan is mentioned indirecty in the conversation between Katz and his pious colleague. Katz shows him a daring picture with a samurai in an intimate situation with a geisha.

Reappairs in [III.1] when cadet Biegler shows off his knowledge of war history after Ságner's gaffe with Die Sünden der Väter (see Ganghofer). He is referring to the Russo-Japansese war of 1904-05 and the cryptographic system being used.

Background

Japan was in 1914 an empire with a parliamentarian constitution. From August the country entered the war on the side of the Entente and soon took possession of some German islands in Pacific Ocean. They also exploited the war to intervene in China and in 1919 they engaged in the Russian civil war by occupying Vladivostok and parts of the Russian Far East.

The war Biegler refers to took place in 1904-05 and the outcome was a Japanese victory over Russia. This was the first time a European power had been defeated by an adversary from another continent.

Quote from the novel
[1.12] Katz se usmál: "To je ,Zuzana v lázni` a ta nahá ženská pod tím je má stará známost. Napravo je japonérie, znázorňující sexuelní akt mezi gejšou a starým japonským samurajem. Pravda, něco velice originelního? Breviář mám v kuchyni. Švejku, přineste ho sem a otevřete na třetí straně."

Notice: Undefined offset: 1 in /var/www/honsi.org/public_html/svejk/source/php/book.php on line 288
[3.1] Znám systémy šifer, které byly používány ve válkách o Sardinii a Savojsko, v anglo-francouzské kumpanii u Sevastopolu, při povstání boxerů v Číně i za poslední rusko-japonské války. Systémy tyto byly předávány...“

Also written:Japonsko cz

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Mosel by Metz

Mosel is first mentioned by Katz as he compares mass wine with Moselle wine.

Mosel appears more directly in [I.14] in the conversation between Wendler and Lukáš. This time the theme is no doubt the river, not the wine.

Background

Mosel is a wine region in Germany, named after the river Mosel that flows through France, Luxemburg and Germany and ebbs into the Rhine by Koblenz.

Quote from the novel
[1.12] „Je to mešní víno lehké, pane kolego,“ řekl Katz, „velice dobré jakosti, ryzlink. Chutí podobá se moselskému.“
[I.14.3] Proč zas se vedou mezi Maasou a Moselou prudké dělostřelecké boje? Víte, že v Combres a Woewru u Marche shořely tři pivovary, kam jsem posílal ročně přes pět set žoků chmele?

Also written:Mosela cz Mosel de Moselle fr

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Vlašim is mentioned when Švejk tells the pious field chaplain about the dean who, just like Saint Augustine, didn't believe in the antipodes.

Background

Vlašim is a town in central Bohemia, located in the Benešov district east of the Vltava.

In 1913 the population count was 3,201 and all but five were Czechs. Vlašim belonged to hejtmanství Benešov and okres named after the town. The military recruitment district was therefore No. 102.

Jaroslav Hašek visited the town in the summer of 1922. This was his last major excursion before his premature death six months later [4]. He also visited the area together with Zdeněk M. Kudej before the war. The inspiration for the novel would surely have come from the first visit because this part of the novel was written in 1921.

Toulavé House (Radko Pytlík)

V létě 1922 podniká letní cestu na Pacovsko a Vlašimsko. Tentokrát už nejde pěšky, ale vyjíždí kočárem spolu se svými průvodkyněmi (se Šurou a její ruskou přítelkyní) do Dolních Kralovic. Tato místa navštívili už před válkou se Zdeňkem Matějem Kudějem na divokých toulkách "střední Evropou". Z výletu zasílá pozdrav hostinskému Invaldovi: "Mé společnice už ani nemoho plakat, jak jsou unaveny. Táhnu je do Vlašimi. Dnes jsme urazili 37 km. Dostaneme patrně, než přijedem na Lipnici, vši. Počínáme vypadat zpustle. Tvůj Jaroslav Hašek."

Links

Source: Zdeněk M. Zdeněk Matěj Kuděj, Radko Pytlík

Quote from the novel
[1.12] „U Vlašimě byl, poslušně hlásím, pane feldkurát,“ řekl Švejk, „jeden děkan a ten měl, když mu jeho stará hospodyně utekla s klukem i s penězi, posluhovačku

Also written:Wlašim de

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Benešov is mentioned in the story about the dean from Vlašim who didn't believe in the antipodeans. The town is mentioned again [II.3] when discussing Josef Kudrna and in [II.5] when preparing departure to the front. The train with Švejk and Lukáš surely stopped here in [II.1], about one hour after the departure from Prague.

Background

Benešov is a town in central Bohemia with around 16,000 inhabitants. It is located appx. 40 kilometres south east of Prague, and is a stop on the railway line to Budějovice. The well-known château Konopiště, that until 1914 belonged to Franz Ferdinand, can be found just 2 km to the west.

The town and district was the home of IR102. This regiment was assigned to the 17th infantry brigade, just like the author's own 91st infantry regiment (IR91). The two regiments fought side by side throughout the time when Jaroslav Hašek served in K.u.k. Heer.

Benešov was the main town of hejtmanství and okres of the same name. In 1913 the towns population counted 7,400 of which almost all were Czechs. There was also 534 military personnel, serving with IR102 and it's associated recruitment district.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.12] Vono by jich tam patřilo víc. ,U uršulinek’ mají v klášteře lahvičku s mlékem panny Marie, kterým kojila Ježíška, a v sirotčinci u Benešova, když jim tam přivezli lurdskou vodu, dostali po ní sirotkové takovou běhavku, že to svět neviděl.“

Also written:Beneschau de

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Australia is mentioned in the anecdote about the dean from Vlašim who didn't believe in the antipodeans after having read Saint Augustine.

Background

Australia was still in 1914 a dominion but with extensive self-government. The country contributed to the allied war effort; Australian forces were heavily involved in the campaign against Turkey in 1915 (Gallipoli) and in attacks on German colonies in Polynesia.

Australia is by area the sixth largest country in the world, and is also classed as a continent. The population is now just over 20 million.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.12] Tak si zavolal svou posluhovačku a povídá k ní: ,Poslouchejte, vy jste mně jednou povídala, že váš syn je strojní zámečník a odjel do Australie.

Also written:Australie cz Australien de

Lourdesnn flag
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Leopold Kolísek, 1907

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Jean Gaignet, 1875

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Čech, 1.6.1910

Lourdes is mentioned by Švejk through the adjective "lurdský". This is in the anecdote aboute the dean who didn't believe in the antipodeans. In this case the water of Lourdes was the theme.

The town reappears in [III.4] on the march from Sanok to the front, through The song of Lourdes.

Background

Lourdes is one of the most popular Roman-Catholic pilgrimage destination in the whole world. It is located in south-western France, not far from the border with Spain. The number of inhabitants today (2010) is around 15,000.

The song of Lourdes

The song is printed in full in the book První česká pouť do Lurd roku 1903 (The first Czech pilgrimage to Lourdes in the year 1903) and in the successor from 1907. Both books are written by father Leopold Kolísek.

The novel quotes sixteen of the sixty original verses and these are with a few exceptions reproduced to the letter by the author. The major difference is the refrain, and the first line on some of the verses. He also adds a verse that is not found in the books about the pilgrimages. The verses that appear in the novel are the following: 1, 2, 4, 7, 9, 24, 25, 50, 29, 30, 41, 53, 54, 57, 52 and 60. The somewhat changed verse order and the odd textual discrepancy indicates that the author used other sources than Kolísek's book.

The earliest printed copy in French that has been identified is a small book from 1875 that was written by the abbot Jean Gaignet (1839-1914). Gaignet is therefore no doubt the author of the original lyrics but the music may have been added later. The title of the song varies but is mostly known as l'Ave Maria de Lourdes. Gaignet's version from 1875 is called Cantique-récit de l'apparition de N.-D. de Lourdes en six dizaines de strophes. He wrote the lyrics in 1873 (see link A).

The Czech lyrics do not correspond to the original French version, and is more aligned with the German lyrics from which it presumably has been translated. It is in any case not uncommon that verse lyrics are adapted to make rhyme and rhythm fit. An advert in the Catholic newspaper Čech in 1910 revealed that two versions of the Czech text existed: one complete text across four pages but also a shorter version printed on a single page. The first is listed as a translation done by Beneš Method Kulda (1820-1903). The same man is also behind the short version but it has not been possible to find any copy that may confirm that this was the one Jaroslav Hašek used.

Links

Source: Leopold Kolísek

Quote from the novel
[1.12] Vono by jich tam patřilo víc. ,U uršulinek’ mají v klášteře lahvičku s mlékem panny Marie, kterým kojila Ježíška, a v sirotčinci u Benešova, když jim tam přivezli lurdskou vodu, dostali po ní sirotkové takovou běhavku, že to svět neviděl.“
[III.4] Zatímco se všichni čtyři vypravili na cestu, objevil se u kumpanie pan místní plebán a rozdával vojákům dle jich národnosti lísteček s „Lourdskou písní“ ve všech jazycích.

Also written:Lurdy cz

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Gotthard Pass is mentioned by the pious field chaplain after he has consumed a number of potent drinks.

Background

Gotthard Pass is a mountain pass in the Alps that is located slightly south of the border between the cantons Uri and Ticino. The pass has lost much of its importance since the tunnel beneath it was opened in 1980. There is also a railway tunnel under the pass.

The chaplains somewhat nebulous monologue suggests that he rather has the St Bernhard pass in mind, since Saint Bernhard built mountain huts there for travellers, amongst them many pilgrims.

Quote from the novel
[1.12] „Sv. Ludmilu mám rád, i sv. Bernardina,“ pokračoval bývalý katecheta, „ten zachránil moc poutníků ve sv. Gotthardě.

Also written:Průsmyk svatého Gottharda cz Gotthardpass de Passo del San Gottardo it

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

13. Švejk goes to provide the last rites

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Dlouhá třída is the street where Firma Polák, trading in oil and varnish, were located. Švejk bought oil consecrated by a bishop: Hempseed oil No. 3.

Background

Dlouhá třída is a street in Staré Město (Old Town), Prague. It extends from Staroměstské náměstí towards Poříčí and is one of the oldest streets in the city.

Quote from the novel
[1.13] V druhé chtěli telefonovat na ochrannou stanici a ve třetí mu řekl provisor, že firma Polák v Dlouhé třídě, obchod olejem a laky, bude mít rozhodně žádaný olej na skladě.

Also written:Langengasse de

Žižkovnn flag
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Karlova třída in 1915 (now Seifertova)

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Osudy dobrého vojáka Švejka, 14.3.1921

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Jeronýmova 324/8 (2010). This is where the first part of the novel was written in 1921.

Žižkov is here mentioned in an anecdote about a priest, but the district appears several times throughout the novel without the plot ever being explicitly set here.

Amongst them is the sequence where Švejk ask for the way here and asks the maid of colonel Kraus about the habits of the dog he is planning to steal. The place is also mentioned in connection with Axamit.

Background

Žižkov is an urban district and cadastral area east of the centre of Prague. Administratively it is part of Prague 3 and partly Prague 8. The district as named after the Hussite leader Jan Žižka. From 1881 to 1922 it was a city in its own right.

Žižkov city counted 72,173 inhabitants in 1913, and all except 1,555 were registered with Czech nationality. It was the centre of okres and hejtmanství of the same name.

The first and part of the second volume of Švejk was written here. Jaroslav Hašek stayed with his friend Franta Sauer at Jeronýmova 324/3 from January to August 1921. Nearby at Prokopovo náměstí there is a statue of the author.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.13] Na Žižkově jednou farář zmlátil jednoho slepýho, že při takovej příležitosti nesmek, a eště byl zavřenej, poněvadž mu u soudu dokázali, že není hluchoněmej, a jenom slepej, a že slyšel cinkot zvonečku a budil pohoršení, ačkoliv to bylo v noci.
[I.14] Švejk ji oslovil: „Dovolte, slečno, kudy se jde na Žižkov?“ Zastavila se a podívala se na něho, myslí-li to upřímně, a dobrácký obličej Švejkův jí řekl, že opravdu ten vojáček chce asi jít na Žižkov. Výraz její tváře změkl a ona ochotně mu vykládala, jak na ten Žižkov půjde.
[III.2] To je na Žižkově pan profesor Axamit a ten tam kopal, hledal hroby skrčenců a několik jich vybral, a voni si ho, toho flašinetáře, vodtáhly do jedný takový vykopaný mohyly a tam ho dřely a zneužívaly.
Malešicenn flag
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Malešice, 1974

Malešice is mentoned in an anecdote Švejk uses as a parallell to the persistent money lender. The soldier refers to a landlord who for any occasion can show up with a quote from the Bible.

Background

Malešice is an urban district in eastern Prague, located in Prague 10 and Prague 9 respectively. It became part of the capital in 1922.

In 1913 Malešice was part of hejtmanství and okres Žižkov. The population counted 1,114 and almost all but five declared themselves as Czechs.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.13] V Malešicích byl jeden šenkýř, písmák, který na všechno měl citáty z Písma svatýho, a když někoho pral bejkovcem, vždycky říkal: ,Kdo šetří metly, nenávidí syna svého; ale kdo ho miluje, včas jej tresce, já ti dám prát se mi v hospodě.’“
Bordeauxnn flag
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Troppauer Zeitung, 10.12.1893

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Zemědělské listy, 31.12.1899

Bordeaux is indirectly mentioned by Katz when he suggests to Švejk that they prepare a Bordeaux punch.

Background

Bordeaux is a city in south western France with appx. 250,000 inhabitants (the urban area appx. 1 million). Det is centre of the wine growing region of the same name and it is this connection that makes its way into the novel.

Bordeaux-punch

This variety of punch may not be well known term today, but an internet search reveals a punch based on red wine. Bordeaux is obviously connected to the this very ingredient because the area around this French city is a famous wine growing region.

The drink was also on sale in bottles, as adverts bear witness to. The best known was a brand seems to have been E. Lichtwizt & Co from Opava (Troppau) who were also suppliers to the imperial and royal court. Even more common were concentrated flavours in bottles and these are the ones that appear in the earliest adverts. The first mention of Bordeaux-punch that can be traced in the Austrian press is from 1845 and refers to an event at Sofien-Insel in Prague (now Slovanský ostrov).

In the handwritten manuscript of Švejk (page 127) Katz uses the term "bordeux-punč". This and some other minor errors were corrected in post-WW2 editions of the novel.

Links

Source: Sergey Soloukh

Quote from the novel
[1.13] "Vidíte, Švejku, jak to dopadá s takovým člověkem, který nectí kněze," usmál se polní kurát. "Svatý Jan Zlatoústý řekl: ,Kdo ctí kněze, ctí Krista, kdo příkoří činí knězi, činí příkoří Kristu Pánu, jehož zástupcem právě kněz jest.` - Na zítřek musíme se dokonale připravit. Udělejte smažená vajíčka se šunkou, uvařte Bordeaux punč a potom věnujeme se rozjímání, neboť jak je v modlitbě večerní: ,Odvráceny jsou milostí boží všechny úklady nepřátel o tento příbytek.` "
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БИТКА НА ДРИНИ: 101 година од крвавих борби у Подрињу. © drina.info 8.9.2015

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Böhmerwalds Söhne im Felde

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About the fatal attempt to cross the Drina on 8 September 1914. Source: Böhmerwalds Söhne im Felde. Author: Gustav Jungbauer.

Drina is first mentioned by the moneylender who pestered Katz. He complains that lieutenant Janata had been cheeky enough to get killed by the Drina, despite owing him 700 crowns. The river Drina is later mentioned several times, particlularly in Királyhida where veterans relate from the campaign against Serbia in 1914.

Background

Drina is a river on the Balkans, and one the tributaries to Sava. Stretching 346 km it is the border between Bosnia­-Hercegovina­ and Serbia, in 1914 effectively the border between Austria-Hungary and Serbia.

IR91 by Drina

IR91 and the 9. Infantry Division part of the campaign against Serbia from August to December 1914. Amongst those participating where several of the officers that Jaroslav Hašek used as models for characters in the novel: Rudolf Lukas, Čeněk Sagner, Josef Adamička, and Franz Wenzel (the latter from mid August). As an officer's servant František Strašlipka presumably accompanied Lukas already then.

The regiment arrived on Gunja by the Sava on 4 August after a three day train journey from Budějovice. They immediately continued by ship and foot to the assembly area by Bjelina (now Bijeljina), where they arrived the next day. On 12 August they crossed the river on pontoon bridges by Novoselo and took part on the bloody battle of Cer from 16 to 19 August. Suffering heavy losses they withdrew and were back on the Bosnian bank on the river by 20 August.

On 8 September 1914 the division took part in another attempt to invade Serbia, during the so-called battle of Drina. This time the point of crossing the Drina was by the confluence with Sava. It ended in disaster, and IR91 lost more than 700 men in dead, wounded and missing. Although initially able to cross on pontoon bridges they were driven back, and in the night they were ordered to retreat across the river. But the bridges had been destroyed, and subjected to devastating Serb fire, panic broke out. Many threw themselves in the river and nearly all of them drowned. They remained on the west bank of the Drina until they on 26 September when they were moved to the northern bank of the Sava. This was the last time they were stationed by this river.

E.E. Kisch

The famous reporter Egon Erwin Kisch kept a diary during him time with IR11 in Serbia. His regiment, from Písek, belonged as IR91 to the 9th infantry division and took part in the same battles under the same circumstances. In this moving and well-written book, Schreib das auf Kisch!, the author describes the hardship and sufferings the soldiers were subjected to, about the horrendous losses, about the incompetence at all levels, morally deprived officers, about chaos and confusion, about the false description on the real situation that the people at home were presented. The book contains a lot of descriptions that readers of Švejk will recognise.

Links

Source: Gustav Jungbauer, Rudolf Kiesswetter, Egon Erwin Kisch, VÚA

Quote from the novel
[1.13] Nadporučík Janata dluhoval mně 700 korun a odvážil se padnout na Drině.

Also written:Дрина sr

Rawa Ruskann flag
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The railway station

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Kaiserbericht, 11.9.1914

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Finljandskaja Gazeta, 15.9.1914

Rawa Ruska is mentioned by the persisting money-lender when he complains to the reluctant Katz that captain Wichterle had let himself get killed by his own soldiers despite owing 2000 crowns.

Background

Rawa Ruska is the Polish name of Рава-Руська (Rava-Ruska), a town and railway junction in Galicia, near the current border between Ukraine and Poland. The city is administratively part of Lviv oblast, Until 1918 it was part of Austria-Hungary, in the inter-war period it belonged to Polen, since 1945 the Soviet Union and from 1991 Ukraine.

Rawa Ruska was during Austria-Hungary rule part of Ergänzungsbezirk Nr. 30 that again belonged to Korpsbezirk Nr. 11 (both Lwów). Soldiers from the area would this have been enrolled in IR30.

Battle of Rawa Ruska

The fragment from the novel refers to the battle of Rawa Ruska that took place from 6 to 11 September 1914 between the armies of Austria-Hungary and Russia.

The outcome was a catastrophic defeat for K.u.k. Heer who were forced to withdraw to a defensive line along the river San and the Carpathians range, and in effect abandon most of Galicia. Hardest hit was Brudermann's third army. The withdrawal started in the early hours of 12 September and on that day Russian forces occupied Rawa Ruska itself. One of the casualties of the battle was Herbert Conrad von Hötzendorf, son of Chief of General Staff, Conrad.

The Central Powers were only to return on 21 June 1915 when the town was conquered by German troops.

Deutsche Heeresbericht, 21. Juni 1915

Die Armeen des Generalobersten v. Mackensen kämpfen um Lemberg und Zolkiew; Rawa-Ruska ist in unserer Hand. Westlich Rawa-Ruska wurde der Feind gestern von deutschen Truppen angegriffen und geworfen.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.13] Hejtman Wichterle, dluhující mně stejný obnos, dal se zabít pod Ruskou Ravou vlastními vojáky.

Also written:Ruská Rava Hašek Rawa-Ruska de Рава-Русская ru Рава-Руська ua

Carpathiansnn flag
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Wiener Bilder, 3.1.1915

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Světová válka 1914-1915 slovem a obrazem, s.519

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Prager Tagblatt, 5.5.1915

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Lage und Verteilung der Kräfte 1. Mai 1915. Österreich-Ungarns letzter Krieg II, Beilage 15.

Carpathians is mentioned by the money lender who pestered Katz, because yet another officer who owed him money had been killed there. In the same chapter there is a description of two soldiers dying at Vojenská nemocnice Karlovo náměstí. Both had been shot in the stomach.

Carpathians also appears in [I.14] as Lukáš enters the plot. Švejk reads about events there in the paper when he accompanies Katy to the barracks where Lukáš teaches one-year volunteers. Later in the chapter the mountains are mentioned by Lukáš in the conversation with Wendler.

From [III.1] the Carpathians and places in the mountains are mentioned frequently by soldiers who have been there with previous march battalions and tell their stories.

In [III.4] the plot takes place in the Carpathians. See Łupków Pass.

Background

Carpathians is the easternmost of the great mountain ranges of Europe. It extends 1,500 km on the territory of Romania, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine, Austria, Serbia and Hungary.

In September 1914 Russian forces pushed into the northern part of the mountain range and in early October they tried to break through the Uszok pass. In November they occupied Humenné for a short while and also entered Hungarian territory in Maramaros (now Maramureș in Romania).

The winter battle

The winter battle in the Carpathians started in December 1914 and lasted until March 1915. The Uszok pass was captured by the Russians in December and Dukla was also for a long time controlled by the Russian army. A third important spot was Lupkow where fierce fighting took place during the winter. In reaching the Laborec valley Russian forces crossed the Karpatane but never managed to force their way through to the Hungarian plain.

K.u.k. Heer attempted several offensives throughout the winter, but the two armies that were involved (2nd and 3rd) were poorly equipped for a winter war and more men froze to death than fell victims of enemy bullets. The Russians also suffered horrendous losses, made worse by the tactic of sending human waves towards the enemy, a tactic the due to machine gun fire ended in mass slaughter.

Gorlice-Tarnów

The end of the war in the Carpathians came in early May 1915 after the Central Powers' advance during and after the battle of Gorlice-Tarnów. Under German command the Central Powers forced the Russians away from the mountains.

IR91 in the Carpathians
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IR91 left the transport trains by Nagy-Berezna 7 February 1915. From "Böhmerwalds Söhne im Felde".

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IR91 in Jaworzec, March 1915.
From Jan Ev. Eybl, © SOkA Beroun.

Three battalions (2nd, 3rd and 4th) of IR91 fought in the Carpathians from 7 February 1915 until the first week of May. Thereafter they marched across the mountains and pursued the enemy in the direction of Sambor. IR91 operated within a relatively small area, near the current border triangle between Slovakia, Poland and Ukraine (see Východní Beskydy).

Commander of the regiment at the time was Colonel Alfred Steinsberg who 1 February 1915 had been transferred from the sister regiment IR73 who belonged to the same division (9th). During the hard winter the cold was often a bigger problem than the enemy. This is reflected in the anecdotes veterans from the Carpathians tell in the novel.

At least four of the real-life models of characters from Švejk served here: Rudolf Lukas, Jan Vaněk, Josef Adamička and Jan Eybl. The former two were wounded in early March and only rejoined the regiment on 11 July with the 12th March Battalion. The more peripheral Wurm also served there, from March 1915.

In Jan Eybl's archive valuable photos from this period exists. Most of them are from Jaworzec where IR91 staff was located in March 1915. Eybl's diaries cover the whole period the regiment stayed in the Carpathians.

After 2 May 1915 the situation changed. The Central Power's breakthrough victory by Gorlice-Tarnów forced the Russians away from the mountain range and IR91 was among the units that pursued the enemy across the river San and in the direction of Sambor. The regiment marched off from their positions by Kistopolya and Oroszpatak on 4 May, crossed the San a week later and by 15 May they have reached the area by Sambor.

Press quotes
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Světová válka 1914-1915 slovem i obrazem, page 505

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Světová válka 1914-1915 slovem i obrazem, page 508

In [I.14] there are two near literal quotes from Kronika světové války regarding the Carpathians. These are amongst many snippets from this publication that appear in this part of the novel.

The first quote regards Švejk's considerations at the gate of the barracks where he accompanied Katy. Almost word for word identical quotes are found in "Kronika" at page 505. It deals with events on 26 March 1915.

The second borrowed quote appears in the conversation between Lukáš and Wendler where the officer states that a breakthrough of the Russian front between middle Dunajec and the ridge of the Carpathians will definitely end the war. The source is Kronika světové války page 508 and refers to events by Dunajec on 2 May 1915, the first day of the Gorlice-Tarnów offensive.

Links

Source: Österreich-Ungarns Letzter Krieg, Norman Stone, Rudolf Kießwetter, Jan Ev. Eybl

Quote from the novel
[1.13] Ten padne v Karpatech s mou nezaplacenou směnkou, ten jde do zajetí, ten se mně utopí v Srbsku, ten umře v Uhrách ve špitále.
[1.13] Po posledním pomazání ve vojenské nemocnici toužili dva. Jeden starý major a jeden bankovní disponent, důstojník v záloze. Oba dostali kulku do břicha v Karpatech a leželi vedle sebe.
[1.14.4] Švejk posadil se na lavici ve vratech a vykládal, že v bitevní frontě karpatské se útoky vojska ztroskotaly, na druhé straně však že velitel Přemyšlu, generál Kusmanek, přijel do Kyjeva a že za námi zůstalo v Srbsku jedenáct opěrných bodů a že Srbové dlouho nevydrží utíkat za našimi vojáky.
[1.14.5] Zatímco masy vojsk připnuté na lesích u Dunajce i Rábu stály pod deštěm granátů a velkokalibrová děla roztrhávala celé setniny a zasypávala je v Karpatech a obzory na všech bojištích hořely od požárů vesnic i měst, prožíval nadporučík Lukáš se Švejk nepříjemnou idylu s dámou, která utekla svému muži a dělala nyní domácí paní.
[1.14.5] Jakmile však prolomíme ruskou frontu mezi karpatským hřbetem a středním Dunajcem, není nijaké pochybnosti, že bude to znamenat konec války.
[1.14.5] V karpatských úsecích, jak vidíte, máme velkou oporu.

Also written:Karpaty cz Karpaten de Карпаты ru Карпати ua

Českomoravská vysočinann flag
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From the book "Českomoravská vysočina", 1909.

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Vysočina in 2017. View from Lipnice castle.

Českomoravská vysočina is mentioned by the author when he describes a group of soldiers with Švejk at the forefront holding a discussion. Then a young soldier from Vysočina who still believed in God entered the discussion. The conversation took place at Vojenská nemocnice Karlovo náměstí.

Background

Českomoravská vysočina is a historical term for the geographical area that is now called Českomoravská vrchovina (Bohemian-Moravian Highlands).The area roughly corresponds to the modern administrative region of Kraj Vysočina but is slightly bigger. The administrative centre in the modern Vysočina is Jihlava.

Hašek and Vysočina

The highlands are strongly associated with Jaroslav Hašek, mainly because most of Švejk was written here, more precisely at Lipnice. This is also where he died and where his grave still is. His descendants have since 2003 been running U české koruny, the inn where the author lived from August 1921 to October 1922.

Hašek knew the region well, also from his trips before the war, and mentions several places from from Vysočina in the novel. Apart from Lipnice itself he mentions Posázaví, Německý Brod, Chotěboř, Skuteč, Okrouhlice, Kejžlice, Jihlava, Pelhřimov, Jedouchov, Dolní Královice, Velké Meziříčí.

It should be added that when the author wrote this passage of the novel he had not yet moved to Lipnice nad Sázavou.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.13] Nějaký mladičký vojáček z Českomoravské vysočiny, který ještě věřil v pánaboha, prosil, aby se o takových věcech nevedly řeči a aby se svatá tajemství nezatahovala do debaty. Musíme křesťansky doufat.

Also written:Bohemian-Moravian Highlands en Böhmisch-Mährische Höhe de

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Das interessante Blatt, 5.6.1913

Carthage is mentioned by a soldier who is a teacher in civilian life. It concerns how sun spots can cause disasters on earth, as the conquest of Carthage. The conversation took place at the military hospital at Karlovo náměstí (see Vojenská nemocnice Karlovo náměstí).

Carthage is mentioned again by Marek, where he in the arrest in Budějovice tells how his complacency led to his demise.

Background

Carthage was an ancient city state at the coast of North Africa, south of Lake of Tunis in modern Tunisia. At its prime it is believed to have had up to 700,000 inhabitants. The Phoenician city was an important sea power.

The city was destroyed by the Romans after the Punic Wars in 146 BC and this is the event both conversations in the novel refers to.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.13] Jeden voják, učitel z povolání, jako by četl jeho myšlenky, poznamenal: „Někteří učenci vysvětlují válku objevením se skvrn na slunci. Jakmile taková skvrna se udělá, tak přijde vždy něco hrozného. Dobytí Karthaga...“
[2.2] Svou zpověď zakončil jednoroční dobrovolník slavnostně: „Došlo i na Karthago, z Ninive udělali zříceniny, milý příteli, ale hlavu vzhůru! Ať si nemyslí, že když mne pošlou na front, že dám jednu ránu. Regimentsraport! Vyloučení ze školy!

Also written:Karthago Hašek Kartágo cz Karthago de

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Saint-Pierre after the eruption in 1902.

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Le Journal, 4.5.1902

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Národní listy, 15.5.1902

Mount Pelée and the volcanic eruption here "that time" is the theme in a dialogue at the military hospital (see Vojenská nemocnice Karlovo náměstí) where Švejk and Katz administer the last rites. The conversation circles around sunspots and that a professor had written in Národní politika that he years ago warned that those cause disasters on planet earth.

Background

Mount Pelée is a volcano at the north-western part of the French Caribbean island Martinique. It had an explosive eruption on 8 May 1902 that caused an estimated 30,000 casualties. The island's main city, Saint-Pierre, was totally destroyed and only few of the citizens survived. Švejk is however imprecise when he claims that the eruption destroyed the whole island of Martinique. It was mainly Saint-Pierre and the northern part of the island that was hit.

Already early in the year activity was observed at the volcano and on 23 April 1902 the eruption started. Early in May the situation was serious, with ash raining down on the surrounding areas. In the morning of 4 May there was an eruption and a mudslide destroyed a sugar factory and 23 people perished. Many had also been killed by poisonous insects and snakes that fled from the area around the volcano. The same day the governor informed the French minister of colonies about the eruption, and the press around the world now reported the event (including Vienna).

Then within a few days the great disaster struck. On 8 May at 7:52 in the morning the volcano literally exploded and dispatched a burning cloud of ash and gases in the direction of Saint-Pierre. It took only one minute for the cloud hit the city and killed its people instantaneously, they died by the heat and the shock wave. Everything flammable caught fire and the city was levelled to the ground. The ships anchoring in the harbour were also destroyed. During the summer further eruptions caused destruction and loss of human life.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.13] Když tenkrát ta sopka Mont-Pellé zničila celý ostrov Martinique, jeden profesor psal v ,Národní politice’, že už dávno upozorňoval čtenáře na vekou skvrnu na slunci.

Also written:Mont-Pellé Hašek Mont Pelée cz

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Saint-Pierre today.

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Wiener Zeitung, 4.5.1902

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Národní politika, 2.10.1902

Martinique sunspots and the eruption at Mount Pelée is the theme of the dialogue at the military hospital where Švejk and Katz administer the last rites. Švejk connects the disaster to sunspot activity based on what he had read in Národní politika where a professor wrote that he already had warned about a big sunspot.

Background

Martinique is and island in the Small Antilles in the Carribean Sea and a French overseas département. The island is located about 450 north east of the South American coast and 700 km south east of the Dominican Republic. The island is as part of France, member of the EU, and the currency is Euro. The population count in 2014 was around 384,000.

Disastrous eruption

The volcanic eruption referred to in the novel happened on 8 May 1902 and was reported in Czech newspapers two days later. See Mount Pelée for more information about the disaster.

The professor

The professor that the good soldier refers to was by near certainty Zenger.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.13] Když tenkrát ta sopka Mont-Pellé zničila celý ostrov Martinique, jeden profesor psal v ,Národní politice’, že už dávno upozorňoval čtenáře na velkou skvrnu na slunci.

Also written:Martinik cz

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

14. Švejk as military servant to senior lieutenant Lukáš

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Na Zderaze is mentioned by Švejk in his long story about the big card-playing session. This was in connection with himself having been gambled away by Katz and therefore now became the servant of senior lieutenant Lukáš. The big winner in the card-playing anecdote, old Vejvoda, lived in this street. The session took place in a pub behind Stoletá kavárna.

Na Zderaze appears again in [3.2] during a conversation between Švejk, Lukáš and Baloun in Budapest. The good soldier tells a petrified Baloun that he had read in the papers that a whole family had been poisoned by liver paté there.

Background

Na Zderaze is a street in Nové Město between Karlovo náměstí and Vltava. It stretches parallel to the river from Myslíkova ulice to Resslova ulice. Next to Stoletá kavárna and Na Zbořenci the street splits in two. The steet Na Zbořenci behind Stoletá kavárna was the likely location of the tavern where the famous game of cards took place.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.1] Na Zderaze žil nějakej klempíř Vejvoda a ten hrával vždy mariáš jedné hospodě za ,Stoletou kavárnou’.
[3.2] Já jsem čet několikrát v novinách, že se celá rodina votrávila játrovou paštikou. Jednou na Zderaze,jednou v Berouně, jednou v Táboře, jednou v Mladé Boleslavi, jednou v Příbrami.
Myslíkova ulicenn flag
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Kopřivy, 29.4.1909

Myslíkova ulice is mentioned in the anecdote about the great card-playing party in the pub behind Stoletá kavárna. Old Vejvoda went to ask for help from the patrolling police in this street after winning to the extent that the other card players started to make it unpleasant for him.

Background

Myslíkova ulice is a street in Nové Město that stretches from Spálená ulice down towards Vltava. One of the side streets is Na Zderaze.

Myslíkova ulice is a street Jaroslav Hašek would have known very well. Not only was it in the middle of his stomping ground in Praha II. - number 15 housed the editorial offices and print-works of Kopřivy (Nettles) and Právo lidu (The Peoples Right), publications of the Czechoslavic Social Democratic Labour Party. Hašek contributed frequently to both publications in 1913 and 1914.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.1] A jen tak bez klobouku vyběh na ulici a přímo do Myslíkovy ulice pro strážníky. Našel patrolu a oznámil jí, že v tej a tej hospodě hrajou hazardní hru.
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Světozor, 2.12.1910

Monte Carlo is mentioned in the anecdote about the great card-playing party of old Vejvoda. The police inspector though this was worse than Monte Carlo.

Background

Monte Carlo is the most prosperous district of the Principality of Monaco and is best known for its casino that indirectly is referred to in the novel.

The districts road to fame started in 1863 when the current casino was completed. The same year the well known financier François Blanc (1806-1877), until then director of the casino in Bad Homburg, was hired to manage the casino. It still took many years before Monte Carlo became a household name for gambling, but by the outbreak of the first world war it was already famous world wide.

In the manuscript Jaroslav Hašek spelt the name Monte Karlo but during a "clean-up" of Švejk in the early 1950's, this and some other "oddities" were corrected. The inter-war issues of the novel, published by Adolf Synek, kept Hašek's original spelling.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.1] ,Tohle jsem ještě nežral,’ řekl policejní inspektor, když viděl takový závratný sumy, tohle je horší než Monte Karlo.

Also written:Monte Karlo Hašek

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Kopřivy, 1.1.1914

Chodov is mentioned in a song that Katz' new servant sings after considerable intake of strong drinks.

Background

Chodov is the name of four places in Bohemia, one on the outskirts of Prague and the three others in the west of the country. The text in the quote is picked from five different folk songs. The first line is from a song from the Chodsko region near the border with Bavaria, so here it certainly refers to Chodov by Domažlice.

In 1913 Chodov belonged to hejtmanstvi Domažlice and the like-named okres. The population count was 1,947 and all but one were registered with Czech as their mother tongue. The community consisted of the villages Chodov, Trhanov and Pec.

Re-used text

The song-fragment from the book had already been used by Jaroslav Hašek. On New Years Day 1914 Kopřivy printed A story about a proper man but here the author uses Domažlice instead of Chodov.

Links

Source: Jaroslav Šerák

Quote from the novel
[1.14.1]
Okolo Chodova teče vodička, 
šenkuje tam má milá pivečko červený. 
Horo, horo, vysoká jsi, 
šly panenky silnicí, 
na Bílé hoře sedláček oře.

Also written:Meigelshof de

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Světozor, 7.11.1913

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Sokolský zpěvník, 1909

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Ottův slovník naučný

Bílá Hora is mention in the song Katz's new putzfleck sings after consuming solid quantities of strong drink.

Background

Bílá Hora (White Mountain) is a hill on the western outskirts of Prague, between Smíchov, Břevnov and Ruzyně. Until 1922 it belonged to the village Řepy in "hejtmanství" Smíchov, and in the ninteen-sixties it became part of the captial.

It is primarily known for the battle on 8 November 1620 that effectively ended Czech independence. Habsburg rule followed and lasted until 1918. The battle is regarded as one of the most important events of the Thirty Year War (1618-1648).

The text in the quote is picked from five different folk songs, also pointed out by the author himself. The line featured here is from the well known folk song "Na Bílé Hoře" (At White Mountain). See also Chodov.

Links

Source: Jaroslav Šerák

Quote from the novel
[1.14.1]
Okolo Chodova teče vodička, 
šenkuje tam má milá pivečko červený. 
Horo, horo, vysoká jsi, 
šly panenky silnicí, 
na Bílé hoře sedláček oře.

Also written:White Mountain en Weiße Berg de

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Toledo en las fotos de Thomas (1884, 1910)

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Světozor, 13.1.1911

Toledo is mentioned as the Hertugen av Almavira is supposed to have eaten his servant Fernando during the siege of the city. In Budapest, Marek makes a similar reference, but the siege is now of Madrid and the Napoleonic wars are mentioned explicitly.

Background

Toledo is a historic city in Spain, 70 km south of Madrid. In 1986 the city was entered as a UNESCO World Heritage site. The city prospered in medieval times, and was for a while capital of Castilla. Today the city is capital of the Castilla-La Mancha region and a major tourist attraction.

The historical event in question could be from 930 to 932 when the city was encircled by the Moors during a Christian uprising. After a two year siege it surrended due to hunger.

Jesús Carrobles Santos, "Historia de Toledo", 1997

Durante dos años se mantuvo el asedio a Toledo. Sus habitantes, como ya habían hecho en otras ocasiones, volvieron a solicitar ayuda militar cristiana, esta vez a Ramiro II. Pero el ejército que éste envió fue derrotado por las tropas omeyas. Aislados del exterior y acosados por el hambre, los toledanos tuvieron que rendirse. De esta manera, el 2 de agosto del 932, Abd al-Rahmán III entró a caballo en la ciudad donde estableció una numerosa guarnición, aunque no adoptó represalias ni medidas de castigo.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Našli bychom tam, že vévoda z Almaviru snědl svého vojenského sluhu při obležení Toleda z hladu bez soli..
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Leitfaden zur Manipulation bei den Unter-Abtheilungen der k.k. Landarmee, 1876

Swabia is indirectly mentioned by the author in the chapter about officer's servants. He mentions an old Swabian book about the art of warfare where it is described which personal traits an officer's servant is required to posses. It is not a small deal, he has to be a model human being.

Background

Swabia is a historical region in southern Germany that spans the borders of the current states Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg. The principal cities in the area are Stuttgart, Ulm and Augsburg.

Type fonts

The author refers to an old Swabian book on the art of warfare, but it is not known what book he refers to. In Czech the expression švabach (Swabian writing) is often (imprecisely) used as a term for the old German type fonts (Frakturschrift) so the book is not necessarily of Swabian origin at all. At the author's time nearly all German-language newspaper and books used "Fraktur" fonts so he could in principle have referred to any old book in German about the art of waging war. The English translator of Švejk, Cecil Parrott, evidently assumes this when he translates the phrase to "an old German book".

Jaroslav Hašek visited Swabia in 1904 and eventually wrote a few humorous stories from his travels here. Sjå Bavaria.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Ve staré švábské knize o umění vojenském nalézáme též pokyny pro vojenské sluhy. Pucflek staré doby měl býti zbožný, ctnostný, pravdomluvný, skromný, statečný, odvážný, poctivý, pracovitý. Zkrátka měl to být vzor člověka.

Also written:Švábsko cz

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Graz. Hauptplatz. Um 1910. © IMAGNO/Austrian Archives

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Arbeiterwille, 10.6.1912

Graz is mentioned by the author in the chapter about officer's servants. Here he recounts a trial in Graz in 1912 against a captain who had kicked his servant to death and had escaped without punishment "because it was only the second time he did it".

Graz is mentioned late in the novel in connection with Ratskeller.

Background

Graz is the second largest city on Austria and the capital of Styria. The city has appx. 250,000 inhabitants (2006). In 1910 the population counted almost 200,000.

Garrison city

Graz hosted the headquarters of 3. Armeekorps that recruited from Styria, all of current Slovenia and from smaller areas that is currently on Italian and Croat territory (Trieste og Istria). The recruitment districts with correspondingly numbered infantry regiments, were: 27 (Graz), 7 (Klagenfurt), 47 (Maribor), 17 (Ljubljana), 87 (Celje) and 97 (Trieste).

Officer's servants

It has not been possible to find a direct parallel to the case from 1912 about the captain who allegedly kicked his servant to death and was acquitted. Most probably the story is a product of the author's imagination and his tendency to grotesque exaggerations. That said the newspaper that year wrote about several other incidents where officer's servants were involved. There are reports about servants who stole from their officers, servants who committed suicide, and one servant who failed in an attempt to kill his superior and thereafter failed in killing himself.

An article in the Graz newspaper Arbeiterwille from 1912 deals with a case where an officer's servants commits suicide after being harassed over time and finally unjustly accused of having stolen five tins of conserves. The article also puts the tragedy in a greater perspective. It deals in more general terms with the hopeless situation of the army servant. He was obliged to serve not only his superior officer but also the family. If the situation became unbearable he couldn't simply quit his post as his civilian colleague could. The article advocates scrapping the whole institution of officer's servants, and moreover has certain parallels to the author's own description of the status of the officer's servant.

Concentration camp

During WW1 Thalerhof by Graz was the site of the only concentration camp in the Austrian part of the Dual Empire (there were two in Hungary). See Steinhof.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Roku 1912 byl ve Štyrském Hradci proces, při kterém vynikající úlohu hrál jeden hejtman, který ukopal svého pucfleka.
[4.1] Všechny lidi, který potkával na ulici, viděl buď na nádraží v Miláně, nebo s nimi seděl ve Štýrským Hradci v radničním sklepě při víně.

Also written:Štýrský Hradec cz

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Das interessante Blatt, 16.4.1916

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Le journal de Geneve, 12.6.1916

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Haugesunds avis, 13.6.1916

Dubno is mentioned when the author describes an officer's servant who was captured by the Russians. He dragged enormous amounts of luggage Dubno to Darnitsa and on to Tashkent where he pegged out from typhus on the top of the heap.

In the same section Hašek mentions "storming" Dubno which presumably refers to the events on 8 September 1915.

Background

Dubno (ukr. Дубно, rus. Дубно) is a city in the Volhynia region of the Ukraine, until 1917 part of the Russian Volhynia governate. The city is located 15 km south of Chorupan where Jaroslav Hašek was captured on 24 September 1915. The city is situated in an area which counted a considerable number of Czech immigrants. See Zdolbunov.

Dubno was strategically important due to its fortress and the railway connections to the north and south. K.u.k. Heer entered the city on 8 September 1915 after an unexpected Russian withdrawal. The latter re-conquered Dubno on 10 June 1916 during the Brusilov offensive.

The city's web page claims Jaroslav Hašek visited in 1915, but this appears improbable as Dubno was on Austrian hands at the time when the author was in the area. It is much more likely that he visited the city in 1916 and 1917 when it was back in Russian hands and the author travelled in the aera, both as a reporter and from May 1917 as an ordinary soldier.

Österreich-Ungarns letzter Krieg, Band III

Schon am Vormittag (8.9. 1915) langte beim 4. Armeekmdo. die überraschende Nachricht ein, daß Dubno vom Feinde preisgegeben sei und die Ikwabrücken bei der Stadt in Flammen stünden.

Links

Source: Österreich-Ungarns letzter Krieg, Band III

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Viděl jsem jednoho zajatého důstojnického sluhu, který od Dubna šel s druhými pěšky až do Dárnice za Kyjevem.
[1.14.2] Dnes jsou důstojničtí sluhové roztroušení po celé naší republice a vypravují o svých hrdinných skutcích. Oni šturmovali Sokal, Dubno, Niš, Piavu.

Also written:Дубно ru Дубно ua

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Nový velký ilustrovaný slovník naučný, 1930

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Elsa Brändström

Darnitsa is mentioned in connection with the officers servant who dragged his luggage from Dubno to Tashkent and in the end perished from typhus on top of the entire heap.

Background

Darnitsa (ukr. Дарниця, rus. Дарница) is today a district of Kiev, east of the river Dniepr. Nowadays Darnitsa is a huge suburb, dominated by high-rise apartment blocks. There is a street named after Jaroslav Hašek here.

Darnitsa was a well-known transit camp that existed from 1915. In the beginning the camp was very primitive and lacked the most basic facilities. Diseases raged and mortality rates were scaringly high. The camp was also pivotal in supplying the Czech anti-Austrian volunteer forces, who from 1916 were allowed to recruit in Russian POW camps. See České legie.

Hašek and Darnica

According to Jaroslav Kejla the author was interned in the transit camp here for three days in the autumn of 1915, probably in early October. From here he was sent onwards to Totskoye in southern Ural. His prisoner card has him registered in Penza on 6 October 1915. Kejla reports that the prisoners walked the 300 km from the Dubno-region to Darnitsa on foot on foot from 24 September, but this fits badly with Penza and 6 October. An explanation may be that the date is according the old Russian calendar, in which case the registration in Penza happened on 19 October.

There is also little doubt that Hašek revisited Darnitsa as a recruiter and agitator after he joined České legie in Kiev in July 1916.

Links

Source: Jaroslav Kejla, Elsa Brändström

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Viděl jsem jednoho zajatého důstojnického sluhu, který od Dubna šel s druhými pěšky až do Dárnice za Kyjevem.

Also written:Dárnice cz Darnitsa nn Дарница ru Дарниця ua

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Saint Sophia square. From "Za svobodu" (1925)

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Čechoslovan, 31.10.1917

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Horrors of the civil war - abandoned corpses after the fighting in Kiev (1918)

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Legionářská stráž, 23.3.1928

Kiev is first mentioned when the author describes an officer's servant who was captured by the Russians. He dragged enormous amounts of luggage from Dubno to Darnitsa beyond Kiev and on to Tashkent where he pegged out from typhus on the top of the heap.

Soon after the city reappears when Švejk reads in a newspaper that "the commander of Przemyśl, general Kusmanek, has arrived in Kiev".

During Švejk's stay in Przemyśl and his interrogation there, Kiev is mentioned no less than 7 times. Most of this occurs when a Polish informer-provoker is sent into Švejk's cell and tries to construct an incriminating story: that the two had met in Kiev.

Background

Kiev (ukr. Київ, rus. Киев) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine. It straddles both banks of the river Dnieper and has nearly 3 million inhabitants, making it the 7th largest city in Europe. The administrative centre and historic districts are located on the hills on the west bank.

Kiev was in 1914 capital of the Russian Kiev military district and "gubernia" of the same name. It had been under Russian control from the 17th century, although with a noticeable Polish footprint. The city also counted a large number of Jews.

The city and the province had a sizeable Czech immigrant community and a Czech weekly Čechoslovan was published in Kiev until February 1918. During the First World War the city was, together with Paris and Petrograd, the main centre of the Czechoslovak independence movement.

Turbulent times

Until the Russian October Revolution 7 November 1917 Kiev was relatively unaffected by the war apart from the general shortages and the fact that the city was the centre of the military assembly area and an important military-administrative centre. Kiev was also the headquarters of the Russian branch of the Czechoslovak National Council (see České legie). The leader of the Czechoslovak independence movement, professor Masaryk, stayed here for long periods between May 1917 and February 1918. It was in Kiev that he on 7 February 1918 signed the treaty of the transfer of the Legions from the Russian to the French army.

The Bolshevik coup in Petrograd on 7 November 1917 had far-reaching consequences for Kiev. Early in 1918 the Bolsheviks initiated military operations to gain control of Ukrainian territory, which at the time was partly controlled by the Tsentralna Rada (Central Council) of the Ukrainian National Republic. Red Guards led by Vladimir Antonov-Ovseyenko invaded the areas east of Dnieper, on 28 January they reached Kiev, and on 8 February 1918 they the fight for the city was over.

The forces that entered Kiev were commanded by Mikhail A. Muravyov, a former officer in the Russian imperial army who was pivotal in defeating the forces of Kerensky who attempted to regain control of Petrograd during the October Revolution. He now acted as chief of staff for Antonov-Ovseyenko. He was a capable but brutal and megalomaniac officer. His deputy commander was Václav Fridrich, a former Czech legionnaire who had been expelled from the Legions for disciplinary reasons, and now as was imprisoned in Darnitsa, but set free by Muravyov's advancing troops. During the 10 day long siege of Kiev and ensuing occupation, a wave of terror, looting and killing followed. Muravyov later said that poison gas was used. Officers, members of the bourgeois and random inhabitants were slaughtered in their thousands. Muravyov and the atrocities of his troops became a liability for the Bolsheviks and he was transferred to the front against Romania on 28 February.

At the same time (9 February) Ukraine signed a peace treaty with the Central Powers. Professor Masaryk who was staying in Kiev during this period, experienced the terror, but personally he got on well with Muravyov. With representatives for the Entente present, Masaryk and Muravyov reached an agreement that permitted the Legions to leave Ukraina unhindered and also to keep their weapons. According to Masaryk the deal was signed on 16 February.

The red reign of terror in Kiev didn't last long. On 18 February 1918 the Central Powers invaded Ukraine and already on 1 March German troops reached Kiev. The Red Guards and the Legions fled the city, and amongst those who escaped was Jaroslav Hašek.

Hašek in Kiev
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Hotel Praha hosted the editorial offices of Čechoslovan

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Jaroslav Hašek, Revoluce, 23.4.1917 (6.5)

Thus Jaroslav Hašek witnessed those dramatic events in Kiev in February 1918. He had stayed for long periods in the city from July 1916 to May 1917 and again from 15 November until the end of February 1918. He was co-editor of Čechoslovan and also had duties involving recruitment and propaganda in prisoners camps. It was in Česchoslovan he wrote Povídka o obrázu císaře Františka Josefa I (The story of the picture of Emperor Franz Joseph I) who led to a process "in absentia" of high treason back in Austria. In 1917 he published the second version of the "Soldier Švejk", Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí (The Good Soldier Švejk in captivity).

His time in Kiev was ridden with controversies: he was involved in a row with a Russian officer who he insulted and as a result ended up in prison. Soon after (early 1917) he was "deported" to the front and as a goodbye he published Klub českých Pickwiků (The Czech Pickwick Club) where he ridiculed some of the leaders of the Czechoslovak independence movement in Russia. From his "exile" at the front he was eventually forced to apologise in writing.

Hašek was recalled to Kiev 15 November 1917 in order to testify against the Austrian spy Alexandr Mašek who he had earlier helped uncover. It was also in Kiev, during the first two months of 1918, that Jaroslav Hašek changed from being openly critical towards the Bolsheviks to openly sympathise with the new rulers in Petrograd. The reason for this turnaround are probably mixed but there is reason to believe that the young Communist Břetislav Hůla during this period had considerable influence on Hašek's political views. The two were both editors at Čechoslovan and travelled together to Moscow after their escape from Kiev. According to Václav Menger they were at the time very close (Menger used the expression "inseparable").

Important in understanding this shift is also that Hašek was firmly against transferring the Legions to France, and that they pulled out of Ukraine rather than fighting the Germans who were approaching Kiev. In a public meeting on 24 February he voiced his objections. He stated his point of view in detail in an article in Průkopník in Moscow on 27 March 1918.

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From "Znal jsem Haška", Josef Pospíšil

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Proclamation from Václav Fridrich, Muravyov's chief of staff. Československý deník, 12 February 1918.

Josef Pospíšil relates that Hašek met the leadership of the Bolshevik occupiers of Kiev in February. He was on friendly terms with them and recognised them as very capable people. That this positive personal impression may also have contributed to the author's radicalisation. Who these leaders were is not mentioned but it must be assumed that he met Fridrich (who he surely knew) and probably also Muravyov.

The occupants also took measures that Hašek probably approved of: price control (bread became cheaper), limit on bank transactions, nationalisation of the finance sector and a one time tax on rich citizens (contribution). Ironically enough the Bolsheviks also abolished capital punishment. In general the Czechoslovaks were on good terms with the revolutionary authorities. This was during February 1918 repeatedly stated by Československý deník, the official paper of the Czechoslovak National Council in Russia.

On the wall of the former Hotel Praha, the building that hosted the editorial offices of the paper, a memorial plaque honouring the author still hangs (2010).

General Kusmanek in Kiev
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Národní listy, 28.3.1915

Finally back to the quote by Švejk about general Kusmanek in Kiev. It is authentic and copied word by word from the press. This brief quote appeared in Národní politika 4 April 1915 and was also printed elsewhere. Newspapers also provided more comprehensive information. Kusmanek arrived in Kiev on an express train, first class, on 25 March. This was only three days after the capitulation of Przemyśl. He was very well treated in Kiev and even stayed as a guest of the governor. Furthermore his stay in Kiev was of a temporary nature, he was to be sent to the inner parts of Russia for permanent internment.

Links

Source: Viktor A. Savčenko, Josef Pospíšil, Pavel Gan, Radko Pytlík, Jaroslav Křížek, Tomáš Masaryk

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Viděl jsem jednoho zajatého důstojnického sluhu, který od Dubna šel s druhými pěšky až do Dárnice za Kyjevem.
[1.14.4] Švejk posadil se na lavici ve vratech a vykládal, že v bitevní frontě karpatské se útoky vojska ztroskotaly, na druhé straně však že velitel Přemyšlu, generál Kusmanek, přijel do Kyjeva a že za námi zůstalo v Srbsku jedenáct opěrných bodů a že Srbové dlouho nevydrží utíkat za našimi vojáky.
[4.1] Major Wolf v té době ještě neměl zdání o tom, co vlastně všechno chystají Rakousku přeběhlíci, kteří později, setkávajíce se v Kyjevě a jinde, na otázku: „Co tady děláš?“ odpovídali vesele: „Zradil jsem císaře pána.“
[4.1] Přihlásím se Rusům, že půjdu na forpatrolu ... Sloužil jsem u 6. kyjevské divise.
[4.1] Já jsem v Kyjevě znal mnoho Čechů, kteří šli s námi na frontu, když jsme přešli do ruského vojska, nemůžu si teď ale vzpomenout na jejich jména a odkuď byli, snad ty si vzpomeneš na někoho, s kým si se tam tak stýkal, rád bych věděl, kdo tam je od našeho 28. regimentu?“
[4.1] Zůstal tam zcela klidně a blábolil dále cosi o Kyjevu, a že Švejka tam rozhodně viděl, jak mašíroval mezi ruskými vojáky.
[4.1] „Já znám vaše všechny známé z Kyjeva,“ neúnavně pokračoval zřízenec protišpionáže, „nebyl tam s vámi takový tlustý a jeden takový hubený? Teď nevím, jak se jmenovali a od kterého byli regimentu...“
[4.1] Při odchodu řekla stvůra hlasitě k štábnímu šikovateli, ukazujíc na Švejka: „Je to můj starý kamarád z Kyjeva.“
[4.1] Je zde přece úplné doznání obžalovaného, že se oblékl do ruské uniformy, potom jedno důležité svědectví, kde se přiznal obžalovaný, že byl v Kyjevě.

Also written:Kyjev cz Kiew de Киев ru Київ ua

Ukrainenn flag
Wikipedia czdeennnnoruuk Google mapsearch
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The Cossack Hetmanate, 1654

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Ottův slovník naučný, 1888-

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Illustreret norsk konversationsleksikon, 1907-1913

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Linzer Volksblatt, 20.8.1914

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Zlatá Praha, 12.12.1884

Ukraine is first mentioned when the author describes an officer's servant who was captured by the Russians. He dragged enormous amounts of luggage Dubno to Darnitsa and on to Tashkent where he pegged out from typhus on the top of the heap.

At the very end the author touches the relationship between Poles and Ukrainians, a conflict that had terrible consequences during WW2, and has remained an issue until present.

Background

Ukraine (ukr. Україна, rus. Украина) is a large and populous state in south west Europe with Kiev as capital. Before the first world war the name had however a rather different meaning. According to Ottův slovník naučný (1888) it was a term that refers to "the south western part of Russia along the banks of the rivers Bug and Dnieper but which extent is not precisely defined". According to the encyclopaedia the name origins from the 17th century and means "borderland".

Meyers Konverzations-Lexikon uses approximately the same definition as Otto's Encyclopaedia but doesn't mention the river Bug; it rather states that Ukraine consists of the areas on both banks of the Dnieper. Nordic and English encyclopaedia from the time before the first world war use more or less the same definition as Meyers.

The Hetmanate

The closest there was to an early Ukrainian nation state was the Hetmanate of the 17th century. It was founded through the rebellion of Bohdan Khmelnytsky against Polish supremacy, but he was dependent on help from abroad and ended up as a vassal of Moscow. The Hetmanate was historically important not only as a source of Ukrainian national identity, but it also started a process that gradually brought the Ukrainian lands under Russian control, at the expense of Poland.

The areas were thus mainly under Polish control until the 17th century, but at the peace treaty in Moscow in 1686 Poland was forced to cede the areas east of Dnieper and a smaller area around Kiev to Moscow. Most of the west bank of the river only became Russian during Poland's second partition in 1793, and the rest during Poland's third partition in 1795. Galicia was ceded to Austria during Poland's first partition in 1772.

Little Russia

At the outbreak of war in 1914 Ukraine was a rather loosely defined geographical entity: it denoted the south-western part of the Tsars empire. At the time the term Little Russia was far more commonly used, as witnessed by the entries in various encyclopaedia (amongst them Czech, Norwegian, Swedish, English and German).

That said a Ukrainian language and national consciousness existed but manifestations of nationalism were strongly suppressed by the Russian authorities. From 1804 Ukrainian was banned as a subject and as a language of teaching, a state of affairs that continued relatively unchanged until 1917. Literature and other publications written in Ukrainian were mostly published in Galicia, a region under Austrian rule. One of the victims of the repression was the famous author Taras Shevchenko.

In the novel Jaroslav Hašek no doubt refers to Ukraine in accordance with the widely accepted definition of his time: as "the south-western regions of Russia".

Ruthenia

Ukrainians were recognised as a nation in Austria-Hungary and was commonly referred to as Ruthenians. In the Habsburg Empire their language and culture enjoyed a far greater acceptance than in Russia. Ukrainian was one of twelve official languages and in 1918 there were 28 Ukrainian members of the lower chamber of the Austrian "Reichsrat" (see Parlament). This reflected their status as the fourth largest ethnic group in Cisleithanien, behind Germans, Czechs and Poles. The Ukrainian territories of the Dual Empire extended across large parts of Galicia, eastern Slovakia, Carpathian Ruthenia and Bukovina.

The First World War

Already from the outbreak of hostilities in 1914 the war was conducted on Ukrainian lands, albeit on the territory of Austria-Hungary. From August 1915 the war was carried over to Russian-Ukrainian land, and the front stretched here and in the Austrian-Ukrainian areas respectively until the summer of 1917 when the Russian army was forced out of Austro-Hungarian territory once and for all.

In 1914 a considerable number of Czech immigrants lived in Ukraine, mostly in Kiev and Volhynia. It was in these circles that the seeds of what was to become České legie took root, and until March 1918 the Legions operated from Ukrainian territory.

Distrusted on both sides
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Directive on taking hostages in Galicia (© ÖSTA)

Ukrainians were often distrusted by both parts in the conflict and not without reason. In Galicia and other Ukrainian areas of the Dual Monarchy there was widespread sympathy for Russia, a theme Hašek also mentions in the novel. Ukrainians together with Czechs were regarded the least trustworthy nation in Austria-Hungary, and already in 1914 there was built concentration camps for civilians where "Ruthenians" made up a large part of the inmates. This was particularly the case in Thalerhof by Graz (see Steinhof). Many were summarily executed as "spies" and "collaborators" in the areas near the front.

It is documented that K.u.k. Heer took prominent Russophile citizens as hostages when Galicia was reconquered in 1915, and threatened them with execution if sabotage took place in their area. In documents related to the 2nd Army this is clearly revealed, and on regimental level even our acquaintance Čeněk Sagner recommended in writing that suspect civilians be shown no mercy.

The conditions for Ukrainians in Russia during the war was probably not much different, but the information available is not that comprehensive. The pressure on Ukrainian language and culture had been somewhat eased from 1905, but was now intensified again. The well known nurse Elsa Brändström (aka. "the Siberian angel") wrote that "millions of Poles and Ukrainians were deported" and added that Jews were particularly targeted. At the time Ukraine had a large Jewish population.

Revolution
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The Chechoslovak army corps (Legions) pulling out of Ukraine in March 1918

In the aftermath of the October Revolution, Ukraine declared independence and took part in the peace negotiations in Brest-Litovsk. On 9 February 1918 the treaty with the Central Powers was signed, but Kiev had already the previous day been occupied by communist Red Guards commanded by Mikhail Muravyov. These were events Jaroslav Hašek that personally witnessed.

On 18 February German forces invaded the now largely Bolshevik occupied Ukraine to force the revolutionary government in Russia to accept the peace terms. By the end of March all of Ukraine had been occupied, but the state formally continued to exists but now as a German puppet.

As a result of the post-WW1 settlements Ukrainian lands were split between the Soviet Union (where it was recognised as a political entity in the form of the Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic), Poland, Czechoslovakia and Romania.

Hašek in Ukraine
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The only known photo of Jaroslav Hašek from the Russian part of Ukraine. Here with Jan Šípek and Václav Menger. Berezne 29 September 1917 (12 October).

From July to September 1915 Jaroslav Hašek stayed on the territory of current Ukraine, as an Austrian soldier in Galicia and Volhynia. It was by Chorupan in Volhynia that the author was captured on 24 September 1915. From here the prisoners had to walk to the transit camp at Darnitsa (appx. 300 km) before they were transported onwards to camps in other parts of the Russian empire.

After having been released from the prisoner's camp in Totskoye in southern Ural, Hašek lived in Russian Ukraine from June 1916 until March 1918. During this time he worked for Czech organisations who were opposed to Austria-Hungary, units that were later to become known as Czechoslovak Legions (see České legie). He was predominately based in Kiev where he worked as an editor of Čechoslovan, but also travelled extensively between Kiev and the front. On 2 July 1917 he took part in the battle of Zborów where Czechs units for the first time fought against K.u.k. Heer.

Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911

UKRAINE (“frontier”), the name formerly given to a district of European Russia, now comprising the governments of Kharkov, Kiev, Podolia and Poltava. The portion east of the Dnieper became Russian in 1686 and the portion west of that river in 1793.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Nikdy nezapomenu toho člověka, který se tak mořil s tím přes celou Ukrajinu. Byl to živý špeditérský vůz a nemohu si vysvětlit, jak to mohl unést a táhnout kolik set kilometrů a potom jeti s tím až do Taškentu, opatrovat to a umřít na svých zavazadlech na skvrnitý tyf v zajateckém táboře.

Also written:Ukrajina cz Ukraine de Украина ru Україна ua

Tashkentnn flag
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Světozor, 14.3.1917

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From a Red Cross report, 1916.

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Elsa Brändström: "Amongst prisonsers of war in Russia and Siberia" (1921)

Tashkent is mentioned in the story the author tells about the officer's servant dragged a huge amount of luggage with him from Dubno, but who pegged out on top of his luggage in a prisoner's camp in Tashkent. He died from spotted typhus, a disease Jaroslav Hašek himself contracted in Russian captivity (but was somewhat luckier).

The city is mentioned amongst a number of places that don't at the time play a part in the plot, but that might have appeared again if Jaroslav Hašek had managed to complete the novel. See Sokal.

Background

Tashkent (rus. Ташкент) was in 1915 capital of the Russian general governorate Turkestan. It is now the capital of Uzbekistan after having been part of the Soviet Union until 1991. Today the city has more than 2 million inhabitants.

During the war there was a prisoner's camp in the city, and another one at Troytsky 30 kilometres from the centre. In both camps the inmates were mainly prisoners from the Slav nations of of Austria-Hungary. Because many Czech were interned here Jaroslav Hašek surely knew a few people who had stories to tell from Tashkent.

Typhus

Typhus was a big problem in all the camps in Turkestan and in 1915 and 1916 epidemics raged. Health workers were inoculated but the prisoners rarely had this privilege. The casualties reached tens of thousands. Because many Czech were interned here Jaroslav Hašek surely knew a few people who had stories to tell from Tashkent.

In 1915 the Troytsky camp was ravaged by a severe epidemic, one of the worst that hit any of the Russian prisoners camps during the war. During three month 9,000 out of 17,000 prisoners perished. Otherwise the camp in the city was regarded as a good one, and and the inmates enjoyed a large degree of freedom. Officers were allowed to leave the camp without an escort.

Links

SourceElsa Brändström, F. Thormeyer, F. Ferrière

Quote from the novel
[1.14] Nikdy nezapomenu toho člověka, který se tak mořil s tím přes celou Ukrajinu<. Byl to živý špeditérský vůz a nemohu si vysvětlit, jak to mohl unést a táhnout kolik set kilometrů a potom jeti s tím až do Taškentu, opatrovat to a umřít na svých zavazadlech na skvrnitý tyf v zajateckém táboře.

Also written:Taškent cz Taschkent de Ташкент ru Toshkent uz

Sokalnn flag
Wikipedia deenplruuk Google mapsearch
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View of the city from Sokal Hora, 2010.

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Sokal and Poturzyca on a K.u.k. military survey map.

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Finljandskaja Gazeta, 13.8.1914

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Die neue Zeitung, 20.8.1914

Sokal (ukr. Сока́ль) is first mentioned by the author in a passage where he ironically describes how the officer servants ("Putzflecks") brag about their endeavours in various battles.

Sokal is one of a few places that appears in the chapter headers, here in [2.5]. In the body of this chapter Sokal is further mentioned by Schröder as he is about to show his fellow officers where the town is located on the map. In the end he sticks his finger in a turd that a tom-cat has been audacious enough to leave behind on the staff map.

In the next chapter [3.1] Sokal is mentioned again when Ságner receives an order by telegram at the station in Győr, "about quickly getting ready and set off for Sokal". The dispatcher is Ritter von Herbert who has turned insane. At the station in Budapest [3.2] the battalion receives yet another nonsensical telegram from Herbert.

From Sanok [3.4] and until the end of the novel Sokal appears regularly, last in a conversation between Švejk and Marek where it transpires that "we are going Sokal". Marek tells Švejk that he is not going to get paid until after Sokal. Marek says that paying salaries to soldiers who are going to fall anyway, is a useless exercise.

Beyond dispute is the fact that the author intended to place the plot at Sokal in the 4th book, a part that he didn't get to complete due to his premature death.

In all Sokal is mentioned 12 times in the novel.

Background

Sokal is a regional capital in the Lviv oblast in western Ukraine. It is situated 80 km north of Lviv (Lwów), on the eastern bank of the Buh (Bug) and at present (2018) it has approximately 25,000 inhabitants.

From 1772 to 1918 the town belonged to Austria, in the inter-war period to Poland, after the Second World War to the Soviet Union and from 1991 to Ukraine. In 1881 the population was around 8,000 with a near equal distributions between Jews, Poles and Ukrainians. The town was situated approx. 10 km from the border with Russia.

Russian occupation

Sokal was soon after the outbreak of war attacked by Russian forces. Already on 13 August 1914 the Russian general staff reported that the town had been captured, two bridges across the Bug blown up, provisions destroyed and the railway station torched. This news was however refuted by Austrian sources a few days later. These claim that the attack was a plundering mission and that the enemy had been repelled. Both Russian and Austrian reports confirm that the attack took place on 11 August, but the occupation was short-lived.

The Russians were however soon back. On 21 august the Austrians repelled another attack, but on 31 August Finnish newspapers reported that Sokal and several other towns and cities in Galicia had been captured.

In the aftermaths of the first Russian attack on Sokal, reports of treason against Austria-Hungary appeared in the newspapers. Some of the Emperors Ruthenian (Ukrainian) subjects, 28 of them, were judged guilty as they allegedly had guided the Russians towards Sokal by signalling from church towers. They were from Skomorochy (ukr. Скоморохи) north of Sokal, and were sentenced to death on 20 August, and hanged in their home village the next day.

The Central Powers returning
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The situation south of Sokal 27 July 1915. The blue arrow indicates the position of IR91, 11. field company.

© ÖsTA

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Pester Lloyd, 29.7.1915

Sokal was only reconquered by the Central Powers on 18 July 1915. For the remainder of the war the town was in Austrian hands and after the battle south of town during the next two weeks, Sokal disappears entirely from the news headlines.

The decisive battle over the control Sokal took place from 15 to 31 July 1915. It started with an attack by K.u.k. 1. Armee, eventually supported by the German 103rd Infantry Division. They crossed the Bug and after fierce fighting they captured Sokal on the 18h. Thus K.u.k. Heer had established a bridgehead east of the river.

That same day there was however issued an order that had widespread consequences. The German commander-in-chief Mackesen ordered that 103rd Infantry Division and other German troops were to be pulled out to help general Linsingen further north. This put K.u.k. 1. Armee in a difficult situation, as the Russians, commanded by the competent general Brusilov, recaptured the hills south of Sokal on the 20th. From here they could shell the town and threaten to push the enemy back across the river.

Already the same day Paul Puhallo, commander of 1st Army, realised how serious the situation was. He asked for assistance and the request was granted. K.u.k. 2. Armee released the entire 9th Infantry Division (that IR91 belonged to). According to the original plans they were to attack across the Bug by Kamionka Strumiłowa on 21 July, but in the night between the 20th and 21st they instead had to start marching northwards to relieve the threatened bridgehead at Sokal.

The order to move the division to this section of the front was thus the direct reason why Jaroslav Hašek got to Sokal at all, and hence leading to the town being mentioned in his novel.

K.u.k. Infanteriregiment Nr. 91 by Sokal
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Oberleutnant Sagner reporting on the critical situation of his battalion finds itself in. The losses are reacing at least 50 per cent.

© ÖsTA

The regiment reached Opulsko west of Sokal on the 22nd and the next day they were in position by Poturzyca (ukr. Поториця), a few kilometres south of the town. At 4 PM on 25 July 1915 the signal for attack on the Russian positions on the hills by Poturzyca (Kote 254, 237, 234) was given. It was a brutal battle with frightening losses on both sides. It is estimated that 9th Infantry Division lost around half their men killed, wounded and missing. On both sides a large number of prisoners were taken.

In the end K.u.k. Heer had to give up the attack and pull back to positions between Sokal and Poturzyca. In the end they were saved by an unexpected Russian withdrawal that was caused by a German break-through further north. Thus the Russian forces by Sokal were in danger of getting trapped and were ordered to pull back.

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"Bojiště u Sokalu", Večerní České Slovo, 1924

On 1 August the 9th division was replaced. Parts of IR91 were lodged in the gymnasium in Sokal (Jan Vaněk mentions it in his diary), a fact that may have found its way into the novel (but "relocated" to Sanok). In the evening of 2 August they started the march to the reserve positions by Żdżary, 15 kilometres north of Sokal. On 3 August, at 4 in the morning, the replacement had been completed. Żdżary was in an area that was infested by cholera, but it is not known whether anyone from the regiment were infected. K.u.k. Infanteriedivision Nr. 9 stayed in the area until 27 August when an offensive into Russia in the direction of Dubno started.

The original units from 1st army also took part in the battle. Amongst these were IR4 (Hoch- und Deutschmeister from Vienna), FJB10 (Kopaljäger from Jihlava), FJB25 from Brno. These units had also taken part in the original conquest of Sokal, where particularly the Deutschmeister regiment (IR4) distinguished itself.

Jaroslav Hašek and Sokal
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"Dekorierung" at IR91/11. field company, Żdżary 18 August 1915. Colonel Rudolf Kiesswetter handed out medals to the soldiers. On the photo, we can apart from Kiesswetter himself, identify (a.o.) Vaněk, Hašek, Lukas and Sagner. From "Bestand Rudolf Kiesswetter".

© ÖsTA

Jaroslav Hašek served as messenger in the 3rd field battalion, 11th company. The battalion held one of the most exposed positions and suffered terrible losses. Still Oberleutnant Čeněk Sagner led his unit commendably and in battle reports he was mentioned in very favourable terms. Oberleutnant Rudolf Lukas led 11th company, one of the four companies in Sagner's battalion.

Hašek was after the battle of Sokal promoted to Gefreiter and on 18 August 1915 he was decorated with a silver medal (2nd class) for bravery demonstrated during the fighting around Poturzyca on 25 July.

Several of the "models" for characters in Švejk took part in the battle for Sokal: Rudolf Lukas, Čeněk Sagner, Hans Bigler, Jan Vaněk, František Strašlipka, Jan Eybl and Franz Wenzel.

Apart from the author, Kadett Bigler and Oberleutnant Sagner were promoted after the battle. Oberstleutnant Wenzel was investigated due to cowardly conduct. He allegedly left the command of his 2. battalion to Oberleutnant Peregrin Baudisch and for some mysterious reason spent time with the 4th battalion (who were reserves).

These were decorated after the battle: Jaroslav Hašek, Hans Bigler, Jan Vaněk, František Strašlipka and Čeněk Sagner. The latter was one of only three in the whole regiment who were given the highest recognition: the German "Eiserne Kreuz" (Iron Cross).

A well documented battle
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From Jan Vaněk's diary. 31 July 1915.

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From Gefechtsbericht, 9 August 1915. This report contains stinging criticism of how the main commanders of IR91 conducted the battle. Regimental commander Oberst Steinsberg and the commander of the 2nd battalion, Oberstleutnant Wenzel, are singled out for particularly harsh criticism.

© ÖsTA

Important testimonies of the battle are the diaries of Jan Vaněk and Jan Eybl, the notes of Bohumil Vlček, all from IR91. Moreover there is the diary of Eugen Hoeflich (better known as Moscheh Ya’akov Ben-Gavriêl) from Feldjägerbtn. 25, Brno (FJB 25).

Apart from these personal accounts, detailed descriptions of the battle can be found in the regimental chronicles of IR91, IR73 and IR102, probably also by IR4, IR11 and others. Österreich-Ungarns letzter Krieg describes the battle thoroughly and gives insight into the decisions and considerations further up the command chain. In the war archives in Vienna and Prague there is more material that can be found; diaries, battle reports, orders, maps, photos and more. Material on IR91 and Sokal can be found in both archives.

Newspaper reports that mention Sokal were numerous, but on both sides the news stream was obviously filtered and censored. The respective setbacks were "wrapped in" or not mentioned at all, and own successes exaggerated. Much more informative are newspaper items from after the war, where individuals wrote about their experiences around Sokal.

The author of this web page has not found any eye-witness accounts from the Russian side, but official reports are available in Finnish newspapers (at the time Finland was a Russian Grand Duchy) and newspapers from neutral states like Norway, Sweden, Netherlands and Switzerland.

Hašek and the 300 prisoners
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Důjstonické listy, 24.2.1938

A sixteen-part series in Večerní České Slovo from 1924, based partly on interviews with Rudolf Lukas, is also an important source. It has been much relied upon by post-WW2 Haškologists. This despite a suspicion that the author Jan Morávek "coloured" his account to a considerable degree. One such case is the claim that Jaroslav Hašek was decorated because he convinced 300 Russians to give themselves up, and then led them to regiment HQ without disarming them, thus causing confusion and panic behind the lines.

This episode is not mention at all in the application for his decoration (Belohnungsantrag), but the story has many similarities with information from one of Rudolf Lukas's obituaries (Důjstonické listy, 24 February 1938). Here it transpires that Hašek actually was trusted by Lukas to lead a group of prisoners to positions behind the lines. Contrary to instructions he did not disarm them and this led to panic as they entered HQ where the officers believed that the Russians had broken through. The episode put Lukas in a bad light but we don't known if it had any consequences for him.

Jan Vaněk, 26.7.1915

Včera odpol přišel rozkaz „Ku předu“ na ruské zákopy. Nejdříve bombardovalo naše dělostřelectvo a pak jsme šli. Ale bylo to hrozné. Sotva naši lidé vyskočili na náspy, již se jich mnoho a mnoho válelo na zemi dílem mrtvých a raněných. Hrozná to byla hodinka. Postoupili jsme o 100 kroků do předu a dále to nešlo. Byli jsme seslabeni. K tomu ke všemu pršelo jen se lilo. Bláto zamazalo pušky, takže nebylo možno střílet. Trnuli jsme strachy a kdyby rusové udělali protiútok, že to nezadržíme. Ale nestalo se tak—do rána jsme se urželi a pak jsme pokračovali. Zajali jsme spousty Rusů.

28. juli 1915, 11 Uhr Nachts

Gleich darauf meldte Oberleutnant Sagner: Linker Flügel des III. Bataillons hat, da das Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 zurückgeging, jeden Anschluss verloren. Gegner durchgebrochen - Pionerabteilung des Regimentsreserven eingesetzt. Bitte um 2 Kompagnien an meinen linken Flügel da dieser in äusserst kritischer Situation ist.

Links

Source: VHA, ÖSTA, Milan Hodík, Bohumil Vlček, Jan Vaněk, Jan Eybl, Eugen Hoeflich

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Dnes jsou důstojničtí sluhové roztroušení po celé naší republice a vypravují o svých hrdinných skutcích. Oni šturmovali Sokal, Dubno, Niš, Piavu. Každý z nich je Napoleonem: „Povídal jsem našemu obrstovi, aby telefonoval do štábu, že už to může začít.“
[2.5] "Odtud, pánové, k Sokalu na Bug," řekl plukovník Schröder věštecky a posunul ukazováček po paměti ke Karpatům, přičemž zabořil jej do jedné z těch hromádek, jak se kocour staral udělat mapu bojiště plastickou.
[3.1] Telegram zněl prosté, nešifrován: "Rasch abkochen, dann Vormarsch nach Sokal." Hejtman Ságner povážlivé zakroutil hlavou. "Poslušné hlásím," řekl Matušič, "velitel stanice dá vás prosit k rozmluvě. Je tam ještě jeden telegram." Potom byla mezi velitelem nádraží a hejtmanem Ságnerem rozmluva velice důvěrného rázu. První telegram musel být odevzdán, třebas měl obsah velice překvapující, když je batalión na stanici v Rábu: "Rychle uvařit a pak pochodem na Sokal." Adresován byl nešifrovaně na pochodový batalión 91. pluku s kopií na pochodový batalión 75. pluku, který byl ještě vzadu. Podpis byl správný: Velitel brigády Ritter von Herbert.
[3.2] Matušič přinesl na vojenském nádraží v Budapešti hejtmanovi Ságnerovi z velitelství telegram, který poslal nešťastný velitel brigády dopravený do sanatoria. Byl téhož obsahu, nešifrován, jako na poslední stanici: "Rychle uvařit menáž a pochodem na Sokal." K tomu bylo připojeno: "Vozatajstvo začíslit u východní skupiny. Výzvědná služba se zrušuje. 13. pochodový prapor staví most přes řeku Bug. Bližší v novinách."
[3.4] Ačkoliv odtud bylo spojení železniční neporušeno pod Lvov i severně na Veliké Mosty, bylo vlastně záhadou, proč štáb východního úseku udělal tyto dispozice, aby železná brigáda se svým štábem soustřeďovala pochodové prapory sto padesát kilometrů v týlu, když šla v té době fronta od Brodů na Bug a podél řeky severně k Sokalu.
[3.4] Tato nešťastná kráva, možno-li vůbec nazvati onen přírodní zjev kravou, utkvěla všem účastníkům v živé paměti, a je téměř jisto, že kdyby později před bitvou u Sokalu byli velitelé připomněli mužstvu krávu z Liskowiec, že by se byla jedenáctá kumpanie za hrozného řevu vzteku vrhla s bajonetem na nepřítele.
[4.1] Neznalo ještě nic určitého o revolučních organizacích v cizině a teprve v srpnu na linii Sokal Milijatin - Bubnovo obdrželi velitelé bataliónů důvěrné rezerváty, že bývalý rakouský profesor Masaryk utekl za hranice, kde vede proti Rakousku propagandu. Nějaký pitomeček od divize doplnil rezervát ještě tímto rozkazem: "V případě zachycení předvésti neprodlené k štábu divize!" Toto tedy připomínám panu presidentovi, aby věděl, jaké nástrahy a léčky byly na něho kladeny mezi Sokalem- Milijatinem a Bubnovou.
[4.3] Major otevřel si stůl, vytáhl mapu a zamyslel se nad tím, že Felštýn je 40 kilometrů jihovýchodně od Přemyšlu, takže jevila se zde hrozná záhada, jak přišel pěšák Švejk k ruské uniformě v místech vzdálených přes sto padesát kilometrů od fronty, když pozice táhnou se v linii Sokal - Turze Kozlów.
[4.3] "U nás ho teď nedostaneš, poněvadž my jdeme na Sokal a lénunk se bude vyplácet až po bitvě, musíme šetřit. Jestli počítám, že se to tam strhne za čtrnáct dní, tak se ušetří na každým padlým vojákovi i s culágama 24 K 72 hal."

Also written:Сокаль ru Сокаль ua

Nišnn flag
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Serbian funeral in Niš © ÖSTA

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Linzer Volksblatt, 7.11.1915

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IR91 by Niš 8 October 1918.

Niš is mentioned when the author riducules the officers' servants who "stormed" Niš, Sokal and Piave (and others).

Background

Niš (ser. Ниш) is a city in Serbia by the river Nišava. Counting more than 250,000 inhabitants it is the biggest city in southern Serbia and the third in the country behind Belgrade and Novi Sad.

During the war

The city was war-time capital of Serbia due to the exposed position of Belgrade at the border with Hungary. During the Central Power's offensive in the autumn of 1915 Niš was conquered by Bulgarian troops on 5 November 1915 after the Serbs had abandoned the city. It remained under Bulgarian occupation until 12 October 1918 when it was liberated by Serbian forces.

That Austrian soldiers would have been participating in the storming of Niš (as the author suggests) is unlikely as the operations against the city in 1915 were undertaken by the Bulgarian army.

IR91 by Niš

In late September 1918 Bulgaria pulled out of the war and left their allies on the Balkans dangerously exposed. The 9th Infantry Division (including IR91) was therefore hastily transferred from the front by Piave to southern Serbia. The transport went by train via Udine, Ljubljana, Belgrade to Vranje on the Macedonian border. The division was seriously decimated and suffered from shortages and diseases. Some reserves didn't even have shoes. South of Vranje they immediately faced the advancing Serbian 1st Army and already on 3 October they had to withdraw northwards. The 17th Brigade (IR91 and IR102) had a particularly arduous retreat across the mountains. On 8 October they had reached the vicinity of Niš and by 16 October by Vitkovač. The retreat continued northwards for the remaining few weeks of the war.

Links

Source: Jan Ciglbauer, Milan Hodík

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Oni šturmovali Sokal, Dubno, Niš, Piavu.

Also written:Nisch de Ниш sr

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K.u.k. Heer crossing Piave by Grave di Papadopoli

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Svět, 12.9.1918

Piave is mentioned by the narrator when he ridicules the officers' servants who bragged about their exploits during the war.

Background

Piave is a river in northern Italy. It flows from the Alps and after 220 km ends in the Adriatic Sea near Venice.

During the war

After the Central Powers broke through by Caporetto 24 October 1917, Italian forces pulled back to the Piave where the front was stabilised in November after the enemy's attempt to cross the river failed. In June 1918 a second battle by the Piave took place. This was the last large-scale Austro-Hungarian operation in the war. The offensive failed and K.u.k. Heer suffered nearly 120,000 casualties. On 24 October 1918 the Allies attacked across the river and the Austro-Hungarian front collapsed.

By Piave a division of Czech legionnaires were fighting on the Italian side. Those who were captured were publicly executed. On one single day, 22 July 1918, no less than 160 legionnaires suffered this grim fate.

IR91 by Piave

During the offensive by Caporetto, IR91 followed K.u.k. Heer westwards from Isonzo to Piave where they arrived on 13 November 1917. For the first month they were stationed at Ponte di Piave, then moved on to Valdobbiadene further up the river.

During the failed Austrian offensive in the summer of 1918 they stayed in the reserve (15 to 23 June), were then moved down the river again to Grave di Papadopoli, a large island in Piave. Finally they were moved to the Serbian front, a transfer that began on 30 September. Amongst the models for characters in the novel only Hans Bigler served by Piave.

Links

Source: Jan Ciglbauer, Milan Hodík

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Oni šturmovali Sokal, Dubno, Niš, Piavu.

Also written:Piava cz

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Canary Islands is here used as an adjective in reference to a breed of birds that is named after these islands. Lukáš was fond of animals and owned a Canary bird, a cat and a dog. The bird ended its life miserably as Švejk tried to let the bird and the cat get used to each other. The result is a foregone conclusion.

Background

Canary Islands is a group of islands in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Africa that belong to Spain.

The Canary bird is named after the Canary Islands where it lives in the wild. It is also present on the Azores and Madeira. It was imported to Europe as a domesticated animal, and in Central Europe it became particularly popular. During the 19th century the Harz region became the main centre of canary breeding.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.3] Neobyčejně rád měl zvířata. Měl harckého kanárka, angorskou kočku a stájového pinče.
[1.14.3] „Poslušně hlásím, pane obrlajtnant, že je vše v nejlepším pořádku, jedině kočka dělala neplechu a sežrala vašeho kanára.“

Also written:Kanárské ostrovy cz Kanarischen Inseln de Islas Canarias es

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Der Floh, 9.2.1913

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Národní politika, 5.1.1908

Harz is here used as an adjective in reference to a breed of canary birds; the Harzer Roller. The mentioned bird belonged to Lukáš but suffered a grim fate as Švejk let the bird and the senior lieutenant's cat together "so they could get used to each other".

Background

Harz is a mountain range in Germany. It is the northernmost range in the country and straddles the borders of Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia.

Harzer Roller is a breed of canary birds that was bred in the Harz mountains and was very popular in the 19th century. It is best known as a singing bird but is also used in mines to warn against poisonous gases. It is particularly sensitive to carbon monoxide. The centre for breeding of this race is Sankt Andreasberg.

The breed regularly show up in newspaper adverts from before the world war, for instance in mellom anna i Národní politika. Jaroslav Hašek, who in 1909 and 1910 was editor of the animal magazine Svět zvířat, was very knowledgeable on animals, including birds.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.3] Neobyčejně rád měl zvířata. Měl harckého kanárka, angorskou kočku a stájového pinče.
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© Pelhřimovský magazín

Pelhřimov is mentioned in a monologue where Švejk tells Lukáš about a teacher Marek from a village nearby who runs after the daughter of the game-keeper Špera.

The town is mentioned again in Vienna when Švejk rejoins his obrlajtnant and immediately tells him about a certain Vaníček from Pelhřimov.

Background

Pelhřimov is a town in Vysočina with around 17,000 inhabitants (2010). It has a well preserved historic centre, and also a certain industrial tradition, for instance in brewing.

In 1913 the town had 5,738 inhabitants where all but 9 declared themselves with Czech nationality. Unusually for Bohemia at the time not a single person declared himself German. The town was seat of hejtmanství and okres of the same name.

Pelhřimov belonged to Army Recruitment District No. 75 (Jindřichův Hradec) so infantry recruits from the area served with Infanterieregiment Nr. 75. In the army command chain from 1914 this regiment belonged to the 8th Army Corps (see Korpskommando). From 1912 most of the regiment, including staff, were garrisoned in Salzburg.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.3] V jedný vesnici za Pelhřimovem byl nějaký učitel Marek a ten chodil za dcerou hajnýho Špery, a ten mu dal vzkázat, že jestli se bude s holkou scházet v lese, že mu, když ho potká, postí do zadnice z ručnice štětiny se solí.
[2.3] „Vostudu,“ pokračoval Švejk, „jsem vám jistě nikdy neudělal, jestli se něco stalo, to byla náhoda, pouhý řízení boží, jako říkal starej Vaníček z Pelhřimova, když si vodbejval šestatřicátej trest. Nikdy jsem nic neudělal naschvál, pane obrlajtnant, vždycky jsem chtěl udělat něco vobratnýho, dobrýho, a já za to nemůžu, jestli jsme voba z toho neměli žádnej profit a jenom samý pouhý trápení a mučení.“

Also written:Pilgram de

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The Hlaváček tramway by Klamovka in June 1897

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Čech, 17.11.1910

Košíře is mentioned in the dialogue between Lukáš and Švejk after the cat has eaten the canary. This conversation touches on dog trade and falsification of pedigrees, and Švejk uses a mongrel from Košíře as an example.

Background

Košíře is a district in Prague and is located in the western part of the capital, between Smíchov and Motol. Košíře was a separate town from 1895 until it joined greater Praha in 1922.

In 1913 Košíře belonged to okres and hejtmanství Smíchov. The town had 12,293 and virtuallz all were registered as Czechs, only 14 reported as German nationals. The town consisted of the districts Cibulka, Košíře, Kotlářka, Počtávka and Podhají. It was served by a post-office and a Roman-Catholic parish. As a curiosity should be mentioned the privatly owned tramway that connect the town with Smíchov centre.

Hašek in Košíře

Jaroslav Hašek officially lived in Košíře no. 908 from 4 February 1909. This was the address the editorial offices of the bi-weekly animal magazine Svět zvířat. This is the magazine where he for a while functioned as an editor. It was here that he published stories about fictive animals, an undertaking that forced owner Fuchs to dismiss his innovative editor(see Marek). The villa was situated above the Klamovka garden but was demolished some time between 2011 and 2015.

From 28 July 1910 shows him registered further down in the town towards Smíchov, in Košíře no. 1125. Here he lived with his wife Jarmila who he had married 23 May 1910. He stayed here (at least officially) until 28 December 1911 when he is recorded with residence Vršovice. It was from no. 1125 that he for a short period, at the end of 1910 and beginning of 1911, ran his unsuccessful "Kynological Institute", buying and selling dogs and other animals.

The birth of Švejk

It was probably during his time in Košíře that the author created The Good Soldier Švejk, although in a very different format than the later world famous novel. The first story about Švejk was published 22 May 1911.

Links

SourceJaroslav Šerák

Quote from the novel
[1.14.3] A každej hned chtěl rodokmen, tak jsem si musel dát rodokmeny natisknout a dělat z nějakýho košířskýho voříška, kerej se narodil v cihelně, nejčistokrevnějšího šlechtice z bavorskýho psince Armin von Barnheim.

Also written: Koschirsch Reiner Koschiř de

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Das deutsche Kaiserreich, 1871-1918

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Ottův slovník naučný, 1909

Bavaria is mentioned by Švejk in the first conversation with Lukáš about dogs. In the Bavarian kennel of Armin von Armin von Barheim pure breed pinschers are bred.

In [IV.3] Bavaria is mentioned again as soldiers from IR91 had been brawling with Bavarians at the square in Żółtańce.

Background

Bavaria is the largest of the German federal states, with Munich as the capital and one of the country's major cities.

The Kingdom of Bavaria existed from 1805 to 1918 and in 1871 it became part of the new united Germany. The geographical extent was somewhat different to that of the modern state as the geographically separate Palatinate belonged to Bavaria.

The kingdom kept a degree of autonomy after the unification: the Wittelsbach dynasty continued its reign, and Bavaria provided its own army, postal and railway services. Bavaria had traditionally been an ally of Austria in conflicts with Prussia, as late as in the German War of 1866 it was at war with Prussia.

In the novel there are few references to Bavarian people and places. The most famous Bavarian mentioned is obviously Sissi (see Elisabeth zu Bayern), then of course the writer Ganghofer. References to Bavarian geography are limited to Nuremberg and Nördlingen.

Hašek in Bavaria
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Besedy lidu, 9.5.1914

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Jogelli Klopter and Jaroslav Hašek. © Josef Lada

Jaroslav Hašek knew parts of Bavaria from his wanderings during the summer of 1904, a journey that inspired him to write a some stories set there. His experiences appear as fragments in many more. According to his won story Velký den (The Big Day) he travelled by foot all the way from Switzerland through Bavaria to Domažlice where he was hosted by his friend Hájek. The journey took place from July and probably until September (the story was printed on 9 October). Hašek's travel in Bavaria is documented only by his own stories, which means that some details must be taken with a pinch of salt. Still we can assume that the greater contours of the journey are factual and that many other details are.

A number places in the former kingdom feature in the various stories. The plot itself takes place in the towns of Dillingen, Höchstädt, Ingolstadt, and Neuburg. All of them are located on the Danube on the stretch between Ingolstadt and the border with Württemberg. In addition Hašek mentions the Bavarian regions Upper Palatinate, Upper Franconia and Swabia. The cities of Passau and Regensburg are mentioned and so are a number of minor places which names are often mystified or misspelt.

Three of the stories are set in Neuburg, and the best known of these describe a meeting with the fat tourist guide Jogelli Klopter. The story has been translated to several foreign languages, amongst them English. Another well known story is titled Justice in Bavaria and is set in Ingolstadt. Here the author is arrested as a vagrant but is quite satisfied with the conditions in the prisons and the terms of his sentence in general.

A story about hop-picking is set in the area between Nuremberg and Spalt. Here he describes his meeting with other seasonal workers, amongst them a man from Schleswig.

In 1917 Jaroslav Hašek wrote the story Na Valhallu in Čechoslovan in Kiev. The story which is more propaganda than entertainment, does however mention a number og places along the river Regen and indicates his journey back to Bohemia through Bavarian Forest in 1904. Mentioned are the Walhalla monument by Donaustauf, Furth im Wald and Eschlkam. He also describes where he crossed the border.

Links

Source: Jan Berwid-Buquoy,Radko Pytlík

Quote from the novel
[1.14.3] A každej hned chtěl rodokmen, tak jsem si musel dát rodokmeny natisknout a dělat z nějakýho košířskýho voříška, kerej se narodil v cihelně, nejčistokrevnějšího šlechtice z bavorskýho psince Armin von Barheim.

Also written:Bavorsko cz

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Vojtěšská ulice, Nové město, Praha. © AHMP

Vojtěšská ulice is mentioned by Švejk in connection with Lukáš' troubles when Katy appears. In his anecdote it was also talk of a visiting lady who didn't know her allotted time. The incident with the lady allegedly took place "two years ago", in other words in 1912.

Background

Vojtěšská ulice is a street in Nové Město, running parallel to Vltava north of Myslíkova ulice. The street is named after Adalbert of Prague. The main attraction in the street is probably church Kostel sv. Vojtěcha většího. There is also an identically named street in Břevnov but it is unlikely that Švejk had this street in mind.

It has not been possible to link the mentioned episode to any news items from the period in question.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.4] „Poslušně hlásím, pane obrlajtnant, že je to těžký případ. Ve Vojtěšský ulici před dvěma léty nastěhovala se k jednomu čalouníkovi nějaká slečna a von ji nemoh vypudit z bytu a musel votrávit ji i sebe svítiplynem a bylo po legraci. S ženskejma je vobtíž. Já do nich vidím.“

Also written:Adalbertgasse de

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Světozor, 18.10.1912

Třeboň was the town Mrs Micková came from. Lukáš expected a visit from here just at the moment Katy inconveniently arrived.

Background

Třeboň is a town in South Bohemia with around 8,700 inhabitants (2010). It was one of the main centres of the Schwarzenberg estates, has a fine historic old town and is surrounded by rybníky, artificial lakes used for fish-breeding. It is also classified as a spa town. Třeboň had in 1914 direct railway connection with Prague and Vienna.

Třeboň was in 1913 part of hejtmanství and okres of the same name. The town itself had 5,278 inhabitants, of which 5,098 were registered as Czechs. There was also a military presence in town - of the 341 employed by the armed forces most were Czechs.

In 1912 1st battalion of IR88 were garrisoned in Třeboň, but by 1913 they had been transferred to Jindřichův Hradec. At the moment we don't know who used the barrack in Třeboň by the outbreak of or during the war. Soldiers from Třeboň were drafted in Ergänzungsbezirk Nr. 75, so most would eventually serve in Infanterieregiment Nr. 75.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.4] Milý Jindřich byl určitě v ošklivé situaci. Manželka pronásledovaná manželem přijede k němu na několik dní na návštěvu, právě když má přijeti paní Micková z Třeboně, aby po tři dny opakovala to, co mu pravidelně poskytuje každého čtvrt roku, když jede do Prahy dělat nákupy.

Also written:Wittingau de

Memphisnn flag
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Salzburger Chronik, 3.3.1897

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Znaimer Tagblatt, 26.2.1909

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Kopřivy, 16.5.1918

Memphis is here used as an adjective in the expression "a packet of Memphis cigarettes", in Czech "krabice memfisek". Švejk was ordered by Lukáš to buy wine and cigarettes for Katy. The cigarettes are mentioned three times in this chapter.

Background

Memphis is here mentioned through the cigarette brand Memphis that was manufactured by the tobacco-monopoly Kaiserlich königliche Tabak-regie. The cigarettes were made in Hainburg and a number of other places. In 1882 there we 28 tobacco factories in Cisleithanien, i.e. the Austrian half of the Dual Monarchy, but details on which factory made what brand are not available.

The brand was launched in 1897 and was in 1913 the third most sold brand in the Austrian part of Austria-Hungary. The name refers to Memphis in ancient Egypt, not to the US metropolis. May of the Austrian cigarette brand names had an Oriental association (Nil, Stambul, Sultan, Memphis etc.).

Memphis cigarettes continued to be produced in post-war Czechoslovakia and Austria, by the successor states respective tobacco monopolies. In Austria the monopoly was abolished as late as 1996 and the Memphis cigarette exists even today (2019), although it is no longer made in the country. The last domestic tobacco factory (Hainburg) closed down in 2011.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.4] Pak koupíte tři láhve vína, krabičku memfisek, tak.
[1.14.4] Dostal jsem na to vod pana obrlajtnanta sto korun, ale z toho musím koupit tři lahve vína a krabičku memfisek.“
[1.14.4] Při obědě vypila láhev vína, vykouřila mnoho memfisek a lehla si do postele, zatímco Švejk v kuchyni pochutnával si na komisárku, který namáčel do sklenice s nějakou sladkou kořalkou.
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Das interessante Blatt, 25.2.1915

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Österreich-Ungarns letzter Krieg (Band 1)

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Světová válka 1914-1915 slovem i obrazem, s. 510

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Berliner Tageblatt, 8.5.1915

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Světová válka 1914-1915 slovem i obrazem, s. 508

Dunajec was mentioned by the author when he describes the war situation and the "war council" Lukáš and Švejk held to get rid of Katy. He notes that this was at the time when the masses of the armies stood in a the rain of shells in the forests by Dunajec and Raba and that heavy artillery tore apart entire companies and dispersed them in the Carpathians.

Soon after, when Wendler has arrived to pick up his wife, Lukáš mentions the river for his guest when he explains the positive outlook for the war.

Background

Dunajec is a river that flows through northern Slovakia and southern Poland. It is one of the tributaries of Vistula which it joins by Opatowiec, north of Tarnów.

From 15 November 1914 the 3rd Russian Army led by Radko Dimitrov crossed the river and advanced across Raba towards Kraków. On 8 December they were forced back (battle of Limanowa) and by the end of the year the front had stabilised by Dunajec.

Until May 1915 part of the front stretched along Dunajec and fierce fighting took place through the winter. The situation changed to the advantage of the Central Powers after the breakthrough by Gorlice and Tarnów on 2 May 1915 and the area was thereafter spared for further destruction.

The novel's timing

The author mentions fighting by Raba and Dunajec in the same sentence so time-wise so the author surely has the period from 15 November 1914 until the turn of the year in mind. It was precisely in this period that the Russian army operated beyond Dunajec, and nearly reached Kraków. This corresponds with one of the very few dates mentioned in the novel: on 20 December 1914 Lukáš dictated a letter for Švejk to send Katy as thanks for the 400 crowns she left on the washbasin as thanks for his services.

Quote from the World War Chronicle

The quote from the conversation between Lukáš and Wendler is copied directly from page 508 of Kronika světové války. It refers to events that took place as late as 2 May 1915.

Even the author's introduction to the sub-chapter can be traced to the Chronicle but here the author replaced the river Biała with Raba, preseumably to align the plot with the situation at the front in December 1914. This quote also refers to events that took place in early May, more precisely the re-conquest of Tarnów by the Central Powers. It was originally reported in Berliner Tageblatt on 8 May 1915.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Zatímco masy vojsk připnuté na lesích u Dunajce i Rábu stály pod deštěm granátů a velkokalibrová děla roztrhávala celé setniny a zasypávala je v Karpatech a obzory na všech bojištích hořely od požárů vesnic i měst, prožíval nadporučík Lukáš se Švejk nepříjemnou idylu s dámou, která utekla svému muži a dělala nyní domácí paní.
[1.14.5] Jakmile však prolomíme ruskou frontu mezi karpatským hřbetem a středním Dunajcem, není nijaké pochybnosti, že bude to znamenat konec války.

Also written:Dunajetz de

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Brda a Podbrdí, Josef Kafka, 1925

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Právo lidu, 10.10.1912

Všenory is mentioned in a story Švejk tells to illustrate for Lukáš the problems of getting Katy out of the house.

Background

Všenory is a village around 20 km south west of Prague, by the river Berounka. In 2018 it had 1,640 inhabitants.

Všenory was in 1913 listed under hejtmanství Smíchov, okres Zbraslav. The village had 289 inhabitants, and all declared their mother tongue as Czech. The Catholic parish was Mokropsy Horní a Trnová, the post office was located in Dobřichovice.

The village belonged to the military recruitment district No. 28 so infantrymen with right of domicile in the village served in IR28.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Ve Všenorech byl minulej rok takovej případ v jedný vile. Ale tenkrát si ten telegram poslala sama ta ženská svýmu muži a ten si pro ni přijel a nafackoval voboum. Voba byli civilisti, ale v tomto případě si na oficíra nebude troufat.

Also written:Wšenor de

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Světová válka 1914-1915 slovem i obrazem

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L'entrée des Allemands à Paris (Septembre 1914)

Paris will according to Lukáš soon be in German hands. This claim is part of his lecture to hop trader Wendler about the military situation.

The hop trader later in the conversation asks the officer why the Germans had withdrawn to the border when they already had been close to Paris.

Background

Paris is the capital and the largest city in France. The city core has a population of around 2.1 million, whereas the metropolitan area, which is the fourth largest Europe, has around 12 million.

The French capital was for a while in August and September 1914 seriously threatened by the initial German advance, but the enemy was halted in the battle of Marne.

Paris is also mentioned in some of Jaroslav Hašek's short stories, see links below.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Stejně Francouzům hrozí v nejkratší době ztráta celé východní Francie a vtržení německého vojska do Paříže.
[1.14.5] Nemyslete si, že nesleduji události,“ pokračoval, dívaje se zuřivě na nadporučíka, který klidně vypouštěl z úst kolečka cigaretového dýmu, která stíhala jedno za druhým a rozbíjela je, což sledovala paní Katy s velkým zájmem, „proč Němci odešli zpět ku hranicím, když byli již u Paříže?

Also written:Paříž cz

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Prager Tagblatt, 11.5.1915

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Světová válka 1914-1915 slovem i obrazem

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IR91, Kistopolya, 23.4.1915. Bestand Rudolf Kiesswetter

© ÖStA

Východní Beskydy is part of the lecture about the war situation that Lukáš treats hop trader Wendler to. From [II.3] onwards, events from here are often mentioned through stories from veterans who have served with IR91 in the Carpathians. By Medzilaborce and Palota the plot takes place here without the mountains being mentioned explicitly.

Background

Východní Beskydy is a mountain region straddling the border between Poland, Slovakia and Ukraine, in Polish called Bieszczady. From the autumn of 1914 until May 1915 the front went along the mountains which saw heavy fighting during the winter battle of the Carpathians.

The novel apparently refers to battles that took place at the beginning of April 1915 east of Medzilaborce. Many of the official bulletins from this period mentions the fighting in Ostbeskiden. This assumption is supported by the fact that the author picked most of the information he used in the conversation between Lukáš and Wendler from these very announcements.

The news entry in Kronika světové války from 2 April 1915 mentions Východní Beskydy as well as Klosterhoek, Niederaspach and Mühlhausen. All these places feature in the conversation between Wendler and Lukáš. Also note that the spelling "Bezkydy" was often used, for instance in the mentioned news item.

IR91 in the Eastern Beskids

Until the first week of May 1915 three battalions of IR91 were stationed at this section of the front. They had been transferred from the Balkans front in early February. Their stay here has surely provided material for many of the conversation in Book Three.

Several of the models for characters in the novel served here: Rudolf Lukas, Jan Vaněk, Jan Eybl, Josef Adamička and also the more peripheral Wurm. The activities of the regimentet in these mountains are very well documented through the diaries of Eybl.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Nadporučík Lukáš vzal obchodníka s chmelem jemně za rameno a odvedl k mapě bojiště, visící na stěně, a ukazuje mu jednotlivé body, vykládal: „Východní Beskydy jsou naším znamenitým opěrným bodem.

Also written:Eastern Beskids en Ostbeskiden de Aust-Beskidane no Східні_Бескиди uk

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Světozor, 27.9.1912

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Ottův slovník naučný, 1901

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Průkopník, 27.3.1918

Moscow is, like many other places, part of Lukáš' lecture for Wendler about the war situation. He assures the hop trader that "we are not going to stop until we reach Moscow".

Background

Moscow was in 1914 the biggest city in Russia whereas Petrograd was the capital. Moscow was from 1922 capital of the Soviet Union and was also the centre of the Bolshevik administration from 12 March 1918. It is the capital and biggest city of the modern republic of Russia, with more than 10 millions inhabitants. The city is situated on the river Moscow, 142 metres above sea level.

In 1897 the city had 988,614 inhabitants and the vast majority were Russians. The largest minority were Germans and Jews but none of these groups counted for more than 3 per cent of the population. There were also a number of Czechs and several Czech firms had offices in Moscow. During the last decennials before the world war the city was growing rapidly, had a diverse industrial base and was also the hub of the Russian railway network, connection 10 lines.

Hašek in Moscow

Jaroslav Hašek arrived in the city in mid March 1918 together Břetislav Hůla. It was here he joined the Czech section of the Communist Party and started to campaign for České legie to remain in Russia. On 27 March 1918 he published an article in Průkopník titled "To the Czech Army: why is one going to France?". He argued against the Legion's transfer to the Western front and though they should remain in Russia to defend the revolution.

His stay in the city was short-lived as he left for Samara in early April. In November 1920 he appeared in Moscow again, now on the way back to his homeland after working for two years as a Red Army commissar in the Ural region and Siberia.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] V karpatských úsecích, jak vidíte, máme velkou oporu. Mocný úder na tuto linii - a nezastavíme se až v Moskvě. Válka skončí dřív, než se nadějeme.“

Also written:Moskva cz Moskau de Москва ru

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Národní politika, 4.4.1915

Dardanelles is part of summary Lukáš provides Wendler with about the situation at the various fronts. The officer informs his gueast that Liman von Sanders has been named head commander of the Dardanell army.

Background

Dardanelles is a narrow strait in north western Turkey that connects the Aegean Sea and the Marmara Sea. In March 1915 allied forces attempted to force their way through the straits but were repelled. The defeat ultimately led to the forced resignation of the British minister of Naval Affairs, Winston Churchill. The first major battle was fought on 18 March 1915 and the allied invasion fleet was repelled. The defenders were led by Cevat Paşa, later known as hero of 18 March.

Liman was named commander-in-chief of the Dardanelle army on 24 March 1915, and the news about his new role was pasted directly in to the novel. It was cut from a summary of the latest events that was printed in Národní politika on Easter Sunday 1915 (4 April).

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Vrchním velitelem turecké armády dardanelské jmenován maršálek Liman šl. Sanders.

Also written:Dardanely cz Dardanellen de Çanakkale Boğazı tr

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Světozor, 1908

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Světová válka 1914-1915 slovem i obrazem, s. 506

Constantinople is included in senior lieutenant Lukáš's elaborations for Wendler on the war situation. Here he informs his guest that Goltz Paşa has arrived in Berlin from Constantinople.

Later in the conversation the hop trader informs that he had delivered hops even to all the way to Constantinople before the war but that this trade now has stopped.

In the novel the "obrlajtnant" uses the term "Cařihrad" (Emperor's City), but this is rarely used in modern Czech. In Slovenian (Carigrad) and Bulgarian this form still exist, but in the other Slav languages it is now obsolete.

Background

Constantinople was in 1914 capital and the largest city of the Ottoman empire, and was capital of the new republic of Turkey until 1923. From 1930 the city has been known as İstanbul.

Goltz Paşa's journey from Constantinople to Berlin that Lukáš refers to actually took place, but his arrival was on 29 March 1915, not in December 1914 as the novel indicates. The sentence that refers to Constantinople is one of many direct quotes from the press. One of them was Národní politika on 4 April 1915.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Goltz paša přijel z Cařihradu do Berlína a naším císařem byli vyznamenáni Enver paša, viceadmirál Usedon paša a generál Dževad paša.
[1.14.5] Náš chmel šel až do Cařihradu. Dnes jsme napolo zničeni.

Also written:Cařihrad Hašek Konstantinopol cz Konstantinyé tr

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Brandenburger Tor in 1914

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Národní Politika 4.4.1915

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Národní listy, 24.1.1928

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Die Bühne, 9.2.1928

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The end of Longen's fanciful story about Hašek and the former police man "Španda" in Berlin

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Hašek's wife does not record any stay in Berlin

Berlin is also part of Lukáš' lecture for Wendler about the military situation. The senior lieutenant informs his guest that Goltz Paşa has arrived in the city from Constantinople.

Berlin is mentioned also in (II,4) in connection with Krauss and his publishing of graffiti from some railway station toilets there.

Background

Berlin is the capital of Germany and its largest city, counting around 3.6 million inhabitants (2017). It is located by the river Spree and is situated appx. 35 metres above sea level.

The city was from 1871 capital of Germany and already before that capital of the kingdom of Prussia and until 1881 the province of Brandenburg. Some of the political decisions that led to the outbreak of war were taken here. In 1900 the population count was around 2 millions and was growing rapidly. The city had at the time a very different appearance because it was largely left in rubble during the Second World War.

Lukáš' statement refers to the arrival of Goltz Paşa in Berlin on 29 March 1915. Also note that the relevant phrase in the novel is word-by-word to identical to the newspaper clip to the right. See Kronika světové války for more on press quotes used in the novel.

Berlin and Švejk

Berlin, in its own right, merits a place in the story of how Švejk became famous outside his home country. Erwin Piscator's theatre play on Piscator-Bühne at Nollendrofplatz contributed a lot to the fame of the good soldier. The play was enthusiastically received by the public as well as critics, and the success was noted also abroad. Max Pallenberg played Švejk and the script was written by Hans Reimann and Max Brod. The play was first performed 23 January 1928.

Another Berliner who pushed Švejk into the limelight was Kurt Tucholsky who in 1926 wrote a raving review of the two first volumes of the novel (i.e. the translation).

Hašek in Berlin?

Jaroslav Hašek and his wife Alexandra Lvova (Šura) must have passed through the city around 9 December 1920. They were on the way to Czechoslovakia from Russia and they had arrived in Swinemünde (now Świnoujście) by boat the previous evening. Emil Artur Longen claims that they spend some days in Berlin after bumping into Vincenc Španda at Unter den Linden.

Španda was allegedly a former policeman from Prague who knew the author already in 1911 in connection Strana mírného pokroku v mezích zákona. Jaroslav Hašek and Španda are supposed to have partied in Berlin for three days and the author excused himself to his wife by claiming he had got lost!

Still there is every reason to be sceptical of Longen's version. First and foremost because Lvova doesn't mention Berlin or her husbands alleged three day "disappearance" in her account of their journey. On the contrary she recalls that they left Stettin (now Szczecin) in the evening of 9 December with an evening train and arrived in Pardubice "at night" (probably the night from 10 to 11 December).

Nor is there any trace of any policeman Španda in the address books of pre-war Prague or in the 1920 Berlin equivalent (perhaps Španda was not his real name). Amongst Hašek-experts Longen is moreover regarded an unreliable source. Radko Pytlík still doesn't rule out the possibility of a short stay in Berlin. He also writes that some Antonín Rypl was on the same journey as Hašek, but we know from official documents that Rypl arrived in Pardubice already on 10 December 1920. This fits well with Lvova's version, so any claim that Jaroslav Hašek stayed in Berlin for several days is probably based on hearsay..

Kurt Tucholsky

Zu diesem Buch ist mir in der gesamten Literatur kein Gegenstück bekannt.

Links

SourceRadko Pytlík, Emil Artur Longen, Alexandra Lvova-Haškova, Jan Berwid-Buquoy

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Goltz paša přijel z Cařihradu do Berlína a naším císařem byli vyznamenáni Enver paša, viceadmirál Usedom paša a generál Dževad paša.

Also written:Berlín cz

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Illustrirte Zeitung, 19.8.1915

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Světová válka slovem i obrazem, s. 509

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Teplitz-Schönauer Anzeiger, 9.5.1915

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Světová válka slovem i obrazem, s. 510

Vistula is also pulled in by Lukáš in his long discourse for Wendler on the strategic situation. This is the last item before before the unavoidable theme is introduced: Katy.

Background

Vistula is with its 1,047 km the longest river in Poland. It flows through cities like Kraków, Warsaw, Torun and Gdańsk. The catchment area covers half of Polen.

Throughout the autumn of 1914 and until late summer 1915 the war zone engulfed part of river basin. Here it is no doubt the upper stretch that is the theme, as it was on Austrian territory.

Quotes from the War Chronicle

As with many other fragments from the conversation between Lukáš and Wendler it seems that the author has borrowed some phrases from Kronika světové války. In this case they are however not copied word by word, and some details are removed or thrown about. The fragment refers to the Central Powers' breakthrough by Dunajec in early May 1915 and is based on a report published in Berliner Tageblatt on 8 May 1915 and reproduced by Teplitz-Schönauer Anzeiger the next day.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Nadporučík Lukáš, vida, že spád rozmluvy zabočuje do nepříjemností, odvedl opět inteligentního obchodníka s chmelem k mapě bojiště, a ukazuje na podtržená místa, řekl: „Zapomněl jsem vás upozornit na jednu velice zajímavou okolnost. Na tento veliký, k jihozápadu obrácený oblouk, kde tvoří tato skupina hor veliké předmostí. Sem obrácena jest ofensiva spojenců. Uzavřením této dráhy, která předmostí spojuje s hlavní obrannou linií nepřítele, musí být přerušeno spojení mezi pravým křídlem a severní armádou na Visle. Je vám to nyní jasné?“

Also written:Visla cz Weichsel de

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La Stampa, 10.12.1912

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Tages-Post, 25.5.1915

Italy is mentioned first time by Wendler in his complaint about the effect of the war on the hop trade. Here he states that exports to Italy still carry on but that he is worried about their further intentions. He complains that Italy is still neutral despite renewing the Triple Alliance as late as in 1912.

From [III.2] Italy figures more prominently due to her declaration of war on Austria-Hungary. Otherwise many places in Italia are mentioned, mostly mid 19th century battlefields in the north. These include Solferino, Custoza, Caldiero, Santa Lucia and Piave. Italian cities are also drawn in, amongst them Milan, Venice, Verona, and Novara. Amongst political entities we find Sardinia, Piedmont and the Ve