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The Good Soldier Švejk

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Map of Austria-Hungary in 1914. The itinerary of Jaroslav Šerák took place entirely within the borders of the Dual Monarchy.

The Fateful Adventures of the Good Soldier Švejk is a novel which contains a wealth of geographical references - either directly through the plot, in dialogues or in the authors own observations. HAJ: was himself unusually well travelled and had a photographic memory of geographical (and other) details. It is evident that he put great emphasis on this: 8 of the 27 chapter headlines in Švejk contain place names.

This web page will in due course contain a full overview of all the geographical references in the novel; from Prague in the introduction to Klimontów in the unfinished Book Four. Countries, cities, towns, villages, mountains, oceans, lakes, rivers, islands, buildings are included. Note that from 14 September 2013, institutions (including pubs) have been moved to the new 'Institutions' page. The list is sorted according to the order in which the names appear through the novel. The chapter headlines are from Zenny K. Sadlon's recent translation and will in most cases differ from Cecil Parrott's version from 1973.

  • The facts are mainly taken from Internet sources but cross-verified when possible
  • The quotes in Czech are copied from the online version of sv: provided by Jaroslav Šerák and contain links to the relevant chapter
  • The toolbar has links for direct access to Wikipedia, Google maps, Google search, svejkmuseum.cz and Švejk online

The names are coloured according to their role in the novel, illustrated by these examples: Sanok as a location where the plot takes place, Dubno mentioned in the narrative, Zagreb as part of a dialogue, and Pakoměřice as mentioned in an anecdote.

>> The Good Soldier Švejk index of places mentioned in the novel (578) Show all
>> I. In the rear
>> II. At the front
>> III. The famous thrashing
Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

14. Švejk as military servant to senior lieutenant Lukáš

Na Zderazenn flag
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Na Zderaze is mentioned by Švejk in his long story about the big card-playing session. This was in connection with himself having been gambled away by Katz and therefore now became the servant of senior lieutenant Lukáš. The big winner in the card-playing anecdote, old Vejvoda, lived in this street. The session took place in a pub behind Stoletá kavárna.

Na Zderaze appears again in [3.2] during a conversation between Švejk, Lukáš and Baloun in Budapest. The good soldier tells a petrified Baloun that he had read in the papers that a whole family had been poisoned by liver paté there.

Background

Na Zderaze is a street in Nové Město between Karlovo náměstí and Vltava. It stretches parallel to the river from Myslíkova ulice to Resslova ulice. Next to Stoletá kavárna and Na Zbořenci the street splits in two. The steet Na Zbořenci behind Stoletá kavárna was the likely location of the tavern where the famous game of cards took place.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.1] Na Zderaze žil nějakej klempíř Vejvoda a ten hrával vždy mariáš jedné hospodě za ,Stoletou kavárnou’.
[3.2] Já jsem čet několikrát v novinách, že se celá rodina votrávila játrovou paštikou. Jednou na Zderaze,jednou v Berouně, jednou v Táboře, jednou v Mladé Boleslavi, jednou v Příbrami.
Myslíkova ulicenn flag
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Kopřivy, 29.4.1909

Myslíkova ulice is mentioned in the anecdote about the great card-playing party in the pub behind Stoletá kavárna. Old Vejvoda went to ask for help from the patrolling police in this street after winning to the extent that the other card players started to make it unpleasant for him.

Background

Myslíkova ulice is a street in Nové Město that stretches from Spálená ulice down towards Vltava. One of the side streets is Na Zderaze.

Myslíkova ulice is a street Jaroslav Hašek would have known very well. Not only was it in the middle of his stomping ground in Praha II. - number 15 housed the editorial offices and print-works of Kopřivy (Nettles) and Právo lidu (The Peoples Right), publications of the Czechoslavic Social Democratic Labour Party. Hašek contributed frequently to both publications in 1913 and 1914.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.1] A jen tak bez klobouku vyběh na ulici a přímo do Myslíkovy ulice pro strážníky. Našel patrolu a oznámil jí, že v tej a tej hospodě hrajou hazardní hru.
Monte Carlonn flag
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Světozor, 2.12.1910

Monte Carlo is mentioned in the anecdote about the great card-playing party of old Vejvoda. The police inspector though this was worse than Monte Carlo.

Background

Monte Carlo is the most prosperous district of the Principality of Monaco and is best known for its casino that indirectly is referred to in the novel.

The districts road to fame started in 1863 when the current casino was completed. The same year the well known financier François Blanc (1806-1877), until then director of the casino in Bad Homburg, was hired to manage the casino. It still took many years before Monte Carlo became a household name for gambling, but by the outbreak of the first world war it was already famous world wide.

In the manuscript Jaroslav Hašek spelt the name Monte Karlo but during a "clean-up" of Švejk in the early 1950's, this and some other "oddities" were corrected. The inter-war issues of the novel, published by Adolf Synek, kept Hašek's original spelling.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.1] ,Tohle jsem ještě nežral,’ řekl policejní inspektor, když viděl takový závratný sumy, tohle je horší než Monte Karlo.

Also written:Monte Karlo Hašek

Chodovnn flag
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Kopřivy, 1.1.1914

Chodov is mentioned in a song that Katz' new servant sings after considerable intake of strong drinks.

Background

Chodov is the name of four places in Bohemia, one on the outskirts of Prague and the three others in the west of the country. The text in the quote is picked from five different folk songs. The first line is from a song from the Chodsko region near the border with Bavaria, so here it certainly refers to Chodov by Domažlice.

In 1913 Chodov belonged to hejtmanstvi Domažlice and the like-named okres. The population count was 1,947 and all but one were registered with Czech as their mother tongue. The community consisted of the villages Chodov, Trhanov and Pec.

Re-used text

The song-fragment from the book had already been used by Jaroslav Hašek. On New Years Day 1914 Kopřivy printed A story about a proper man but here the author uses Domažlice instead of Chodov.

Links

Source: Jaroslav Šerák

Quote from the novel
[1.14.1]
Okolo Chodova teče vodička, 
šenkuje tam má milá pivečko červený. 
Horo, horo, vysoká jsi, 
šly panenky silnicí, 
na Bílé hoře sedláček oře.

Also written:Meigelshof de

Bílá Horann flag
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Světozor, 7.11.1913

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Sokolský zpěvník, 1909

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Ottův slovník naučný

Bílá Hora is mention in the song Katz's new putzfleck sings after consuming solid quantities of strong drink.

Background

Bílá Hora (White Mountain) is a hill on the western outskirts of Prague, between Smíchov, Břevnov and Ruzyně. Until 1922 it belonged to the village Řepy in "hejtmanství" Smíchov, and in the ninteen-sixties it became part of the captial.

It is primarily known for the battle on 8 November 1620 that effectively ended Czech independence. Habsburg rule followed and lasted until 1918. The battle is regarded as one of the most important events of the Thirty Year War (1618-1648).

The text in the quote is picked from five different folk songs, also pointed out by the author himself. The line featured here is from the well known folk song "Na Bílé Hoře" (At White Mountain). See also Chodov.

Links

Source: Jaroslav Šerák

Quote from the novel
[1.14.1]
Okolo Chodova teče vodička, 
šenkuje tam má milá pivečko červený. 
Horo, horo, vysoká jsi, 
šly panenky silnicí, 
na Bílé hoře sedláček oře.

Also written:White Mountain en Weiße Berg de

Toledonn flag
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toledo.jpg

Toledo en las fotos de Thomas (1884, 1910)

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Světozor, 13.1.1911

Toledo is mentioned as the Hertugen av Almavira is supposed to have eaten his servant Fernando during the siege of the city. In Budapest, Marek makes a similar reference, but the siege is now of Madrid and the Napoleonic wars are mentioned explicitly.

Background

Toledo is a historic city in Spain, 70 km south of Madrid. In 1986 the city was entered as a UNESCO World Heritage site. The city prospered in medieval times, and was for a while capital of Castilla. Today the city is capital of the Castilla-La Mancha region and a major tourist attraction.

The historical event in question could be from 930 to 932 when the city was encircled by the Moors during a Christian uprising. After a two year siege it surrended due to hunger.

Jesús Carrobles Santos, "Historia de Toledo", 1997

Durante dos años se mantuvo el asedio a Toledo. Sus habitantes, como ya habían hecho en otras ocasiones, volvieron a solicitar ayuda militar cristiana, esta vez a Ramiro II. Pero el ejército que éste envió fue derrotado por las tropas omeyas. Aislados del exterior y acosados por el hambre, los toledanos tuvieron que rendirse. De esta manera, el 2 de agosto del 932, Abd al-Rahmán III entró a caballo en la ciudad donde estableció una numerosa guarnición, aunque no adoptó represalias ni medidas de castigo.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Našli bychom tam, že vévoda z Almaviru snědl svého vojenského sluhu při obležení Toleda z hladu bez soli..
Swabiann flag
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Leitfaden zur Manipulation bei den Unter-Abtheilungen der k.k. Landarmee, 1876

Swabia is indirectly mentioned by the author in the chapter about officer's servants. He mentions an old Swabian book about the art of warfare where it is described which personal traits an officer's servant is required to posses. It is not a small deal, he has to be a model human being.

Background

Swabia is a historical region in southern Germany that spans the borders of the current states Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg. The principal cities in the area are Stuttgart, Ulm and Augsburg.

Type fonts

The author refers to an old Swabian book on the art of warfare, but it is not known what book he refers to. In Czech the expression švabach (Swabian writing) is often (imprecisely) used as a term for the old German type fonts (Frakturschrift) so the book is not necessarily of Swabian origin at all. At the author's time nearly all German-language newspaper and books used "Fraktur" fonts so he could in principle have referred to any old book in German about the art of waging war. The English translator of Švejk, Cecil Parrott, evidently assumes this when he translates the phrase to "an old German book".

Jaroslav Hašek visited Swabia in 1904 and eventually wrote a few humorous stories from his travels here. Sjå Bavaria.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Ve staré švábské knize o umění vojenském nalézáme též pokyny pro vojenské sluhy. Pucflek staré doby měl býti zbožný, ctnostný, pravdomluvný, skromný, statečný, odvážný, poctivý, pracovitý. Zkrátka měl to být vzor člověka.

Also written:Švábsko cz

Graznn flag
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Graz. Hauptplatz. Um 1910. © IMAGNO/Austrian Archives

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Arbeiterwille, 10.6.1912

Graz is mentioned by the author in the chapter about officer's servants. Here he recounts a trial in Graz in 1912 against a captain who had kicked his servant to death and had escaped without punishment "because it was only the second time he did it".

Graz is mentioned late in the novel in connection with Ratskeller.

Background

Graz is the second largest city on Austria and the capital of Styria. The city has appx. 250,000 inhabitants (2006). In 1910 the population counted almost 200,000.

Garrison city

Graz hosted the headquarters of 3. Armeekorps that recruited from Styria, all of current Slovenia and from smaller areas that is currently on Italian and Croat territory (Trieste og Istria). The recruitment districts with correspondingly numbered infantry regiments, were: 27 (Graz), 7 (Klagenfurt), 47 (Maribor), 17 (Ljubljana), 87 (Celje) and 97 (Trieste).

Officer's servants

It has not been possible to find a direct parallel to the case from 1912 about the captain who allegedly kicked his servant to death and was acquitted. Most probably the story is a product of the author's imagination and his tendency to grotesque exaggerations. That said the newspaper that year wrote about several other incidents where officer's servants were involved. There are reports about servants who stole from their officers, servants who committed suicide, and one servant who failed in an attempt to kill his superior and thereafter failed in killing himself.

An article in the Graz newspaper Arbeiterwille from 1912 deals with a case where an officer's servants commits suicide after being harassed over time and finally unjustly accused of having stolen five tins of conserves. The article also puts the tragedy in a greater perspective. It deals in more general terms with the hopeless situation of the army servant. He was obliged to serve not only his superior officer but also the family. If the situation became unbearable he couldn't simply quit his post as his civilian colleague could. The article advocates scrapping the whole institution of officer's servants, and moreover has certain parallels to the author's own description of the status of the officer's servant.

Concentration camp

During WW1 Thalerhof by Graz was the site of the only concentration camp in the Austrian part of the Dual Empire (there were two in Hungary). See Steinhof.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Roku 1912 byl ve Štyrském Hradci proces, při kterém vynikající úlohu hrál jeden hejtman, který ukopal svého pucfleka.
[4.1] Všechny lidi, který potkával na ulici, viděl buď na nádraží v Miláně, nebo s nimi seděl ve Štýrským Hradci v radničním sklepě při víně.

Also written:Štýrský Hradec cz

Dubnonn flag
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Das interessante Blatt, 16.4.1916

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Le journal de Geneve, 12.6.1916

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Haugesunds avis, 13.6.1916

Dubno is mentioned when the author describes an officer's servant who was captured by the Russians. He dragged enormous amounts of luggage Dubno to Darnitsa and on to Tashkent where he pegged out from typhus on the top of the heap.

In the same section Hašek mentions "storming" Dubno which presumably refers to the events on 8 September 1915.

Background

Dubno (ukr. Дубно, rus. Дубно) is a city in the Volhynia region of the Ukraine, until 1917 part of the Russian Volhynia governate. The city is located 15 km south of Chorupan where Jaroslav Hašek was captured on 24 September 1915. The city is situated in an area which counted a considerable number of Czech immigrants. See Zdolbunov.

Dubno was strategically important due to its fortress and the railway connections to the north and south. K.u.k. Heer entered the city on 8 September 1915 after an unexpected Russian withdrawal. The latter re-conquered Dubno on 10 June 1916 during the Brusilov offensive.

The city's web page claims Jaroslav Hašek visited in 1915, but this appears improbable as Dubno was on Austrian hands at the time when the author was in the area. It is much more likely that he visited the city in 1916 and 1917 when it was back in Russian hands and the author travelled in the aera, both as a reporter and from May 1917 as an ordinary soldier.

Österreich-Ungarns letzter Krieg, Band III

Schon am Vormittag (8.9. 1915) langte beim 4. Armeekmdo. die überraschende Nachricht ein, daß Dubno vom Feinde preisgegeben sei und die Ikwabrücken bei der Stadt in Flammen stünden.

Links

Source: Österreich-Ungarns letzter Krieg, Band III

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Viděl jsem jednoho zajatého důstojnického sluhu, který od Dubna šel s druhými pěšky až do Dárnice za Kyjevem.
[1.14.2] Dnes jsou důstojničtí sluhové roztroušení po celé naší republice a vypravují o svých hrdinných skutcích. Oni šturmovali Sokal, Dubno, Niš, Piavu.

Also written:Дубно ru Дубно ua

Darnitsann flag
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Nový velký ilustrovaný slovník naučný, 1930

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Elsa Brändström

Darnitsa is mentioned in connection with the officers servant who dragged his luggage from Dubno to Tashkent and in the end perished from typhus on top of the entire heap.

Background

Darnitsa (ukr. Дарниця, rus. Дарница) is today a district of Kiev, east of the river Dniepr. Nowadays Darnitsa is a huge suburb, dominated by high-rise apartment blocks. There is a street named after Jaroslav Hašek here.

Darnitsa was a well-known transit camp that existed from 1915. In the beginning the camp was very primitive and lacked the most basic facilities. Diseases raged and mortality rates were scaringly high. The camp was also pivotal in supplying the Czech anti-Austrian volunteer forces, who from 1916 were allowed to recruit in Russian POW camps. See České legie.

Hašek and Darnica

According to Jaroslav Kejla the author was interned in the transit camp here for three days in the autumn of 1915, probably in early October. From here he was sent onwards to Totskoye in southern Ural. His prisoner card has him registered in Penza on 6 October 1915. Kejla reports that the prisoners walked the 300 km from the Dubno-region to Darnitsa on foot on foot from 24 September, but this fits badly with Penza and 6 October. An explanation may be that the date is according the old Russian calendar, in which case the registration in Penza happened on 19 October.

There is also little doubt that Hašek revisited Darnitsa as a recruiter and agitator after he joined České legie in Kiev in July 1916.

Links

Source: Jaroslav Kejla, Elsa Brändström

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Viděl jsem jednoho zajatého důstojnického sluhu, který od Dubna šel s druhými pěšky až do Dárnice za Kyjevem.

Also written:Dárnice cz Darnitsa nn Дарница ru Дарниця ua

Kievnn flag
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Saint Sophia square. From "Za svobodu" (1925)

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Čechoslovan, 31.10.1917

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Horrors of the civil war - abandoned corpses after the fighting in Kiev (1918)

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Legionářská stráž, 23.3.1928

Kiev is first mentioned when the author describes an officer's servant who was captured by the Russians. He dragged enormous amounts of luggage from Dubno to Darnitsa beyond Kiev and on to Tashkent where he pegged out from typhus on the top of the heap.

Soon after the city reappears when Švejk reads in a newspaper that "the commander of Przemyśl, general Kusmanek, has arrived in Kiev".

During Švejk's stay in Przemyśl and his interrogation there, Kiev is mentioned no less than 7 times. Most of this occurs when a Polish informer-provoker is sent into Švejk's cell and tries to construct an incriminating story: that the two had met in Kiev.

Background

Kiev (ukr. Київ, rus. Киев) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine. It straddles both banks of the river Dnieper and has nearly 3 million inhabitants, making it the 7th largest city in Europe. The administrative centre and historic districts are located on the hills on the west bank.

Kiev was in 1914 capital of the Russian Kiev military district and "gubernia" of the same name. It had been under Russian control from the 17th century, although with a noticeable Polish footprint. The city also counted a large number of Jews.

The city and the province had a sizeable Czech immigrant community and a Czech weekly Čechoslovan was published in Kiev until February 1918. During the First World War the city was, together with Paris and Petrograd, the main centre of the Czechoslovak independence movement.

Turbulent times

Until the Russian October Revolution 7 November 1917 Kiev was relatively unaffected by the war apart from the general shortages and the fact that the city was the centre of the military assembly area and an important military-administrative centre. Kiev was also the headquarters of the Russian branch of the Czechoslovak National Council (see České legie). The leader of the Czechoslovak independence movement, professor Masaryk, stayed here for long periods between May 1917 and February 1918. It was in Kiev that he on 7 February 1918 signed the treaty of the transfer of the Legions from the Russian to the French army.

The Bolshevik coup in Petrograd on 7 November 1917 had far-reaching consequences for Kiev. Early in 1918 the Bolsheviks initiated military operations to gain control of Ukrainian territory, which at the time was partly controlled by the Tsentralna Rada (Central Council) of the Ukrainian National Republic. Red Guards led by Vladimir Antonov-Ovseyenko invaded the areas east of Dnieper, on 28 January they reached Kiev, and on 8 February 1918 they the fight for the city was over.

The forces that entered Kiev were commanded by Mikhail A. Muravyov, a former officer in the Russian imperial army who was pivotal in defeating the forces of Kerensky who attempted to regain control of Petrograd during the October Revolution. He now acted as chief of staff for Antonov-Ovseyenko. He was a capable but brutal and megalomaniac officer. His deputy commander was Václav Fridrich, a former Czech legionnaire who had been expelled from the Legions for disciplinary reasons, and now as was imprisoned in Darnitsa, but set free by Muravyov's advancing troops. During the 10 day long siege of Kiev and ensuing occupation, a wave of terror, looting and killing followed. Muravyov later said that poison gas was used. Officers, members of the bourgeois and random inhabitants were slaughtered in their thousands. Muravyov and the atrocities of his troops became a liability for the Bolsheviks and he was transferred to the front against Romania on 28 February.

At the same time (9 February) Ukraine signed a peace treaty with the Central Powers. Professor Masaryk who was staying in Kiev during this period, experienced the terror, but personally he got on well with Muravyov. With representatives for the Entente present, Masaryk and Muravyov reached an agreement that permitted the Legions to leave Ukraina unhindered and also to keep their weapons. According to Masaryk the deal was signed on 16 February.

The red reign of terror in Kiev didn't last long. On 18 February 1918 the Central Powers invaded Ukraine and already on 1 March German troops reached Kiev. The Red Guards and the Legions fled the city, and amongst those who escaped was Jaroslav Hašek.

Hašek in Kiev
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Hotel Praha hosted the editorial offices of Čechoslovan

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Jaroslav Hašek, Revoluce, 23.4.1917 (6.5)

Thus Jaroslav Hašek witnessed those dramatic events in Kiev in February 1918. He had stayed for long periods in the city from July 1916 to May 1917 and again from 15 November until the end of February 1918. He was co-editor of Čechoslovan and also had duties involving recruitment and propaganda in prisoners camps. It was in Česchoslovan he wrote Povídka o obrázu císaře Františka Josefa I (The story of the picture of Emperor Franz Joseph I) who led to a process "in absentia" of high treason back in Austria. In 1917 he published the second version of the "Soldier Švejk", Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí (The Good Soldier Švejk in captivity).

His time in Kiev was ridden with controversies: he was involved in a row with a Russian officer who he insulted and as a result ended up in prison. Soon after (early 1917) he was "deported" to the front and as a goodbye he published Klub českých Pickwiků (The Czech Pickwick Club) where he ridiculed some of the leaders of the Czechoslovak independence movement in Russia. From his "exile" at the front he was eventually forced to apologise in writing.

Hašek was recalled to Kiev 15 November 1917 in order to testify against the Austrian spy Alexandr Mašek who he had earlier helped uncover. It was also in Kiev, during the first two months of 1918, that Jaroslav Hašek changed from being openly critical towards the Bolsheviks to openly sympathise with the new rulers in Petrograd. The reason for this turnaround are probably mixed but there is reason to believe that the young Communist Břetislav Hůla during this period had considerable influence on Hašek's political views. The two were both editors at Čechoslovan and travelled together to Moscow after their escape from Kiev. According to Václav Menger they were at the time very close (Menger used the expression "inseparable").

Important in understanding this shift is also that Hašek was firmly against transferring the Legions to France, and that they pulled out of Ukraine rather than fighting the Germans who were approaching Kiev. In a public meeting on 24 February he voiced his objections. He stated his point of view in detail in an article in Průkopník in Moscow on 27 March 1918.

kiev5.png

From "Znal jsem Haška", Josef Pospíšil

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Proclamation from Václav Fridrich, Muravyov's chief of staff. Československý deník, 12 February 1918.

Josef Pospíšil relates that Hašek met the leadership of the Bolshevik occupiers of Kiev in February. He was on friendly terms with them and recognised them as very capable people. That this positive personal impression may also have contributed to the author's radicalisation. Who these leaders were is not mentioned but it must be assumed that he met Fridrich (who he surely knew) and probably also Muravyov.

The occupants also took measures that Hašek probably approved of: price control (bread became cheaper), limit on bank transactions, nationalisation of the finance sector and a one time tax on rich citizens (contribution). Ironically enough the Bolsheviks also abolished capital punishment. In general the Czechoslovaks were on good terms with the revolutionary authorities. This was during February 1918 repeatedly stated by Československý deník, the official paper of the Czechoslovak National Council in Russia.

On the wall of the former Hotel Praha, the building that hosted the editorial offices of the paper, a memorial plaque honouring the author still hangs (2010).

General Kusmanek in Kiev
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Národní listy, 28.3.1915

Finally back to the quote by Švejk about general Kusmanek in Kiev. It is authentic and copied word by word from the press. This brief quote appeared in Národní politika 4 April 1915 and was also printed elsewhere. Newspapers also provided more comprehensive information. Kusmanek arrived in Kiev on an express train, first class, on 25 March. This was only three days after the capitulation of Przemyśl. He was very well treated in Kiev and even stayed as a guest of the governor. Furthermore his stay in Kiev was of a temporary nature, he was to be sent to the inner parts of Russia for permanent internment.

Links

Source: Viktor A. Savčenko, Josef Pospíšil, Pavel Gan, Radko Pytlík, Jaroslav Křížek, Tomáš Masaryk

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Viděl jsem jednoho zajatého důstojnického sluhu, který od Dubna šel s druhými pěšky až do Dárnice za Kyjevem.
[1.14.4] Švejk posadil se na lavici ve vratech a vykládal, že v bitevní frontě karpatské se útoky vojska ztroskotaly, na druhé straně však že velitel Přemyšlu, generál Kusmanek, přijel do Kyjeva a že za námi zůstalo v Srbsku jedenáct opěrných bodů a že Srbové dlouho nevydrží utíkat za našimi vojáky.
[4.1] Major Wolf v té době ještě neměl zdání o tom, co vlastně všechno chystají Rakousku přeběhlíci, kteří později, setkávajíce se v Kyjevě a jinde, na otázku: „Co tady děláš?“ odpovídali vesele: „Zradil jsem císaře pána.“
[4.1] Přihlásím se Rusům, že půjdu na forpatrolu ... Sloužil jsem u 6. kyjevské divise.
[4.1] Já jsem v Kyjevě znal mnoho Čechů, kteří šli s námi na frontu, když jsme přešli do ruského vojska, nemůžu si teď ale vzpomenout na jejich jména a odkuď byli, snad ty si vzpomeneš na někoho, s kým si se tam tak stýkal, rád bych věděl, kdo tam je od našeho 28. regimentu?“
[4.1] Zůstal tam zcela klidně a blábolil dále cosi o Kyjevu, a že Švejka tam rozhodně viděl, jak mašíroval mezi ruskými vojáky.
[4.1] „Já znám vaše všechny známé z Kyjeva,“ neúnavně pokračoval zřízenec protišpionáže, „nebyl tam s vámi takový tlustý a jeden takový hubený? Teď nevím, jak se jmenovali a od kterého byli regimentu...“
[4.1] Při odchodu řekla stvůra hlasitě k štábnímu šikovateli, ukazujíc na Švejka: „Je to můj starý kamarád z Kyjeva.“
[4.1] Je zde přece úplné doznání obžalovaného, že se oblékl do ruské uniformy, potom jedno důležité svědectví, kde se přiznal obžalovaný, že byl v Kyjevě.

Also written:Kyjev cz Kiew de Киев ru Київ ua

Ukrainenn flag
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The Cossack Hetmanate, 1654

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Ottův slovník naučný, 1888-

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Illustreret norsk konversationsleksikon, 1907-1913

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Linzer Volksblatt, 20.8.1914

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Zlatá Praha, 12.12.1884

Ukraine is first mentioned when the author describes an officer's servant who was captured by the Russians. He dragged enormous amounts of luggage Dubno to Darnitsa and on to Tashkent where he pegged out from typhus on the top of the heap.

At the very end the author touches the relationship between Poles and Ukrainians, a conflict that had terrible consequences during WW2, and has remained an issue until present.

Background

Ukraine (ukr. Україна, rus. Украина) is a large and populous state in south west Europe with Kiev as capital. Before the first world war the name had however a rather different meaning. According to Ottův slovník naučný (1888) it was a term that refers to "the south western part of Russia along the banks of the rivers Bug and Dnieper but which extent is not precisely defined". According to the encyclopaedia the name origins from the 17th century and means "borderland".

Meyers Konverzations-Lexikon uses approximately the same definition as Otto's Encyclopaedia but doesn't mention the river Bug; it rather states that Ukraine consists of the areas on both banks of the Dnieper. Nordic and English encyclopaedia from the time before the first world war use more or less the same definition as Meyers.

The Hetmanate

The closest there was to an early Ukrainian nation state was the Hetmanate of the 17th century. It was founded through the rebellion of Bohdan Khmelnytsky against Polish supremacy, but he was dependent on help from abroad and ended up as a vassal of Moscow. The Hetmanate was historically important not only as a source of Ukrainian national identity, but it also started a process that gradually brought the Ukrainian lands under Russian control, at the expense of Poland.

The areas were thus mainly under Polish control until the 17th century, but at the peace treaty in Moscow in 1686 Poland was forced to cede the areas east of Dnieper and a smaller area around Kiev to Moscow. Most of the west bank of the river only became Russian during Poland's second partition in 1793, and the rest during Poland's third partition in 1795. Galicia was ceded to Austria during Poland's first partition in 1772.

Little Russia

At the outbreak of war in 1914 Ukraine was a rather loosely defined geographical entity: it denoted the south-western part of the Tsars empire. At the time the term Little Russia was far more commonly used, as witnessed by the entries in various encyclopaedia (amongst them Czech, Norwegian, Swedish, English and German).

That said a Ukrainian language and national consciousness existed but manifestations of nationalism were strongly suppressed by the Russian authorities. From 1804 Ukrainian was banned as a subject and as a language of teaching, a state of affairs that continued relatively unchanged until 1917. Literature and other publications written in Ukrainian were mostly published in Galicia, a region under Austrian rule. One of the victims of the repression was the famous author Taras Shevchenko.

In the novel Jaroslav Hašek no doubt refers to Ukraine in accordance with the widely accepted definition of his time: as "the south-western regions of Russia".

Ruthenia

Ukrainians were recognised as a nation in Austria-Hungary and was commonly referred to as Ruthenians. In the Habsburg Empire their language and culture enjoyed a far greater acceptance than in Russia. Ukrainian was one of twelve official languages and in 1918 there were 28 Ukrainian members of the lower chamber of the Austrian "Reichsrat" (see Parlament). This reflected their status as the fourth largest ethnic group in Cisleithanien, behind Germans, Czechs and Poles. The Ukrainian territories of the Dual Empire extended across large parts of Galicia, eastern Slovakia, Carpathian Ruthenia and Bukovina.

The First World War

Already from the outbreak of hostilities in 1914 the war was conducted on Ukrainian lands, albeit on the territory of Austria-Hungary. From August 1915 the war was carried over to Russian-Ukrainian land, and the front stretched here and in the Austrian-Ukrainian areas respectively until the summer of 1917 when the Russian army was forced out of Austro-Hungarian territory once and for all.

In 1914 a considerable number of Czech immigrants lived in Ukraine, mostly in Kiev and Volhynia. It was in these circles that the seeds of what was to become České legie took root, and until March 1918 the Legions operated from Ukrainian territory.

Distrusted on both sides
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Directive on taking hostages in Galicia (© ÖSTA)

Ukrainians were often distrusted by both parts in the conflict and not without reason. In Galicia and other Ukrainian areas of the Dual Monarchy there was widespread sympathy for Russia, a theme Hašek also mentions in the novel. Ukrainians together with Czechs were regarded the least trustworthy nation in Austria-Hungary, and already in 1914 there was built concentration camps for civilians where "Ruthenians" made up a large part of the inmates. This was particularly the case in Thalerhof by Graz (see Steinhof). Many were summarily executed as "spies" and "collaborators" in the areas near the front.

It is documented that K.u.k. Heer took prominent Russophile citizens as hostages when Galicia was reconquered in 1915, and threatened them with execution if sabotage took place in their area. In documents related to the 2nd Army this is clearly revealed, and on regimental level even our acquaintance Čeněk Sagner recommended in writing that suspect civilians be shown no mercy.

The conditions for Ukrainians in Russia during the war was probably not much different, but the information available is not that comprehensive. The pressure on Ukrainian language and culture had been somewhat eased from 1905, but was now intensified again. The well known nurse Elsa Brändström (aka. "the Siberian angel") wrote that "millions of Poles and Ukrainians were deported" and added that Jews were particularly targeted. At the time Ukraine had a large Jewish population.

Revolution
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The Chechoslovak army corps (Legions) pulling out of Ukraine in March 1918

In the aftermath of the October Revolution, Ukraine declared independence and took part in the peace negotiations in Brest-Litovsk. On 9 February 1918 the treaty with the Central Powers was signed, but Kiev had already the previous day been occupied by communist Red Guards commanded by Mikhail Muravyov. These were events Jaroslav Hašek that personally witnessed.

On 18 February German forces invaded the now largely Bolshevik occupied Ukraine to force the revolutionary government in Russia to accept the peace terms. By the end of March all of Ukraine had been occupied, but the state formally continued to exists but now as a German puppet.

As a result of the post-WW1 settlements Ukrainian lands were split between the Soviet Union (where it was recognised as a political entity in the form of the Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic), Poland, Czechoslovakia and Romania.

Hašek in Ukraine
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The only known photo of Jaroslav Hašek from the Russian part of Ukraine. Here with Jan Šípek and Václav Menger. Berezne 29 September 1917 (12 October).

From July to September 1915 Jaroslav Hašek stayed on the territory of current Ukraine, as an Austrian soldier in Galicia and Volhynia. It was by Chorupan in Volhynia that the author was captured on 24 September 1915. From here the prisoners had to walk to the transit camp at Darnitsa (appx. 300 km) before they were transported onwards to camps in other parts of the Russian empire.

After having been released from the prisoner's camp in Totskoye in southern Ural, Hašek lived in Russian Ukraine from June 1916 until March 1918. During this time he worked for Czech organisations who were opposed to Austria-Hungary, units that were later to become known as Czechoslovak Legions (see České legie). He was predominately based in Kiev where he worked as an editor of Čechoslovan, but also travelled extensively between Kiev and the front. On 2 July 1917 he took part in the battle of Zborów where Czechs units for the first time fought against K.u.k. Heer.

Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911

UKRAINE (“frontier”), the name formerly given to a district of European Russia, now comprising the governments of Kharkov, Kiev, Podolia and Poltava. The portion east of the Dnieper became Russian in 1686 and the portion west of that river in 1793.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Nikdy nezapomenu toho člověka, který se tak mořil s tím přes celou Ukrajinu. Byl to živý špeditérský vůz a nemohu si vysvětlit, jak to mohl unést a táhnout kolik set kilometrů a potom jeti s tím až do Taškentu, opatrovat to a umřít na svých zavazadlech na skvrnitý tyf v zajateckém táboře.

Also written:Ukrajina cz Ukraine de Украина ru Україна ua

Tashkentnn flag
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Světozor, 14.3.1917

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From a Red Cross report, 1916.

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Elsa Brändström: "Amongst prisonsers of war in Russia and Siberia" (1921)

Tashkent is mentioned in the story the author tells about the officer's servant dragged a huge amount of luggage with him from Dubno, but who pegged out on top of his luggage in a prisoner's camp in Tashkent. He died from spotted typhus, a disease Jaroslav Hašek himself contracted in Russian captivity (but was somewhat luckier).

The city is mentioned amongst a number of places that don't at the time play a part in the plot, but that might have appeared again if Jaroslav Hašek had managed to complete the novel. See Sokal.

Background

Tashkent (rus. Ташкент) was in 1915 capital of the Russian general governorate Turkestan. It is now the capital of Uzbekistan after having been part of the Soviet Union until 1991. Today the city has more than 2 million inhabitants.

During the war there was a prisoner's camp in the city, and another one at Troytsky 30 kilometres from the centre. In both camps the inmates were mainly prisoners from the Slav nations of of Austria-Hungary. Because many Czech were interned here Jaroslav Hašek surely knew a few people who had stories to tell from Tashkent.

Typhus

Typhus was a big problem in all the camps in Turkestan and in 1915 and 1916 epidemics raged. Health workers were inoculated but the prisoners rarely had this privilege. The casualties reached tens of thousands. Because many Czech were interned here Jaroslav Hašek surely knew a few people who had stories to tell from Tashkent.

In 1915 the Troytsky camp was ravaged by a severe epidemic, one of the worst that hit any of the Russian prisoners camps during the war. During three month 9,000 out of 17,000 prisoners perished. Otherwise the camp in the city was regarded as a good one, and and the inmates enjoyed a large degree of freedom. Officers were allowed to leave the camp without an escort.

Links

SourceElsa Brändström, F. Thormeyer, F. Ferrière

Quote from the novel
[1.14] Nikdy nezapomenu toho člověka, který se tak mořil s tím přes celou Ukrajinu<. Byl to živý špeditérský vůz a nemohu si vysvětlit, jak to mohl unést a táhnout kolik set kilometrů a potom jeti s tím až do Taškentu, opatrovat to a umřít na svých zavazadlech na skvrnitý tyf v zajateckém táboře.

Also written:Taškent cz Taschkent de Ташкент ru Toshkent uz

Sokalnn flag
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View of the city from Sokal Hora, 2010.

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Sokal and Poturzyca on a K.u.k. military survey map.

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Finljandskaja Gazeta, 13.8.1914

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Die neue Zeitung, 20.8.1914

Sokal (ukr. Сока́ль) is first mentioned by the author in a passage where he ironically describes how the officer servants ("Putzflecks") brag about their endeavours in various battles.

Sokal is one of a few places that appears in the chapter headers, here in [2.5]. In the body of this chapter Sokal is further mentioned by Schröder as he is about to show his fellow officers where the town is located on the map. In the end he sticks his finger in a turd that a tom-cat has been audacious enough to leave behind on the staff map.

In the next chapter [3.1] Sokal is mentioned again when Ságner receives an order by telegram at the station in Győr, "about quickly getting ready and set off for Sokal". The dispatcher is Ritter von Herbert who has turned insane. At the station in Budapest [3.2] the battalion receives yet another nonsensical telegram from Herbert.

From Sanok [3.4] and until the end of the novel Sokal appears regularly, last in a conversation between Švejk and Marek where it transpires that "we are going Sokal". Marek tells Švejk that he is not going to get paid until after Sokal. Marek says that paying salaries to soldiers who are going to fall anyway, is a useless exercise.

Beyond dispute is the fact that the author intended to place the plot at Sokal in the 4th book, a part that he didn't get to complete due to his premature death.

In all Sokal is mentioned 12 times in the novel.

Background

Sokal is a regional capital in the Lviv oblast in western Ukraine. It is situated 80 km north of Lviv (Lwów), on the eastern bank of the Buh (Bug) and at present (2018) it has approximately 25,000 inhabitants.

From 1772 to 1918 the town belonged to Austria, in the inter-war period to Poland, after the Second World War to the Soviet Union and from 1991 to Ukraine. In 1881 the population was around 8,000 with a near equal distributions between Jews, Poles and Ukrainians. The town was situated approx. 10 km from the border with Russia.

Russian occupation

Sokal was soon after the outbreak of war attacked by Russian forces. Already on 13 August 1914 the Russian general staff reported that the town had been captured, two bridges across the Bug blown up, provisions destroyed and the railway station torched. This news was however refuted by Austrian sources a few days later. These claim that the attack was a plundering mission and that the enemy had been repelled. Both Russian and Austrian reports confirm that the attack took place on 11 August, but the occupation was short-lived.

The Russians were however soon back. On 21 august the Austrians repelled another attack, but on 31 August Finnish newspapers reported that Sokal and several other towns and cities in Galicia had been captured.

In the aftermaths of the first Russian attack on Sokal, reports of treason against Austria-Hungary appeared in the newspapers. Some of the Emperors Ruthenian (Ukrainian) subjects, 28 of them, were judged guilty as they allegedly had guided the Russians towards Sokal by signalling from church towers. They were from Skomorochy (ukr. Скоморохи) north of Sokal, and were sentenced to death on 20 August, and hanged in their home village the next day.

The Central Powers returning
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The situation south of Sokal 27 July 1915. The blue arrow indicates the position of IR91, 11. field company.

© ÖsTA

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Pester Lloyd, 29.7.1915

Sokal was only reconquered by the Central Powers on 18 July 1915. For the remainder of the war the town was in Austrian hands and after the battle south of town during the next two weeks, Sokal disappears entirely from the news headlines.

The decisive battle over the control Sokal took place from 15 to 31 July 1915. It started with an attack by K.u.k. 1. Armee, eventually supported by the German 103rd Infantry Division. They crossed the Bug and after fierce fighting they captured Sokal on the 18h. Thus K.u.k. Heer had established a bridgehead east of the river.

That same day there was however issued an order that had widespread consequences. The German commander-in-chief Mackesen ordered that 103rd Infantry Division and other German troops were to be pulled out to help general Linsingen further north. This put K.u.k. 1. Armee in a difficult situation, as the Russians, commanded by the competent general Brusilov, recaptured the hills south of Sokal on the 20th. From here they could shell the town and threaten to push the enemy back across the river.

Already the same day Paul Puhallo, commander of 1st Army, realised how serious the situation was. He asked for assistance and the request was granted. K.u.k. 2. Armee released the entire 9th Infantry Division (that IR91 belonged to). According to the original plans they were to attack across the Bug by Kamionka Strumiłowa on 21 July, but in the night between the 20th and 21st they instead had to start marching northwards to relieve the threatened bridgehead at Sokal.

The order to move the division to this section of the front was thus the direct reason why Jaroslav Hašek got to Sokal at all, and hence leading to the town being mentioned in his novel.

K.u.k. Infanteriregiment Nr. 91 by Sokal
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Oberleutnant Sagner reporting on the critical situation of his battalion finds itself in. The losses are reacing at least 50 per cent.

© ÖsTA

The regiment reached Opulsko west of Sokal on the 22nd and the next day they were in position by Poturzyca (ukr. Поториця), a few kilometres south of the town. At 4 PM on 25 July 1915 the signal for attack on the Russian positions on the hills by Poturzyca (Kote 254, 237, 234) was given. It was a brutal battle with frightening losses on both sides. It is estimated that 9th Infantry Division lost around half their men killed, wounded and missing. On both sides a large number of prisoners were taken.

In the end K.u.k. Heer had to give up the attack and pull back to positions between Sokal and Poturzyca. In the end they were saved by an unexpected Russian withdrawal that was caused by a German break-through further north. Thus the Russian forces by Sokal were in danger of getting trapped and were ordered to pull back.

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"Bojiště u Sokalu", Večerní České Slovo, 1924

On 1 August the 9th division was replaced. Parts of IR91 were lodged in the gymnasium in Sokal (Jan Vaněk mentions it in his diary), a fact that may have found its way into the novel (but "relocated" to Sanok). In the evening of 2 August they started the march to the reserve positions by Żdżary, 15 kilometres north of Sokal. On 3 August, at 4 in the morning, the replacement had been completed. Żdżary was in an area that was infested by cholera, but it is not known whether anyone from the regiment were infected. K.u.k. Infanteriedivision Nr. 9 stayed in the area until 27 August when an offensive into Russia in the direction of Dubno started.

The original units from 1st army also took part in the battle. Amongst these were IR4 (Hoch- und Deutschmeister from Vienna), FJB10 (Kopaljäger from Jihlava), FJB25 from Brno. These units had also taken part in the original conquest of Sokal, where particularly the Deutschmeister regiment (IR4) distinguished itself.

Jaroslav Hašek and Sokal
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"Dekorierung" at IR91/11. field company, Żdżary 18 August 1915. Colonel Rudolf Kiesswetter handed out medals to the soldiers. On the photo, we can apart from Kiesswetter himself, identify (a.o.) Vaněk, Hašek, Lukas and Sagner. From "Bestand Rudolf Kiesswetter".

© ÖsTA

Jaroslav Hašek served as messenger in the 3rd field battalion, 11th company. The battalion held one of the most exposed positions and suffered terrible losses. Still Oberleutnant Čeněk Sagner led his unit commendably and in battle reports he was mentioned in very favourable terms. Oberleutnant Rudolf Lukas led 11th company, one of the four companies in Sagner's battalion.

Hašek was after the battle of Sokal promoted to Gefreiter and on 18 August 1915 he was decorated with a silver medal (2nd class) for bravery demonstrated during the fighting around Poturzyca on 25 July.

Several of the "models" for characters in Švejk took part in the battle for Sokal: Rudolf Lukas, Čeněk Sagner, Hans Bigler, Jan Vaněk, František Strašlipka, Jan Eybl and Franz Wenzel.

Apart from the author, Kadett Bigler and Oberleutnant Sagner were promoted after the battle. Oberstleutnant Wenzel was investigated due to cowardly conduct. He allegedly left the command of his 2. battalion to Oberleutnant Peregrin Baudisch and for some mysterious reason spent time with the 4th battalion (who were reserves).

These were decorated after the battle: Jaroslav Hašek, Hans Bigler, Jan Vaněk, František Strašlipka and Čeněk Sagner. The latter was one of only three in the whole regiment who were given the highest recognition: the German "Eiserne Kreuz" (Iron Cross).

A well documented battle
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From Jan Vaněk's diary. 31 July 1915.

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From Gefechtsbericht, 9 August 1915. This report contains stinging criticism of how the main commanders of IR91 conducted the battle. Regimental commander Oberst Steinsberg and the commander of the 2nd battalion, Oberstleutnant Wenzel, are singled out for particularly harsh criticism.

© ÖsTA

Important testimonies of the battle are the diaries of Jan Vaněk and Jan Eybl, the notes of Bohumil Vlček, all from IR91. Moreover there is the diary of Eugen Hoeflich (better known as Moscheh Ya’akov Ben-Gavriêl) from Feldjägerbtn. 25, Brno (FJB 25).

Apart from these personal accounts, detailed descriptions of the battle can be found in the regimental chronicles of IR91, IR73 and IR102, probably also by IR4, IR11 and others. Österreich-Ungarns letzter Krieg describes the battle thoroughly and gives insight into the decisions and considerations further up the command chain. In the war archives in Vienna and Prague there is more material that can be found; diaries, battle reports, orders, maps, photos and more. Material on IR91 and Sokal can be found in both archives.

Newspaper reports that mention Sokal were numerous, but on both sides the news stream was obviously filtered and censored. The respective setbacks were "wrapped in" or not mentioned at all, and own successes exaggerated. Much more informative are newspaper items from after the war, where individuals wrote about their experiences around Sokal.

The author of this web page has not found any eye-witness accounts from the Russian side, but official reports are available in Finnish newspapers (at the time Finland was a Russian Grand Duchy) and newspapers from neutral states like Norway, Sweden, Netherlands and Switzerland.

Hašek and the 300 prisoners
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Důjstonické listy, 24.2.1938

A sixteen-part series in Večerní České Slovo from 1924, based partly on interviews with Rudolf Lukas, is also an important source. It has been much relied upon by post-WW2 Haškologists. This despite a suspicion that the author Jan Morávek "coloured" his account to a considerable degree. One such case is the claim that Jaroslav Hašek was decorated because he convinced 300 Russians to give themselves up, and then led them to regiment HQ without disarming them, thus causing confusion and panic behind the lines.

This episode is not mention at all in the application for his decoration (Belohnungsantrag), but the story has many similarities with information from one of Rudolf Lukas's obituaries (Důjstonické listy, 24 February 1938). Here it transpires that Hašek actually was trusted by Lukas to lead a group of prisoners to positions behind the lines. Contrary to instructions he did not disarm them and this led to panic as they entered HQ where the officers believed that the Russians had broken through. The episode put Lukas in a bad light but we don't known if it had any consequences for him.

Jan Vaněk, 26.7.1915

Včera odpol přišel rozkaz „Ku předu“ na ruské zákopy. Nejdříve bombardovalo naše dělostřelectvo a pak jsme šli. Ale bylo to hrozné. Sotva naši lidé vyskočili na náspy, již se jich mnoho a mnoho válelo na zemi dílem mrtvých a raněných. Hrozná to byla hodinka. Postoupili jsme o 100 kroků do předu a dále to nešlo. Byli jsme seslabeni. K tomu ke všemu pršelo jen se lilo. Bláto zamazalo pušky, takže nebylo možno střílet. Trnuli jsme strachy a kdyby rusové udělali protiútok, že to nezadržíme. Ale nestalo se tak—do rána jsme se urželi a pak jsme pokračovali. Zajali jsme spousty Rusů.

28. juli 1915, 11 Uhr Nachts

Gleich darauf meldte Oberleutnant Sagner: Linker Flügel des III. Bataillons hat, da das Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 zurückgeging, jeden Anschluss verloren. Gegner durchgebrochen - Pionerabteilung des Regimentsreserven eingesetzt. Bitte um 2 Kompagnien an meinen linken Flügel da dieser in äusserst kritischer Situation ist.

Links

Source: VHA, ÖSTA, Milan Hodík, Bohumil Vlček, Jan Vaněk, Jan Eybl, Eugen Hoeflich

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Dnes jsou důstojničtí sluhové roztroušení po celé naší republice a vypravují o svých hrdinných skutcích. Oni šturmovali Sokal, Dubno, Niš, Piavu. Každý z nich je Napoleonem: „Povídal jsem našemu obrstovi, aby telefonoval do štábu, že už to může začít.“
[2.5] "Odtud, pánové, k Sokalu na Bug," řekl plukovník Schröder věštecky a posunul ukazováček po paměti ke Karpatům, přičemž zabořil jej do jedné z těch hromádek, jak se kocour staral udělat mapu bojiště plastickou.
[3.1] Telegram zněl prosté, nešifrován: "Rasch abkochen, dann Vormarsch nach Sokal." Hejtman Ságner povážlivé zakroutil hlavou. "Poslušné hlásím," řekl Matušič, "velitel stanice dá vás prosit k rozmluvě. Je tam ještě jeden telegram." Potom byla mezi velitelem nádraží a hejtmanem Ságnerem rozmluva velice důvěrného rázu. První telegram musel být odevzdán, třebas měl obsah velice překvapující, když je batalión na stanici v Rábu: "Rychle uvařit a pak pochodem na Sokal." Adresován byl nešifrovaně na pochodový batalión 91. pluku s kopií na pochodový batalión 75. pluku, který byl ještě vzadu. Podpis byl správný: Velitel brigády Ritter von Herbert.
[3.2] Matušič přinesl na vojenském nádraží v Budapešti hejtmanovi Ságnerovi z velitelství telegram, který poslal nešťastný velitel brigády dopravený do sanatoria. Byl téhož obsahu, nešifrován, jako na poslední stanici: "Rychle uvařit menáž a pochodem na Sokal." K tomu bylo připojeno: "Vozatajstvo začíslit u východní skupiny. Výzvědná služba se zrušuje. 13. pochodový prapor staví most přes řeku Bug. Bližší v novinách."
[3.4] Ačkoliv odtud bylo spojení železniční neporušeno pod Lvov i severně na Veliké Mosty, bylo vlastně záhadou, proč štáb východního úseku udělal tyto dispozice, aby železná brigáda se svým štábem soustřeďovala pochodové prapory sto padesát kilometrů v týlu, když šla v té době fronta od Brodů na Bug a podél řeky severně k Sokalu.
[3.4] Tato nešťastná kráva, možno-li vůbec nazvati onen přírodní zjev kravou, utkvěla všem účastníkům v živé paměti, a je téměř jisto, že kdyby později před bitvou u Sokalu byli velitelé připomněli mužstvu krávu z Liskowiec, že by se byla jedenáctá kumpanie za hrozného řevu vzteku vrhla s bajonetem na nepřítele.
[4.1] Neznalo ještě nic určitého o revolučních organizacích v cizině a teprve v srpnu na linii Sokal Milijatin - Bubnovo obdrželi velitelé bataliónů důvěrné rezerváty, že bývalý rakouský profesor Masaryk utekl za hranice, kde vede proti Rakousku propagandu. Nějaký pitomeček od divize doplnil rezervát ještě tímto rozkazem: "V případě zachycení předvésti neprodlené k štábu divize!" Toto tedy připomínám panu presidentovi, aby věděl, jaké nástrahy a léčky byly na něho kladeny mezi Sokalem- Milijatinem a Bubnovou.
[4.3] Major otevřel si stůl, vytáhl mapu a zamyslel se nad tím, že Felštýn je 40 kilometrů jihovýchodně od Přemyšlu, takže jevila se zde hrozná záhada, jak přišel pěšák Švejk k ruské uniformě v místech vzdálených přes sto padesát kilometrů od fronty, když pozice táhnou se v linii Sokal - Turze Kozlów.
[4.3] "U nás ho teď nedostaneš, poněvadž my jdeme na Sokal a lénunk se bude vyplácet až po bitvě, musíme šetřit. Jestli počítám, že se to tam strhne za čtrnáct dní, tak se ušetří na každým padlým vojákovi i s culágama 24 K 72 hal."

Also written:Сокаль ru Сокаль ua

Nišnn flag
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Serbian funeral in Niš © ÖSTA

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Linzer Volksblatt, 7.11.1915

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IR91 by Niš 8 October 1918.

Niš is mentioned when the author riducules the officers' servants who "stormed" Niš, Sokal and Piave (and others).

Background

Niš (ser. Ниш) is a city in Serbia by the river Nišava. Counting more than 250,000 inhabitants it is the biggest city in southern Serbia and the third in the country behind Belgrade and Novi Sad.

During the war

The city was war-time capital of Serbia due to the exposed position of Belgrade at the border with Hungary. During the Central Power's offensive in the autumn of 1915 Niš was conquered by Bulgarian troops on 5 November 1915 after the Serbs had abandoned the city. It remained under Bulgarian occupation until 12 October 1918 when it was liberated by Serbian forces.

That Austrian soldiers would have been participating in the storming of Niš (as the author suggests) is unlikely as the operations against the city in 1915 were undertaken by the Bulgarian army.

IR91 by Niš

In late September 1918 Bulgaria pulled out of the war and left their allies on the Balkans dangerously exposed. The 9th Infantry Division (including IR91) was therefore hastily transferred from the front by Piave to southern Serbia. The transport went by train via Udine, Ljubljana, Belgrade to Vranje on the Macedonian border. The division was seriously decimated and suffered from shortages and diseases. Some reserves didn't even have shoes. South of Vranje they immediately faced the advancing Serbian 1st Army and already on 3 October they had to withdraw northwards. The 17th Brigade (IR91 and IR102) had a particularly arduous retreat across the mountains. On 8 October they had reached the vicinity of Niš and by 16 October by Vitkovač. The retreat continued northwards for the remaining few weeks of the war.

Links

Source: Jan Ciglbauer, Milan Hodík

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Oni šturmovali Sokal, Dubno, Niš, Piavu.

Also written:Nisch de Ниш sr

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K.u.k. Heer crossing Piave by Grave di Papadopoli

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Svět, 12.9.1918

Piave is mentioned by the narrator when he ridicules the officers' servants who bragged about their exploits during the war.

Background

Piave is a river in northern Italy. It flows from the Alps and after 220 km ends in the Adriatic Sea near Venice.

During the war

After the Central Powers broke through by Caporetto 24 October 1917, Italian forces pulled back to the Piave where the front was stabilised in November after the enemy's attempt to cross the river failed. In June 1918 a second battle by the Piave took place. This was the last large-scale Austro-Hungarian operation in the war. The offensive failed and K.u.k. Heer suffered nearly 120,000 casualties. On 24 October 1918 the Allies attacked across the river and the Austro-Hungarian front collapsed.

By Piave a division of Czech legionnaires were fighting on the Italian side. Those who were captured were publicly executed. On one single day, 22 July 1918, no less than 160 legionnaires suffered this grim fate.

IR91 by Piave

During the offensive by Caporetto, IR91 followed K.u.k. Heer westwards from Isonzo to Piave where they arrived on 13 November 1917. For the first month they were stationed at Ponte di Piave, then moved on to Valdobbiadene further up the river.

During the failed Austrian offensive in the summer of 1918 they stayed in the reserve (15 to 23 June), were then moved down the river again to Grave di Papadopoli, a large island in Piave. Finally they were moved to the Serbian front, a transfer that began on 30 September. Amongst the models for characters in the novel only Hans Bigler served by Piave.

Links

Source: Jan Ciglbauer, Milan Hodík

Quote from the novel
[1.14.2] Oni šturmovali Sokal, Dubno, Niš, Piavu.

Also written:Piava cz

Canary Islandsnn flag
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Canary Islands is here used as an adjective in reference to a breed of birds that is named after these islands. Lukáš was fond of animals and owned a Canary bird, a cat and a dog. The bird ended its life miserably as Švejk tried to let the bird and the cat get used to each other. The result is a foregone conclusion.

Background

Canary Islands is a group of islands in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Africa that belong to Spain.

The Canary bird is named after the Canary Islands where it lives in the wild. It is also present on the Azores and Madeira. It was imported to Europe as a domesticated animal, and in Central Europe it became particularly popular. During the 19th century the Harz region became the main centre of canary breeding.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.3] Neobyčejně rád měl zvířata. Měl harckého kanárka, angorskou kočku a stájového pinče.
[1.14.3] „Poslušně hlásím, pane obrlajtnant, že je vše v nejlepším pořádku, jedině kočka dělala neplechu a sežrala vašeho kanára.“

Also written:Kanárské ostrovy cz Kanarischen Inseln de Islas Canarias es

Harznn flag
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Der Floh, 9.2.1913

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Národní politika, 5.1.1908

Harz is here used as an adjective in reference to a breed of canary birds; the Harzer Roller. The mentioned bird belonged to Lukáš but suffered a grim fate as Švejk let the bird and the senior lieutenant's cat together "so they could get used to each other".

Background

Harz is a mountain range in Germany. It is the northernmost range in the country and straddles the borders of Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia.

Harzer Roller is a breed of canary birds that was bred in the Harz mountains and was very popular in the 19th century. It is best known as a singing bird but is also used in mines to warn against poisonous gases. It is particularly sensitive to carbon monoxide. The centre for breeding of this race is Sankt Andreasberg.

The breed regularly show up in newspaper adverts from before the world war, for instance in mellom anna i Národní politika. Jaroslav Hašek, who in 1909 and 1910 was editor of the animal magazine Svět zvířat, was very knowledgeable on animals, including birds.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.3] Neobyčejně rád měl zvířata. Měl harckého kanárka, angorskou kočku a stájového pinče.
Pelhřimovnn flag
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© Pelhřimovský magazín

Pelhřimov is mentioned in a monologue where Švejk tells Lukáš about a teacher Marek from a village nearby who runs after the daughter of the game-keeper Špera.

The town is mentioned again in Vienna when Švejk rejoins his obrlajtnant and immediately tells him about a certain Vaníček from Pelhřimov.

Background

Pelhřimov is a town in Vysočina with around 17,000 inhabitants (2010). It has a well preserved historic centre, and also a certain industrial tradition, for instance in brewing.

In 1913 the town had 5,738 inhabitants where all but 9 declared themselves with Czech nationality. Unusually for Bohemia at the time not a single person declared himself German. The town was seat of hejtmanství and okres of the same name.

Pelhřimov belonged to Army Recruitment District No. 75 (Jindřichův Hradec) so infantry recruits from the area served with Infanterieregiment Nr. 75. In the army command chain from 1914 this regiment belonged to the 8th Army Corps (see Korpskommando). From 1912 most of the regiment, including staff, were garrisoned in Salzburg.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.3] V jedný vesnici za Pelhřimovem byl nějaký učitel Marek a ten chodil za dcerou hajnýho Špery, a ten mu dal vzkázat, že jestli se bude s holkou scházet v lese, že mu, když ho potká, postí do zadnice z ručnice štětiny se solí.
[2.3] „Vostudu,“ pokračoval Švejk, „jsem vám jistě nikdy neudělal, jestli se něco stalo, to byla náhoda, pouhý řízení boží, jako říkal starej Vaníček z Pelhřimova, když si vodbejval šestatřicátej trest. Nikdy jsem nic neudělal naschvál, pane obrlajtnant, vždycky jsem chtěl udělat něco vobratnýho, dobrýho, a já za to nemůžu, jestli jsme voba z toho neměli žádnej profit a jenom samý pouhý trápení a mučení.“

Also written:Pilgram de

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The Hlaváček tramway by Klamovka in June 1897

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Čech, 17.11.1910

Košíře is mentioned in the dialogue between Lukáš and Švejk after the cat has eaten the canary. This conversation touches on dog trade and falsification of pedigrees, and Švejk uses a mongrel from Košíře as an example.

Background

Košíře is a district in Prague and is located in the western part of the capital, between Smíchov and Motol. Košíře was a separate town from 1895 until it joined greater Praha in 1922.

In 1913 Košíře belonged to okres and hejtmanství Smíchov. The town had 12,293 and virtuallz all were registered as Czechs, only 14 reported as German nationals. The town consisted of the districts Cibulka, Košíře, Kotlářka, Počtávka and Podhají. It was served by a post-office and a Roman-Catholic parish. As a curiosity should be mentioned the privatly owned tramway that connect the town with Smíchov centre.

Hašek in Košíře

Jaroslav Hašek officially lived in Košíře no. 908 from 4 February 1909. This was the address the editorial offices of the bi-weekly animal magazine Svět zvířat. This is the magazine where he for a while functioned as an editor. It was here that he published stories about fictive animals, an undertaking that forced owner Fuchs to dismiss his innovative editor(see Marek). The villa was situated above the Klamovka garden but was demolished some time between 2011 and 2015.

From 28 July 1910 shows him registered further down in the town towards Smíchov, in Košíře no. 1125. Here he lived with his wife Jarmila who he had married 23 May 1910. He stayed here (at least officially) until 28 December 1911 when he is recorded with residence Vršovice. It was from no. 1125 that he for a short period, at the end of 1910 and beginning of 1911, ran his unsuccessful "Kynological Institute", buying and selling dogs and other animals.

The birth of Švejk

It was probably during his time in Košíře that the author created The Good Soldier Švejk, although in a very different format than the later world famous novel. The first story about Švejk was published 22 May 1911.

Links

SourceJaroslav Šerák

Quote from the novel
[1.14.3] A každej hned chtěl rodokmen, tak jsem si musel dát rodokmeny natisknout a dělat z nějakýho košířskýho voříška, kerej se narodil v cihelně, nejčistokrevnějšího šlechtice z bavorskýho psince Armin von Barnheim.

Also written: Koschirsch Reiner Koschiř de

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Das deutsche Kaiserreich, 1871-1918

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Ottův slovník naučný, 1909

Bavaria is mentioned by Švejk in the first conversation with Lukáš about dogs. In the Bavarian kennel of Armin von Armin von Barheim pure breed pinschers are bred.

In [IV.3] Bavaria is mentioned again as soldiers from IR91 had been brawling with Bavarians at the square in Żółtańce.

Background

Bavaria is the largest of the German federal states, with Munich as the capital and one of the country's major cities.

The Kingdom of Bavaria existed from 1805 to 1918 and in 1871 it became part of the new united Germany. The geographical extent was somewhat different to that of the modern state as the geographically separate Palatinate belonged to Bavaria.

The kingdom kept a degree of autonomy after the unification: the Wittelsbach dynasty continued its reign, and Bavaria provided its own army, postal and railway services. Bavaria had traditionally been an ally of Austria in conflicts with Prussia, as late as in the German War of 1866 it was at war with Prussia.

In the novel there are few references to Bavarian people and places. The most famous Bavarian mentioned is obviously Sissi (see Elisabeth zu Bayern), then of course the writer Ganghofer. References to Bavarian geography are limited to Nuremberg and Nördlingen.

Hašek in Bavaria
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Besedy lidu, 9.5.1914

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Jogelli Klopter and Jaroslav Hašek. © Josef Lada

Jaroslav Hašek knew parts of Bavaria from his wanderings during the summer of 1904, a journey that inspired him to write a some stories set there. His experiences appear as fragments in many more. According to his won story Velký den (The Big Day) he travelled by foot all the way from Switzerland through Bavaria to Domažlice where he was hosted by his friend Hájek. The journey took place from July and probably until September (the story was printed on 9 October). Hašek's travel in Bavaria is documented only by his own stories, which means that some details must be taken with a pinch of salt. Still we can assume that the greater contours of the journey are factual and that many other details are.

A number places in the former kingdom feature in the various stories. The plot itself takes place in the towns of Dillingen, Höchstädt, Ingolstadt, and Neuburg. All of them are located on the Danube on the stretch between Ingolstadt and the border with Württemberg. In addition Hašek mentions the Bavarian regions Upper Palatinate, Upper Franconia and Swabia. The cities of Passau and Regensburg are mentioned and so are a number of minor places which names are often mystified or misspelt.

Three of the stories are set in Neuburg, and the best known of these describe a meeting with the fat tourist guide Jogelli Klopter. The story has been translated to several foreign languages, amongst them English. Another well known story is titled Justice in Bavaria and is set in Ingolstadt. Here the author is arrested as a vagrant but is quite satisfied with the conditions in the prisons and the terms of his sentence in general.

A story about hop-picking is set in the area between Nuremberg and Spalt. Here he describes his meeting with other seasonal workers, amongst them a man from Schleswig.

In 1917 Jaroslav Hašek wrote the story Na Valhallu in Čechoslovan in Kiev. The story which is more propaganda than entertainment, does however mention a number og places along the river Regen and indicates his journey back to Bohemia through Bavarian Forest in 1904. Mentioned are the Walhalla monument by Donaustauf, Furth im Wald and Eschlkam. He also describes where he crossed the border.

Links

Source: Jan Berwid-Buquoy,Radko Pytlík

Quote from the novel
[1.14.3] A každej hned chtěl rodokmen, tak jsem si musel dát rodokmeny natisknout a dělat z nějakýho košířskýho voříška, kerej se narodil v cihelně, nejčistokrevnějšího šlechtice z bavorskýho psince Armin von Barheim.

Also written:Bavorsko cz

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Vojtěšská ulice, Nové město, Praha. © AHMP

Vojtěšská ulice is mentioned by Švejk in connection with Lukáš' troubles when Katy appears. In his anecdote it was also talk of a visiting lady who didn't know her allotted time. The incident with the lady allegedly took place "two years ago", in other words in 1912.

Background

Vojtěšská ulice is a street in Nové Město, running parallel to Vltava north of Myslíkova ulice. The street is named after Adalbert of Prague. The main attraction in the street is probably church Kostel sv. Vojtěcha většího. There is also an identically named street in Břevnov but it is unlikely that Švejk had this street in mind.

It has not been possible to link the mentioned episode to any news items from the period in question.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.4] „Poslušně hlásím, pane obrlajtnant, že je to těžký případ. Ve Vojtěšský ulici před dvěma léty nastěhovala se k jednomu čalouníkovi nějaká slečna a von ji nemoh vypudit z bytu a musel votrávit ji i sebe svítiplynem a bylo po legraci. S ženskejma je vobtíž. Já do nich vidím.“

Also written:Adalbertgasse de

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Světozor, 18.10.1912

Třeboň was the town Mrs Micková came from. Lukáš expected a visit from here just at the moment Katy inconveniently arrived.

Background

Třeboň is a town in South Bohemia with around 8,700 inhabitants (2010). It was one of the main centres of the Schwarzenberg estates, has a fine historic old town and is surrounded by rybníky, artificial lakes used for fish-breeding. It is also classified as a spa town. Třeboň had in 1914 direct railway connection with Prague and Vienna.

Třeboň was in 1913 part of hejtmanství and okres of the same name. The town itself had 5,278 inhabitants, of which 5,098 were registered as Czechs. There was also a military presence in town - of the 341 employed by the armed forces most were Czechs.

In 1912 1st battalion of IR88 were garrisoned in Třeboň, but by 1913 they had been transferred to Jindřichův Hradec. At the moment we don't know who used the barrack in Třeboň by the outbreak of or during the war. Soldiers from Třeboň were drafted in Ergänzungsbezirk Nr. 75, so most would eventually serve in Infanterieregiment Nr. 75.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.4] Milý Jindřich byl určitě v ošklivé situaci. Manželka pronásledovaná manželem přijede k němu na několik dní na návštěvu, právě když má přijeti paní Micková z Třeboně, aby po tři dny opakovala to, co mu pravidelně poskytuje každého čtvrt roku, když jede do Prahy dělat nákupy.

Also written:Wittingau de

Memphisnn flag
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Salzburger Chronik, 3.3.1897

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Znaimer Tagblatt, 26.2.1909

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Kopřivy, 16.5.1918

Memphis is here used as an adjective in the expression "a packet of Memphis cigarettes", in Czech "krabice memfisek". Švejk was ordered by Lukáš to buy wine and cigarettes for Katy. The cigarettes are mentioned three times in this chapter.

Background

Memphis is here mentioned through the cigarette brand Memphis that was manufactured by the tobacco-monopoly Kaiserlich königliche Tabak-regie. The cigarettes were made in Hainburg and a number of other places. In 1882 there we 28 tobacco factories in Cisleithanien, i.e. the Austrian half of the Dual Monarchy, but details on which factory made what brand are not available.

The brand was launched in 1897 and was in 1913 the third most sold brand in the Austrian part of Austria-Hungary. The name refers to Memphis in ancient Egypt, not to the US metropolis. May of the Austrian cigarette brand names had an Oriental association (Nil, Stambul, Sultan, Memphis etc.).

Memphis cigarettes continued to be produced in post-war Czechoslovakia and Austria, by the successor states respective tobacco monopolies. In Austria the monopoly was abolished as late as 1996 and the Memphis cigarette exists even today (2019), although it is no longer made in the country. The last domestic tobacco factory (Hainburg) closed down in 2011.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.4] Pak koupíte tři láhve vína, krabičku memfisek, tak.
[1.14.4] Dostal jsem na to vod pana obrlajtnanta sto korun, ale z toho musím koupit tři lahve vína a krabičku memfisek.“
[1.14.4] Při obědě vypila láhev vína, vykouřila mnoho memfisek a lehla si do postele, zatímco Švejk v kuchyni pochutnával si na komisárku, který namáčel do sklenice s nějakou sladkou kořalkou.
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Das interessante Blatt, 25.2.1915

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Österreich-Ungarns letzter Krieg (Band 1)

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Světová válka 1914-1915 slovem i obrazem, s. 510

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Berliner Tageblatt, 8.5.1915

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Světová válka 1914-1915 slovem i obrazem, s. 508

Dunajec was mentioned by the author when he describes the war situation and the "war council" Lukáš and Švejk held to get rid of Katy. He notes that this was at the time when the masses of the armies stood in a the rain of shells in the forests by Dunajec and Raba and that heavy artillery tore apart entire companies and dispersed them in the Carpathians.

Soon after, when Wendler has arrived to pick up his wife, Lukáš mentions the river for his guest when he explains the positive outlook for the war.

Background

Dunajec is a river that flows through northern Slovakia and southern Poland. It is one of the tributaries of Vistula which it joins by Opatowiec, north of Tarnów.

From 15 November 1914 the 3rd Russian Army led by Radko Dimitrov crossed the river and advanced across Raba towards Kraków. On 8 December they were forced back (battle of Limanowa) and by the end of the year the front had stabilised by Dunajec.

Until May 1915 part of the front stretched along Dunajec and fierce fighting took place through the winter. The situation changed to the advantage of the Central Powers after the breakthrough by Gorlice and Tarnów on 2 May 1915 and the area was thereafter spared for further destruction.

The novel's timing

The author mentions fighting by Raba and Dunajec in the same sentence so time-wise so the author surely has the period from 15 November 1914 until the turn of the year in mind. It was precisely in this period that the Russian army operated beyond Dunajec, and nearly reached Kraków. This corresponds with one of the very few dates mentioned in the novel: on 20 December 1914 Lukáš dictated a letter for Švejk to send Katy as thanks for the 400 crowns she left on the washbasin as thanks for his services.

Quote from the World War Chronicle

The quote from the conversation between Lukáš and Wendler is copied directly from page 508 of Kronika světové války. It refers to events that took place as late as 2 May 1915.

Even the author's introduction to the sub-chapter can be traced to the Chronicle but here the author replaced the river Biała with Raba, preseumably to align the plot with the situation at the front in December 1914. This quote also refers to events that took place in early May, more precisely the re-conquest of Tarnów by the Central Powers. It was originally reported in Berliner Tageblatt on 8 May 1915.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Zatímco masy vojsk připnuté na lesích u Dunajce i Rábu stály pod deštěm granátů a velkokalibrová děla roztrhávala celé setniny a zasypávala je v Karpatech a obzory na všech bojištích hořely od požárů vesnic i měst, prožíval nadporučík Lukáš se Švejk nepříjemnou idylu s dámou, která utekla svému muži a dělala nyní domácí paní.
[1.14.5] Jakmile však prolomíme ruskou frontu mezi karpatským hřbetem a středním Dunajcem, není nijaké pochybnosti, že bude to znamenat konec války.

Also written:Dunajetz de

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Brda a Podbrdí, Josef Kafka, 1925

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Právo lidu, 10.10.1912

Všenory is mentioned in a story Švejk tells to illustrate for Lukáš the problems of getting Katy out of the house.

Background

Všenory is a village around 20 km south west of Prague, by the river Berounka. In 2018 it had 1,640 inhabitants.

Všenory was in 1913 listed under hejtmanství Smíchov, okres Zbraslav. The village had 289 inhabitants, and all declared their mother tongue as Czech. The Catholic parish was Mokropsy Horní a Trnová, the post office was located in Dobřichovice.

The village belonged to the military recruitment district No. 28 so infantrymen with right of domicile in the village served in IR28.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Ve Všenorech byl minulej rok takovej případ v jedný vile. Ale tenkrát si ten telegram poslala sama ta ženská svýmu muži a ten si pro ni přijel a nafackoval voboum. Voba byli civilisti, ale v tomto případě si na oficíra nebude troufat.

Also written:Wšenor de

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Světová válka 1914-1915 slovem i obrazem

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L'entrée des Allemands à Paris (Septembre 1914)

Paris will according to Lukáš soon be in German hands. This claim is part of his lecture to hop trader Wendler about the military situation.

The hop trader later in the conversation asks the officer why the Germans had withdrawn to the border when they already had been close to Paris.

Background

Paris is the capital and the largest city in France. The city core has a population of around 2.1 million, whereas the metropolitan area, which is the fourth largest Europe, has around 12 million.

The French capital was for a while in August and September 1914 seriously threatened by the initial German advance, but the enemy was halted in the battle of Marne.

Paris is also mentioned in some of Jaroslav Hašek's short stories, see links below.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Stejně Francouzům hrozí v nejkratší době ztráta celé východní Francie a vtržení německého vojska do Paříže.
[1.14.5] Nemyslete si, že nesleduji události,“ pokračoval, dívaje se zuřivě na nadporučíka, který klidně vypouštěl z úst kolečka cigaretového dýmu, která stíhala jedno za druhým a rozbíjela je, což sledovala paní Katy s velkým zájmem, „proč Němci odešli zpět ku hranicím, když byli již u Paříže?

Also written:Paříž cz

Východní Beskydynn flag
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Prager Tagblatt, 11.5.1915

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Světová válka 1914-1915 slovem i obrazem

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IR91, Kistopolya, 23.4.1915. Bestand Rudolf Kiesswetter

© ÖStA

Východní Beskydy is part of the lecture about the war situation that Lukáš treats hop trader Wendler to. From [II.3] onwards, events from here are often mentioned through stories from veterans who have served with IR91 in the Carpathians. By Medzilaborce and Palota the plot takes place here without the mountains being mentioned explicitly.

Background

Východní Beskydy is a mountain region straddling the border between Poland, Slovakia and Ukraine, in Polish called Bieszczady. From the autumn of 1914 until May 1915 the front went along the mountains which saw heavy fighting during the winter battle of the Carpathians.

The novel apparently refers to battles that took place at the beginning of April 1915 east of Medzilaborce. Many of the official bulletins from this period mentions the fighting in Ostbeskiden. This assumption is supported by the fact that the author picked most of the information he used in the conversation between Lukáš and Wendler from these very announcements.

The news entry in Kronika světové války from 2 April 1915 mentions Východní Beskydy as well as Klosterhoek, Niederaspach and Mühlhausen. All these places feature in the conversation between Wendler and Lukáš. Also note that the spelling "Bezkydy" was often used, for instance in the mentioned news item.

IR91 in the Eastern Beskids

Until the first week of May 1915 three battalions of IR91 were stationed at this section of the front. They had been transferred from the Balkans front in early February. Their stay here has surely provided material for many of the conversation in Book Three.

Several of the models for characters in the novel served here: Rudolf Lukas, Jan Vaněk, Jan Eybl, Josef Adamička and also the more peripheral Wurm. The activities of the regimentet in these mountains are very well documented through the diaries of Eybl.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Nadporučík Lukáš vzal obchodníka s chmelem jemně za rameno a odvedl k mapě bojiště, visící na stěně, a ukazuje mu jednotlivé body, vykládal: „Východní Beskydy jsou naším znamenitým opěrným bodem.

Also written:Eastern Beskids en Ostbeskiden de Aust-Beskidane no Східні_Бескиди uk

Moscownn flag
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Světozor, 27.9.1912

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Ottův slovník naučný, 1901

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Průkopník, 27.3.1918

Moscow is, like many other places, part of Lukáš' lecture for Wendler about the war situation. He assures the hop trader that "we are not going to stop until we reach Moscow".

Background

Moscow was in 1914 the biggest city in Russia whereas Petrograd was the capital. Moscow was from 1922 capital of the Soviet Union and was also the centre of the Bolshevik administration from 12 March 1918. It is the capital and biggest city of the modern republic of Russia, with more than 10 millions inhabitants. The city is situated on the river Moscow, 142 metres above sea level.

In 1897 the city had 988,614 inhabitants and the vast majority were Russians. The largest minority were Germans and Jews but none of these groups counted for more than 3 per cent of the population. There were also a number of Czechs and several Czech firms had offices in Moscow. During the last decennials before the world war the city was growing rapidly, had a diverse industrial base and was also the hub of the Russian railway network, connection 10 lines.

Hašek in Moscow

Jaroslav Hašek arrived in the city in mid March 1918 together Břetislav Hůla. It was here he joined the Czech section of the Communist Party and started to campaign for České legie to remain in Russia. On 27 March 1918 he published an article in Průkopník titled "To the Czech Army: why is one going to France?". He argued against the Legion's transfer to the Western front and though they should remain in Russia to defend the revolution.

His stay in the city was short-lived as he left for Samara in early April. In November 1920 he appeared in Moscow again, now on the way back to his homeland after working for two years as a Red Army commissar in the Ural region and Siberia.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] V karpatských úsecích, jak vidíte, máme velkou oporu. Mocný úder na tuto linii - a nezastavíme se až v Moskvě. Válka skončí dřív, než se nadějeme.“

Also written:Moskva cz Moskau de Москва ru

Dardanellesnn flag
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Národní politika, 4.4.1915

Dardanelles is part of summary Lukáš provides Wendler with about the situation at the various fronts. The officer informs his gueast that Liman von Sanders has been named head commander of the Dardanell army.

Background

Dardanelles is a narrow strait in north western Turkey that connects the Aegean Sea and the Marmara Sea. In March 1915 allied forces attempted to force their way through the straits but were repelled. The defeat ultimately led to the forced resignation of the British minister of Naval Affairs, Winston Churchill. The first major battle was fought on 18 March 1915 and the allied invasion fleet was repelled. The defenders were led by Cevat Paşa, later known as hero of 18 March.

Liman was named commander-in-chief of the Dardanelle army on 24 March 1915, and the news about his new role was pasted directly in to the novel. It was cut from a summary of the latest events that was printed in Národní politika on Easter Sunday 1915 (4 April).

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Vrchním velitelem turecké armády dardanelské jmenován maršálek Liman šl. Sanders.

Also written:Dardanely cz Dardanellen de Çanakkale Boğazı tr

Constantinoplenn flag
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Světozor, 1908

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Světová válka 1914-1915 slovem i obrazem, s. 506

Constantinople is included in senior lieutenant Lukáš's elaborations for Wendler on the war situation. Here he informs his guest that Goltz Paşa has arrived in Berlin from Constantinople.

Later in the conversation the hop trader informs that he had delivered hops even to all the way to Constantinople before the war but that this trade now has stopped.

In the novel the "obrlajtnant" uses the term "Cařihrad" (Emperor's City), but this is rarely used in modern Czech. In Slovenian (Carigrad) and Bulgarian this form still exist, but in the other Slav languages it is now obsolete.

Background

Constantinople was in 1914 capital and the largest city of the Ottoman empire, and was capital of the new republic of Turkey until 1923. From 1930 the city has been known as İstanbul.

Goltz Paşa's journey from Constantinople to Berlin that Lukáš refers to actually took place, but his arrival was on 29 March 1915, not in December 1914 as the novel indicates. The sentence that refers to Constantinople is one of many direct quotes from the press. One of them was Národní politika on 4 April 1915.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Goltz paša přijel z Cařihradu do Berlína a naším císařem byli vyznamenáni Enver paša, viceadmirál Usedon paša a generál Dževad paša.
[1.14.5] Náš chmel šel až do Cařihradu. Dnes jsme napolo zničeni.

Also written:Cařihrad Hašek Konstantinopol cz Konstantinyé tr

Berlinnn flag
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Brandenburger Tor in 1914

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Národní Politika 4.4.1915

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Národní listy, 24.1.1928

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Die Bühne, 9.2.1928

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The end of Longen's fanciful story about Hašek and the former police man "Španda" in Berlin

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Hašek's wife does not record any stay in Berlin

Berlin is also part of Lukáš' lecture for Wendler about the military situation. The senior lieutenant informs his guest that Goltz Paşa has arrived in the city from Constantinople.

Berlin is mentioned also in (II,4) in connection with Krauss and his publishing of graffiti from some railway station toilets there.

Background

Berlin is the capital of Germany and its largest city, counting around 3.6 million inhabitants (2017). It is located by the river Spree and is situated appx. 35 metres above sea level.

The city was from 1871 capital of Germany and already before that capital of the kingdom of Prussia and until 1881 the province of Brandenburg. Some of the political decisions that led to the outbreak of war were taken here. In 1900 the population count was around 2 millions and was growing rapidly. The city had at the time a very different appearance because it was largely left in rubble during the Second World War.

Lukáš' statement refers to the arrival of Goltz Paşa in Berlin on 29 March 1915. Also note that the relevant phrase in the novel is word-by-word to identical to the newspaper clip to the right. See Kronika světové války for more on press quotes used in the novel.

Berlin and Švejk

Berlin, in its own right, merits a place in the story of how Švejk became famous outside his home country. Erwin Piscator's theatre play on Piscator-Bühne at Nollendrofplatz contributed a lot to the fame of the good soldier. The play was enthusiastically received by the public as well as critics, and the success was noted also abroad. Max Pallenberg played Švejk and the script was written by Hans Reimann and Max Brod. The play was first performed 23 January 1928.

Another Berliner who pushed Švejk into the limelight was Kurt Tucholsky who in 1926 wrote a raving review of the two first volumes of the novel (i.e. the translation).

Hašek in Berlin?

Jaroslav Hašek and his wife Alexandra Lvova (Šura) must have passed through the city around 9 December 1920. They were on the way to Czechoslovakia from Russia and they had arrived in Swinemünde (now Świnoujście) by boat the previous evening. Emil Artur Longen claims that they spend some days in Berlin after bumping into Vincenc Španda at Unter den Linden.

Španda was allegedly a former policeman from Prague who knew the author already in 1911 in connection Strana mírného pokroku v mezích zákona. Jaroslav Hašek and Španda are supposed to have partied in Berlin for three days and the author excused himself to his wife by claiming he had got lost!

Still there is every reason to be sceptical of Longen's version. First and foremost because Lvova doesn't mention Berlin or her husbands alleged three day "disappearance" in her account of their journey. On the contrary she recalls that they left Stettin (now Szczecin) in the evening of 9 December with an evening train and arrived in Pardubice "at night" (probably the night from 10 to 11 December).

Nor is there any trace of any policeman Španda in the address books of pre-war Prague or in the 1920 Berlin equivalent (perhaps Španda was not his real name). Amongst Hašek-experts Longen is moreover regarded an unreliable source. Radko Pytlík still doesn't rule out the possibility of a short stay in Berlin. He also writes that some Antonín Rypl was on the same journey as Hašek, but we know from official documents that Rypl arrived in Pardubice already on 10 December 1920. This fits well with Lvova's version, so any claim that Jaroslav Hašek stayed in Berlin for several days is probably based on hearsay..

Kurt Tucholsky

Zu diesem Buch ist mir in der gesamten Literatur kein Gegenstück bekannt.

Links

SourceRadko Pytlík, Emil Artur Longen, Alexandra Lvova-Haškova, Jan Berwid-Buquoy

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Goltz paša přijel z Cařihradu do Berlína a naším císařem byli vyznamenáni Enver paša, viceadmirál Usedom paša a generál Dževad paša.

Also written:Berlín cz

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Illustrirte Zeitung, 19.8.1915

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Světová válka slovem i obrazem, s. 509

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Teplitz-Schönauer Anzeiger, 9.5.1915

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Světová válka slovem i obrazem, s. 510

Vistula is also pulled in by Lukáš in his long discourse for Wendler on the strategic situation. This is the last item before before the unavoidable theme is introduced: Katy.

Background

Vistula is with its 1,047 km the longest river in Poland. It flows through cities like Kraków, Warsaw, Torun and Gdańsk. The catchment area covers half of Polen.

Throughout the autumn of 1914 and until late summer 1915 the war zone engulfed part of river basin. Here it is no doubt the upper stretch that is the theme, as it was on Austrian territory.

Quotes from the War Chronicle

As with many other fragments from the conversation between Lukáš and Wendler it seems that the author has borrowed some phrases from Kronika světové války. In this case they are however not copied word by word, and some details are removed or thrown about. The fragment refers to the Central Powers' breakthrough by Dunajec in early May 1915 and is based on a report published in Berliner Tageblatt on 8 May 1915 and reproduced by Teplitz-Schönauer Anzeiger the next day.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Nadporučík Lukáš, vida, že spád rozmluvy zabočuje do nepříjemností, odvedl opět inteligentního obchodníka s chmelem k mapě bojiště, a ukazuje na podtržená místa, řekl: „Zapomněl jsem vás upozornit na jednu velice zajímavou okolnost. Na tento veliký, k jihozápadu obrácený oblouk, kde tvoří tato skupina hor veliké předmostí. Sem obrácena jest ofensiva spojenců. Uzavřením této dráhy, která předmostí spojuje s hlavní obrannou linií nepřítele, musí být přerušeno spojení mezi pravým křídlem a severní armádou na Visle. Je vám to nyní jasné?“

Also written:Visla cz Weichsel de

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La Stampa, 10.12.1912

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Tages-Post, 25.5.1915

Italy is mentioned first time by Wendler in his complaint about the effect of the war on the hop trade. Here he states that exports to Italy still carry on but that he is worried about their further intentions. He complains that Italy is still neutral despite renewing the Triple Alliance as late as in 1912.

From [III.2] Italy figures more prominently due to her declaration of war on Austria-Hungary. Otherwise many places in Italia are mentioned, mostly mid 19th century battlefields in the north. These include Solferino, Custoza, Caldiero, Santa Lucia and Piave. Italian cities are also drawn in, amongst them Milan, Venice, Verona, and Novara. Amongst political entities we find Sardinia, Piedmont and the Venetian Republic.

Many distinguished Italians have their names listed in the novel. First introduced is Christopher Columbus, followed by Lombroso, Boccaccio, Dante, Bruno, Galilei, San Giuliano, and king Carlo Alberto.

Background

Italy was in 1914 a kingdom that had been united since 1861. The capital was Roma and the population in 1914 was 37 million. On the eve of the First World War the area was the same as today with the exception of Trentino, Alto Agide (South Tyrol) and Trieste. The latter territories were Austrian until 1918 and were handed to Italy as part of the peace settlement. Italy was also a colonial power, possessing Libya (from 1912) and parts of eastern Africa.

Austria-Hungary had a sizable Italian minority, predominantly on the Istria peninsula and in Trentino. Italian sepakers made up 1.5 per cent of the empire's population, or about 750,000. Italian was one of 11 official languages and Italians were represented in the Austrian Reichsrat (see Parlament). Almost the entire Italian population lived in Cisleithanien. The Italian minority of Austria was a source of permanent conflict, as Italy made claims to the areas where they lived. This claim was in the end the main reason for Italy entering the war on the side on the Entente.

Three wars against Austria
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National hero Giuseppe Garibaldi took part in all three Italian wars of independence against Austria

Between 1848 and 1866 three wars were fought between Austria and various Italian states. These are usually referred to as the first, second and third Italian war of liberation. It is in connection with these wars that most of the battlefields are mentioned later in the novel.

In the first war of liberation (1848-49) the kingdom of Sardinia on its own faced Austria and were defeated by Custoza and Santa Lucia, in battles where the Austrian army was commanded by the 82 year old Radetzky. Austria's victory did however not result in territorial gains, but Sardinia had to pay war reparations.

Leading up to the second war of liberation (1859) the kingdom of Sardinia had realised that they were incapable of winning a war against Austria alone, and allied themselves with France. After having provoked the war they won a decisive battle at Solferino. The result was that Austria was forced to cede Lombardy.

In the third war of liberation (1866) the now united Italy was allied with Prussia. Despite not winning a victory on the battlefield they were awarded the province of Veneto as Austria's position was untenable after their defeat against Prussia by Hradec Králové (Königgrätz).

The Triple Alliance
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Čech, 8.12.1912

The mentioned Triple Alliance (de. Dreibund, it. Triplice alleanza) was a loose defensive alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. It was first signed in 1879 between the former two states, and in 1882 Italy joined. Their strategic reason was to have back cover for their colonial ambitions in Africa where they competed with France and England. This despite their long-standing conflict with Austria over Italian-speaking areas in Trentino, South Tyrol and on the Istria peninsula.

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Mussolini's newspaper with news on the renouncement of the Triple Alliance. Il popolo d'Italia, 7.5.1915

The obligations of the treaty were limited to supporting the partners in the event of one of them being attacked by two or more non-treaty states. The treaty also contained an extra clause, stating that Italy would not be obliged to enter a war against England.

The treaty was renewed five times, the latest signed on 5 December 1912 by Foreign Secretary San Giuliano in Vienna. The only change from the 4th treaty (1902) was that Austria-Hungary and Germany recognized Italy's rule in Libya, an area she had conquered from Turkey during the war earlier that year.

The road to war
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Italian children in pro-war demonstration. Tromsø Stiftstidende, 31.5.1915

In august 1914 Italy declared neutrality. The country was not obliged to participate in the war against Serbia, as the latter was clearly not the aggressor. Then they undertook negotiations with the warring parties, seeking to exploit the situation to achieve its territorial and political goals. The Entente obviously had more to offer and Italy pulled out of the Triple Alliance on 4 May 1915 after having entered as secret agreement to go to war against the Central Powers (the London agreement 26 April 1915).

In parallel negotiations Austria-Hungary was willing to concede major areas to keep Italy neutral, but in the London treaty the Entente had promised them even more.

One of the most vocal proponents of war was the young socialist politician and journalist Benito Mussolini. In November 1914 he founded his own newspaper Il popolo d'Italia (The Italian People), a publication that already from the start was noted for it's virulent pro-war rhetoric, often penned by Mussolini himself. The first issue appeared in Milan 15 November 1914 and the final word in the editorial was: Guerra! (war).

Stalemate by Isonzo and in the Alps
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Lago di Doberdò durante un bombardamento

In an atmosphere of patriotic euphoria Italy declared war on on the Dual Monarchy on 23 May 1915. Hostilities commenced almost immediately, and on 23 June Italy launched the first offensive by the river Isonzo. The war was primarily conducted in the north east along this river, and in the mountains of Tyrol. Italy enjoyed numerical superiority, and they repeatedly tried to break through the front by Isonzo. Although they carried the war onto Austrian territory, the gain was minimal and at a high cost. Gorizia fell in August 1916 but no decisive victory was ever achieved. A total of 11 battles were fought by Isonzo between June 1915 and October 1917.

In Tyrol K.u.k. Heer launched an offensive in May 1916 and enjoyed some progress in the beginning, but after a few weeks they had to give up, not least because of the critical situation in the east during the initial stage of the Brusilov offensive, launched 4 June 1916, threatened Austria-Hungary with a collapse.

The war at sea in Mediterranean Sea has not been given much attention, but here Italy faced the fleet of Austria-Hungary, and after the declaration of war against Germany on 28 August 1915, also German submarines. Italy was also formally at war with Turkey from 21 August 1915 and Bulgaria from 19 October 1915.

Disaster at Caporetto
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New York Tribune, 6.1.1918

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The Great war, volume 11

Major changes to the war situation only occurred during the 12th Isonzo battle in October 1917. K.u.k. Heer had now been able to transfer troops from the eastern front after Russia's collapse, and had also been reinforced with German units. The Central Powers launched a surprise attack by Caporetto (sl. Kobarid) on 24 October 1917 and the Italian front broke down already the same day.

The Italian army lost two thirds of its artillery during the chaotic retreat and the 2nd Army was destroyed. Still by mid November the Italians had managed to regroup and stabilize the front by Piave. The losses were frightening: an estimated 300,000 men, the vast majority of these taken prisoner.

The military leadership was subsequently replaced: the ruthless and unpopular commander in chief Luigi Cadorna was succeeded by Armando Diaz and army reforms followed. Discipline in the Italian army during Cadorna's reign was extremely harsh. Approximately every seventeenth soldier was subjected to disciplinary trials, most of tehm were convicted, and around 750 were executed. These numbers are much higher than those of the other armies at war.

In addition Cadorna's inflexible tactics, with frontal assaults, was often blamed for the enormous casualties the Italian army suffered. He also had serious problems co-operating with his fellow generals.

Allied support
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Czechoslovak Legions in 1918

From 1917 Italy received considerable support from their allies, both with supplies and manpower. The largest foreign force was British, followed by the French. American troops also took part, but to a minor degree.

Like in Russia and France military units of Czech and Slovak volunteers were formed also in Italy. Here the legions were however formed much later (1918) than in the two other countries, although Czechs fought in the Italian army even before that. Their numbers eventually reached 15,000 and in June 1918 they were used at the Piave front.

End of the war

15 June 1918 K.u.k. Heer launched another offensive by Piave, now without German help. The attack was unsuccessful and from now on the Italian army enjoyed the upper hand. The decisive offensive however started as late as 24 October 1918, but within days it caused the total collapse of K.u.k. Heer. The armistice was signed 3 November 1918 in Villa Giusti, at a time when the Dual Monarchy for all practical purpose had ceased to exist.

The Versailles Treaty

As part of the peace settlement Italy was handed former Austrian territory in Tyrol and on the Istria peninsula (the latter was ceded to Yugoslavia after the Second World War).

This was less than what was promised in the Treaty of London, as the newly established Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (from 1929 Yugoslavia) were handed areas that originally had been promised Italy. The areas in questions were primarily along the coast of Dalmatia.

In Italy the reaction to the peace treaty was negative. Close to half a million Italians had perished during the war, and the gain was only slightly more than Austria-Hungary in 1915 had offered in exchange for neutrality.

IR91 in Italy
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The journey from Russia to Italy, extract from the diary of Rudolf Kiesswetter, 17 November 1915. That day the regiment stopped in Kraków, Oderberg (Bohumín) and Přerov. © ÖSTA.

In mid November 1915 Jaroslav Hašek's IR91 was transferred from the Volyn provinse in Russia (now Ukraine) to the front in Italy. The timing of the author's capture on 24 September 1915 is therefore very important in the light of what direction his fate (and therefore novel Švejk) could have taken.

The 2nd, 3rd and 4th battalion of regiment[*] reached the front by Isonzo on 19 November 1915. They ended their train journey at Prosecco by Trieste, and from there they marched north to the front section by Monfalcone. Here their position was on the so-called Karst Plateau on the current border between Italy and Slovenia. They were involved in the fighting already during the 4th Isonzo battle that now was ongoing. Places that often occur in connection with IR91 are Doberdò og Jamino, now slightly inside Italian territory, then on Austrian soil.

*) The detached first battalion didn't fight with the rest of the regiment until October 1916, but had arrived at the Isonzo front already before the other three battalions.

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Funeral by Prosecco, 1917. Fond Jan Ev. Eybl.
© SOkA Beroun.

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Map that roughly shows the movement of IR91 on the Italian front from 19 November 1915 until 30 September 1918. Based on "Jednadevadesátníci" (Jan Ciglbauer, 1918).

In May 1916 Austria-Hungary launched an offensive in Tyrol and in this context IR91 was on 24 May 1916 transported to that front section. They were deployed in the mountains south-east of Trento, but were not involved in any fighting. When the offensive was called off in June, the regiment was transferred back to their original position.

Thus the regiment from 1 July 1916 were again in position east of Monfalcone. They suffered grave losses during the six offensives that Italy launched during the next 15 months, but K.u.k. Heer held the line despite facing an enemy that was superior in manpower, equipment and ammunition. The regiment now included an elite unit of assault troops that caused a lot of damage in the enemy lines. These were commanded by captain Peregrin Baudisch, an officer that had distinguished himself already during the battle by Sokal in 1915. The 10th Isonzo-battle was particularly fierce and on 26 May 1917 all four battalions of IR91 distinguished themselves in the fighting. The regiment had by now established a reputation as a formidable fighting force, and the enemy referred to them as the "green devils".

18 September 1917 they were transferred north to the front section by Gorizia where they took part in the 11th Isonzo battle by Monte San Gabriele (sl. Škabrijel).

After the break-through of the Central Powers by Caporetto 24 October 1917, IR91 joined the advance on the Piave. Three days later they crossed the Isonzo for the first time, and 30 October 1917 they found themselves on Italian soil. The civilian population had already fled, and the regiment came across huge amounts of provisions and equipment that the Italians had left behind during the retreat. Piave was reached 13 November 1917 and the area by the river would be their area of operation for the next 11 months.

From around Christmas 1917 until June 1918 the regiment held a sector of the front by Valdobbiadene, an area where Piave flows down from the mountains and onto the low plain. Here they for the first time faced French and British units, and also came in contact with Czech legionnaires.

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By Piave, 15 June 1918. Bestand Rudolf Kiessswetter.
© ÖSTA.

In this period the casualties caused by direct enemy fire were negligible, but another enemy caused serious decimation of the ranks: hunger and disease. Austria-Hungary now had 300 000 extra Italian prisoners to feed, and the effects of the Allied blockade was felt more and more. In the so far reliable IR91 there were now signs of open discontent, and the will to fight spiralled downwards. The Italian supplies that were captured in the wake of Caporetto were already exhausted.

On 15 June 1918 K.u.k Heer launched a failed offensive by Piave, now with IR91 in the reserve. Through the summer the regiment guarded the front section by Grave di Papadopli, a large island in Piave, some distance south of Valdobbiadene. After the Bulgarian capitulation the entire 9th infantry division was transferred to the front in southern Serbia (see Niš). The departure from Piave took place 30 September 1918.

Švejk and Italy
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Dobrý voják Švejk a jiné podivné historky, 1912

The first version of The Good Soldier Švejk, five short stories from 1911 has much more focus on Italy than the novel has. The first story, printed in Karikatury 22 May 1911 is even titled Švejk stands against Italy. Here the good soldier strays across the border near Trento and captures a mule and an Italian machine gun.

In these stories Švejk was posted at the garrison in Trento, at the time a huge fortress complex that guarded Austria's southern border against Italy. Still the plot almost exclusively takes place on the Austrian side of the border, the exception being the aforementioned episode with the mule and the machine gun.

Another Austrian border fortress features in the play Pevnost, co-written by Hašek, and was performed around the time the first stories about Švejk appeared. This play is set in Monfalcone near the mouth of the river Isonzo. Ironically this was the area where Jaroslav Hašek's own IR91 (now without the author) were to fight and suffer from the end of 1915 until the autumn of 1917.

Some of the prototypes of characters in the novel Švejk also took part in the campaign against Italia: Jan Vaněk, Rudolf Lukas, Čeněk Sagner, Jan Eybl, Franz Wenzel, and Hans Bigler. The latter is the only one that appears to have stayed at the front until the capitulation. A more peripheral name is senior lieutenant Wurm, from 1 July 1915 captain. In his diary Václav Čertík remembers that Wurm shot down an Italian plane on 8 January 1916.

Links

Source: Rudolf Kiesswetter, Jan Ev. Jan Eybl, Jan Ciglbauer

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Ještě posíláme chmel do Italie, ale obávám se, že se Italie také do toho zamíchá.
[1.14.5] "Itálie zachovává přísnou neutralitu," těšil ho nadporučík, "to je..."

Also written:Itálie cz Italien de Italia it

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Meuse along the map to the left

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Národní Politika, 3.4.1915

Meuse is mentioned by Wendler when the laments the state of the hop trade. Han wonders why there is still artillery fights between Maas and Mosel now when the war allegedly is going so well.

Background

Meuse is a river that flows from France, through Belgium and the Netherlands before emtying into the North Sea. The total length is 925 km. From 1914 to 1918 the battlefront was close to Meuse in the area around Verdun. The fighting mentioned by Wendler took place in early April 1915 and was reported in official announcements from Berlin on 2 April. The author employs these in the novel almost excactly as they were printed in Czech newspapers.

Changed spelling

Sergey Soloukh points at that in current issues of the novel the spelling is Maasa and not Mosa that the author used. Why the correct spelling was changed later is baffling. Mosa was the official Czech name in 1921 and was also the term found in the press snippets that the author obviously used (see Kronika světové války). Moreover Mosa is perfectlyy valid also today (2019).

Links

Source: Sergey Soloukh

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Proč zas se vedou mezi Maasou a Moselou prudké dělostřelecké boje?

Also written:Máza/Mosa cz Maas nl

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Národní politika, 4.4.1915

Woëvre is one of the many places mentioned in Wendler's frustrated tirade regarding the hop-trade. Three breweries in the area is said to have burnt down.

Background

Woëvre is a region in Lorraine in nort eastern France. It is located near Metz and the famous battlefield by Verdun. The front passed through here for almost the full length of the war and the events Wendler somewhat imprecisely refers seem to be taken from a news release issued by the German HQ on 28 March 1915. These news bulletins appeared on the front page of newspapers in Austria-Hungary throughout the war.

In Národní politika from 4 April Woëvre is mentioned again in a summary of events from the previous week. Now it is in a wording very close to what appears in the novel, but in all the press reports there is talk of the Woëvre plain, so Wendler is slightly imprecise.

Großes Hauptquartier, 28. März. Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz

Südöstlich von Verdun wurden französische Angriffe auf den Maashöhen bei Combres und in der Woevre-Ebene bei Marcheville nach hartnäckigen Kämpfen zu unseren Gunsten entschieden.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Víte, že v Combres a Woewru u Marche shořely tři pivovary, kam jsem posílal ročně přes pět set žoků chmele?

Also written:Woevre Hašek Waberland de

Combresnn flag
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Národní politika, 4.4.1915

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Mapire.eu (1836)

Combres is mentioned in Wendler tale of woe about the hop-trade. Three breweries in the area is said to have burnt down.

Background

Combres (officially Combres-sous-les-Côtes) is a municipality in the Meuse-department in Lorraine in France. It is located east of Verdun and was on or near the front almost the entire war.

In late March and early April 1915 fierce battles took place here, and it looks very much as if the author has used a news bulletin from 28 March in this sequence, repeated in Národní politika in a news summary on 4 April 1915 and not the least Kronika světové války.

Großes Hauptquartier, 28. März. Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz

Südöstlich von Verdun wurden französische Angriffe auf den Maashöhen bei Combres und in der Woevre-Ebene bei Marcheville nach hartnäckigen Kämpfen zu unseren Gunsten entschieden.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Proč zas se vedou mezi Maasou a Moselou prudké dělostřelecké boje? Víte, že v Combres a Woewru u Marche shořely tři pivovary, kam jsem posílal ročně přes pět set žoků chmele? A shořel i ve Vogesách Hartmansweilerský pivovar, je srovnán se zemí ohromný pivovar v Niederspachu u Mylhúz.
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Neue Freie Presse, 29.3.1915

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Světová válka 1914-1915 slovem i obrazem, s. 506

Marchéville is one of the many places Wendler mentions in his lament on the declining hop-trade. He simply calls it Marche, but the news bulletins reveal that he means Marchéville. There were three breweries in the area that were burnt down. Before the war Wendler had supplied them with hops, but now the trade was in tatters.

Background

Marchéville (officially Marchéville-en-Woëvre) is a village in Lorraine in France, not far from Verdun. In 2015 it counted a mere 76 citizens.

The fighting referred to was reported by German HQ on 28 March 1915, and their bulletin is partly (and imprecisely) reproduced by Wendler.

Cut, paste and add breweries

Marchéville is one of a number of place names on the Western Front that find its way into world literature through Wendler's long monologue of misery in front of Lukáš. The names are all copied from Kronika světové války, and this publication is beyond doubt the source the author used when he composed the conversation between the hop trader and the officer.

That all these places hosted a brewery can by near certainty ruled out. Some of them were small villages, and in one case only a farm (Klosterhoek). That the small area east of Verdun had three breweries is almost inconceivable.

Similar information was however available from a number of newspapers, but Kronika světové války is the only known case where the wording (including spelling mistakes) corresponds literally to the words of Wendler and Lukáš. This is particularly striking in the words of Lukáš (see Cevat Paşa, Halil Bey etc.).

Sergey Soloukh points out that the hyphen of Marchéville, as it is printed in Kronika světové války, may be the reason why the author called the place only Marche and his hypothesis is entirely plausible.

Links

Source: Sergey Soloukh

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Víte, že v Combres a Woewru u Marche shořely tři pivovary, kam jsem posílal ročně přes pět set žoků chmele?

Also written:Marche Hašek

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Das interessante Blatt, 23.12.1915

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Národní politika, 4.4.1915

Vosges was yet another place where Wendler's lost his market for hops. The brewery in Hartmannsweiler burnt down and the giant one in Niederaspach was razed to the ground.

Background

Vosges is a mountain range in north eastern France that between 1871 and 1918 straddled the French-German border. During WW1 the front stretched along the mountains and in late March and early April 1915 there was heavy fighting here, events that the author transforms into destruction of breweries. Whether these breweries were destroyed (or even existed) has yet to be confirmed.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] A shořel i ve Vogesách Hartmansweilerský pivovar, je srovnán se zemí ohromný pivovar v Niederaspachu u Mylhúz.

Also written:Vogézy cz Vogesen de Les Vosges fr

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Národní politika, 4.4.1915

Hartmannsweiler also had a brewery that Wendler traded with back in the good days. This was before it was burnt down during the fighting.

Background

Hartmannsweiler is the German name of Hartmannswiller, a small place in Alsace on the eastern slopes of the Vosges, nort west of the regional capital Muhouse. Like the rest of the region it was part of Germany from 1871 to 1918.

It was the scene of fierce fighting during WW1, particulalry in 1915. The battles mainly concerned Hartmannsweilerkopf, a summit of 956 metres west of the village. Today there is a large war cemetry and a French national monument. The village itself was destroyed by artillery bombardments.

As with the other Belgian and French breweries mentioned by Wendler in the conversation with Lukáš the brewery here is presumably. It may of course have existed, but even in this is the case it is unlikely that the author had any knwoledge of it.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] A shořel i ve Vogesách Hartmansweilerský pivovar, je srovnán se zemí ohromný pivovar v Niederspachu u Mylhúz.

Also written:Hartmansweiler Hašek Hartmannswiller fr

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Světová válka 1914-1915 slovem a obrazem, s. 507

Niederaspach was another place with a destroyed brewery. This enormous brewery had, according to hop trader Wendler, been razed to the ground

Background

Niederaspach is the German name of Aspach-le-Bas, a municipality in the Haut-Rhin departmentet in Alsace, from 1871 to 1918 part of Germany. It is located west of the regional capital Mulhouse.

It has not been possible to verify the existence of any brewery here, and certainly not a gigantic one (as Wendler claims).

The World war Chronicle

Niederaspach appears in war bulletins in early April 1915, and not the least in Kronika světové války, a publication that Hašek no doubt made use of when he composed the conversation between Lukáš og Wendler.

Großes Hauptquartier, 3. April.

Ein Versuch der Belgier, das ihnen am 31. März entrissene Klosterhoek-Gehöft wieder zu nehmen, scheiterte. Im Priesterwalde mißlang ein französischer Vorstoß. Ein französischer Angriff auf die Höhen bei und südlich von Nieder-Aspach westlich von Mülhausen wurde zurückgeschlagen.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] A shořel i ve Vogesách Hartmansweilerský pivovar, je srovnán se zemí ohromný pivovar v Niederaspachu u Mylhúz.

Also written:Aspach-le-Bas fr

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Národní politika, 11.4.1915

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Dobrý voják Švejk (Rukopis)

© LA-PNP

Mühlhausen is named in the tirade from Wendler about the failing demand for hops. He mentions a brewery in Niederaspach by Mylhúzy, the Czech name of the city.

Background

Mühlhausen is the German name of Mulhouse, a city in the province of Alsace (ge. Elsass) near the border of Switzerland and Germany. As the rest of Alsace it was part of Germany from 1871 to 1918.

Changed spelling

Current issues of the novel write Mylhúz and not Milhúz as the author used and the press reports used at the time. That change was introduced as part of a language "clean-up" of the novel that took place soon after 1950.

Großes Hauptquartier, 3. April.

Ein Versuch der Belgier, das ihnen am 31. März entrissene Klosterhoek-Gehöft wieder zu nehmen, scheiterte. Im Priesterwalde mißlang ein französischer Vorstoß. Ein französischer Angriff auf die Höhen bei und südlich von Nieder-Aspach westlich von Mülhausen wurde zurückgeschlagen.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] A shořel i ve Vogesách Hartmansweilerský pivovar, je srovnán se zemí ohromný pivovar v Niederspachu u Mylhúz.

Also written:Mylhúzy cz Mulhouse fr

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© Herman Declerck

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Světová válka 1914-1915 slovem a obrazem, s. 507

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Budweiser Zeitung, 2.4.1915

Klosterhoek had according to Wendler a hosted a brewery which had been fought over six times between German and Belgian forces. Because of this he had an annual loss of 350 sacks of hops. The conversation took place on 20 December 1914.

Background

Klosterhoek is a farm by Pervijze in Flanders. Heavy fighting took place here in October 1914 and in April 1915 and it is also mentioned in noticed in 1916 and 1917. Pervijze is located near the Yser-front and was totally destroyed during the war. Before WW1 there were six breweries here, but none of them were in Klosterhoek itself.

A comparison of the historical events that Lukáš and Wendler refer to during the conversation indicate that the fighting in question took place early in April 1915. Thus the author has moved this impressive cluster of facts back to 1914. It seems that he copied most of the information from newspapers. In this case it is an official war bulletin from 1 April 1915.

The World war Chronicle

Klosterhoek appears in war bulletins in early April 1915, and not the least in Kronika světové války, a publication that Hašek no doubt made use of when he composed the conversation between Lukáš og Wendler.

Großes Hauptquartier, 3. April.

Ein Versuch der Belgier, das ihnen am 31. März entrissene Klosterhoek-Gehöft wieder zu nehmen, scheiterte. Im Priesterwalde mißlang ein französischer Vorstoß.

Links

Source: Herman Declerck

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] Proč zas se vedou mezi Maasou a Moselou prudké dělostřelecké boje? Víte, že v Combres a Woewru u Marche shořely tři pivovary, kam jsem posílal ročně přes pět set žoků chmele? A shořel i ve Vogesách Hartmansweilerský pivovar, je srovnán se zemí ohromný pivovar v Niederspachu u Mylhúz. To máte ztráty 1200 žoků chmele pro mou firmu ročně. Šestkrát bojovali Němci s Belgičany o pivovar Klosterhoek, to máte ztrátu 350 žoků chmele ročně.“
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Zpor_Por. Jelacic-Platz in Agram, Österreich-Ungarn (heute: Zagreb, Kroatien) (1909). Web.

Zagreb was another place to which Wendler had to go to look for his wayward spouse. This trip he used well as he struck a deal with the municipal brewery, selling them 600 sacks of hops. This market was unfortunately lost by the end of 1914.

Wendler's trip to Zagreb must have taken place in 1913 as he states the this was "last year" and the author informs that the plot in these seqience of the novel takes place in December 1914.

Background

Zagreb was in 1914 capital of the Hungarian ruled autonomous Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. At the time it was also known through it's German name Agram, a term that is rarely used any more. Zagreb is now the capital of the republic of Croatia.

Breweries

The city presumably hosted several brwereies, but it is not known whether any of them were owned by the council. The largest of them was not doubt Aktienbrauerei und Malzfabrik in Agram, locally simply called Pivovara, that in 1910 was the 6th largest brewery in the entire Austria-Hungary. Beer production this year totalled 26,226 hectolitres.

This large brewery was founded as a joint limited company in 1893 through a merger of several smaller breweries who were unable to expand on their original sites. It still exists in 2019 and is known as Zagrebačka pivovara. The current owner is Molson Coors Brewing Company.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] A když odešla se obléknout, tiše řekl k nadporučíkovi: „Nevyvádí to ponejprv. Loni ujela s jedním suplentem a našel jsem je až v Záhřebu. Udělal jsem při té příležitosti v městském pivovaře v Záhřebě uzávěrku na žoků chmele.

Also written:Záhřeb cz Agram de Zágráb hu

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Světozor, 16.10.1914

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The brewery around 1900

© Warsaw on postcards

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Der Böhmische Bierbrauer, 1.10.1891

Warsaw and was another hop market that was lost for Wendler and he adds that the Augustian Brewery was the largest in the city. The representative for the brewery visited Wendler each year.

Background

Warsaw is since 1918 capital of Poland and the biggest city in the country. It is located by the river Vistula.

The city was in 1914 capital of the Kingdom of Poland (or Congress Poland), until 1915 a Russian satelltite state. During the autumn of 1914 the Germans made several failed attempts to conquer the city. Warsaw finally fell on 4 August 1915 and remained on German hands for the rest of the war.

Breweries

It has not been possible to identify any Augustian brewery in the city. The largest brewery in Warsaw at the end of the 19th century was Haberbusch i Schiele (ru. Габербуш и Шиле), a position it held also in 1914. The company also operated their own bottling plant in Kiev. The company retained its leading position in the inter-war independent Poland, but was destroyed during the Warsaw uprising in 1944. Other breweries in the city were Machlejd and Livonia. Warsaw was also an important centre for hop trading in the Russian Empire, and in this context it was often mentioned in specialist publications in Austria.

Other possibilities

There is also a possibility that Wendler exported hops to an overseas brewery. Their one of the several towns named Warsaw in United States, there was a brewery in for instance Warsaw, Illinois. This brewery was however not called "Augustinian", and the idea that Wendler has anywhere but the Polish city in mind appears remote.

The brewery name is rather a mix-up with the famous Augustiner-Bräu in Munich or one of the other Augustiner breweries that existed at the time (Salzburg, Wittenberg ...), although not even in Munich this was the largest brewery.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] A zapaluje si nabídnutou cigaretu, řekl zoufale: „Jedině Varšava odebírala 2370 žoků chmele. Největší pivovar je tam augustiánský. Zástupce býval u mně na návštěvě každoročně. To je k zoufání. Ještě dobře, že nemám děti.“
[1.14.5] Tento logický závěr každoroční návštěvy zástupce augustiánského pivovaru z Varšavy způsobil, že se nadporučík jemně usmál, což obchodník s chmelem postřehl, a proto vykládal dál: ....

Also written:Varšava cz Warschau de

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Gambrinus, 1.4.1900

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Magyar Gambrinus, 5.1.1907

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The brewery in Sopron

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Magyar Sörlexikon

Sopron and its brewery troubled Wendler with poor demand after the outbreak of war. The brewery had until then exported its beer all the way to Alexandria.

When the plot later moves to Királyhida the city is mentioned in several contexts, and also indirectly through Soproni utca and the newspaper Soproni Napló. Sopron was also the birthplace of Mrs. Kákonyi.

Background

Sopron is a city in Hungary near the Austrian border, regarded as the country's oldest city. It is located 5 km south-west of Neusiedler See.

In 1910 the population count was 33,932 and amongst these the Germans were just about the largest ethnic group. The city was (and is) connect by rail to, amongst others, Győr and Wiener Neustadt. Sopron was after the peace treaty of Trianon in 1920 to join Austria, but a referendum overturned the decision so it remained in Hungary. Today Sopron has more than 60,000 inhabitants.

The brewery

The brewery was established as a limited company on 30 March 1895 by factory owner Julius Lenck and a beer consortium from Brno. At the start the capacity was 25,000 hectolitres per year. The official names was Első Soproni Serfőzde és Malátagyár Részvénytársaság, in German Erste Oedenburger Bierbrauerei- und Malzfabrik-Aktiengesellschaft. The brewery existed under this name until 1917 when the it was bought by a larger Hungarian enterprise. The brewery is still operating (2019) and is owned by Heineken.

Hašek in Sopron

Jaroslav Hašek visited Sopron in 1905 together with Jaroslav Kubín and František Wágner. This was part of a longer trip later described in some detail in Strana mírného pokroku v mezích zákona, and also well covered by Václav Menger. According to Menger they stayed with the brewmaster, a Czech.

Nagykanidžská idyla

Velice důležitým poznatkem na naší cestě ze Šoproně do Velké Kanidže, kde se nejdéle udržel pašalík turecký, bylo, že nejspokojenější lidé jsou právě ti, kterým násilím nebyla vnucena vzdělanost.

Links

Source: Václav Menger, Radko Pytlík, Csaba Catona

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] „Uherské pivovary v Šoproni a ve Velké Kaniži odbíraly pro svá exportní piva, která vyvážely až do Alexandrie, u mé firmy ročně průměrem 1000 žoků chmele.
[2.3] Od opuštěného pavilónku, kde dřív za času míru fotografoval nějaký fotograf vojáky trávící zde mládí na vojenské střelnici, bylo vidět dole v údolí u Litavy červené elektrické světlo v bordelu „U kukuřičného klasu“, který poctil svou návštěvou arcivévoda Štěpán při velkých manévrech u Šoproně v roce 1908 a kde se scházela denně důstojnická společnost.
[2.3] „A bydlí s paní Etelkou v prvním patře,“ řekla garderobiérka s podrobností staré kuplířky, „ona je Němkyně ze Šoproně a on je Maďar; zde je to všechno pomíchané.“

Also written:Šoproň cz Ödenburg de

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Nagykanizsa 1900

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Gambrinus, 15.10.1892

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Kataliszt blogja

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Gambrinus, 15.5.1905

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Magyar Sörlexikon

Nagykanizsa and the city's brewery provided Wendler with good demand for hops until war turned the trade upside-down. The brewery bought an annual average of 100 sacks of hops from him and exported their beer all the way to Alexandria.

Background

Nagykanizsa is a city in the Zala county in Hungary, located appx. 40 km south-west of Lake Balaton and 15 km from the border with Croatia.

Hašek visiting

Jaroslav Hašek visited the city in 1905 and later wrote a couple of stories set there, and many more that mentions the city. In Strana mírného pokroku v mezích zákona he recalls being welcomed the Czech brew-master there, a certain Mr. Znojemský.

The brewery

The brewery was established in 1892 and operated until 1999. It was in the years before WW1 one of the major breweries in Austria-Hungary, the production reached 50,000 hectolitres in 1912. The company's official name was Nagy-Kanizsai Serfőzde és Malátagyár Részvénytársaság, in German Nagy-Kanizsaer Bierbrauerei- und Malzfabrik-Aktiengesellschaft.

In 1902 Jan Znojemský became brewmaster at the plant. This is without doubt the person Hašek refers to in his story as Znojemský was still there in 1905. In 1909 he assumed the same role at the brewery F.F. Bote in Jekaterinoslav in Russia (now Dnipro, Ukraine), but resigned shortly after the outbreak of war.

Spelling

An added curiosity is that a number of translations struggle with the spelling of Nagykanizsa. Amongst them are the first German, the Norwegian, the latest Swedish and all three English. The latest Dutch, Finnish and German translations however spell the name correctly. The error is however difficult to spot: the letters "s" and "z" are swapped.

It should be noted that this error appeared quite frequently in the newspapers of the period, and even in official publications. Previously the name was written with a hyphen as Nagy-Kanizsa, similar to, say, Király-Hida.

Links

Source: Václav Menger, Radko Pytlík

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] „Uherské pivovary v Šoproni a ve Velké Kaniži odbíraly pro svá exportní piva, která vyvážely až do Alexandrie, u mé firmy ročně průměrem 1000 žoků chmele.

Also written:Velká Kaniža cz Großkirchen/Groß-Kanizsa de

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Alexandria 1875

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Der Böhmische Bierbrauer, 27.6.1911

Alexandria was a city that enjoyed beer imported from Hungary, brewed with hops delivered by Wendler.

Background

Alexandria (arab. الإسكندرية) is a city in Egypt, named after Alexander the Great, the city's founder. In ancient times it was known for its library and its light-house, both classed amongst the seven wonders of the world.

In 1914 Egypt was formally still part of Turkey but had been occupied by the British since 1882. At the outbreak of war in 1914 the country was made a British protectorate, which no doubt ended any beer import from Austria-Hungary that ever was.

Reports from 1903 reveal that beer products were exported to Alexandria and other harbours in the Mediterranean Sea via Trieste.

Alternatives?

There are a number of places named Alexandria around the world so one can't be one hundred per cent certain that Wendler actually had the Egyptian city in mind. Beer was already exported overseas and the numerous Alexandrias in North America are possible candidates.

Closer to home there is a remote possibility that Wendler was talking about Nowa Alexandria in Russian Poland, sometimes referred to as simply Alexandria. The town is now called Puławy but was from 1846 to 1918 named after tsarina Alexandra Feodorovna (1798-1860).

The Romanian town of Alexandria can likewise not be entirely ruled out, being situated close to the Hungarian border.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] „Uherské pivovary v Šoproni a ve Velké Kaniži odbíraly pro svá exportní piva, která vyvážely až do Alexandrie, u mé firmy ročně průměrem 1000 žoků chmele.

Also written:Alexandrie cz

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Královský hrad pražský, 1894

Zámecké schody are mentioned as Švejk and Blahník are sitting in a small pub at the lower end of the steps as they plan the infamous dog-theft.

Background

Zámecké schody are steps that lead from Prague Castle at Hradčany down Malá Strana. The current appearance has been roughly unchanged since the mid 17th century.

It ends down in Thunovkská ulice and this is where the mentioned small pub must have existed. See Malý výčep piva.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] Na Malé Straně u Zámeckých schodů je malý výčep piva. Jednoho dne tam seděli v šeru vzadu dva muži. Jeden voják a druhý civilista. Nakloněni k sobě šeptali si tajemně. Vyhlíželi jako spiklenci z dob Benátské republiky.

Also written:Castle Steps en Slottstrappa no

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Břetislav Hůla

© LA-PNP

Venetian Republic is mentioned when the two dog thieves, Švejk and Blahník, are compared to conspirators from the time of the Venetian Republic.

Background

Venetian Republic may refer to the city state of Venice that existed for around 1000 years until 1797.

An alternative is Repubblica di San Marco, a short-lived republic that in 1848-49 rose up against Austrian rule. It was centred on Venice and consisted more or less of the current region of Veneto.

The Venetian Republic is also the theme in the story Turista Aratáš that Hašek had published in Venkov 30 April 1911. In this case there is however is no doubt that he refers to the classical city state.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] Na Malé Straně u Zámeckých schodů je malý výčep piva. Jednoho dne tam seděli v šeru vzadu dva muži. Jeden voják a druhý civilista. Nakloněni k sobě šeptali si tajemně. Vyhlíželi jako spiklenci z dob Benátské republiky.

Also written:Benátská republika cz Repubblica di San Marco it

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Former "Víla Svět zvířat", 16 May 2011

Klamovka is mentioned by Blahník when he and Svejk are planning the dog-theft in the little pub by Zámecké schody. The place in question is a kennel above Klamovka.

Background

Klamovka is a park area in Košíře and Smíchov, named after the Bohemian noble family Clam-Gallas. The main attraction of the park was (and is) the restaurant with a terasse that at the time often put on concerts with militarz orchestras. E.E. Kisch has vividlz described the ambience at Klamovka in his storz Der Clamsche Garten from the collection Aus Prager Gassen und Nächten (1912).

Hašek and Klamovka

Jaroslav Hašek was in 1909 and 1910 editor of the zoological journal Svět zvířat which editorial offices were in a villa just above the park. The kennel referred to in the novel was located in the garden in front of the villa (see Psinec nad Klamovkou). In 2011 the villa was in disrepair and by 2015 it had been demolished.

Hašek was dismissed towards the end of 1910 after it was discovered that he had invented animals. This episode is recounted by Marek on the train from Budějovice to Királyhida.

Links

SourceJaroslav Šerák,Radko Pytlík

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] Voják s civilistou si ťukli a civilista dále šeptal: „Jednou ode mne jeden černej špic, kterýho jsem potřeboval pro psinec nad Klamovkou, nechtěl taky vzít buřt
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Havlíčkovo náměstí, around 1910

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Český Lloyd, 13.9.1902

Havlíčkovo náměstí (now Senovážné náměstí) was where the unhappy stable pinscher Fox was stolen by Blahník. The theft started right here and the dog was put on a lead in Jindřišská ulice, just a few minutes away. Švejk had earlier been here to verify the eating habits of Fox. He did so by befriending the maid of colonel Kraus.

Background

Havlíčkovo náměstí is the former name of the square Senovážné náměstí in Nové Město. The name that appears in the novel was in use from 1896 to 1940 and it has also been named after František Soukup and Maxim Gorky. The square is located north of the main railway station.

Jaroslav Hašek worked for Banka Slavia here for a short while in 1903 until he was given notice after two absences without leave.

Name changes

This square should not be confused with the current Havlíčkovo náměstí in Žižkov, a square that in 1914 was called Basilejské náměstí (Basel Square).

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] „Každej den ve vosum hodin,“ šeptal civilista vojákovi, „chodí s ním služka na roh Havlíčkovýho náměstí k parku. Ale von je potvora, kouše o všechno pryč. Nedá se pohladit.“
[1.14.6] V osm hodin ráno druhého dne bylo vidět dobrého vojáka Švejka chodit na rohu Havlíčkova náměstí u parku.
[1.14.6] „Nemluv vo tom, Švejku,“ řekl měkce Blahník, „pro starýho kamaráda všechno udělám, zejména když slouží na vojně. Sbohem, hochu, a nevoď ho nikdy přes Havlíčkovo náměstí, aby se nestalo nějaký neštěstí. Kdybys potřeboval ještě nějakého psa, tak znáš, kde bydlím.“

Also written:Havlíček square en Havlíčkový náměstí Švejk

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Krč no. 32, the birthplace of Kateřina Jarešová

Krč is mentioned in the same dialogue as Protivín. A certain Jareš was from Krč by Protivín according to Švejk.

Background

Krč is a village in the Písek district in South Bohemia, 3 km east of the centre of Protivín. In 1847 Kateřina Jarešová, the mother of Jaroslav Hašek, was born here. Her father, Antonín Jareš, was pond warden nearby. These are circumstances that no doubt inspired the author.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] „A kterýho Jareše, toho z Krče u Protivína, nebo z Ražic?“ „Z Ražic.“ „Ještě rozváží pivo?“ „Pořád.“
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Bredovská ulice (now Ulice Politických vězňů) was a street were Fox followed Blahník just before he was put on a lead.

Background

Bredovská ulice is a street in Nové Město. The current name Ulice Politických vězňů literally means "The Political Prisoners street".

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] „Šel jsem schválně kolem něho, drže zabalená vařená játra v papíru. Počal čenichat a vyskakovat na mne. Nedal jsem mu nic a šel dál. Pes za mnou. U parku jsem se otočil do Bredovské ulice a tam jsem mu dal první kousek
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Jindřišská ulice is the street where Fox finally was put on a lead and thus had his fate sealed.

Background

Jindřišská ulice is a street in Nové Město. It is perpendicular to Václavské náměstí and many tram lines pass through it.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] Zabočil jsem do Jindřišské, kde jsem mu dal novou porci. Pak jsem ho, když se nažral, uvázal na řetízek a táh jsem ho přes Václavské náměstí na Vinohrady, až do Vršovic.
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Hauptbahnhof

Leipzig is mentioned when the new family-tree of Fox is invented. According to this, Fox's father came from a kennel in Leipzig.

The Battle of Nations by Leipzig in 1813 is mentioned several times in [III.1], and it appears on cadet Biegler's impressive list of battlefields. See also Liebertwolkwitz, Wachau and Lindenau.

Background

Leipzig is the second largest city in the state of Saxony, and was in 1914 part of the German Empire. The city is known for it's trade fair, university and as an important transport hub. The name is of Slav origin.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] „To musí bejt tvou rukou napsaný. Napiš, že pochází z Lipska, z psince von Bülow. Otec Arnheim von Kahlsberg, matka Emma von Trautensdorf, po otci Siegfried von Busenthal.
[3.1] „Znáte dějiny bitvy národů u Lipska?“ otázal se, „když polní maršálek kníže Schwarzenberg šel na Liebertkovice 14. října roku 1813 a když 16. října byl zápas o Lindenau, boje generála Merweldta, a když rakouská vojska byla ve Wachavě a když 19. října padlo Lipsko?“

Also written:Lipsko cz

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Světozor, 17.10.1941

Nuremberg was the city where, according to Max's new pedigree, his mother was awarded a gold medal at a dog fair.

Background

Nuremberg is the second largest city of Bavaria and the largest in Franconia, in 1914 part of Germany. To judge by some short stories he wrote, Jaroslav Hašek visited the Nuremberg region in 1904.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] Otec obdržel první cenu na berlínský výstavě stájových pinčů v roce 1912. Matka vyznamenána zlatou medalií norimberskýho spolku pro chov ušlechtilých psů. Jak myslíš, že je starej?“

Also written:Norimberk cz

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

14. Švejk as military servant to senior lieutenant Lukáš


© 2009 - 2019 Jomar Hønsi Last updated: 25/6-2019