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The Good Soldier Švejk

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Map of Austria-Hungary in 1914 showing the military districts and Švejk's journey. The entire plot of the novel took place on the territory of the Dual Monarchy.

The Fateful Adventures of the Good Soldier Švejk is a novel which contains a wealth of geographical references - either directly through the plot, in dialogues or in the authors own observations. Jaroslav Hašek was himself unusually well travelled and had a photographic memory of geographical (and other) details. It is evident that he put great emphasis on this: 8 of the 27 chapter headlines in The Good Soldier Švejk contain place names.

This web site will in due course contain a full overview of all the geographical references in the novel; from Prague in the introduction to Klimontów in the unfinished Book Four. Countries, cities, towns, villages, mountains, oceans, lakes, rivers, islands, buildings are included. Note that from 14 September 2013, institutions (including pubs) have been moved to the new 'Institutions' page. The list is sorted according to the order in which the names appear through the novel. The chapter headlines are from Zenny Sadlon's recent translation and will in most cases differ from Cecil Parrott's translation from 1973.

The quotes in Czech are copied from the on-line version of The Good Soldier Švejk: provided by Jaroslav Šerák and contain links to the relevant chapter. The toolbar has links for direct access to Wikipedia, Google maps, Google search, svejkmuseum.cz and the novel on-line.

The names are coloured according to their role in the novel, illustrated by these examples: Sanok a location where the plot takes place, Dubno mentioned in the narrative, Zagreb part of a dialogue, and Pakoměřice mentioned in an anecdote.

>> The Good Soldier Švejk index of countries, cities, villages, mountains, rivers, bridges ... (586) Show all
>> I. In the rear
>> II. At the front
>> III. The famous thrashing
Index Back Forward II. At the front Hovudpersonen

2. Švejk's budějovická anabasis

Asia Minornn flag
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anabase4.png

Výbor ze spisů Xenofontových, Anabase, Kyrupaideie, Apomnemoneumat, Hellenik a Symposia..

Asia Minor is mentioned by the author when he describes Xenophon and explains the term anabasis.

Background

Asia Minor is a term rarely used nowadays, but refers to the region Anatolia which makes up a large part of modern Turkey.

It is the westernmost peninsula on the Asian continent, surrounded by the Black Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Marmara Sea. It is separated from the Balkans by the Bosporus and the Dardanelles.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Starověký válečník Xenofon prošel celou Malou Asii a byl bůhvíkde bez mapy. Staří Gotové dělali své výpravy také bez topografické znalosti. Mašírovat pořád kupředu, tomu se říká anabase. Prodírat se neznámými krajinami. Být obklíčeným nepřáteli, kteří číhají na nejbližší příležitost, aby ti zakroutili krk.

Also written:Malá Asie cz Kleinasien de Anadolu tr

Literature

Caspian Seann flag
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kaspiske.jpg

Стенька Разин, 1906

Caspian Sea is mentioned by the author when he explains the term anabasis.

Background

Caspian Sea is the world's largest inland body of water, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea. It does not have an exit and lies 28 meters below sea level. Volga contributes 80 per cent of the water. The see border Azerbaijan, Russia, Kazakhstan, Iran and Turkmenistan.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Když má někdo dobrou hlavu, jako ji měl Xenofon nebo všichni ti loupežní kmenové, kteří přišli do Evropy až bůhvíodkud od Kaspického nebo Azovského moře, dělá pravé divy na pochodu.

Also written:Kaspické moře cz Kaspisches Meer de Каспийское море ru

Sea of Azovnn flag
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azov.jpg

Za svobodu, 1925.

taganrog.png

Čechoslovan, 30.4.1917 (13.5).

Sea of Azov is mentioned by the author when he explains the term anabasis.

Background

Sea of Azov is an appendix to the Black Sea bordering Ukraine and Russia. It is the world's shallowest sea with only 15 metres at the deepest. The rivers Don and Kuban flow into it.

The Russian city of Taganrog (Таганрог) on the northern shore would have been well known to many Czechs as the city's munition factory employed many prisoners of war.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Když má někdo dobrou hlavu, jako ji měl Xenofon nebo všichni ti loupežní kmenové, kteří přišli do Evropy až bůhvíodkud od Kaspického nebo Azovského moře, dělá pravé divy na pochodu.

Also written:Azovské moře cz Asowsches Meer de Azovhavet nn Азовское море ru

Gallic Seann flag
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gallicsea.png
caesar1.png

Curriculum, gymnasium Žitná ulice, 1896

Gallic Sea is mentioned by the author when describing the term anabasis. The legions of Caesar are said to have got here without maps.

Background

Gallic Sea was an ancient name for the strecth of sea between Sardinia, the Balearic Islands and the Riviera.[a]

However this doesn't fit with the authors information that the sea is "somewhere in the north". He therefore probably had the English Channel in mind, and this assumption is supported by other sources[b] and historical circumstances.

The source of the information seems to Caesar's own book De Bello Gallico (The Gallic Wars). It is also worth noticing that this work was on the Latin curriculum in the 4th year at the gymnasium Hašek visited[c].

Paulus Orosius

Narbonensis Provincia, pars Galliarum, habet ab oriente Alpes Cottias, ab occidente Hispaniam, a circio Aquitanicam, a septentrione Lugdunensem, ab aquilone Belgicam Galliam, meridie mare Gallicum quod est inter Sardiniam et insulas Baleares, habens in fronte, qua Rhodanus fluuius in mare exit, insulas Stoechadas.

Clas Meredin

Caesar claimed the purpose of the British expeditions was because the Belgic tribes across the Gallic Sea (The Channel) had assisted the Gauls in the Armorican rebellions of 57 and 56 BC. However, according to De Bello Gallico in his second expedition Caesar appears to have had a singular objective; to re-instate Mandubracius (Mandubratius) to the Trinobantes (Trinovantes).

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Tam někde na severu u Galského moře, kam až se také dostaly římské legie Caesarovy bez mapy, řekly si jednou, že se zas vrátí a pomašírujou jinou cestou, aby ještě víc toho užily, do Říma.

Also written:Galské moře cz

References
aHistoriarum adversum paganos libri VIIPaulus Orisius
bClas Merdin: Tales from the Enchanted IslandEdward Watson
cDevátá výroční zpráva cís. král. vyššího gymnasia v Žitné ulici v PrazeC. k. vyšší gymnasium v Žitné ulici1896
Romenn flag
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Rome is mentioned by the author when he explains the term anabasis and wandering about without a map. Here the theme is specifically Caesar's legions and the saying "all roads lead to Rome".

Background

Rome in this context refers to ancient Rome as the capital of the Roman Empire.

All roads lead to Rome

It has not been confirmed that this saying goes back to Caesar. Its origin is often attributed to French theologian Alain de Lille and his expression Mille viae ducunt hominem per saecula Romam[a]. It literally means "A thousand roads lead men forever to Rome".

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Tam někde na severu u Galského moře, kam až se také dostaly římské legie Caesarovy bez mapy, řekly si jednou, že se zas vrátí a pomašírujou jinou cestou, aby ještě víc toho užily, do Říma. A dostaly se tam také. Od té doby se říká patrně, že všechny cesty vedou do Říma.

Also written:Řím cz Rom de Roma it Roma la

References
aAll Roads Lead To RomeBookBrowse.com
Budějovický krajnn flag
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budkrajmap.jpg

Budějowský kraj w Králowstwí českém, 1847.

Budějovický kraj is just about mentioned as Švejk wanders through the Milevsko-region instead of the region.

Background

Budějovický kraj may have been an unofficial name as the official Budějovický kraj was dissolved in 1868[a]. It was one of 13 kraje/Bezirke in Bohemia. The term seems to have lingered as it appeared in newspapers until way into the inter-war period. From 1949 it was again an official administrative region but larger than the 19th century namesake. In 1960 it was renamed Jihočeský kraj, an administrative sub-division that exists also today (2021).

It is also possible that the author meant Okresní hejtmanství Budějovice, a much smaller entity.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Stejně vedou také všechny cesty do Českých Budějovic. O čemž byl plnou měrou přesvědčen dobrý voják Švejk, když místo budějovického kraje uviděl vesnice milevského. Šel však nepřetržitě dál, neboť žádnému dobrému vojákovi nemůže vadit takové Milevsko, aby přece jednou nedošel do Českých Budějovic.

Also written:Budějovice region en Bezirk Budweis de

Literature

References
aBudějovický krajOttův slovník naučný1891
Milevský krajnn flag
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milevsky.png

Nejnovější příruční mapa království Českého s politickým rozdělením, 1905

Milevský kraj is just about mentioned as Švejk wanders through the area on his way to what he believed was that Budějovice.

Background

Milevský kraj was as opposed to Budějovický kraj not an exisiting or former adminstrative region and the term hardly ever appeared in the press or in books and has at best been a colloquial term. It is therefore likely that the author had hejtmanství Milevsko in mind.

In 1913 hejtmanství Milevsko had 37,694 inhabitants and was a pure Czech district. Only 52 of its citizens reported German as their mother tongue. The military districts for k.u.k. Heer and k.k. Landwehr were No. 102 (Benešov) and No. 28 (Písek) respectively.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Stejně vedou také všechny cesty do Českých Budějovic. O čemž byl plnou měrou přesvědčen dobrý voják Švejk, když místo budějovického kraje uviděl vesnice milevského. Šel však nepřetržitě dál, neboť žádnému dobrému vojákovi nemůže vadit takové Milevsko, aby přece jednou nedošel do Českých Budějovic.

Also written:Bezirk_Mühlhausen de

Milevskonn flag
Wikipedia czdeen Google mapsearch Švejkova cesta

Milevsko is just about mentioned as Švejk wanders through Milevský kraj and past the town on his way to what he believed was that Budějovice.

Background

Milevsko is a town in South Bohemia with slightly less than 9,000 inhabitants (2019). It is located between Tábor and Písek.

Demography (1910)

According to the 1910 census Milevsko had 2819 inhabitants of which 2816 (99 per cent) reported Czech as their mother tongue. The judicial district was okres Milevsko, administratively it reported to hejtmanství Milevsko.

The town has the seat of both okres and hejtmanství.

Military (1914)

With respect to military recruitment Milevsko belonged to Heeresergänzungsbezirk Nr. 102 (Beneschau) and Landwehrergänzungsbezirk Nr. 28 (Pisek). Local infantrymen would therefore usually serve with Infanterieregiment Nr. 102 or Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 28.

No military units were garrisoned here.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Stejně vedou také všechny cesty do Českých Budějovic. O čemž byl plnou měrou přesvědčen dobrý voják Švejk, když místo budějovického kraje uviděl vesnice milevského. Šel však nepřetržitě dál, neboť žádnému dobrému vojákovi nemůže vadit takové Milevsko, aby přece jednou nedošel do Českých Budějovic.

Also written:Mühlhausen de

Literature

Květovnn flag
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kvetov.jpg

Květov, 2010

kvetov.png

Ottův slovník naučný, 1900

Květov is mentioned in passing as Švejk starts repeating his repertoir of army songs going past the village. On the way from here, almost in Vráž he meets a kind and helpful grandmother who advices him on the route forward.

Background

Květov is a village in South Bohemia with slightly more than 100 inhabitants. It is located between Milevsko and Písek.

Demography (1910)

According to the 1910 census Květov had 325 inhabitants of which 325 (100 per cent) reported Czech as their mother tongue. The judicial district was okres Milevsko, administratively it reported to hejtmanství Milevsko.

See Milevský kraj for more information.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] A tak Švejk se objevil na západ od Milevska v Květově, když již vystřídal všechny vojenské písně, které znal o mašírování vojáků, takže byl nucen začít znova před Květovem s písní:

Když jsme mašírovali,
všechny holky plakaly...
[2.2] Nějaká stará babička, která vracela se z kostela, zavedla na cestě od Květova do Vráže, což je neustále západním směrem, řeč se Švejkem křesťanským pozdravem: „Dobrý poledne, vojáčku, kampak máte namíříno?“

Sources: Miroslav Vítek

Literature

Vrážnn flag
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vraz.jpg

Vráž 1902

vrazg.png

Jahrbuch für die k.k. Gendarmerie, 1916

vraz.png

Ottův slovník naučný, 1907

Vráž appears in the plot when Švejk on his way from Květov, just before Vráž meets an old woman who helps him with food and gives him advice on which villages to avoid. Vráž is one of them as the Gendarms there are like falcons. The old woman was herself from there and the meeting took place in a small forest just outside the village. She adviced Švejk to continue to Radomyšl and ask for her brother pantát Melichárek.

Background

Vráž is a village in South Bohemia with 275 inhabitants (2005). It is located 8 km north of Písek.

K.k. Gendarmerie

In 1915 Vráž actually had a k.k. Gendarmerie station. It reported to the district command in Písek, i.e. Gendarmeriebezirk Nr. 14 in Bohemia (Landesgendarmeriekommando Nr. 2). The local head of police in 1914 was strážmistr J. Šrám[a]. He had one assistant, J. Michal.

Demography (1910)

According to the 1910 census Vráž had 542 inhabitants of which 542 (100 per cent) reported Czech as their mother tongue. The judicial district was okres Písek, administratively it reported to hejtmanství Písek.

Military (1914)

With respect to military recruitment Vráž belonged to Heeresergänzungsbezirk Nr. 11 (Pisek) and Landwehrergänzungsbezirk Nr. 28 (Pisek). Local infantrymen would therefore usually serve with Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 or Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 28.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Nějaká stará babička, která vracela se z kostela, zavedla na cestě od Květova do Vráže, což je neustále západním směrem, řeč se Švejkem křesťanským pozdravem: „Dobrý poledne, vojáčku, kampak máte namíříno?“
[2.2] „Ale to jdou špatně, vojáčku,“ ulekaně řekla babička, „to tam nikdy nepřijdou tímhle směrem přes Vráž, kdyby šli pořád rovně, tak přijdou na Klatovy.“
[2.2] Přes tu naši vesnici Vráž nemůžou jít, tam jsou četníci jako vostříži. Dají se potom z lesejčka na Malčín.
[2.2] V Radomyšli Švejk našel k večeru na Dolejší ulici za Floriánkem pantátu Melichárka. Když vyřídil mu pozdrav od jeho sestry ze Vráže, nijak to na pantátu neúčinkovalo.

Sources: Miroslav Vítek

Literature

References
aChytilův úplný adresář Království ČeskéhoAlois Chytil1915
Čížovánn flag
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cizova.jpg

Čížová 1920

cizova.png

Ottův slovník naučný, 1893

Čížová is a village which the old grandmother from Vráž adviced Švejk strongly against walking through because of the vigilant Gendarms. He followed the advice and turned east before Čížová. This would however have taken him away from his destination Malčín. Thus he must have been on a detour which is not described in the book (unless it's a lapse from the author).

Background

Čížová is a village in South Bohemia with 1,034 inhabitants (2009). It is located 6 km north of Písek.

Čížová was in 1915 part of the municipality (obec) Nová Ves and had a post office, parish and a railway station (still operating in 2020). There was however no Gendarmerie station here in 1915 so the old accordian player must have bluffed (Vráž and Písek were the nearest).

Demography (1910)

According to the 1910 census Čížová had 160 inhabitants of which 159 (99 per cent) reported Czech as their mother tongue. The judicial district was okres Písek, administratively it reported to hejtmanství Písek.

Military (1914)

With respect to military recruitment Čížová belonged to Heeresergänzungsbezirk Nr. 11 (Pisek) and Landwehrergänzungsbezirk Nr. 28 (Pisek). Local infantrymen would therefore usually serve with Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 or Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 28.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Dají se potom z lesejčka na Malčín. Vodtamtuď se vyhnou, vojáčku, Čížovej. Tam jsou četníci rasi a chytají desentýry.
[2.2] Od Čížové šel Švejk dle rady babičky na Radomyšl na východ a pomyslil si, že se musí dostat do těch Budějovic z každé světové strany, ať je to jakákoliv.
[2.2] Po zdvořilém odmítnutí Švejkově velice se rozčílil a dal se nalevo do polí, vyhrožuje Švejkovi, že ho jde udat na četnictvo do Čížový.

Sources: Miroslav Vítek

Also written:Tschizowa Reiner

Literature

Klatovynn flag
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klatovy.jpg

Klatovy 1913

klatovy.png

Ottův slovník naučný, 1899

Klatovy is mentioned by the old grandmother from Vráž when she tells Švejk that he is going the wrong way and might end up in Klatovy instead of Budějovice.

Background

Klatovy is a town in the Plzeň region with 22 257 inhabitans (2020). The key industry at the outbreak of World War I was textile manufacturing. The town had a railway station, hospital, power plant etc. The centre has several historical buildings.

Demography (1910)

According to the 1910 census Klatovy had 14387 inhabitants of which 13981 (97 per cent) reported Czech as their mother tongue. The judicial district was okres Klatovy, administratively it reported to hejtmanství Klatovy.

Military (1914)

With respect to military recruitment Klatovy belonged to Heeresergänzungsbezirk Nr. 11 (Pisek) and Landwehrergänzungsbezirk Nr. 28 (Pisek). Local infantrymen would therefore usually serve with Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 or Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 28.

Garrisoned in Klatovy was staff and one battalion of Dragonerregiment Nr. 13. Otherwise it hosted the Ersatzkader of Dragonerregiment Nr. 13. Employed by the armed forces were 589 of the inhabitants.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] „Ale to jdou špatně, vojáčku,“ ulekaně řekla babička, „to tam nikdy nepřijdou tímhle směrem přes Vráž, kdyby šli pořád rovně, tak přijdou na Klatovy.“ „Já myslím,“ řekl Švejk odevzdaně, „že se i z Klatov člověk dostane do Budějovic.

Also written:Klattau de

Malčínnn flag
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malcice.jpg
malcice.png

Ottův slovník naučný, 1900

malcice1.png

Pubs in Malčice

Chytilův úplný adresář království Českého, 1915.

Malčín was the village where Švejk went to a pub to buy liquor to keep warm. He was accompanied by on old accordion player on the long mile to Radomyšl.

Background

Malčín refers to Malčice, a part of the rural municipality Předotice in the Písek district of South Bohemia. In 2011 the village had 94 permanent residents.

The only Malčín in Bohemia was located in okres Habry, hejtmanství Čáslav. The village is located only 13 km from Lipnice so Hašek surely knew about it and probably got these similar names mixed up.

Pubs

In 1914 there were two public houses in Malčice. Landlords were Josefa Maříková og František Zeman. The first had a shop attached[b]. The municipal chronicle in 1932 lists the pub owners Josef Hach (no. 60) and Jan Mařík (no. 9)[c]. On old postcards appears Hostinec u Hachů[a] that obviously belonged to Hach. Also for Mařík in no. 9 the connection is clear. In no. 38 there was a pub until 1914. The owner may have been the mantioned Zeman or he could have owned the house that later became U Hachů.

Demography (1910)

According to the 1910 census Malčín had 335 inhabitants of which 335 (100 per cent) reported Czech as their mother tongue. The judicial district was okres Písek, administratively it reported to hejtmanství Písek.

Military (1914)

With respect to military recruitment Malčín belonged to Heeresergänzungsbezirk Nr. 11 (Pisek) and Landwehrergänzungsbezirk Nr. 28 (Pisek). Local infantrymen would therefore usually serve with Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 or Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 28.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Je ta chalupa naše vodtuď vidět, právě za lesejčkem trochu vpravo. Přes tu naši vesnici Vráž nemůžou jít, tam jsou četníci jako vostříži. Dají se potom z lesejčka na Malčín. Vodtamtuď se vyhnou, vojáčku, Čížovej.
[2.2] Nakonec vytáhla z kapsáře u jupky korunu, aby si koupil v Malčíně kořalku na cestu, poněvadž do Radomyšle je dlouhá míle.
[2.2] Z Malčína šel s ním starý harmonikář, kterého našel tam Švejk v hospodě, když si kupoval kořalku na tu dlouhou míli k Radomyšli.
[2.2] Harmonikář považoval Švejka za desertýra a radil mu, aby šel s ním do Horažďovic, že tam má provdanou dceru, jejíž muž je taky desertýr. Harmonikář v Malčíně očividně přebral.

Sources: Miroslav Vítek

Also written:Malčín Hašek

Literature

References
aDo MalčinaJaroslav Šerák
bChytilův úplný adresář Království ČeskéhoAlois Chytil1915
cPo cestách Švejkovy budějovické anabázeMiroslav Vítek2020
Horažďovicenn flag
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horazdovice.jpg

Horažďovice 1917

horazdovice.png

Ottův slovník naučný, 1897

Horažďovice is first mentioned by the old woman from Vráž when she explains for Švejk where he can go without being harassed by gendarmes (state police).

Later the drunk accordion player by Malčice tries to get Švejk to accompany him to Horažďovice. He thinks Švejk is a deserter and he claims his daughther is hiding her husband deserter there.

Švejk later told both pantát Melichárek and the police that he went there but the plot never reaches Horažďovice.

Background

Horažďovice is a town of 5,600 inhabitants in the Plzeň region. It is located on the river Otava, some 50 km south east of Plzeň.

Demography (1910)

According to the 1910 census Horažďovice had 3252 inhabitants of which 3226 (99 per cent) reported Czech as their mother tongue. The judicial district was okres Horažďovice, administratively it reported to hejtmanství Strakonice.

Military (1914)

With respect to military recruitment Horažďovice belonged to Heeresergänzungsbezirk Nr. 11 (Pisek) and Landwehrergänzungsbezirk Nr. 28 (Pisek). Local infantrymen would therefore usually serve with Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 or Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 28.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Jdou přímo přes les na Sedlec u Horažďovic. Tam je moc hodnej četník, ten propustí každýho přes vesnici. Mají s sebou nějaký papíry?
[2.2] Harmonikář považoval Švejka za desertýra a radil mu, aby šel s ním do Horažďovic, že tam má provdanou dceru, jejíž muž je taky desertýr. Harmonikář v Malčíně očividně přebral.

Also written:Horaždowitz Reiner Horaschdowitz de

Literature

Sedlecnn flag
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sedlice.jpg

Sedlice 1900

sedlice1.png

Chytilův úplný adresář království Českého, 1915

sedlice.png

Ottův slovník naučný, 1904

Sedlec is recommened by the old woman by Vráž who tells Švejk that the gendarmes there turn a blind eye to deserters. Švejk later claims that he went there, but there is nothing in the narrative to support this.

Background

Sedlec is the name of 20 places in Bohemia but none of them fit the description in The Good Soldier Švejk. The author rather had Sedlice in mind, underpinned by the fact that it in 1904 primarily was known as Sedlec (Ottův slovník naučný).

Today it is a minor town (městys) in South Bohemia, with 1252 inhabitants (2019). It is located north of Strakonice near Blatná Castle.

The kind grandmother from Vráž told Švejk that the gendarm in Sedlec is a good man and let deserters pass trough. In this context we note that the town actually had a state police station and it was headed by strážmistr František Svojík[a]. He is the only one listed so it may well be that he was the sole policeman in town.

Demography (1910)

According to the 1910 census Sedlec had 1411 inhabitants of which 1411 (100 per cent) reported Czech as their mother tongue. The judicial district was okres Blatná, administratively it reported to hejtmanství Blatná.

Military (1914)

With respect to military recruitment Sedlec belonged to Heeresergänzungsbezirk Nr. 11 (Pisek) and Landwehrergänzungsbezirk Nr. 28 (Pisek). Local infantrymen would therefore usually serve with Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 or Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 28.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Jdou přímo přes les na Sedlec u Horažďovic. Tam je moc hodnej četník, ten propustí každýho přes vesnici. Mají s sebou nějaký papíry?

Sources: Miroslav Vítek

Also written:Sedlec Hašek

Literature

References
aChytilův úplný adresář Království ČeskéhoAlois Chytil1915
Radomyšlnn flag
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Radomyšl 2010

radomysl.png

Ottův slovník naučný, 1904

Radomyšl was visited by Švejk when he on the advice of the old woman from Vráž went to see her brother, pantát Melichárek in Dolejší ulice behind Floriánek. He was adviced to go there at night because the gendarms then would be in the pub.

Background

Radomyšl is a small town in South Bohemia, 6 km north of Strakonice. It has 1250 inhabitants and was in 2005 voted South Bohemian "Village of the Year".

Radomyšl was indeed served by a gendarmerie station. It was located in the town hall[a], opposite Floriánek. Police chief was strážmistr František Křížek and he had two assistants.

Demography (1910)

According to the 1910 census Radomyšl had 1230 inhabitants of which 1225 (99 per cent) reported Czech as their mother tongue. The judicial district was okres Strakonice, administratively it reported to hejtmanství Strakonice.

Military (1914)

With respect to military recruitment Radomyšl belonged to Heeresergänzungsbezirk Nr. 11 (Pisek) and Landwehrergänzungsbezirk Nr. 28 (Pisek). Local infantrymen would therefore usually serve with Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 or Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 28.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] „Tak ani tam nechodějí, jdou raději na Radomyšl, ale hledějí tam přijít kvečeru, to jsou všichni četníci v hospodě.
[2.2] Nakonec vytáhla z kapsáře u jupky korunu, aby si koupil v Malčíně kořalku na cestu, poněvadž do Radomyšle je dlouhá míle. Od Čížové šel Švejk dle rady babičky na Radomyšl na východ a pomyslil si, že se musí dostat do těch Budějovic z každé světové strany, ať je to jakákoliv. Z Malčína šel s ním starý harmonikář, kterého našel tam Švejk v hospodě, když si kupoval kořalku na tu dlouhou míli k Radomyšli.
[2.2] V Radomyšli Švejk našel k večeru na Dolejší ulici za Floriánkem pantátu Melichárka. Když vyřídil mu pozdrav od jeho sestry ze Vráže, nijak to na pantátu neúčinkovalo. Chtěl neustále na Švejkovi papíry. Byl to nějaký předpojatý člověk, poněvadž mluvil neustále něco o raubířích, syčácích a zlodějích, kterých se síla potlouká po celém píseckém kraji.

Sources: Miroslav Vítek

Also written:Radomyschl Reiner

Literature

References
aPo cestách Švejkovy budějovické anabázeMiroslav Vítek2020
bChytilův úplný adresář Království ČeskéhoAlois Chytil1915
Floriáneknn flag
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florianek.jpg

Floriánek 28 May 2010.

florianek.png

Strakonicko 6.1936.

florianek1.jpg

Radomyšl ~1900 / 2020

© Městys Radomyšl

Floriánek is mentioned in connection with Radomyšl, pantát Melichárek lives behind this house.

Background

Floriánek is a building on the corner of Kostelní ulice and Maltézské náměstí in Radomyšl, house number 6, also Grunt Michalcovský. It's recorded history goes back to 1599. Old photos show a brass shield on the front where St. Florian is depecited[a]. In 2010 the building was in a derelict state but by 2020 it had been renovated and a shelf in the front wall hosts a small statue of St. Florian!

Floriánek is named after the Christian saint and the first Austrian martyr Saint Florian. He is the patron saint of Poland, the city of Linz, firefighters and chimney sweeps.

Městys Radomyšl, 5.8.2020

Grunt Michalcovský (U Michalců) č.p. 6. První doložený majitel v roce 1599. Michalců zde žili ale "pouhých" 120 let. Následně statek patřil 121 let rodině Mlčánů. V roce 1910 prodal poslední z rodu, JuDr František Mlčán z Kutné Hory, grunt dvěma obchodníkům, kteří ho i s polnostmi výhodně rozprodali místním občanům. K samotnému statku poté přistali polnosti vyženěné. O tomto statku je zmínka i v knize Jaroslava Haška o dobrém vojáku Švejkovi, kdy se o něm v knize zmiňuje jako o Floriánku, kde pod ním v Dolejší ulici (dnešní Sokolská) bydlí pantáta Melichárek. Floriánkem je podle plechového obrazu (je znát na prvním fotu) sv. Floriána na štítě, který se bohužel nedochoval. Nyní je nahrazen nikou mezi okny pro jeho sošku. Štít se sesko-barokními prvky zde zůstal po požárech městečka, snad díky tehdejší špatné finanční situaci majitelů k přestavbě. Patrně jich na dnešním náměstí bylo více. Poslední požár gruntu připomíná letopočet v dnešním štítu.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] V Radomyšli Švejk našel k večeru na Dolejší ulici za Floriánkem pantátu Melichárka. Když vyřídil mu pozdrav od jeho sestry ze Vráže, nijak to na pantátu neúčinkovalo. Chtěl neustále na Švejkovi papíry. Byl to nějaký předpojatý člověk, poněvadž mluvil neustále něco o raubířích, syčácích a zlodějích, kterých se síla potlouká po celém píseckém kraji.

Sources: Miroslav Vítek, Ivana Sibková, Ivana Jonová, Jaroslav Šerák

Literature

References
aGrunt MichalcovskýMěstys Radomyšl5.8.2020
Dolejší ulicenn flag
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Dolejší ulice is mentioned in connection with Radomyšl. pantát Melichárek, brother of the good woman from Vráž, lives here.

Background

Dolejší ulice was an informal name of Sokolská ulice in Radomyšl. The house where Václav Melichar (the alleged inspiration for pantát Melichárek) lived is now demolished (see the picture).

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] V Radomyšli Švejk našel k večeru na Dolejší ulici za Floriánkem pantátu Melichárka. Když vyřídil mu pozdrav od jeho sestry ze Vráže, nijak to na pantátu neúčinkovalo. Chtěl neustále na Švejkovi papíry. Byl to nějaký předpojatý člověk, poněvadž mluvil neustále něco o raubířích, syčácích a zlodějích, kterých se síla potlouká po celém píseckém kraji.

Sources: Miroslav Vítek, Ivana Sibková, Ivana Jonová, Jaroslav Šerák

Literature

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Prácheňsko, from 1855 to 1868 Písecký kraj

Krátký zeměpis pro djtky obecných sskol, 1846.

Písecký kraj is mentioned by the suspicious pantát Melichárek during Švejk's visit. Thiefs and robbers roam freely in Písecký kraj he moans.

Later in the chapter the author mentions the area again when he explains that soldier for k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 were recruited from here.

Background

Písecký kraj was probably an unofficial term for the area around Písek as the official Písecký kraj was abolished in 1868[a] during a reform that separated the political executive from the judiciary. It was one of 13 kraje/Bezirke in Bohemia.

Another possibility is that the author meant hejtmanství Písek. This was however a much smaller entity and did not include Radomyšl. Thus the first explanation is more logical, particlarly because the term was used by an old man.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Chtěl neustále na Švejkovi papíry. Byl to nějaký předpojatý člověk, poněvadž mluvil neustále něco o raubířích, syčácích a zlodějích, kterých se síla potlouká po celém píseckém kraji.
[2.2] 28. regiment, 11. regiment. V tom posledním vojáci z píseckého kraje a okresu.

Also written:Písek region en Bezirk Pisek de

Literature

References
aZeměpis království ČeskéhoJan Tichý1868
Putim polní stohnn flag
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Putim, 1.6.2010

Putim polní stoh is the scene of the plot when Švejk after walking almost the whole night from Radomyšl stops to relax in a haystack. Here he finds himself in company of three deserters who think Švejk is one of them. Two are from k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 35 and one from the artillery in Budějovice, i.e. k.u.k. Feldkanonenregiment Nr. 24. The latter was from Putim and also owned the haystack. A few sentences further on the author for some curious reason converts him to a Dragoner (cavalry soldier).

All the deserters had hopes that the war would soon be over because in Putim it was said that the Russians had reached Moravia and stood behind (east of) Budapest.

Background

Putim polní stoh (haystack) was according to the author situated somewhere by Putim, but we don't know exactly where. To judge by Švejk's route it is likely to have been west of the village, but near enough for him to recognise it when he returned soon after.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Švejk šel opět hnedle celou noc, až někde u Putimě našel v poli stoh. Odhrabal si slámu a slyšel zcela blízko sebe hlas: „Vod kterýho regimentu? Kam se neseš?“ „Vod 91. do Budějovic.“
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Ottův slovník naučný, 1906

Sušice is mentioned by the defectors in the haystack by Putim. In the mountains behind Sušice on of them had contacts who could help them hide.

Background

Sušice is a town in the Šumava region in south-western Bohemia. The number of inhabitants is around 12,000.

Demography (1910)

According to the 1910 census Sušice had 7264 inhabitants of which 7061 (97 per cent) reported Czech as their mother tongue. The judicial district was okres Sušice, administratively it reported to hejtmanství Sušice.

Military (1914)

With respect to military recruitment Sušice belonged to Heeresergänzungsbezirk Nr. 11 (Pisek) and Landwehrergänzungsbezirk Nr. 28 (Pisek). Local infantrymen would therefore usually serve with Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 or Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 28.

The only military presence in the town was Landwehrevidenzassistent Johann Kreutz from Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 28.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] K ránu, ještě než se rozední, přinese panimáma dragounova snídani. Pětatřicátníci půjdou potom na Strakonice, poněvadž jeden z nich má tam tetu a ta zas má v horách za Sušicí nějakého známého, který má pilu, a tam že budou dobře schováni.

Also written:Schüttenhofen de

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Štěkeň in May 2010

steken.png

Ottův slovník naučný, 1906

steken1.jpg

"Královské město Písek", Jan Matzner, 1898

Štěkeň is mentioned as Švejk meets an old tramp here. They keep company all the way to the Švarcenberský ovčín, four hours towards the south. When he is interrogated by Rittmeister König in Písek he lists Štěkno as one of the places he visisted on the way to his regiment. He reels the same list also for Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek in the regiments prison in Budějovice.

Background

Štěkeň is a market town in the Strakonice district in South Bohemia. It is located west of Písek by the river Otava. In 2014 it counted 839 inhabitants.

Demography (1910)

According to the 1910 census Štěkeň had 928 inhabitants of which 923 (99 per cent) reported Czech as their mother tongue. The judicial district was okres Strakonice, administratively it reported to hejtmanství Strakonice.

Military (1914)

With respect to military recruitment Štěkeň belonged to Heeresergänzungsbezirk Nr. 11 (Pisek) and Landwehrergänzungsbezirk Nr. 28 (Pisek). Local infantrymen would therefore usually serve with Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 or Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 28.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Švejk šel lesy a u Štěkna setkal se s vandrákem, starým chlapíkem, který ho uvítal jako starého kamaráda douškem kořalky.
[2.2] Švejk vysvětlil mu celou situaci. Jmenoval Tábor a všechna místa, kudy šel do Budějovic: Milevsko - Květov - Vráž - Malčín - Čížová - Sedlec - Horažďovice - Radomyšl - Putim - Štěkno - Strakonice - Volyň - Dub - Vodňany - Protivín a zas Putim.

Also written:Stěkno Hašek Stěkna de

Literature

Strakonicenn flag
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Strakonice, 1917

strakonice.png

Ottův slovník naučný, 1906

Strakonice is a town Švejk claims he went through or passed by although this is not directly stated in the plot. From Štěkeň to Švarcenberský ovčín he walked in the company of a tramp who thought he was a deserter. The tramp therefore tried to persuade Švejk to come with him to Strakonice, Volyně and Dub to get hold of civilian clothes. The good soldier was of course no deserter so from the shep-pen he continued on his own. Thus the planned trip to Strakonice never materialised.

Strakonice is mentioned 8 times in this chapter, and is included on the list of places Švejk claims he visited on his anabasis.

Background

Strakonice is a town in South Bohemia, west of Písek with around 24,000 inhabitants. It is an industrial town and was also during Švejk's lifetime.

Demography (1910)

According to the 1910 census Strakonice had 5440 inhabitants of which 5414 (99 per cent) reported Czech as their mother tongue. The judicial district was okres Strakonice, administratively it reported to hejtmanství Strakonice.

Military (1914)

With respect to military recruitment Strakonice belonged to Heeresergänzungsbezirk Nr. 11 (Pisek) and Landwehrergänzungsbezirk Nr. 28 (Pisek). Local infantrymen would therefore usually serve with Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 or Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 28.

The only military presence in the town was Landwehrevidenzoffizial Martin Pavliček from Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 28.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Neboj se ale nic, teď půjdem na Strakonice, Volyň, Dub, a to by v tom byl čert, abychom nějakej civil nesehnali. Tam u Strakonic jsou ještě takoví moc blbí a poctiví lidi, že ti nechají ještě leckdes přes noc votevříno a ve dne to vůbec nezamykají.
[2.2] Neboj se ale nic, teď půjdem na Strakonice, Volyň, Dub, a to by v tom byl čert, abychom nějakej civil nesehnali. Tam u Strakonic jsou ještě takoví moc blbí a poctiví lidi, že ti nechají ještě leckdes přes noc votevříno a ve dne to vůbec nezamykají. Jdou někam teď v zimě k sousedovi si popovídat, a ty máš civil hned. Co ty potřebuješ? Boty máš, tak jen něco přes sebe. Vojenskej mantl je starej?“
[2.2] Dnes půjdeme na Strakonice,“ rozvinoval dál svůj plán. „Odtud čtyry hodiny je starej švarcenberskej ovčín. Je tam můj jeden známej ovčák, taky už starej dědek, tam zůstaneme přes noc a ráno se potáhnem na Strakonice, splašit tam někde ve vokolí civil.“

Also written:Strakonitz de

Literature

Volyněnn flag
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volyne.jpg

Pohled část náměstí s radnicí, 1910

volyne.png

Ottův slovník naučný, 1907

Volyně is a town Švejk claims he went through or passed by although this is not directly stated in the plot. From Štěkeň to Švarcenberský ovčín he walked in the company of a tramp who thought he was a deserter. The tramp therefore tried to persuade Švejk to come with him to Strakonice, Volyně and Dub to get hold of civilian clothes. The good soldier was of course no deserter so from the shep-pen he continued on his own. Thus the planned trip to Volyně never materialised.

Background

Volyně is a town in South Bohemia, south of Strakonice with around 3,000 inhabitants (2020).

Demography (1910)

According to the 1910 census Volyně had 3156 inhabitants of which 3140 (99 per cent) reported Czech as their mother tongue. The judicial district was okres Volyně, administratively it reported to hejtmanství Strakonice.

Military (1914)

With respect to military recruitment Volyně belonged to Heeresergänzungsbezirk Nr. 11 (Pisek) and Landwehrergänzungsbezirk Nr. 28 (Pisek). Local infantrymen would therefore usually serve with Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 or Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 28.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Neboj se ale nic, teď půjdem na Strakonice, Volyň, Dub, a to by v tom byl čert, abychom nějakej civil nesehnali. Tam u Strakonic jsou ještě takoví moc blbí a poctiví lidi, že ti nechají ještě leckdes přes noc votevříno a ve dne to vůbec nezamykají.

Also written:Wolin de

Literature

Dubnn flag
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dub.jpg

Pohled na městys z věže hradu Helfenburk

dubg.png

Ottův slovník naučný, 1894

dubg.jpg

Dub, 1917

Dub is a town Švejk claims he went through or passed by although this is not directly stated in the plot. From Štěkeň to Švarcenberský ovčín he walked in the company of a tramp who thought he was a deserter. The tramp therefore tried to persuade Švejk to come with him to Strakonice, Volyně and Dub to get hold of civilian clothes. The good soldier was of course no deserter so from the sheep-pen he continued on his own. Thus the planned trip to Dub never materialised.

Background

Dub is a village in the Prachatice district in South Bohemia with around 400 inhabitants (2020). Although there were 11 places named Dub in Bohemia and Moravia there is not doubt that this is the one the author meant. All the others were too far from Švejk's itinerary.

Demography (1910)

According to the 1910 census Dub had 529 inhabitants of which 529 (100 per cent) reported Czech as their mother tongue. The judicial district was okres Volyně, administratively it reported to hejtmanství Strakonice.

Military (1914)

With respect to military recruitment Dub belonged to Heeresergänzungsbezirk Nr. 11 (Pisek) and Landwehrergänzungsbezirk Nr. 28 (Pisek). Local infantrymen would therefore usually serve with Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 or Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 28.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Neboj se ale nic, teď půjdem na Strakonice, Volyň, Dub, a to by v tom byl čert, abychom nějakej civil nesehnali. Tam u Strakonic jsou ještě takoví moc blbí a poctiví lidi, že ti nechají ještě leckdes přes noc votevříno a ve dne to vůbec nezamykají.
[2.2] Švejk vysvětlil mu celou situaci. Jmenoval Tábor a všechna místa, kudy šel do Budějovic: Milevsko - Květov - Vráž - Malčín - Čížová - Sedlec - Horažďovice - Radomyšl - Putim - Štěkno - Strakonice - Volyň - Dub - Vodňany - Protivín a zas Putim.

Literature

Swedennn flag
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The Swedish siege of Prague in 1648. This was the final battle of the Thirty Year War.

sverige.png

Průvodce po dějinách věku starého, středního a nového, 1891

Sweden is mentioned indirectly through the expression The Swedish Wars when the old shepherd in Švarcenberský ovčín recalls what happened to deserters in previous wars.

The country is referred to directly in the final passages of the novel, see Stockholm.

Background

Sweden was in 1914 as now a kingdom and the area was exactly the same as today. The country was neutral in both world wars. Contemporary Sweden is a parlamentary democracy with around 10.4 million inhabitants (2020).

The Swedish Wars

This term refers to the period from 1630 until 1635, the so-called Swedish phase of the Thirty Year War (1618-1648)[a]. In 1630 king Gustav Adolf II intervened on the continent as the Protestants of Germany seemed to be destined to defeat. Sweden was supported by France, the Netherlands, some German states, and initially also England.

The Swedes first landed in Pomerania before advancing south. Their allies from Saxony invaded Bohemia and occupied Prague 11 November 1631. In 1632 they were however defeated by Wallenstein and were forced to leave Bohemia. The peace agreement that ended the Swedish phase of the Thirty Year War was signed in Prague in 1635.

The Swedish army however remained in Central Europe and in 1648 they besieged Prague and looted Hradčany without managing to occupy Staré město and Nové město. When the final peace agreement was signed they abondoned the city.

The good Swedish soldier

Although Hašek never set his foot in Sweden, the country was a theme not only in The Good Soldier Švejk but also in some of his short stories. In a Švejk context the most relevant of these is titled Povídka o hodném švédském vojákovi (The story of the kind Swedish soldier) and already here Hašek introduced a theme we know well. It is about a duty-conscious soldier who with pleasure sacrifices himself for his monarch. The story was printed in the anarchist newspaper Nová Omladina on 30 January 1907[b].

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] „To myslíš,“ otázal se ovčák, „že to letos neskončí? A máš, hochu, pravdu! Byly už dlouhý vojny. Ta napolionská, potom, jak nám vypravovávali, švédský vojny, sedmiletý vojny. A lidi si ty vojny zasloužili.

Also written:Švédsko cz Schweden de Sverige sv

References
aK dějinám třicetileté války od r. 1621 do r. 1648Josef Thille1879
bPovídka o hodném švědském vojákoviJaroslav Hašek, Nová Omladina30.1.1907
Skočicenn flag
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Skočice, 30.5.2010

skocice.png

Ottův slovník naučný, 1905

Skočice is mentioned by the old shepherd in Švarcenberský ovčín when he tells a story about some Kořínek down in Skočice who has been arrested because of alleged sedition.

When the plot reaches Putim later in this chapter Skočice reapperas as the terrified old Pejzlerka, being interrogated by Wachtmeister Flanderka, twice bursts out: "Virgin Mary of Skočice!"

Background

Skočice is a village in South Bohemia, south of Písek, near Vodňany and Protivín. It has 242 inhabitants (2020). Švejk must have been very close to the village on the very morning he appeared in Putim for the second time.

Panna Maria Skočická

Pejlerka's exclamation refers to a portrait of the Virgin Mary from the 17th century that survived a fire unscathed, an event that was perceived as a miracle. This set in motion building of the pilgrimage church Navštívení Panny Marie. It was inaugurated on 21 August 1668[a].

Demography (1910)

According to the 1910 census Skočice had 469 inhabitants of which 466 (99 per cent) reported Czech as their mother tongue. The judicial district was okres Vodňany, administratively it reported to hejtmanství Písek.

Skočice was served by a post/telegraph office, had a school but no police station.

Military (1914)

With respect to military recruitment Skočice belonged to Heeresergänzungsbezirk Nr. 11 (Pisek) and Landwehrergänzungsbezirk Nr. 28 (Pisek). Local infantrymen would therefore usually serve with Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 or Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 28.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] „Na to se mu, hochu, teď každej vykašle,“ rozdrážděně promluvil ovčák, „máš bejt při tom, když se sejdou sousedi dole ve Skočicích. Každej tam má někoho, a to bys viděl, jak ti mluvějí. Po tejhle válce že prej bude svoboda, nebude ani panskejch dvorů, ani císařů a knížecí statky že se vodeberou. Už taky kvůli takovej jednej řeči vodvedli četníci nějakýho Kořínka, že prej jako pobuřuje. Jó, dneska mají právo četníci.“
[2.2] „Ježíšmarjá,“ vykřikla Pejzlerka, „panenko Maria Skočická!“
[2.2] Pejzlerka odpotácela se ke stolu za neustálého bědování: "Panenko Maria Skočická, že jsem sem kdy vkročila."

Literature

References
aSkočický poutní kostel Navštívení Panny MarieObec Skočice
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Lány 1922

lany1.jpg

Masaryks letzte Tage, Karel Čapek, 1937.

Lány is part of the anecdote about Rittmeister Rotter and his police dogs, which is told by the tramp who accompanied Švejk on parts of his anabasis.

A shorter version of the story has already appeared in [1.3] but there Lány is only indirectly mentioned through Lánské lesy.

Background

Lány is a town in the Kladno district west of Prague. It is best known as the burial place of the first Czechoslovak president, professor Masaryk.

Demography (1910)

According to the 1910 census Lány had 1386 inhabitants of which 1381 (99 per cent) reported Czech as their mother tongue. The judicial district was okres Nové Strašecí, administratively it reported to hejtmanství Slány.

Military (1914)

With respect to military recruitment Lány belonged to Heeresergänzungsbezirk Nr. 28 (Prag) and Landwehrergänzungsbezirk Nr. 8 (Prag). Local infantrymen would therefore usually serve with Infanterieregiment Nr. 28 or Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 8.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Tak dal rozkaz, aby četnictvo po celým Kladencku sbíralo houževnatě vandráky a dodávalo je přímo do jeho rukouch. Já tak jednou štrekuju si to vod Lán a míhám se dost hluboko lesem, ale co platný, na tu hájovnu, kam jsem měl zamíříno, už jsem nedošel, už mě měli a vodváděli k panu rytmistrovi.
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Paměti okresu Unhošťského, František Melichar, 1890.

Kačák is mentioned in the anecdote that the tramp at Švarcenberský ovčín tells about Rittmeister Rotter in Kladno and his police dogs.

Background

Kačák is a stream by Beroun, west of Prague, better known as Loděnice. It empties into Berounka. The colloquial name Kačák is derived from the name of the village Kačice[a].

The author knew the area well; he was visiting at the very moment the fatal shots in Sarajevo fell. On this trip he was accompanied by Josef Lada and they had started in Kladno where they visited none other than Rittmeister Rotter. It is therefore very likely that the tramp's anecdote draws inspiration from this trip.

Radko Pytlík - Toulavé house, kap. Sarajevo

Jaroslav Hašek v ten červnový den sotva tušil, jak se změní chod dějin a jak zasáhnou válečné události do života milionů. V den sarajevského atentátu byl s Josefem Ladou na výletě podél potoka Kačáku. Nejprve navštívili četnického rytmistra Rottra, proslulého cvičitele policejních psů, s nímž se Hašek seznámil v redakci Světa zvířat. Z Kladna se dali směrem k Nouzovu a k potoku Kačáku, pak po proudu potoka dolů. Jaroslav prý měl básnickou náladu, běhal po mezích a snažil se jmenovat všechny polní květiny, které natrhal. V Drahenicích si je podezřívavě prohlíželi, neboť budili dojem potulných šlejfířů.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Vzal jsem to k údolí Kačáku do lesů, do jedný rokle, a za půl hodiny byli už dva ty vlčáci u mne, povalili mne, a zatímco jeden mne držel za krk, ten druhej běžel do Kladna, a za hodinu přišel sám pan rytmistr Rotter ke mně s četníky, zavolal na psa a dal mně pětikorunu a povolení, že můžu po celý dva dny na Kladencku žebrat.
References
aO jménech našich řekVladimír Šmilauer, Naše řeč1946
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Středními Čechami, Vilém Doubrava, 1906.

Berounsko is mentioned in the anecdote that the tramp at Švarcenberský ovčín tells about Rittmeister Rotter in Kladno and his police dogs.

Background

Berounsko is the Czech name of the Beroun district west of Prague. See Kačák for more on the background of this anecdote.

Berounsko was probably a term that was synonymous with okres Beroun, a district of 36,022 inhabitants distributed across 42 local communities (1913)[a].

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Ale kdepak já, běžel jsem, jako když mně hlavu zapálí, na Berounsko a víckrát jsem se na Kladencku neukázal. Tomu se vyhýbali všichni vandráci, poněvadž na všech dělal ten pan rytmistr svý pokusy.
References
aSeznam míst v království ČeskémC.k. místodržitelství1913
Lipnice nad Sázavounn flag
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lipnice.jpg

Postcard from Jaroslav Hašek to Marie Panušková, 26.9.1922.

lipnice1.png

Ottův slovník naučný, 1900.

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Hašek's grave around 1960. With Richard Hašek (son) and Zdena Ančík (haškologist).

© LA-PNP

lipnice.png

Lidové noviny, 4.1.1928.

lipnice1.jpg

Česká koruna, 6.5.2018

Lipnice nad Sázavou is mentioned when the tramp in Švarcenberský ovčín tells the story about that time when he was begging in Lipnice and by accident knocked on the door of the police station. Her he received such a whack that he ended up down in Kejžlice.

Background

Lipnice nad Sázavou is small town in Vysočina with a history that goes back to the 14th century. It is situated 620 metres above sea level. The most prominent landmark is Hrad Lipnice (the castle). In 2020 the number of inhabitants was 654, only about half the number that lived here in 1910.

It was a prominent place in Jaroslav Hašek's life and writing because he moved to Lipnice on 25 August 1921 and lived here until he died 16 months later.

Most of The Good Soldier Švejk, probably from [2.2] onwards, was written here, including the lines that this very description refers to. The author had obviously already been inspired by Lipnice, and several anecdotes later in the book bear testimony to this. The neighbouring villages of Kejžlice, Okrouhlice and Jedouchov are eventually all mentioned.

It is also likely that Hašek her was inspired to involve jew Herrman in the story. Herrman was actually born at Lipnice and surely some of his relatives lived there when the novel was written.

Česká koruna

Hašek lived at the inn of Alexandr Invald (U české koruny) until the autumn of 1922 when he moved into house no. 185 around the corner that he had bought in the spring. After a hand injury he stopped writing himself and dictated to the young Kliment Štěpánek who was later to provide vital accounts on the last months of Hašek's life and also how he lived and worked[a]. Hašek didn't only work on The Good Soldier Švejk at Lipnice, in between he had some short stories printed. In 1922 one of them was published in the book Mírová konference a jiné humoresky (The peace conference and other humorous stories). The story is called Průvodčí cizinců (Guide for foreigners) and Hrad Lipnice is the setting[c].

Jaroslav Hašek died from heart failure in the morning of 3 January 1923 but had long been suffering from underlying health problems. He is buried at the old cemetery in Lipnice.

Traditions kept alive

Since the year 2000 U České Koruny, the inn where Hašek lived during his first year at Lipnice, has been owned and managed by his descendants[b]. In the house where he died there is now a museum dedicated to the author, one of only two Hašek museums in the world (the other one is in Bugulma in Russia). Lipnice also has a bust and a statue of the author. Since 2003 there have been arranged international Hašek conferences every five years.

Demography (1910)

According to the 1910 census Lipnice nad Sázavou had 1353 inhabitants of which 1342 (99 per cent) reported Czech as their mother tongue. The judicial district was okres Německý Brod, administratively it reported to hejtmanství Německý Brod.

Lipnice had a post office, a brewery, k.k. Gendarmerie station and hosted its own parish.

Military (1914)

With respect to military recruitment Lipnice nad Sázavou belonged to Heeresergänzungsbezirk Nr. 21 (Časlau) and Landwehrergänzungsbezirk Nr. 12 (Časlau). Local infantrymen would therefore usually serve with Infanterieregiment Nr. 21 or Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 12.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] A zatímco ovčák cedil brambory a nalíval do mísy kyselé ovčí mléko, dělil se dál vandrák se svými vzpomínkami na četnické právo: „V Lipnici bejval jeden strážmistr dole pod hradem. Bydlel přímo na četnické stanici a já, dobrák stará, pořád jsem byl všude v tý domněnce, že četnická stanice musí být přece někde na vystrčeným místě, jako na náměstí nebo podobně, a ne někde v zastrčenej uličce.

Literature

References
aJaroslav Hašek na LipniciKliment Štěpánek, Lidové noviny20.12.1927
bPenzion a hostinec U České korunyHašektour s.r.o
cMírová konference a jiné humoreskyJaroslav Hašek1922
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Ottův slovník naučný, 1900.

Kejžlice appears when the tramp in Švarcenberský ovčín tells the story about when he was begging in Lipnice and he accidentally knocked on the door of the gendarmerie station. He got such a whack that he didn't stop until he got down to Kejžlice.

Background

Kejžlice (previously also Kyžlice) is a village in the Vysočina region, 4 km from Lipnice in the direction of Humpolec. The number of inhabitants is 416 (2020).

Demography (1910)

According to the 1910 census Kejžlice had 730 inhabitants of which 730 (100 per cent) reported Czech as their mother tongue. The judicial district was okres Humpolec, administratively it reported to hejtmanství Německý Brod.

Military (1914)

With respect to military recruitment Kejžlice belonged to Heeresergänzungsbezirk Nr. 21 (Časlau) and Landwehrergänzungsbezirk Nr. 12 (Časlau). Local infantrymen would therefore usually serve with Infanterieregiment Nr. 21 or Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 12.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] A nežli jsem moh něco bleptnout, přiskočil ke mně vachmajstr a dal mně takovou facku v těch dveřích, že jsem po těch dřevěnejch schodech letěl až dolů a nezastavil jsem se až v Kejžlicích. To je četnický právo.“
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Zlatá stezka, 2.1929

vodnany.png

Ottův slovník naučný, 1906

Vodňany is mentioned in passing in the plot as Švejk avoids the town on his wandering from Švarcenberský ovčín to Putim.

A little bit earlier the town is mentioned by the tramp that Švejk met by Štěkno. He told the soldier that he could sell his uniform to the jew Herrman in Vodňany. The old shepherd at Švarcenberský ovčín then relates about his grandfather who was baudly mauled in Vodňany after having been caught as a deserter.

Vodňany had already been mentioned in an anecdote by Švejk in [1.1]. It was the home town of a pigs gelderer who was hanged in Písek and uttered the most unkind words about the Emperor when this happened. This is at the end of one of the stories Švejk told detective Bretschneider at U kalicha and must have contributed to his arrest.

In [1.14] the town is mentioned again when Švejk chats to the maid of Oberst Kraus. He tries to gather information about the habits of the dog of her master's dog Fox, and asks where she's from.

Background

Vodňany is a town in the Strakonice district in South Bohemia. It is located 28 km north west of Budějovice. In 2020 the town had 7028 inhabitants.

Demography (1910)

According to the 1910 census Vodňany had 4602 inhabitants of which 4588 (99 per cent) reported Czech as their mother tongue. The judicial district was okres Vodňany, administratively it reported to hejtmanství Písek.

Military (1914)

With respect to military recruitment Vodňany belonged to Heeresergänzungsbezirk Nr. 11 (Pisek) and Landwehrergänzungsbezirk Nr. 28 (Pisek). Local infantrymen would therefore usually serve with Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 or Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 28.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.1] Pak si vzala nunváře z Vodňan, a ten ji jednou v noci klepl sekerou a šel se dobrovolně udat. Když ho potom u krajského soudu v Písku věšeli, ukousl knězi nos a řekl že vůbec ničeho nelituje, a také řekl ještě něco hodně ošklivého o císařovi pánovi.“
[1.14.6] „Já jsem teprve nedávno do Prahy přeloženej,“ řekl Švejk, „já nejsem zdejší, já jsem z venkova. Vy taky nejste z Prahy?“ „Já jsem z Vodňan.“ „Tak jsme nedaleko od sebe“ odpověděl Švejk, „já jsem z Protivína.“
[2.2] Potřebuješ kalhoty a kabát. Až budeme mít ten civil, tak kalhoty a kabát prodáme židovi Herrmanovi ve Vodňanech.
[2.2] Ale dopadli ho ve Vodňanech a tak mu rozsekali prdel, že z ní cáry lítaly.
[2.2] Poněvadž napravo, když sestoupil s lesů, bylo vidět nějaké město, zabočil Švejk severněji, pak na jih, kde opět bylo vidět nějaké město. (Byly to Vodňany.) Vyhnul se mu obratně cestou přes luka a ranní slunce uvítalo ho v zasněžených stráních nad Protivínem.
[2.2] V tom předvzpourovém dusnu přijeli rekruti z Vodňan s karafiáty z černého organtýnu.

Also written:Wodnian de

Literature

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Zlatá stezka, 10.1928.

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Hašek's mother was born in Protivín

Lidský profil Jaroslava Haška, Václav Menger, 1946.

protivin.png

Ottův slovník naučný, 1903

Protivín is mentioned in passing as Švejk avoids the town on his wandering from Švarcenberský ovčín to Putim. It had already been mentioned in a conversation just before.

The town had already been mentioned in the conversation between Švejk and the housemaid of Oberst Kraus in chapter [1.14].

Background

Protivín is a town in okres Písek with 4808 inhabitants (2020), situated by the river Blanice. The town is best known for its castle and also has a well known brewery that at the time of Švejk belonged to the Schwarzenberg estate. See Fürst Schwarzenberg (st.).

Hašek and Protivín

Protivín was surely a place Hašek knew well as his mother Kateřina (1849-1911) was born in Protivín No. 158[a]. Young Jaroslav visited the area with his mother during the summer holidays of 1897 and probably also before that[b].

Demography (1910)

According to the 1910 census Protivín had 3342 inhabitants of which 3299 (98 per cent) reported Czech as their mother tongue. The judicial district was okres Vodňany, administratively it reported to hejtmanství Písek.

Protivín was served by a post and telegraph office, railway station and also a police station.

Military (1914)

With respect to military recruitment Protivín belonged to Heeresergänzungsbezirk Nr. 11 (Pisek) and Landwehrergänzungsbezirk Nr. 28 (Pisek). Local infantrymen would therefore usually serve with Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 or Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 28.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.14.6] „Já jsem teprve nedávno do Prahy přeloženej,“ řekl Švejk, „já nejsem zdejší, já jsem z venkova. Vy taky nejste z Prahy?“ „Já jsem z Vodňan.“ „Tak jsme nedaleko od sebe“ odpověděl Švejk, „já jsem z Protivína.“
[2.2] Z Ražic za Protivínem syn Jarešův, dědeček starýho Jareše, baštýře, dostal za zběhnutí prach a volovo v Písku.
[2.2] Poněvadž napravo, když sestoupil s lesů, bylo vidět nějaké město, zabočil Švejk severněji, pak na jih, kde opět bylo vidět nějaké město. (Byly to Vodňany.) Vyhnul se mu obratně cestou přes luka a ranní slunce uvítalo ho v zasněžených stráních nad Protivínem.
[2.2] A nešťastnou náhodou místo od Protivína na jih na Budějovice Švejkovy kroky zaměřily k severu na Písek.
[2.2] Tak se podívejte, vojáku. Od nás na jih je Protivína. Od Protivína na jih je Hluboká a od ní jižně jsou České Budějovice. Tak vidíte, že jdete ne do Budějovic, ale z Budějovic.“

Sources: Miroslav Vítek

Literature

References
aJaroslav Hašek domaVáclav Menger, 1935
bOsudy dobrého člověka Jaroslava Haška, 1897Jaroslav Šerák
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putim.jpg

Putim, 12.7.2020

putim2.jpg

Švejk, 11.7.2020

putim.png

Ottův slovník naučný, 1903

Putim plays an important role in the novel and Švejk's stay here is amongst the most famous passages in the novel. Immediately after realising that he has arrived in Putim again (he slept in a haystack nearby earlier on his anabasis), he is pulled in by Wachtmeister Flanderka who immediately starts spinning a theory that Švejk is a Russian spy. He becomes increasingly convinced as the hours passes and the alcohol intake increases.

Švejk spent just one night in Putim and almost exclusively at Gendarmeriestation Putim. The day after his arrival he was led to Písek in a snowstorm. On the way his police escort managed to get insanely drunk in a roadside tavern.

Background

Putim is a village just south of Písek with 455 inhabitants (2006). It's major claim to fame outside the area is actually Švejk. A large part of Karel Steklý's Švejk-film was shot in the village in 1957. On 23 August 2014 the first ever statue of the good soldier on Czech soil was unveiled in Putim.

Fact and fiction

Whereas large parts of The Good Soldier Švejk patently draw inspiration from Jaroslav Hašek's own experiences, it is difficult to find such connections in Putim or indeed in any part of Švejk's anabasis. The locations is Putim are fictitious; no k.k. Gendarmerie station existed, nor was there any pub called Na Kocourku here. No Wachtmeister Flanderka, Pejzlerka or Wachtmeister Bürger are found in the census from 1900 or 1910[a], nor in the address book from 1915.

This does however not rule out that part of plot from Putim and the anabasis mirrors some real incident. František Skřivánek wrote that Hašek undertook an "excursion" to the area around Zliv where he met a gendarm who Hašek distracted by telling him some story and in the end the two drank together at U ruského cára in České Vrbne. Others claim that Hašek slept over at a sheep farm by Netolice and that he even reached Radomyšl.

Demography (1910)

According to the 1910 census Putim had 766 inhabitants of which 766 (100 per cent) reported Czech as their mother tongue. The judicial district was okres Písek, administratively it reported to hejtmanství Písek.

Putim was served by a parish, a school and a railway station, post and telegraph in Písek. The k.k. Gendarmerie station is however Hašek's literary creation. The nearest police presence was in Písek.

Military (1914)

With respect to military recruitment Putim belonged to Heeresergänzungsbezirk Nr. 11 (Pisek) and Landwehrergänzungsbezirk Nr. 28 (Pisek). Local infantrymen would therefore usually serve with Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 or Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 28.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] K polednímu uviděl Švejk před sebou nějakou vesnici. Sestupuje s malého návrší, pomyslil si Švejk: „Takhle dál už to nejde, zeptám se, kudy se jde do těch Budějovic.“ A vcházeje do vesnice byl velice překvapen, vida označení vesnice na sloupu u prvního domku: „Obec Putim“. „Pro Krista pána,“ vzdychl Švejk, „tak jsem zas v Putimi, kde jsem spal ve stohu.“ Pak ale už nebyl vůbec ničím překvapen, když za rybníčkem z bíle natřeného domku, na kterém visela slepice (jak někde říkali orlíčku), vystoupil četník, jako pavouk, když hlídá pavučinu. Četník šel přímo k Švejkovi a neřekl nic víc než: „Kampak?“ „Do Budějovic k svýmu regimentu.“ Četník se sarkasticky usmál: „Vy jdete přece od Budějovic. Máte ty vaše Budějovice už za sebou,“ a vtáhl Švejka do četnické stanice. Putimský četnický strážmistr byl znám po celém okolí, že jedná velice taktně a přitom bystře. Nikdy zadrženým nebo zatčeným nenadával, ale podroboval je takovému křížovému výslechu, že by se i nevinný přiznal.

Sources: Miroslav Vítek, Václav Pixa

Literature

References
aSčitání lidu PutimSOkA Písek1910
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bohemia.jpg

Erbenova mapa Čech z roku 1883.

Bohemia is mentioned by the Wachtmeister Flanderka when he shows Švejk a map of Bohemia and explains how completely off track he is. Later he asks the "Russian spy" in a friendly tones if he likes it here in Bohemia.

Background

Bohemia (Čechy) is a historical region, and the term is still used as a geographical description of the western two thirds of the Czech Republic. During Austria-Hungary it was also a political and adminitrative entity. See Kingdom of Bohemia.

The name Bohemia existed already in ancient times as latin Bohemia, named after the Celtic tribe Boii. Prague was always the most important city in Bohemia. The name has also given rise to the wide-spread term bohemian.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] „Pak jste si ovšem spletl cestu,“ usměvavě řekl strážmistr, „poněvadž vy jdete od Českých Budějovic. O čemž vás mohu přesvědčit. Nad vámi visí mapa Čech. Tak se podívejte, vojáku. Od nás na jih je Protivín. Od Protivína na jih je Hluboká a od ní jižně jsou České Budějovice. Tak vidíte, že jdete ne do Budějovic, ale z Budějovic.“
[2.2] Zadíval se přitom do dobrácké tváře Švejkovy a zaklepal mu náhle v záchvatu dobromyslnosti na rameno, naklonil se k němu a optal se ho otcovským tónem: „Nu, a jak se vám v Čechách líbí?“
[2.2] „Mně se všude v Čechách líbí,“ odpověděl Švejk, „na svej cestě našel jsem všude velice dobrý lidi.“
[2.2] Tato nová situace umožnila ruským vyzvědačům, při pohyblivosti fronty, vniknutí hlouběji do území našeho mocnářství, zejména do Slezska i Moravy, odkud dle důvěrných zpráv velké množství ruských vyzvědačů odebralo se do Čech.

Also written:Čechy cz Böhmen de Bohemia la Böhmen no

Literature

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Národnostní složení Rakouského Slezska a přilehlé části Pruského Slezska v roce 1912.

teschen.jpg

Teschen / Cieszyn /Těšín

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Ottův slovník naučný, 1905

Silesia is mentioned in a report that Wachtmeister Flanderka receives about now Czech speaking Russian spies flood into the monarchy. It was sent to all k.k. Gendarmerie stations in Bohemia by Landesgendarmeriekommando Prag.

Background

Silesia is an area which in 1914 was divided between Germany and Austria-Hungary. Today most of the region is contained within Poland, with a minor parts belonging to the Czech Republic and Germany.

In The Good Soldier Švejk it is explicitly a question of Austrian Silesia, a duchy and former Czech crownland that came under Habsburg rule in 1763. The capital was Troppau (Opava) with other notable cities being Bielitz (Bielsko), Jägerndorf (Krnov) and Teschen (Cieszyn/Český Těšín). Germans were the largest ethnic group followed by Poles and Czechs. The crown land was geopgrahically split in two, separated by a piece of land by Ostrava.

With regards to military recruitment Silesia consisted of two districts. K.u.k. Heer Infanterieregiment Nr. 1 recruited from Troppau whereas Infanterieregiment Nr. 100 recruited from Teschen. Both reported to Korpsbereich Nr. 1 (Krakau).

The former Austrian Silesia today mainly belongs to Czechia with a smaller part to the east being in Poland.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Tato nová situace umožnila ruským vyzvědačům, při pohyblivosti fronty, vniknutí hlouběji do území našeho mocnářství, zejména do Slezska i Moravy, odkud dle důvěrných zpráv velké množství ruských vyzvědačů odebralo se do Čech.

Also written:Slezsko cz Schlesien de Śląsk pl

Literature

Blatann flag
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Veselí nad Lužnicí, 2011

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Ottův slovník naučný, 1891

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Stráž, 27.4.1902

Blata was an area where Wachtmeister Flanderka gave up looking for informers because people there were particularly stubborn.

Background

Blata (also Blatsko) is a vaguely defined area, the flat stretch of land from Veselí nad Lužnicí and Soběslav, westwards towards Tyn nad Vltavou and Bechyně, south-west towards Hluboká and Netolice and east towards Třeboň.

The area was previously known for its peasant rebellions, and particularly one led by Jakub Kubata in the 16th century. He was eventually executed. The rebellion took place in the so-called Zbudovská blata, the southern area near Hluboká. This is also a part of Blata that Hašek knew well (his father was from Mydlovary) so it is most likely this region the author had in mind when he wrote this passage of The Good Soldier Švejk.

Blata is famed for its specific culture, its rich traditions, and not the least by its many rybníky (man-made fish ponds). It has never been an official administrative entity and is today described as an "ethnographic sub-region".

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Nejvíce mu dala starostí instrukce, jak získati z místního obyvatelstva placené donášeče a informátory, nakonec, poněvadž uznal za nemožné, aby to mohl být někdo z místa, kde začínají Blata a kde je ten lid taková tvrdá palice, připadl na myšlenku vzít na tu službu obecního pasáka, kterému říkali „Pepku, vyskoč!“ Byl to kretén, který vždy na tuto výzvu vyskočil.
Přerovnn flag
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Přerov 1920

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Ottův slovník naučný, 1903

Přerov is mentioned when it is revealed what was said during the drinking binge at the gendarmerie station in Putin. The Russian commander in chief Nicholas Nikolaevich would next week be in Přerov, Wachtmeister Flanderka is reported to have said.

Background

Přerov is a city and an important railway junction in the Olomouc district of Moravia. Today (2018) it has around 45,000 inhabitants.

It was the seat of okres and hejtmanství of the same name. In 1900 the city had around 21,000 inhabitants of which the vast majority reported Czech as their mother language. Already then Přerov was an industrial city and established as a railway junction.

Hašek and Přerov

It can not be established whether Jaroslav Hašek ever visited the city, but he must at least have travelled through it on his way back from Kraków and Frydek-Mistek in August 1903. He may also have stopped over on his travels to and from Slovakia in 1900 and 1901. In 1909 his future wife Jarmila Mayerová stayed with her sister here, but there is no record of Hašek himself having visited. Still he received som letters from Jarmila during her stay here.

As a curiosity on the side: IR 91 passed Přerov on 17 November 1915[a], on their way from the Russian front to the front against Italy by the river Isonzo. Needless to say they travelled without the author of The Good Soldier Švejk who had been a prisoner of war in Russia for almost two months.

Military (1914)

With respect to military recruitment Přerov belonged to Heeresergänzungsbezirk Nr. 54 (Olmütz) and Landwehrergänzungsbezirk Nr. 13 (Olmütz). Local infantrymen would therefore usually serve with Infanterieregiment Nr. 54 or Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 13.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Nakláněje se k uchu strážmistra, šeptal: „Že jsme všichni Češi a Rusové jedna slovanská krev, že Nikolaj Nikolajevič bude příští týden v Přerově, že se Rakousko neudrží,

Literature

References
aPrvní světová válka v denících feldkuráta P. Jana Evangelisty Eyblaed. Miloš Garkisch2015
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Ottův slovník naučný, 1899

Kobylisy was the place butcher Chaura hailed from, mentioned in an anecdote.

Background

Kobylisy is an area in the northern part of Prague, until 1922 still not part of the capital. It was here that the operation to assassinate Heydrich in 1942 started. The Kobylisy metro station was opened in 2004.

Demography (1910)

According to the 1910 census Kobylisy had 3199 inhabitants of which 3180 (99 per cent) reported Czech as their mother tongue. The judicial district was okres Karlín, administratively it reported to hejtmanství Karlín.

Military (1914)

With respect to military recruitment Kobylisy belonged to Heeresergänzungsbezirk Nr. 28 (Prag) and Landwehrergänzungsbezirk Nr. 8 (Prag). Local infantrymen would therefore usually serve with Infanterieregiment Nr. 28 or Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 8.

The town had a military presence, the 25 employed by the army not were no doubt associated with the shooting range.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] „To byl bych si nikdy nemyslil,“ vykládal Švejk, „že taková cesta do Budějovic je spojena s takovejma vobtížema. To mně připadá jako ten případ s řezníkem Chaurou z Kobylis. Ten se jednou v noci dostal na Moráň k Palackýho pomníku a chodil až do rána kolem dokola, poněvadž mu to připadalo, že ta zeď nemá konce.

Literature

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Prager Tagblatt, 2.7.1912.

Moráň was where butcher Chaura, mentioned in a story, walked round the monument of Palacký a whole night.

Background

Moráň is a small area of Prague between Karolovo náměstí and Vltava. The Palacký monument is located by the river, at Palackého náměstí. It was unveiled in 1 July 1912[a] in a grand ceremony.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] „To byl bych si nikdy nemyslil,“ vykládal Švejk, „že taková cesta do Budějovic je spojena s takovejma vobtížema. To mně připadá jako ten případ s řezníkem Chaurou z Kobylis. Ten se jednou v noci dostal na Moráň k Palackýho pomníku a chodil až do rána kolem dokola, poněvadž mu to připadalo, že ta zeď nemá konce.
References
aSlavnost odhalení pomníku PalackéhoNárodní listy1.7.1912
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Okresní hejtmanství around 1904.

Písecký okres is mentioned by the author when he explains where k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 was recruited from.

Background

Písecký okres almost certain refers to hejtmanství Písek, a political district that contained the towns Mirotice, Mirovice, Vodňany, Bavorov and Protivín. Several smaller places known from The Good Soldier Švejk were within the district: Putim, Ražice, Skočice, Krč, Vráž and Čížová. In 1910 the population numbered 79096 of which only 289 reported German as their mother tongue.

As Hašek correctly pointed out the district provided soldiers for k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 11.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] 28. regiment, 11. regiment. V tom posledním vojáci z píseckého kraje a okresu.
[2.2] V příloze předvádí se Josef Švejk, dle dotyčného tvrzení býti pěšákem téhož pluku, zadržený na základě svého vyjádření v Putimi, okres Písek, četnickou stanicí, podezřelý ze zběhnutí.

Also written:Písek region en Bezirk Pisek de

Literature

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Písek, Otava, 27.8.2009

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August Sedláček, 1911.

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Velké náměstí 1912

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Ottův slovník naučný, 1902

Písek is the centre of the action when the drunk gendarme from Putim appears at Bezirksgendarmeriekommando Pisek with Švejk in hand-cuffs. This is the end of Švejk's famous anabasis but he is also cleared of the suspicion of being a Russian spy. The next morning he is sent to Budějovice to join his regiment.

Písek had by then already been mentioned several times during the interrogation at Gendarmeriestation Putim. Švejk informed Wachtmeister Flanderka that he had taken part in the Kaisermanövern (Imperial manoeuvres) in the area in 1910.

Písek was mentioned already in [1.1], in the anecdote about the pig gelderer from Vodňany.

Písek is mentioned 20 times in The Good Soldier Švejk.

Background

Písek is a city in South Bohemia with around 30,000 inhabitants. The town was severely hit by the floods in 2002. The oldest bridge in the Czech Republic crosses the river Otava here. Písek is also an important centre for education.

In The Good Soldier Švejk several institutions and places in the city are mentioned: Krajský soud Písek, Okresní soud Písek, Bezirksgendarmeriekommando Pisek, Písecké nádraží and also the house regiment k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 11. Associated with the city is also Rittmeister Rotter, he served here from 1910 until at least 1916.

Imperial manoeuvres

Kaisermanövern were annual large-scale military exercises where the emperor usually was present, joined by additional members of the upper echelons of society. It also happened that foreign heads of state were invited. The manoevres included various branches of the armed forces and almost always took place in September. They usually stretched over four days.

In The Good Soldier Švejk at least three of the manoeuvres are mentioned and Švejk took part in all of them. These are, in the order they appear in the novel: Písek in 1910, Veszprém and Velké Meziříčí. In addition the author mentions a large exercise by Sopron in 1908 but historical circumstances dictate that these were the same as those by Veszprém. Despite what Švejk told Wachtmeister Flanderka: there were no imperial exercises by Písek in 1910, instead they were arranged in South Bohemia, including the Písek region, in 1905 and 1913. The 1910 Imperial exercises were actually planned for Upper Hungary (Slovakia) but were cancelled due to a regional outbreak of a horse disease.

South Bohemia did however in 1910 host the manoeuvres of 8. Korps, centred around Týn nad Vltavou but activities also took place in the area around Písek. In these 4th battalion of IR 91 participated so Švejk could hypothetically have been there.

Demography (1910)

According to the 1910 census Písek had 15499 inhabitants of which 15191 (98 per cent) reported Czech as their mother tongue. The judicial district was okres Písek, administratively it reported to hejtmanství Písek.

Military (1914)

With respect to military recruitment Písek belonged to Heeresergänzungsbezirk Nr. 11 (Pisek) and Landwehrergänzungsbezirk Nr. 28 (Pisek). Local infantrymen would therefore usually serve with Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 or Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 28.

Písek hosted a large garrison, 980 of the inhabitants were employed by the army. The barracks of k.k. Landwehr and k.u.k. Heer were located next to each other in the Prague suburb west of the river Otava.

Kaisermanövern 1905-1913

Jahr Datum Bereich Bemerkung
1905 3.9 - 7.9 Südböhmen Štěkeň
1906 4.9 - 7.9 Schlesien Teschen
1907 2.9 - 7.9 Kärnten Klagenfurt
1908 14.9 - 18.9 West-Ungarn Veszprém
1909 8.9 - 11.9 Mähren Groß Meseritsch
1910 12.9 - 16.9 (abgesagt) Oberungarn, Komitat Zemplen Stropko, Felsövizköz
1911 12.9 - 15.9 Oberungarn und West-Galizien, Karpathen Bartfa, Felsövizköz
1912 9.9 - 11.9 Südungarn Mezöhegyes
1913 15.9 - 17.9 Südböhmen Chotowin

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.1] Pak si vzala nunváře z Vodňan, a ten ji jednou v noci klepl sekerou a šel se dobrovolně udat. Když ho potom u krajského soudu v Písku věšeli, ukousl knězi nos a řekl že vůbec ničeho nelituje, a také řekl ještě něco hodně ošklivého o císařovi pánovi.“
[2.2] A to moh ještě mluvit o štěstí. Z Ražic za Protivínem syn Jarešův, dědeček starýho Jareše, baštýře, dostal za zběhnutí prach a volovo v Písku.
[2.2] Závodčího zmocnila se naprostá deprese, a když po hrozném utrpení pozdě večer dorazili do Písku k četnickému velitelství, na schodech řekl úplně zdrceně závodčí Švejkovi: „Teď to bude hrozné. My od sebe nemůžem.“

Literature

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Otava in Písek, 1915.

Otava is briefly mentioned as guardsman Wachtmeister Matějka impatiently waits to get away from the police station in Písek for a game of "Schnaps" somewhere down by the Otava.

Background

Otava is a 112 km long river that flows from Šumava through Sušice, Horažďovice, Strakonice, and Písek and joins the Vltava by Zvíkov.

Otava is also the name of a local hotel and could in theory be the place the author had in mind. This assumption is however contradicted by the fact that the hotel is located on the other side of the river from the police station (and even uphill), whereas the author explicitly says "down by the Otava". Moreover, Hašek usually put the names of specific establishment in quotes, which is not the case here.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Rytmistr studoval „bericht“ četnického strážmistra z Putimě o Švejkovi. Před ním stál jeho četnický strážmistr Matějka a myslel si, aby mu rytmistr vlezl na záda i se všemi berichty, poněvadž dole u Otavy čekají na něho s partií „šnopsa“.

Also written:Wottawa de

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Světozor, 16.11.1906

Budějovice (also České Budějovice) plays a prominent role in the chapter Švejkova budějovická anabase [2.2] because parts of the plot take place here and the rest of the chapter is about Švejk's attempts to get here. Švejk's stay in the city lasted for only three days and he never saw more than the road from the barracks to the station. This is however compensated by the author who lets his alter ego Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek provide a colourful account of life in the garrison.

IR 91, the unit in which Oberleutnant Lukáš and Švejk served, was located in the city, in Mariánská kasárna. The narrator also lets part of the plot take place during an officer's party in a hotel, making light of the debauchery and moral corruption in the army. This is where staple characters like Oberst Schröder, Major Wenzl, and Hauptmann Ságner enter the plot (they have already been introduced by Marek). Budějovice is the place that is most frequently mentioned in The Good Soldier Švejk and it is also the final geographical reference in the novel.

The city was introduced already in [1.1], in one of the stories Švejk tells detective Bretschneider at U kalicha. Several more anecdotes confirm that Švejk did his national service in Budějovice.

Background

Budějovice (Budweis) was until 1920 the name of České Budějovice, the largest city in South Bohemia. In 1913 the number of inhabitants was 44,538 of which roughly 37 per cent reported German as their mother tongue. Amongst Czechs, the city was mostly called České Budějovice even under Austrian rule. The city was part of Okresní hejtmanství Budějovice and belonged to the okres carrying its name.

In 2019 the city had slightly more than 94,000 inhabitants and is now as then the administrative and commercial centre of the region. It is also a popular tourist destination, offering a well preserved old town. It is situated 381 metres above sea level at the confluence of the rivers Malše and Vltava.

The garrison
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City map from 1911 with barracks indicated

When World War I broke out the city had a notable military presence, reflected in the number of people working for the armed forces. In 1913 they totalled 2205, making up five per cent of the population. The garrison in Budějovice provided five barracks where two were used by k.u.k. Heer, one by k.k. Landwehr, one by the field artillery, and one vacated.

In addition, new barracks were in 1915 built at Čtyři dvory, next to the already existing exercise ground (3 km west of the city centre). k.k. Landwehr was in 1913 moved to a new building in the southern part of the city, their former barracks were during the war turned into a reserve hospital. All the barracks were owned by the city council, who in turn leased them to the armed forces.

The garrison also hosted Platzkommando, a prison, a hospital, and a military court.

BarracksUsed by
AArcivévoda VilémField artillery
BMariánskáInfantry (IR 91)
CStará zeměbraneckák.k. Landwehr (until 1913)
DCísař František Josef I.Infantry (IR88)
EArcivévoda RainerLandwehr
The letters in the first column refer to the map ➔

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91. Ergänzungsbezirk

The city's two Hausregimente[1] were IR 91 and Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 29. The regiment's numbering reflected their respective Ergänzungsbezirke[2] with the associated Ergänzungsbezirkskommando and Ersatzbataillon[3]. In addition k.u.k. Feldkanonenregiment Nr. 24 and parts of Infanterieregiment Nr. 88 (Beroun) were garrisoned in the city (staff and two battalions). The command of Infanteriebrigade Nr. 38 was also located here, although their operative units were garrisoned elsewhere.

K.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 91
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The regiment's orchestra before departure to the front, 1.8.1914. The railway station in the background.

Jednadevadesátníci, Jan Ciglbauer, 2018.

The theme of these pages is the novel The Good Soldier Švejk so further discussions will reduce the scope to IR 91 only. It was in this regiment Jaroslav Hašek served in 1915, and by projecting his own experiences into his famous novel, he unwittingly made the regiment the best-known unit in the entire k.u.k. Heer. The author's association with the regiment is also the reason why Budějovice is the geographical entity that is most frequently mentioned in the novel, more than one hundred times!

At the outbreak of war 4th battalion and EB91 were housed in Mariánská kasárna. During mobilisation at the end of July 1914, regimental staff, 2nd and 3rd field battalion arrived from Prague but already by 1 August 1914 they had departed for the front by the Drina, together with the 4th battalion[4]. The only part of the regiment that remained in Budějovice was thus the replacement battalion.

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News about the transfer of the reserve battalion (EB91). Note that the local press used the term "regiment" also when referring to EB91.

Deutsche Böhmerwaldzeitung, 4.6.1915.

Throughout The Good Soldier Švejk the term "regiment" is used even when the replacement battalion is obviously meant. This is in spite of the fact that the field regiment (the four field battalions etc.) during the war always were fighting at the front. The first two lines of [2.3] serves as a good example when the author states that "the 91st regiment was transferred to Bruck an der Leitha-Királyhida".

The author's use of the term “regiment” may thus appear misleading, but a person who lived at the time would, from the context, know that the subject was the reserve battalion and not the field regiment. Readers knew that Bruck was nowhere near the front and that the reference could NOT be to the regiment in the field. For the modern reader is easy to conclude that Jaroslav Hašek "was wrong", but he actually adhered to the terminology that was common at the time. In 1915 the newspapers in Budějovice used exactly the same words as the author of The Good Soldier Švejk when they reported that the EB91 had been transferred to Királyhida.

The reserve battalion
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© VHA

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Mariánská kasárna (Marienkaserne), the home of IR 91 until 1 June 1915.

Geschichte des ehemaligen Schützenregimentes Nr. 6, 1932.

As mentioned earlier the reserve battalion of IR 91 (further EB91) was permanently garrisoned in Budějovice. After the outbreak of war, it grew rapidly as it was responsible for training the reservists who were drafted in increasing numbers.

Apart from ordinary recruits, the one-year volunteers were also trained here. After a course at the regiment’s reserve officer school, they became junior officers. The school was located at the top floor of Mariánská kasárna and this is also where the aspiring cadets lived.

Military training mostly took place at the exercise grounds west of the city, at Čtyři Dvory (Vierhöf) and the nearby shooting range in Borský les (Haiderwald). It also appears that some units were garrisoned and trained in Suché Vrbny (Dirnfellern), east of the railway station.

Commander of EB91 at the outbreak of war was Oberstleutnant Johann Splichal. He was very soon ordered to the front in Serbia and was on 25 August 1914 succeeded by the pensioned Oberst Karl Schlager who also oversaw the transfer to Bruck an der Leitha in June 1915. He was in turn replaced by Major Benedikt Pallweber on 26 July 1915. The last commander of the reserve battalion was Major Gustav Jausen.

From January to March 1915 Hauptmann Josef Adamička was head of the reserve officer's school but we don't know who succeeded him. Commander of I. Ersatzkompanie was from 28 February 1915 Oberleutnant Čeněk Sagner. Schlager himself commanded II. Ersatzkompanie, and Hauptmann Rudolf Skara III. Ersatzkompanie. Who were in charge of the other companies is not known (nor do we know the total number of replacement companies - there were at least 4).

Relocation of replacement battalions
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[Free translation] In order to remove those on Landsturm duty [conscripted reservists] who hailed from nationally unreliable areas from the destructive influences of their environment, extensive relocation of replacement units in the hinterland was initiated during the first months of 1915.

Geschichte des ehemaligen Schützenregimentes Nr. 6, 1932.

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IR 91 transferred to Bruck (sensored).

Jihočeské listy, 2.6.1915.

During the late spring of 1915, the garrison in Budějovice witnessed a major upheaval. When the war started the Czechs were reportedly just as enthusiastic as other nations in Austria-Hungary, but this was soon to change. By the end of 1914, it became clear that the war would not end soon. The professional core of the army who were largely loyal to the monarchy had been badly decimated and were replaced by far less enthusiastic reserves. Shortages and price hikes started to take their toll, and discontent surfaced amongst the civilian population. As further reserves were drafted there were incidents and signs of disloyalty, particular when soldiers left for the front. Armeeoberkommando decided to act by transferring Czech replacement battalions to areas populated by other nationalities. The idea was to prevent “contamination” from disloyal Czech civilians.

The first such transfer took place in January 1915 when the reserve battalion of Prague's house regiment k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 28 was transferred to Szeged and replaced by Hungarians[5]. During the spring more units from Bohemia followed, including those of k.k. Landwehr. In Budějovice both house regiments were affected. The replacement battalion of Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 29 was on 19 May 1915 swapped with Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 6, an almost completely German regiment from Eger (now Cheb). On 1 June 1915, it was the turn of EB91 as they were moved to Királyhida in two separate stages. Eight days later the Hungarian IR101 from the recruitment district Békéscsaba replaced them in the by now vacated Mariánská kasárna. As we know the transfer of the replacement battalion to Királyhida has a central part in chapter [2.3] of the novel.

The news about the imminent transfer of the Kader was not welcomed by soldiers at the front and according to Inft. Reg. 91 Galizien... the vast majority were disappointed when they were told on 23 May 1915. It would now be much more difficult for the soldiers to visit their loved ones when being away from the front. The only exceptions to the general disappointment were the few of the regiment's soldiers who were from Vienna.

March battalions
ir91mb14.jpg

Units from the IR 91/XIV. march battalion at Chorupan. They arrived 18 September 1915.

Jednadevadesátníci, Jan Ciglbauer, 2018.

After having completed training at the reserve battalion the soldiers were dispatched to the front in so-called march battalions. These consisted of up to 1000 men, were denoted by Roman numbers and divided into four march companies[6]. The march battalions were sent to the front roughly once a month. By the end of the war, EB91 had trained, prepared and dispatched 44 march battalions. One example is the 40th march battalion that departed on 23 May 1918 where Leutnant Hans Bigler commanded one of the squads in the 2nd company. Five of the march battalions were sent to Serbia during the autumn of 1914, and the following nine were dispatched to the eastern front in 1915. The rest were destined for the Italian front after IR 91 were transferred there in November 1915[7].

After the outbreak of war, the number of soldiers in the city increased and lack of accommodation led to many units being lodged in schools and other large buildings. This also applied to march units and Suché Vrbné (Dirnfellern) is a name that often crops up. This was a village east of the railway station, now part of the city. Records exist that the 7th and 11th march battalions were garrisoned there, and probably many of the others too. At the garrison in Budějovice a total of 11 march battalions from IR 91 were trained and equipped.

bigler_mk4.jpg

Numbering of march companies. Kadettaspirant Bigler in June 1915. His superior was Oberleutnant Lukas.

© VÚA

The march battalion was typically formed a month before planned departure and it was as part of this unit that the soldiers completed their training. The XII. Marschbataillon of IR 91 was for example formed 1 June 1915 and departed for the front on 30 June. They were transported by train to a so-called Etappenstation (staging station) behind the lines, and then continued on foot. The mentioned 12th march battalion spent five days on the train to Sambor and then marched for a week before they reached their destination. On arrival the newcomers were distributed across the existing field battalions, and if possible entire units were replaced. IR 91 at times lost entire field companies and these were then replaced one-to-one by a march company. It also happened that march battalions were engaged in fighting before they joined the main part of the regiment.

Jaroslav Hašek in Budějovice
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Spisovatel-humorista a spolupracovník Světozora Jaroslav Hašek v reservní vojenské nemocnici v Českých Budějovicích.

Světozor, 30.4.1915.

The story of Jaroslav Hašek and his stay in Budějovice in 1915 is entangled in legends - and no doubt he contributed some of them himself. His main vehicle for mystification was one-year volunteer Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek in The Good Soldier Švejk, but the stories Gott strafe England (1917) and V strategických nesnázích (In strategical difficulties) (1921) have also contributed.

Countless witnesses have over the years added their versions, but most of these accounts were published after 1960 in the local press in České Budějovice. Here the Communist Party newspaper Jihočeská pravda was particularly active. In addition there are some items that were collected by Zdena Ančík but seemingly never published. Some of them have later been drawn upon by biographers like Radko Pytlík.

One particularly useful contribution was published in 1972 in Sborník Památníku národního písemnictví. It was written by Jaroslav Kejla, a former inter-war air force general who served with Hašek in Budějovice in 1915. Although his recollection of detail suffered from the distance in time, his story is unusual inasmuch as he questions the version of history presented by Hašek scholars like Ančík and Pytlík. He openly ridicules the tendency to accept Hašek's own version of events as facts, and makes a most relevant statement: "perhaps he [Hašek] invented a thing or two"?

Verified details
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Hašek's partial superarbitration, rubberstamped in Prague 25 May 1915.

© VÚA

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Chronischer Gelenksrheumatismus und abgelaufene Herzklappenentzündung. Über dem linken Ventrikel ein erstes Geräusch hörbar. Dyspnoe bei körperlichen Anstrengungen.

Transkripzion: Doris und Gert Kerschbaumer.

© VÚA

What all seem to agree on is that Hašek turned up in Budějovice in civilian clothes and in a cylinder hat. He enlisted at the reserve officer’s school of IR 91 as his status as a one-year volunteer permitted. He was expelled from the school, and he was locked up in the garrison arrest at least once. He was admitted to k.u.k. Reserve-Spital with rheumatism and that he genuinely suffered from it (unlike Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek) and that he was later transferred to a recuperation unit in the southern suburb Linecké předměstí (Linzer Vorstadt). Many claim that Marek's excursions with the Krankenbuch is autobiographical and that Dr. Peterka at the reserve hospital turned a blind eye. Most of the details listed here are mirrored in Marek's conversation with Švejk.

Hašek's army file provide exact dates and also the diagnosis that prompted Dr. Peterka to apply for superarbitration on the patient's behalf. He suffered not only from rheumatism of the joints but also endocarditis and a slight sound was heard above the left heart valve. He became exhausted at the slightest physical effort.

Nor would it come as a surprise that he visited many pubs, particularly those in the vicinity of Mariánská kasárna, in the historical centre and in the Linz suburb.

We also know that Hašek wrote two stories while stationed in Budějovice: Aféra s křečkem (The affair with the hamster) and Aféra s teploměrem (The affair with the thermometer). The first story has nothing to do with his stay in the Czech south, but the thermometer story is set at k.u.k. Reserve-Spital. Unsurprisingly he makes fun of Bohemian Germans and even confirms information from Jihočeské listy that he stayed in room no. 77!

A miniature anabasis?

Often mentioned is an escape Hašek made to the area north of the city, perhaps as far as Protivín. In České Vrbné he was stopped by a gendarme but wriggled himself out of the situation and in the end the two sat down for a beer or two in the local pub U ruského cara. The "excursion" seems to have lasted for a few days and may have provided motifs for Švejkova budějovická anabase. The originator of the story was František Škřivánek, but since then more details have appeared, for instance that Hašek allegedly slept over in a sheep shed by Netolice, another possible connection to the novel.

Škřivánek was the first ever to publish anything about Hašek in Budějovice, and one of the first to publish anything biographical about him after the author's death. His article was published in Jihočeské listy as early as 5 February 1923. It was Škřivánek who had Hašek's stories that were written at k.u.k. Reserve-Spital sent to publisher Nakladatel Jos. R. Vilímek. He also revealed that it was Hašek himself who told him about the excursion north of the city. Importantly the article also contains a poem by Hašek. In 1954 Škřivánek followed up with a longer item in Stráž míru but by now he mixed in the memories of others. This combined with the distance in time obviously detracts from its trustworthiness. Clearly it is the latter version that biographers have leant on because the first is not listed in the official bibliography (Medílek, 1983).

Mystification
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Hašek was never stripped of his privileges as a one-year volunteer.

Verlustliste Nr. 566, 4.5.1917.

While most of the myths surrounding Hašek in Budějovice are improbable but not directly falsifiable, there are a few that can be dismissed out of hand. Hašek claimed that he "had his one-year volunteer stripes stripped off" at the beginning of the war. This can not have been the case because all military records list him as Landsturmmann mit Einj. Freiw. Abzeichen, later Landsturm Gefreiter. Kejla also noted that the one-year volunteer privilege was earned by his civilian education so could not be removed by the military. The only thing he could be stopped from was to graduate from the reserve officer's school (which was the case).

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Considering the timing of events it is very unlikely that Hašek ever had the change to provoke the soldiers of the Hungarian IR101 by singing the "Tsar's hymn".

Budweiser Zeitung, 11.6.1915.

As for the many stories that do NOT originate from Hašek himself some have been confirmed (see discussion above), some are probable, some are possible but hard to believe in. One often referred story is that Hašek one night provoked soldiers from the Hungarian 101st regiment by singing the Russian national anthem in front of their barracks. This story can be dismissed almost out of hand as this regiment only arrived in Budějovice 9 June 1915. This is eight days AFTER Hašek's units left city.

Some of the details from his story Gott strafe England can also be falsified, but these are beyond the scope of this discussion as they concern Josef Adamička,s fate later in the war. The same goes for the story V strategických nesnázích (In strategical difficulties) where he mystifies the reason why he was decorated and promoted.

Time-line

Few of the witness accounts provide exact dates so in order to establish a time-line we are left to rely on his military records, aided by two articles by František Skřivánek (1923 and 1954).

Jaroslav Hašek in Budějovice. Includes some dates related to The Good Soldier Švejk only.
17.2 1915Hašek Präsentiert (enlisted) in I. Ersatzkompanie.
25.2 1915Hašek dedicates a poem to the sister of landlord Mičan's wife [Skřivánek].
26.2 1915Literature: Full page advert for the book Můj obchod se psy a jiné humoresky in Humoristické listy.
28.2 1915Oberleutnant Sagner assumes command of I. Ersatzkompagnie.
6.3 1915Hašek admitted to k.u.k. Reserve-Spital near the railway station.
7.3 1915IR 91/VII. march battalion departs, 4th company commanded by Oberleutnant Wurm.
13.3 1915Hašek: Jihočeské listy brings news of the hospitalisation, the "wounded Czech writer" is in room no. 77.
18.3 1915IR 91/VIII. march battalion departs, commanded by Hauptmann Adamička.
18.3 1915Adamička departing, a new commander of the reserve officer school appointed (Wenzel?).
19.3 1915 Hašek sent postcard to Vilímek thanking for the regularly being paid [Pytlík].
1.4 1915Zugsführer Bigler promoted to Feldwebel. Transferred from reserve officer school to III. Ersatzkompanie.
1.4 1915Einj. Freiw. Feldwebel Jaroslav Baloun transferred from IR73 to IR 91/II. Ersatzkompanie.
8.4 1915Hašek: application for Superarbitrierung filed. Now in III. Ersatzkompagie. Signed by Peterka, dr.
12.4 1915Hašek: referred to Superarbitrierungskommission. Signed by Pallweber.
17.4 1915Literature: Kynologický ústav printed in Světozor.
21.4 1915Hašek: signed agreement with bookshop owner and publisher Jan Svátek, Šternekova 25 [Hašek].
30.4 1915Hašek: superarbitration commission's verdict: fit for light/guard duties. Signed by Pallweber, Schlager, and 2 more.
30.4 1915Literature: photo from k.u.k. Reserve-Spital printed in Světozor.
5.5 1915Hašek: bids farewell to Skřivánek.
19.5 1915LIR29 transferred to Cheb (Eger). Petr Fingal met Hašek "a few days earlier".
25.5 1915Hašek: K.u.k. Militärkommando Prag rubberstamps the superarbitration.
1.6 1915IR 91/XII. march battalion formed, commanded by Major Wenzel. Oberleutnant Lukas commander of the 4th march company.
1.6 1915 EB91 inspected by the feared Feldmarschall-Leutnant Schwertdner von Schwertburg (see Generalmajor von Schwarzburg).
1.6 1915IR 91 replacement battalion (EB91) transferred to Bruck/Királyhida in two stages.

Despite providing a number of references this time-line does not give answers to questions about two key motifs we know from The Good Soldier Švejk, his stay at the reserve officer's school and his disciplinary record. It is also odd that Hašek in his Vormerkblatt was assigned to I. Ersatzkompanie but his health file has him in III. Ersatzkompanie. Perhaps this change reflects his status before and after he attended the school for reserve officers?

Reserve Officer's School
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František Šimek with one of the more trustworthy accounts.

Jihočeská pravda, 5.8.1967.

Information about Hašek's unsuccessful stay at the reserve officer's school, a theme he in the novel projects onto Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek, is shrouded in uncertainty. We have no start or end dates, but considering his poor physical condition it was probably a short stint, perhaps interrupted by his stay in the hospital (if we accept Marek as a witness this was the case). If so it would be logical to assume that he started soon after enlisting[8] and the fact that he himself and also Franta Hofer mention Josef Adamička who was head of the reserve officer's school until 18 March 1915, seem to confirm this. Hofer revealed that Adamička liked Hašek and invited him to the officer's dining room to provide entertainment. Kejla wrote that he was dismissed for behaviour unworthy of a future k.u.k. officer and not what Marek was expelled for.

Disciplinary record
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Jaroslav Kejla on why Hašek was expelled from the reserve officer school.

© LA-PNP

If all legends are to be believed Hašek would have a long disciplinary record but his Vormerkblatt does not show any punishment at all. The regiment could punish a soldier with up to 30 days arrest without involving a military court[9] but even that should in theory show up. Still there is no doubt that he spent time behind bars as confirmed by Kejla. That it has been more than public order offence is however unlikely and it would be in line with his chequered public order record from civilian life in Prague. All we can say is that he could have been handed no more than 30 days at a time, anything more serious would have meant a trial at a military court. In his story Gott strafe England Hašek claims to have received 30 days "mixed" (confined to barracks?), Skřivánek says he was given 30 days Verschärft (increased), and Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek, his literary alter ego, was given 21 days Verschärft. There is contradictory information about the reason for his punishment, but everything points towards some public order incident(s). The least credible version is Hašek's own in Gott strafe England where he claims to have been punished for writing a pretty innocent poem.

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Handbuch für Unteroffiziere, 1916.

Sentences of 30 or even 21 days are difficult to fit into Hašek's time line. From his enlisting to being admitted to hospital there is a span of 18 days, then he was undergoing treatment until 8 April, probably even longer. On 21 April 1915 he signed an agreement with Svátek and was presumably a free man. On 5 May he bid farewell with Skřivánek[10]. Petr Fingal met him "a few days before LIR29 was transferred to Cheb"[11] (i.e. 19 May minus a couple of days). One possibility is obviously that the disciplinary measures started after mid-may and that he (like Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek) was transported to Királyhida in the Arrestantenwaggon and sat out the rest of the time there. Jan Morávek confirms this. In an unpublished article Bohumil Mičan repeatedly mentioned 14 days punishment, a number that is much more likely than 30.

Innumerable pubs
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Česká chalupa, one of Hašek's favourites.

© Milan Binder / Jan Schinko

The incessant pub crawls are a recurring theme in the various reminiscences. Within a stone's throw from Mariánská kasárna there were three taverns that are often mentioned: Česká chalupa, U růže and U Mičanů. Radko Pytlík lists a range of others: U Novotných, U slunce (hotel on the city square), U města Krumlova, U Žáků, U černého vola, U anglického dvora, U Týfů, and Na posledním groši (and there were surely more). The tally is impressive considering Hašek out of his 3 months and 12 days in Budějovice he spent at least 33 days in hospital and perhaps as much as a month behind bars or at least confined to barracks. Apart from U růže and some hotel, two more establishment are mentioned by Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek. The first is the respectable Měšťanská beseda which is the only above-mentioned tavern that still operates (2015). The second is the brothel Port Arthur that no-one (to my knowledge) have ever claimed that Hašek visited. This notorious establishment was located far from the centre so the guess is that Hašek had heard of it and had his literary hero Marek visit it. On the other hand it was not very far from Suché Vrbny so perhaps that is the connection?

Another cluster of pubs from the southern part of the city are also mentioned. This is no doubt connected to his stay for recuparation in the nearby military hospital.

Fact and fiction
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Hašek mystifying his own stay in Budějovice in the story "Gott strafe England".

Československý voják, 15.10.1917 (28.10).

As usual Hašek presents scholars and amateur enthusiasts alike with headaches when they try to distinguish between myth and reality. In Budějovice this challenge is exacerbated by the fact that none of his friends (biographers) served with them there. Thus almost all the information that is found in secondary literature about Hašek is based on stories and articles that appeared after 1950. With the distance in time they are less reliable and some also suffer from the tendency to accept passages from the novel and other stories by Hašek as facts.

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Ančík correctly observes that many anecdotes float around regarding Hašek's stay in Budějovice. On the other hand: the claim that whatever is true from it found its way into Švejk says more about the haškologist's naivity than about the veracity of Hašek.

"O životě Jaroslava Haška", Zdena Ančík, 1953.

In his studies over the years Radko Pytlík has aggregated a wealth of information about Hašek's stay in Budějovice. His findings have been published in several books, with a tendency to become more voluminous each time. Particularly rich in detail is Data, fakty, dokumenty (2013). Unfortunately the facts from Budějovice are chaotically presented, chronologically suspect, and replete with errors and repetitions. At times fiction from Hašek's own pen is mixed in and presented as facts, for instance details from the stories Gott strafe England and Potíže s literární tvorbou. Much easier to digest are his more condensed accounts found in his earlier books: the excellent (Toulavé house) (1971), Náš přitel Jaroslav Hašek (1979) and Kniha o Švejkovi (1982).

Biographers and scholars beside Pytlík add little information of substance and most reveal limitations in their understanding of the organisation of k.u.k. Heer and the role of various units role in the military hierarchy. This applies to Jaroslav Křížek, Cecil Parrott, Gustav Janouch, Emanuel Frynta, and above all Zdena Ančík. Pre-war biographers (apart from Václav Menger) skip the subject entirely. In fairness it should be noted that access to military archives was restricted in Communist Czechoslovakia and the benefit of searchable on-line newspapers archives is a privilege only the modern haškologist can enjoy.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] A opět se dál nadporučík se Švejkem mlčky pozorovali, až konečně řekl nadporučík Lukáš s drsnou ironií: „Pěkně vás vítám, Švejku, do Českých Budějovic. Kdo má být oběšen, ten se neutopí. Už na vás vydali zatykač a zítra jste u regimentsraportu. Já se s vámi již zlobit nebudu. Natrápil jsem se s vámi dost a dost a moje trpělivost praskla. Když si pomyslím, že jsem mohl tak dlouho žít s takovým blbem jako vy...“

SourcesRadko Pytlík, Jan Ciglbauer, Franta Hofer, Bohumil Vlček, Jaroslav Kejla, František Skřivánek, František Šimek, Bohumil Mičan

Also written:Budweis de

Notes
1. House regiment (or home regiment) is a term for a regiment that recruited from a specific area. Because e.g. IR 91 recruited from the district of Budějovice, it was called the city's and region's house regiment. That did however not mean that the whole regiment resided in the home garrison. Battalions and even staff were frequently moved between locations. Only the reserve battalion and the district command were permanently located least one of the battalions were also present at any time. Usually the same person was commander of both the recruitment district and the reserve battalion.
2. cz. doplnovací okres. Recruitment district, literally "replenishment district". The area from where the manpower of a regiment was recruited. The district was named after the garrison town and the number of the district aligned with that of the house regiment. The district didn't only supply the house regiment, it also provided recruits for navy, artillery, cavalry etc. The recruitment districts of k.k. Landwehr and k.u.k. Heer were not identical. The Landwehr districts were generally larger as they had fewer regiments to replenish.
3. cz. nahradní prápor. The reserve battalion, literally "replacement battalion", consisting of at least three companies, reserve officer school, and other staff functions. The battalions main task was to train and equip the troops, prepare them for front duty, and dispatch them to the front. This was done in so-called march battalions that were transported to the field roughly once a month. Until 1914 the official name of the reserve battalion was Ersatzbataillonskader but the short from Kader was often used, also during the war.
4. The first battalion had since 1906 been detached from the rest of the regiment and garrisoned in southern Dalmatia. See Montenegro for further details.
5. The First World War and the End of the Habsburg Monarchy, 1914-1918, Manfried Rauchensteiner, 2013.
6. At the end of September 1918 the regiment was sent to Serbia so the final march battalion was probably sent there.
7. At the beginning of the war the march units were often composed and numbered differently. Experiments with entire march regiments took place, and the number of companies in each battalion could vary. The number of companies often spilled over into the next battalion so the 3rd company of III. battalion would be called 11th march company. This was a numbering system the regiments in the field already employed, but as the war continued it fell out of use for march units (presumably because the numbers would have become very large). It is therefore obvious that Švejk's 11th march company never existed in 1915, and if such a unit ever existed it would have been sent to Serbia in the autumn of 1914. If the original scheme had been used in 1915 Hašek's IR 91 4./XII. march company would have been give the number 48 (this number is based on the assumption that each march battalion was made up of four companies, which may not have been true at the start of the war).
8. Kejla wrote that Hašek didn't start at the school immediately and was at the school only for a short time. A start date of 1 March is therefore reasonable to assume and we already know that he was admitted to hospital on the 6th.
9. According to army regulations there were disciplinary measures that could be handled at the level of regiments and subordinated units (battalions, companies) without involving a military court. The mildest reaction was a warning, followed by two levels of so-called Kasernearrest (i.e. confined to barracks). The delinquent could only leave the barracks in the company of a person with a higher rank, and he could not visit pubs. For more serious offences soldiers were locked up at night but had to take part in normal exercises during the day. These had various degrees of severity. Verschärft (increased) was one of them and meant locked away for the night, not permitted to smoke and sleeping on a hard mattress. There were also more severe measures, including periodic fasting, a diet of water and bread and solitary confinement. For all but the harsher sentences he guilty had to take part in the daily duties. Rank and file soldiers could not share cells with anyone of higher rank, including one-year volunteers. Thus Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek and Švejk sharing a cell was in breach of regulations!
10. Skřivánek noted that Hašek took farewell because he was heading to Vienna to attend a course for translators. Unfortunately there were pubs on the way, and the author of Švejk got involved in some incident and was arrested.
11. Here Fingal spoke to Hašek when the latter was exercising with his unit, so him simultaneously serving a sentence can't be ruled out.

Literature

Budějovické náměstínn flag
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"Mein Österreich, mein Heimatland", 1915.

Budějovické náměstí was the scene of Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek's unfortunate incident when he in a state of inebriation knocked the cap off the artillery officer Leutnant Anton who he mistook for his friend Einjährigfreiwilliger Materna. Anton stood below the arcades and was seemingly waiting for a prostitute.

Later in the chapter Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek tells about how Fähnrich Dauerling had taken a soldier to battalion report because he didn't greet him on the square.

Background

Budějovické náměstí (Budweiser Ringplatz) refers to the city square in Budějovice. With its 17 768 m² it is one of the largest of its kind in Europe, and with a history dating from 1295. It has arcades around the entire square. Since 1991 it has been called Náměstí Přemysla Otakara II. but has since 1915 changed names several times, all according to the direction of the political winds. During the Nazi occupation, it was bestowed with the rather unappealing name of Adolf Hitler Platz.

Originally the square was simply called Náměstí (Ringplatz), a name it also had during Hašek's stay in the city from February 1915 until the end of May. On 4 June 1915 the city council unanimously decided to rename the square Náměstí Františka Josefa (Franz Josefs-Platz)[a].

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Napohlavkoval omylem jednomu poručíkovi od dělostřelectva v noci na náměstí v podloubí v opilém stavu. Vlastně ani nenapohlavkoval, srazil mu jenom čepici s hlavy. Stalo se to tak, že ten poručík od dělostřelectva stál v noci pod podloubím a patrně čekal na nějakou prostitutku.
[2.2] Tak stoupala moje drzost, že jsem myslel, že mně nikdo nemůže nic udělat, až došlo k osudnému omylu v noci na náměstí pod podloubím, k omylu, který jasně dokázal, že všechny stromy nerostou do nebe, kamaráde.
[2.2] Nyní si představte, příteli, že hned po jeho příchodu sem ten pitomý fähnrich Dauerling hnal před batalionsraport jednoho muže, že prý ho ten zúmyslně nepozdravil, když Dauerling jel přes náměstí ve fiakru v neděli odpůldne s nějakou slečinkou!
[2.2] ,Já si to vyprošuji, himldonrvetr, já si to zakazuji! Víte, pane fähnrich, co je to batalionsraport? Batalionsraport není žádný schweinfest. Jak mohl vás vidět, když jste ujížděl po náměstí? Nevíte, že jste sám učil, že vzdává se čest šaržím, s kterými se setkáváme, a to neznamená, jestli má voják se točit jako vrána, aby našel pana fähnricha projíždějícího se přes náměstí.
[2.2] „Nechte toho,“ řekl poručík Pelikán naoko přísně, „myslím, že víte, že máte jít v devět hodin ležet a netropit hluk. Vaše koncertní číslo je slyšet až na náměstí.“

Also written:Budweiser Ringplatz de

Literature

References
aGemeindeausschußsitzungBudweiser Zeitung15.6.1915
Malšenn flag
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Soldiers from 6th Landwehr some time after 19 May 1915.

Geschichte des ehemaligen Schützenregimentes Nr. 6.

Malše is the river where Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek took baths in the winter to contract rheumatism in the hope that it would make him unfit for service.

Background

Malše is a river in Upper Austria and the Czech Republic that empties into Vltava in Budějovice. The river's total length is 96 km.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Když jsem totiž narukoval,“ vypravoval dál, „tak jsem si předně najal pokoj v městě a snažil jsem si zaopatřit rheumatismus. Třikrát za sebou jsem se namazal a pak jsem si lehl za město do příkopu, když pršelo, a zul si boty. Nepomáhalo to. Tak jsem se v zimě v noci koupal v Malši celý týden, a docílil jsem pravý opak.

Also written:Maltsch de

Literature

Ninivehnn flag
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ninive.jpg

The fall av Niniveh. John Martin, 1829.

Niniveh is mentioned as Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek tells Švejk about his pride and how this led to his fall and subsequent arrest and expulsion from the officer's school. That why he was now locked up together with Švejk.

Background

Niniveh was one of the most important cities in the ancient Middle East and was in several periods capital of Assyria. The city was located by the river Tigris, near the present city of Mosul in Irak and is mentioned in the Old Testament. It was destroyed 612 BC.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Svou zpověď zakončil jednoroční dobrovolník slavnostně: „Došlo i na Karthago, z Ninive udělali zříceniny, milý příteli, ale hlavu vzhůru! Ať si nemyslí, že když mne pošlou na front, že dám jednu ránu. Regimentsraport!

Also written:Ninive cz

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Near Hartmanice, 25.8.2009

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"Šumava a Pošumaví", Josef Kafka, 1904

Šumava is mentioned by Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek when he tells his cell mate Švejk that Oberst Schröder had roared at him so he was heard all the way to Šumava.

Background

Šumava (Böhmerwald) is a loosely defined geographical area in the southern and western part of Bohemia, bordering Bavaria and Austria. It stretches from Vltava in the east to around Domažlice in the west. The area is mainly wooded, thinly populated and parts of it is protected as a national park. The area was until 1945 predominantly German speaking.

There are no large cities in the area, the major towns are Krumlov, Prachatice, Vimperk and Klatovy. Additonal places that are mentioned in The Good Soldier Švejk are Sušice og Kašperské Hory.

Hašek's and Švejk's regiment, k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 91, was partly recruited from the eastern part of Šumava, more precisely the two hejtmanství Krumlov and Prachtice. The regiment thus had the nickname Syny Šumavy / Böhmerwalds Söhne. The middle and western lay within the recruitment districts of k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 and k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 35.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Obrst Schröder přijel na mne přímo na koni a div mne nepovalil na zem. ,Donnerwetter,’ zařval, až to bylo slyšet jistě na Šumavě, ,was machen Sie hier, Sie Zivilist?’

Also written:Böhmerwald de

Literature

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Engadin was according to Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek used as a swearword towards recruits by corporal Korporal Althof through the expression "Engadin goat".

Background

Engadin is a long valley located in the canton of Graubünden in southeast Switzerland. The goat breed in question is generally referred to as Pfauenziege (Pfauen goat) and is now extinct.

The valley is directly mentioned by Jaroslav Hašek in the newspaper artcicle in "Winter sports" from 1910.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] U 11. kompanie kaprál Althof používá slova: engadinská koza. Svobodník Müller, německý učitel z Kašperských Hor, nazývá nováčky českými smraďochy, šikovatel Sondernummer volskou žábou, yorkshirským kancem a slibuje přitom, že každého rekruta vydělá.

Literature

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Svět zvířat, 1909-1910.

© Národní muzeum

Yorkshire was used indirectly as swearword by Feldwebel Sondernummer through the expression Yorkshire boar.

Background

Yorkshire is a former county in the north of England with York as the capital. The name is still widely used to denote the region. The largest cities are Leeds and Sheffied. The Yorkshire pig (or Middle White) is one of the most common pig breeds on earth.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] U 11. kompanie kaprál Althof používá slova: engadinská koza. Svobodník Müller, německý učitel z Kašperských Hor, nazývá nováčky českými smraďochy, šikovatel Sondernummer volskou žábou, yorkshirským kancem a slibuje přitom, že každého rekruta vydělá.
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Kašperské Hory in 1913

Kašperské Hory first appears when Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek tells Švejk about Gefreiter Müller and other brutal lower charges from the German-speaking areas of Bohemia. The town's is mentioned altogether nine times throughout the novel.

In the train transport from Budějovice to Bruck an der Leitha there were numerous soldiers from Kašperské Hory and it is eventually revealed that many of them served in the 12th company. It is therefore obvious that they belonged to Švejk's k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 91. The narrator even provides samples of the dialect through the colourful expressions of Offiziersdiener Batzer.

Background

Kašperské Hory (Bergreichenstein) is a small town in Šumava that until 1945 was predominantly German-speaking. Today (2019) it has 1,449 inhabitants. At 758 metres above sea level it is one of the highest situated towns in Bohemia.

In 1913 the number of inhabitants was 2,228 of which only 88 registered with Czech as their mother tongue. The town was the centre of okres bearing its name, part of hejtmanství Sušice (Schüttenhofen). In the district of more than 16,000 almost half were Czechs and in hejtmanství around 30 per cent.

Military
khory1.png

The loss lists are one of many documents that reveal Bergreichenstein's location in Ergänzungsbezirk Nr. 11.

Verlustliste Nr. 409, 17./4. 1916.

Soldiers from Kašperské Hory were recruited from Ergänzungsbezirk Nr. 11 and their infantry regiment was thus k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 from Písek, and not IR 91 as Jaroslav Hašek leads the reader to assume. It is therefore tempting to guess that when he wrote about "Germans from Kašperské Hory and Krumlov" he had Kaplice and Krumlov in mind. These were two districts were Germans made up the vast majority of the population and they were also part of the recruitment district of IR 91. Krumlov was at the time 75 per cent German speaking, Kaplice 95 per cent.

The only circumstance where Hašek may have met larger numbers of soldiers from Kašperské Hory is in the gathering area by Sambor after 4 July 1915 and then at the front where k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 and IR 91 were fighting side by side in Infanteriedivision Nr. 9.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] U 11. kompanie kaprál Althof používá slova: engadinská koza. Svobodník Müller, německý učitel z Kašperských Hor, nazývá nováčky českými smraďochy, šikovatel Sondernummer volskou žábou, yorkshirským kancem a slibuje přitom, že každého rekruta vydělá.
[2.3] Teprve řev z vagonů vzadu přerušil vypravování Švejkovo. 12. kumpanie, kde byli samí Němci od Krumlovska a Kašperských Hor, hulákala:

Also written:Kašperské Mountains Sadlon Bergreichenstein de

Literature

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Prager Tagblatt, 22.9.1914.

Africa is mentioned by Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek when he describes the lower rank officers at thegarrison in Budějovice; these dance in circles round the recruits and scream at them like savages from Africa.

Background

Africa is one of the five continents, the second largest after Asia. In 1914 it was still colonised by European powers (apart from Ethiopia). World War I affected Africa as Germany lost her colonies on the continent. The other warring parties who had colonies there were Great Britain, France, Portugal, Belgium and Italy.

Troops from Africa participated in the British and French armies during the war. The best known and most numerous were the "Tirailleurs sénégalais" in the French army.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Všichni vojenští představení snaží se tak vštípit lásku k vlasti zvláštními pomůckami, jako je řev a tanec kolem rekrutů, válečný ryk, připomínající divochy v Africe připravující se ke stažení nevinné antilopy nebo k pečení kýty z misionáře, připraveného ke snědění. Němců se to ovšem netýká.

Also written:Afrika cz

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North Pole is mentioned by Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek when he describes how Fähnrich Dauerling had got such a knock on his head when he was little that the point of impact resembled the earth by the North Pole. His astounding lack of intelligence was caused by this.

Background

North Pole (geographical) is defined as the point in the northern hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets the Earth's surface.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Zanedlouho po narození upadla s ním chůva a malý Konrád Dauerling uhodil se do hlavičky, takže ještě dnes je vidět na jeho hlavě takovou zploštěnost, jako kdyby kometa narazila na severní točnu.

Also written:Severní točna Hašek Severní pól cz

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Kadettenschule; Schloßberg. 1906.

hainburg.png

Ottův slovník naučný, 1896

Hainburg is mentioned as Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek tells Švejk about the moronic Fähnrich Dauerling who was educated at the towns cadet school.

Background

Hainburg is a town in Austria by the Danube, just before the river flows into Slovakia. From 1869 onwards a cadet school was located in the local castle. See Hainburger Kadettenschule.

In 1890 the town had in excess of 5,000 inhabitants where many worked at the tobacco factory. With 1,500 employees it was the largest of its kind in Cisleithanien. Hainburg was part of Bezirk Bruck an der Leitha.

Military (1914)

With respect to military recruitment Hainburg belonged to Heeresergänzungsbezirk Nr. 84 and Landwehrergänzungsbezirk Nr. 24. Local infantrymen would therefore usually serve with Infanterieregiment Nr. 84 or Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 24.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Mladý Dauerling po hrozném zápase s čtyřmi třídami nižší reálky, které vystudoval soukromě, přičemž předčasně zešedivěl a zblbl jeho domácí učitel a druhý chtěl skočit v zoufalství se svatoštěpánské věže ve Vídni, přišel do hainburské kadetní školy.
[2.2] Když vypukla válka a všecky mladičké kadetíky udělali fähnrichy, dostal se do archu hainburských povýšenců i Konrád Dauerling a tak se dostal k 91. regimentu.“

Literature

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Kutná Hora - sv. Barbora a kasárna, 1914

Kutná Hora was the scene of the episode between Major Wenzl and Kadettstellvertreter Zítko and also the problems Wenzl ended in after having called a waiter a "Czech swine" at a local hotel.

Background

Kutná Hora is a city in the central part of the Czech Republic, about 100 km east of Prague. It became rich on silver mining in the medieval ages and the many historical buildings bear witness to its wealthy past. Kutná Hora is on UNESCO's World Heritage list.

Hašek in Kutná Hora

In early summer 1914 Jaroslav Hašek visited the city together with Zdeněk Matěj Kuděj. The latter eventually wrote that he "lost" Hašek there.

Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí

Kutná Hora is also mentioned in Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí and the description is very similar to Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek's account in the novel. Here the hotel is also specifically identified, see Kutnohorský hotel.

Major Wenzl nebyl sice žádná zvláštní vojenská hvězd rakouská, ale měl strach z národnostních sporů. Měl za manželku Češku a kdysi, když ještě sloužil jako hejtman v Kutné Hoře, přišel do novin, poněvadž jednou v napilosti vynadal číšníkovi v Haškově hotelu "česká pakáž", ačkoli mluvil sám jinak jen česky v domácnosti i ve společnosti.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Když před lety sloužil jako hejtman v Kutné Hoře, vynadal jednou v opilosti v jednom hotelu vrchnímu, že je česká pakáž. Upozorňuji přitom, že ve společnosti mluvil major Wenzl výhradně česky, stejně jako ve své domácnosti, a že jeho synové studují česky.
[2.2] Měl z toho Wenzl velké nepříjemnosti, poněvadž to bylo právě v době povolení parlamentem vojenské předlohy, a teď jim do toho vleze takový ožralý hejtman Wenzl z Kutné Hory.
[2.2] ,Co je hejtman Wenzl proti velebné přírodě?` to znali po celé Kutné Hoře.

Also written:Kuttenberg de

Literature

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The lower part of Rumunská ulice, corner of Lublaňská (until 1926 Puchmajerova).

vavrova.png

"Kronika královské Prahy a obcí sousedních", František Ruth, 1904.

Vávrova ulice er mentioned in the story Švejk tells Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek about a certain carpenter Mlíčko from this street who was wounded very early in the war.

Background

Vávrova ulice (also Vávrova třída) was the name of a street in Praha II. and Vinohrady. It was named after Čeněk Vávra who was mayor of Vinohrady from 1868 to 1873. The street was namned Vávrova ulice from 1884 to 1926 when it was renamed Rumunská ulice, a name it has kept since[a].

The street tretches from Sokolská in Nové město up towards Náměstí Míru in Vinohrady and its length is 180 metres. It was on the corner of this street and Tylovo náměstí that drogerie Průša was located.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] „O velkej stříbrnej medalii za udatnost, kterou dostal jeden truhlář z Vávrovy ulice na Král. Vinohradech, nějakej Mlíčko, poněvadž byl první, kterému u jeho regimentu utrh na začátku války granát nohu.

Also written:Wawragasse Reiner Vavragasse/Vavraße de

Literature

References
aRumunská (Vinohrady)Encyklopedie Prahy 2
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1909-1914 • Orientační plán král. hl. města Prahy a obcí sousedních.

Božetěchova ulice is mentioned in a story Švejk tells Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek in the prison in Budějovice about an annoyed father who displayed the medal of his fallen son on the toilet wall. However, a policeman with who he shared the toilet dencounced him so he landed in trouble with the authorities. Švejk incorrectly claims that the street is located in Vyšehrad.

Background

Božetěchova ulice is a short street in Nusle, situated on the hill towards Vyšehrad.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] V Božetěchově ulici na Vyšehradě jeden rozzuřenej otec, který myslel, že si z něho úřady dělají legraci, pověsil tu medalii na záchod a jeden policajt, který s ním měl na pavlači ten záchod společnej, udal ho pro velezrádu, a tak si to ten chudák odskákal.“

Literature

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Belgium in 1914

Belgium is mentioned in the incoherent discourse by Hauptmann Spíro at the hotel in Budějovice. Belgians as a group had already been mentioned by Mr. Wendler in connection with Klosterhoek [1.14]. Amongst places in Belgium Waterloo is mentioned already at the start of the novel. Anloy appears in Kadett Biegler's lecture for Hauptmann Ságner about his favourite reading. See Udo Kraft.

Background

Belgium entered the war on 4 August 1914 when attacked by Germany who attempted to circumvent the French border fortifications. The attack on neutral Belgium influenced England's decision to enter the war. The country offered stiff resistance, and it was only in October that Antwerp fell. Almost the entire country remained occupied for the rest of the war. Belgium suffered severe human and material losses. After the war the region of Malmedy-Eupen changed hands from Germany to Belgium.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] „Uvažte prosím dobře. Máme ve zbrani rakouské zeměbranecké hulány, rakouské zeměbrance, bosenské myslivce, rakouské myslivce, rakouské pěšáky, uherské pěšáky, tyrolské císařské střelce, bosenské pěšáky, uherské pěší honvédy, uherské husary, zeměbranecké husary, jízdní myslivce, dragouny, hulány, dělostřelce, trén, sapéry, sanitu, námořníky. Rozumíte? A Belgie? První a druhá výzva vojska tvoří operační armádu, třetí výzva obstarává službu v zádech armády...“

Also written:Belgie cz Belgien de Belgique fr België nl

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Das interessante Blatt, 30.12.1915

Tyrol is mentioned in the incoherent discourse by Hauptmann Spíro. He mentions the province indirectly through Tiroler Kaiserschützen (Tyrolean Imperial Riflemen).

Background

Tyrol was in 1914 an Austrian region, larger than the current Austrian Tirol as it also comprised the current Italian provinces of Alto Adige (South Tyrol) and Trentino. Sections of the front between Italy and Austria stretched through Tyrol from the outbreak of war on 23 May 1915 until the 1918 armistice.

Tiroler Kaiserschützen was originally a Landwehr-unit with Tyrol and Vorarlberg as operational areas, but were still employed as regular forces at several fronts, and suffered heavy losses. After war with Italy broke out, they were redirected to their home province. Kaiserschützen were until 1917 called Landeschützen so the author has in this section jumped ahead of historical events. He might also have meant Tiroler Kaiserjäger as these existed with this name in 1915.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] „Uvažte prosím dobře. Máme ve zbrani rakouské zeměbranecké hulány, rakouské zeměbrance, bosenské myslivce, rakouské myslivce, rakouské pěšáky, uherské pěšáky, tyrolské císařské střelce, bosenské pěšáky, uherské pěší honvédy, uherské husary, zeměbranecké husary, jízdní myslivce, dragouny, hulány, dělostřelce, trén, sapéry, sanitu, námořníky. Rozumíte? A Belgie

Also written:Tyrolsko cz Tirol de Tirolo it

United Statesnn flag
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Expedition force in World War I

smrthorala.png

Národní noviny (Baltimore), 3.5.1902

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This Chicago newspaper was the first to print "Švejk" outside Czechoslovakia.

Duch času, Nedělní list Svornosti, 14.10.1923.

United States (USA) was discussed amongst the officers at the hotel in Budějovice. The discussion was about whether or not America was going to join the war and from this it is obvious that the subject is the political entity of the United States, not the geographical entity America.

Background

United States was neutral until 6 April 1917, when the country, provoked by the German submarine warfare and the prospect of an allied defeat, declared war upon Germany.

War against Austria-Hungary

The declaration of war on Austria-Hungary followed as late as 7 December. In Senate 74 voted in favour the declaration, and none against. In the House, 365 were in favour, and only one objected.

Important involvement

The economic (and later on military) might of the United States decidedly influenced the outcome of the war. After the war US influence played a significant part in shaping the new Europe. President Woodrow Wilson was an advocate of national self-determination for the smaller nations, which not the least benefited Czechoslovakia and the other successor states of Austria-Hungary.

Direct fighting between American and Austro-Hungarian troops probably only took place at the front by Piave in October 1918. Even these would have been of limited extent as the American expeditionary force consisted solely of Infantry Regiment 332, and some aeroplanes and medical units. The latter did gather some fame though: amongst them served Ernest Hemingway. His stay on the Piave resulted in the novel Farewell to arms.

Hašek printed in the USA

Czech-language newspapers in the USA printed stories by Jaroslav Hašek several times during his life-time. From 1911 to 1917 some of them appeared in Slavie, a weekly published in Racine, Wisconsin, later in Chicago. One of them is called Dobrý voják Švejk and was published on 12 September 1911[d]. It is an uncensored version of the story Dobrý voják Švejk učí se zacházet se střelnou bavlnou that was first printed by Dobrá kopa 21 July 1911. Pre-dating these stories was Smrt Horala that appeared in Národní noviny in Baltimore already 3 May 1902[a]. To our knowledge this was the first time ever a story by Hašek was printed outside the Czech lands.

The novel The Good Soldier Švejk was as published quite early in the USA. It was printed as a serial in Duch času, the Sunday issue of Svornost (Chicago). It has not been established exactly when the series started but we know that the issue from 9 September 1923[b] is from the first chapter og Book Three, thus covering the departure from Királyhida. Below the title of the series is written that it is published in agreement with the author, and this is confirmed by Kliment Stěpánek to whom Hašek in 1922 dictated the final parts of the novel. The editor that Hašek was in contact with was August Geringer[c]. He even sent the Sunday issues back to Hašek and this was highly appreciated by the author.

Kuděj

Jaroslav Hašek never visited the USA but may have had considerable second-hand knowledge of the country from his close friend Zdeněk Matěj Kuděj who spent three years in the country (1906 to 1909) and travelled widely. He also knew others that spent periods of their lives in America, amongst them Josef Mach.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Od druhého konce stolu bylo slyšet čísi vážný hlas: „Amerika se do války pouštět nemůže. Američani a Angličani jsou na nůž. Amerika není na válku připravena.“

Also written:Spojené státy cz Vereinigte Staaten de Sambandstatane nn Forente stater no

Literature

References
aSmrt HoralaJaroslav Hašek, Národní noviny3.5.1902
bOsudy dobrého vojáka ŠvejkaDuch času9.9.1923
cJaroslav Hašek na LipniciKliment Štěpánek, Lidové noviny20.12.1927
dDobrý voják ŠvejkJaroslav Hašek, Slavie12.11.1911
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© ÖStA

Šabac enters the story when Oberst Schröder at the hotel in Budějovice reads about the bad news from the front. The city is mentioned again in [2.4] where Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek refuses to clean the latrines, despite the Befehl from Schröder.

Background

Šabac is a town by the river Sava in Serbia, and almost constantly in the front line during the autumn of 1914. It was one of the first targets for the Austro-Hungarian invasion, and as the invaders reached the town on 14 August, systematic massacres were carried out on the population, and eventually only half of them survived the war. Due to the many battles and widespread destruction Šabac was also called the Serb Verdun. The city changed hands several times that autumn but by the end of 1914 it was again controlled by the Serbs.

On 5 November 1914 k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 91 marched through the city, on their way to the front by the river Kolubara, slightly to the east.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Plukovník Schröder v mrzuté náladě odešel domů, a když se ráno probudil, měl ještě horší náladu, poněvadž v novinách, které četl v posteli, několikrát našel větu ve zprávách z bojiště, že vojska byla odvedena na předem již připravené posice. Byly to slavné dny rakouské armády, podobající se jako vejce vejci dnům u Šabace.

Also written:Schabatz de Шабац sr

Literature

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Andalusia is mentioned by the author when he describes how Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek and Švejk tease the prison guard as if he were an Andalusian bull in Seville.

Background

Andalusia is an autonomous region of Spain. It is the most populous and the second largest, in terms of land area, of the seventeen autonomous communities of Spain. Its capital and largest city is Seville.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] A zatímco oba tak dráždili profouse, jako v Seville andaluského býka dráždí červeným šátkem, nadporučík Lukáš s úzkostí očekával, kdy se objeví Švejk, aby hlásil, že nastupuje opět službu.

Also written:Andalusie cz Andalusien de Andalucía es

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Seville is mentioned by the author when he describes how Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek and Švejk tease the prison guard as if he were an Andalusian bull in Seville.

Background

Seville is the capital of the Spanish region of Andalusia.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] A zatímco oba tak dráždili profouse, jako v Seville andaluského býka dráždí červeným šátkem, nadporučík Lukáš s úzkostí očekával, kdy se objeví Švejk, aby hlásil, že nastupuje opět službu.

Also written:Sevilla cz

Index Back Forward II. At the front Hovudpersonen

2. Švejk's budějovická anabasis


© 2009 - 2021 Jomar Hønsi Last updated: 19.10.2021