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The Good Soldier Švejk

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Map of Austria-Hungary in 1914 showing the military districts and Švejk's journey. The entire plot of the novel took place on the territory of the Dual Monarchy.

The Fateful Adventures of the Good Soldier Švejk is a novel which contains a wealth of geographical references - either directly through the plot, in dialogues or in the authors own observations. Jaroslav Hašek was himself unusually well travelled and had a photographic memory of geographical (and other) details. It is evident that he put great emphasis on this: 8 of the 27 chapter headlines in The Good Soldier Švejk contain place names.

This web site will in due course contain a full overview of all the geographical references in the novel; from Prague in the introduction to Klimontów in the unfinished Book Four. Countries, cities, towns, villages, mountains, oceans, lakes, rivers, islands, buildings are included. Note that from 14 September 2013, institutions (including pubs) have been moved to the new 'Institutions' page. The list is sorted according to the order in which the names appear through the novel. The chapter headlines are from Zenny Sadlon's recent translation and will in most cases differ from Cecil Parrott's translation from 1973.

The quotes in Czech are copied from the on-line version of The Good Soldier Švejk: provided by Jaroslav Šerák and contain links to the relevant chapter. The toolbar has links for direct access to Wikipedia, Google maps, Google search, svejkmuseum.cz and the novel on-line.

The names are coloured according to their role in the novel, illustrated by these examples: Sanok a location where the plot takes place, Dubno mentioned in the narrative, Zagreb part of a dialogue, and Pakoměřice mentioned in an anecdote.

>> The Good Soldier Švejk index of countries, cities, villages, mountains, rivers, bridges ... (586) Show all
>> I. In the rear
>> II. At the front
>> III. The famous thrashing
Index Back Forward III. The famous thrashing Hovudpersonen

3. From Hatvan to the borders of Galicia

Laborecnn flag
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laborec.jpg

Laborec by Brestov

Laborec is mentioned in the very start of the chapter: the battalion was to march from here to the front via Eastern Galicia. They will eventually arrive by the Laborec without the river being mentioned explicitely any more. Humenné is the largest city along the river, but mentioned later are also Brestov nad Laborcom, Radvaň nad Laborcom, Čabiny, and Medzilaborce.

Background

Laborec is a river in Eastern Slovakia, then part of Hungary. During the winter of 1914/15 the russians pushed forward down the Laborec valley, which is evident from passages later on in the novel.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Po celou dobu železniční přepravy batalionu, který měl sklízet válečnou slávu, až projde pěšky od Laborce východní Haličí na front, vedly se ve vagonu, kde byl jednoroční dobrovolník a Švejk, opět podivné řeči, víceméně velezrádného obsahu; v menším měřítku, ale můžeme říct povšechně, dělo se tak i v jiných vagonech, ba i ve štábním vagonu panovala jakási nespokojenost, poněvadž ve Füzesabony přišel rozkaz po armádě od pluku, ve kterém se porce vína snižovala důstojníkům o jednu osminku litru.

Also written:Laborc hu

Literature

Füzesabonynn flag
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Füzesabony is a place where the battalion stopped as it was discovered that a company had left their field kitchen behind in Bruck. Further bad news was that the wine portion for the officers and the sago ration for the men had been reduced. They thought they were finally having goulash and potatoes served, but were to discover that the whole goulash-story was just training for the front as they had to get used to suddenly give up meals.

Background

Füzesabony is a minor town in the Heves-province of Nortern Hungary, most notable as a railway junction.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Ve Füzesabony přišlo se také na to, že jedna kumpanie ztratila polní kuchyni, poněvadž konečně se měl na této stanici vařit guláš s bramborama, na který kladl velký důraz „latrinengenerál“. Pátráním vyšlo najevo, že nešťastná polní kuchyně vůbec s sebou z Brucku nejela a že asi dodnes tam stojí za barákem 186, opuštěná a vychladlá.
Miskolcnn flag
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Miskolc was worth a short stop to finally get the goulash but this was impossible as the tracks were blocked by Russian railway carriages.

Background

Miskolc is a city in north eastern Hungary, and with 180,000 inhabitants the third largest in the country after Budapest and Debrecen. Miskolc was hit hard by a cholera epidemic during World War I.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Tohle byla tedy jakási průprava, ne tak do důsledků tragická, ale přece jen poučná. Když totiž se měl již guláš rozdávat, přišel rozkaz „Do vagonů!“ a už se jelo na Miškovec. Ani tam se nerozdal guláš, poněvadž na trati stál vlak s ruskými vagony, proto se mužstvo nepustilo ven z vagonů a ponechalo se mužstvu volné pole k fantasii, že se bude guláš rozdávat, až se vyleze už v Haliči z vlaku, kde bude uznán guláš zkysaným, k požívání neschopným, a pak že se vyleje.

Also written:Miškovec cz

Tiszalúcnn flag
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Tiszalúc is a place the train just passes, no goulash here either.

Background

Tiszalúc is a town in north eastern Hungary by the river Tisza. It is on the railway line between Miskolc and Sátoraljaújhely. Tiszalök as Hašek wrote, is also a place, but this is surely a mistake as it is not on the railway line.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Potom vezli guláš dál na Tiszalök, Zombor, a když už nikdo nečekal, že se bude guláš rozdávat, zastavil se vlak v Novém Městě pod Šiatorem, kde se znova rozdělal oheň pod kotli, guláš se ohřál a byl konečně rozdán.

Also written:Tiszalök Hašek

Zombornn flag
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Zombor is a place the train just passes, no goulash here either.

Background

Zombor almost certaily refers to Mezőzombor, a town in north eastern Hungary on the railway line between Miskolc and Sátoraljaújhely.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Potom vezli guláš dál na Tiszalök, Zombor, a když už nikdo nečekal, že se bude guláš rozdávat, zastavil se vlak v Novém Městě pod Šiatorem, kde se znova rozdělal oheň pod kotli, guláš se ohřál a byl konečně rozdán.

Also written:Zombor Hašek

Sátoraljaújhelynn flag
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Sátoraljaújhely sees a short stay by the march battalion as the goulash and potatoes are finally distributed. The stay in Sátoraljaújhely starts with a description of how Hungarian Honvéd-Hussars abuse a group of Polish Jews. Then another conflict erupts between Švejk and Leutnant Dub: the foolish reserve lieutenant claims that destroyed weaponry is Russian even though it clearly has inscriptions identifying it as Austrian. Then Švejk pulls an incredibly long anecdote for Oberleutnant Lukáš to the effect that the obrlajtnant makes the following comment: "I’m coming to the conviction that you don’t respect your superiors at all".

Finally there is an episode that illustrates the linguistic diversity of the multi-ethnic empire: a Polish soldier creates confusion because he is unable to understand and reproduce the password.

Background

Sátoraljaújhely is a town in the north-eastern corner of Hungary, right on the border with Slovakia. The Trianon-treaty of 1920 split the town between Hungary and Czechoslovakia. At the railway station there is a memorial plaque to Švejk. The suburb Kisújhely with the other important railway station is part of Slovakia and is now called Slovenské Nové Mesto. Maps from 1910 reveal that there was only one railway station in the town. Thus it can with near certainty be concluded that the plot took place on current Hungarian territory.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Potom vezli guláš dál na Tiszalök, Zombor, a když už nikdo nečekal, že se bude guláš rozdávat, zastavil se vlak v Novém Městě pod Šiatorem, kde se znova rozdělal oheň pod kotli, guláš se ohřál a byl konečně rozdán. tanice byla přeplněna, měly být napřed odeslány dva vlaky s municí, za nimi dva ešalony dělostřelectva a vlak s pontonovými oddíly. Vůbec možno říct, že zde se shromáždily vlaky s trupami všech možných částí armády.

Also written:Nové Město pod Šiatorem Hašek New Town under the Šiator Sadlon Neustadt am Zeltberg de Nové Mesto pod Šiatrom sk

Literature

Na Poříčínn flag
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Na Poříčí is mentioned in the anecdote about Oberst Fliedler.

Background

Na Poříčí is a street in Nové město, Prague, starting by Prašná brána and ending by Florenc.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Tak jak šli přes Poříč, kolem Rozvařilů, Železný skočil do průjezdu a ztratil se mu průchodem a zkazil Kaučukovýmu dědkovi tu velikou radost, až ho bude sázet do arestu.

Also written:Porschitz Reiner

Dolní Královicenn flag
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Dolní Královice is mentioned in the interminable anecdote about Oberst Fliedler, in the part where Švejk virtually declare him a saint. He let his soldiers drink empty the brewery in Dolní Královice.

Background

Dolní Královice is a village in the eastern part of the Benešov district, not far from Lipnice. The village was moved in the seventies because a water-reservoir for Prague was built in the Želivka valley. The brewery was closed in 1957.

During the summer of 1922 Jaroslav Hašek visited the village. This was his last major excursion before his untimely death six months later.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Když jsme přišli do Dolních Královic, tak dal rozkaz vypít celej dolnokrálovickej pivovar na jeho útraty, a když měl svátek nebo narozeniny, tak dal pro celej regiment navařit zajíce na smetaně s houskovejma knedlíkama. Von byl takovej hodnej na manšaft, že vám jednou, pane obrlajtnant

SourcesRadko Pytlík

Literature

Kołomyjann flag
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Kołomyja was the home town of a Pole who for some mysterious reason served with k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 91. He didn't grasp the field password due to linguistic mix-ups. This incident happended during the stay Sátoraljaújhely.

Background

Kołomyja is the Polish name of Коломия (Kolomyja) in Galicia, now in the Ivano-Frankivsk oblast in Ukraine. Until 1918 it belonged to Austria, like the rest of the region. The Russians occupied the city in september 1914, but were driven out the next year. At the time almost half the population were Jewish.

The mysterious Pole

There is little doubt that this Pole is inspired by Sylwester Turczyński who was an officer's servant at the staff of IR 91 at the time when Jaroslav Hašek served in the regiment. The two were even taken prisoners under the same circumstances, during the battle by Chorupan 24 September 1915[a]. If the episode that is described in The Good Soldier Švejk actually took place, it would rather in the field than at a railway station far behind the front.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Ten den byl feldruf: „Kappe“ a losung: „Hatvan“. Post, který si to měl u telefonních aparátů pamatovat, byl nějaký Polák z Kolomyje, který nějakou divnou náhodou se dostal k 91. regimentu.

Also written:Kolomyje Hašek Коломия ua

References
aThe battle of ChorupanJomar Hønsi2021
Lastovcenn flag
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lastovce.jpg

Lastovce in June 2010

Lastovce is passed through by the battalion on the way from Sátoraljaújhely to Trebišov. This happened after midnight and there is no description of any stay here.

Background

Lastovce is almost certainly what the author had in mind with Ladovce. It is a small place just south of Trebišov in the far east of Slovakia. The region was part of Hungary until 1920.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Po půlnoci vlak se hnul na Ladovce a Trebišov, kde ho ráno uvítal na stanici veteránský spolek, poněvadž si tenhle maršbatalion spletl s maršbatalionem 14. honvédského maďarského pluku, který projel stanicí hned v noci.

Also written:Ladovce Hašek Lasztóc hu

Trebišovnn flag
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trebisov.jpg

Trebišov railway station in 2010.

Trebišov is passed through by the march battalion on the way from Sátoraljaújhely to Humenné. This happened early in the morning and the soldiers on the train were woken up by members of a Hungarian veterans association who thought they were greeting a march battalion of the 14th Honvéd-regiment. The stay at the station lasted only five minutes.

Background

Trebišov is a town in the Zemplín region of Eastern Slovakia. The area was in 1915 still ruled by Hungary.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Po půlnoci vlak se hnul na Ladovce a Trebišov, kde ho ráno uvítal na stanici veteránský spolek, poněvadž si tenhle maršbatalion spletl s maršbatalionem 14. honvédského maďarského pluku, který projel stanicí hned v noci. Jisto bylo, že veteráni byli namazaní, a svým řevem: „Isten áld meg a királyt“ probudili ze spaní celý transport. Několik uvědomělejších naklonilo se z vagonů a odpovědělo jim: „Polibte nám prdel. Éljen!“

Also written:Tőketerebes hu

Tiszann flag
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Tisza and the Tisza Valley is mentioned when the author describes the first signs of war damage as the train moves north towards Humenné. This journey was along the river Laborec, a tributiary to Tisza.

Background

Tisza is a river flowing from the Ukrainian Carpathinas and enters the Danube in the Vojvodina region of Serbia. Cities and towns along the river include Sighetu Marmaţiei, Čop, Tokaj, Szolnok and Szeged.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Za pět minut jel vlak dál na Humenné. Zde již byly jasně a zřetelně znát stopy bojů, když Rusové táhli do údolí Tisy. Po stráních táhly se primitivní zákopy, tu a tam bylo vidět vypálenou usedlost, kolem které narychlo zbudovaná bouda znamenala, že se majitelé opět vrátili.

Also written:Tisa cz Theiß de Tisa sk Тиса sr Тиса ua

Humennénn flag
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humenne2.jpg

Wiener Illustrierte Zeitung, 16.1.1915.

Humenné was the scene of an eventful break which must have lasted a couple of hours. The train arrived around noon, two days after the departure from Budapest, thus the date is 26 May 1915. The author notes that the station area is damaged by fighting.

There is a grim episode when the arriving troops observe how Hungarian gendarmes mistreat members of the Ruthenian population (called Hungarian Russians by the author). This is generally condemned by the officers, except for the despicable Leutnant Dub who reacts approvingly. This episode leads directly to Oberleutnant Lukáš wanting to get drunk to forget his Weltschmerz. We know how it all ended; Švejk gets caught by Dub when buying booze from a local Jew and has to drink the whole bottle in one go to protect himself and his superior. He narrowly gets away with, and all in all the stay here was troublesome for Dub. He suffers further humiliation when a Hungarian soldier recognizes him as Czech and mockingly holds his hands in the air (alluding to the Czechs alleged lack of willingness to fight).

Background

Humenné is a town of the Laborec Valley in eastern Slovakia with around 35,000 inhabitants. There is a statue of Švejk at Humenné station, the first ever in the world. It was unveiled on 6 October 2000.

Humenné was until 1921 still Hungarian and Russian forces briefly occupied the town at the end of November 1914. The population was ethnically mixed with Hungarians as the largest group.

Wien, 29. November, mittags

In den Karpathen wurden die auf Homonna vorgedrungenen Kräfte geschlagen und zurückgedrängt. Unsere Truppen machten 1500 Gefangene.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Za pět minut jel vlak dál na Humenné. Zde již byly jasně a zřetelně znát stopy bojů, když Rusové táhli do údolí Tisy. Po stráních táhly se primitivní zákopy, tu a tam bylo vidět vypálenou usedlost, kolem které narychlo zbudovaná bouda znamenala, že se majitelé opět vrátili. Potom, když k polednímu přišla stanice Humenné, kde nádraží jevilo také zbytky bojů, vykonány byly přípravy k obědu a mužstvo transportu zatím mohlo nahlédnout do veřejného tajemství, jak úřady po odchodu Rusů jednají s místním obyvatelstvem, které bylo řečí i náboženstvím příbuzné ruským vojskům.

Also written:Homonna hu

Literature

Strašnicenn flag
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strasnice.jpg

Strašnice, 1925.

Strašnice is mentioned in the anecdote about gardener Kalenda who from the local pub U remisy sets out on his legendary pub crawl across Prague.

Background

Strašnice is an area of eastern Prague, bordering Vinohrady, Žižkov, Vršovice, Záběhlice and Michle. The former town became part of the capital in 1922.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Nedal se však tím odstrašit, poněvadž se vsadil předtím ten večer v Strašnicích v hospodě ,U remisy’ s jedním řídičem vod elektriky, že udělá pěšky cestu kolem světa za tři neděle. Počal se tedy dál a dál vzdalovat vod svýho domova, až se přivalil do ,Černýho pivovaru’ na Karlově náměstí, a vodtamtuď šel na Malou Stranu k Sv. Tomáši do pivovaru a odtamtud přes restauraci ,U Montágů’ a ještě vejš přes hospodu ,U krále brabanskýho’, pak na ,Krásnou vyhlídku’, odtud do Strahovskýho kláštera do pivovaru.
Korunní třídann flag
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korunni.jpg

Průhled Korunní ulicí. V pozadí kostel sv. Ludmily na Vinohradech (kol. 1910)

Korunní třída was the street where gardener Kalenda started to get home-sick on his journey around the world, after having visited several hospody on the way.

Background

Korunní třída is a long street in Vinohrady, leading from Strašnice to Náměstí Míru. Vinohradská vodárna is located in this street.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Strašnickej zahradník, nějakej Josef Kalenda, ten se taky jednou vzdálil z domova, šel ze Strašnic na Vinohrady, stavil se ,Na zastávce’ v hospodě, ale to mu ještě nic nebylo, ale jakmile přišel do Korunní třídy k vodárně, bral v Korunní třídě až za kostel svaté Ludmily hospodu za hospodou a cítil už malátnost.
Loretánské náměstínn flag
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Loretánské náměstí was the final stop on the odyssey of gardener Kalenda. He broke down on the pavement due to homesickness, coughed and spat on his world tour.

Background

Loretánské náměstí is a square at Hradčany, right by the Loreta Church and the Černín palace. The latter is used by the Ministry of Foregn Affairs. Loretánské náměstí is very close to the garrison prison where Švejk was detained when Feldkurat Katz "discovered" him.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Dostal se až na Loretánský náměstí a tam dostal najednou takový stesk po domově, že sebou praštil na zem, počal se válet po chodníku a křičel: ,Lidičky, já už dál nepůjdu. Já se na cestu kolem světa,’ s dovolením, pane obrlajtnant, ,vykašlu.’
Kamýk nad Vltavounn flag
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Kamýk nad Vltavou is mentioned when Švejk tells Leutnant Dub that the cognac he illicitely bought for Oberleutnant Lukáš is water rich in iron, just like the blacksmith in Kámyk got after throwing a horse-shoe in the well.

Background

Kamýk nad Vltavou is a place by the Vltava south of Prague. It is situated in okres Příbram.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] V Kamýku nad Vltavou jeden hostinskej dělal pro svý letní hosty.železitou vodu takovým způsobem, že do studny házel starý podkovy.“
Donnn flag
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don.jpg

Don in the Voronezh oblast

Don is mentioned by Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek when he sists in the staff carriage at Humenné station and invents the battalions history, where the Don-regiment is involved. Meanwhile Švejk is sleeping off the effect of the bottle of cognac.

Background

Don is one of the major rivers of Russia. It rises in the town of Novomoskovsk 60 kilometres southeast from Tula, southeast of Moscow, and flows for a distance of about 1,950 kilometres to the Sea of Azov. From its source, the river first flows southeast to Voronezh, then southwest to its mouth. The main city on the river is Rostov-na-Donu, and the main tributary is Donets.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Ku př. zde líčím, jak náš batalion, to snad bude asi za dva měsíce, málem překročí ruské hranice, velice silně obsazené, řekněme donskými pluky nepřítele, zatímco několik nepřátelských divisí obchází naše posice.

Also written:Дон ru

Wallseenn flag
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Wallsee is mentioned by Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek when he writes about the Imperial family party at Schloss Schönbrunn. Erzherzogin Marie Valerie travels to Schönbrunn for the single purpose of taking part in the celebration of Marek's heroic battalion.

Background

Wallsee was from 1895 the home Erzherzogin Marie Valerie and her family. The castle is located by the Danube in the Amstetten district of Upper Austria.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Představuji si to tak, jak vidíte v mých poznámkách, že arcivévodská rodina Marie Valérie přesídlí kvůli tomu z Wallsee do Schönbrunnu.
Paduann flag
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Padua is mentioned by Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek when he prepares a heroic death for telephone operator Chodounský and cook Jurajda in his pre-written history of the battalion. See Karl von Österreich-Teschen.

Background

Padua is a major city in the Veneto region of Italy. It is situated between Verona, Vicenza and Venice. Like the rest of Veneto, Padua belonged to Austria between 1815 and 1866.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Mohu vám přečíst výňatek z armádního rozkazu, který bude čten po všech oddílech armády, který se velice podobá onomu rozkazu arcivévody Karla, když stál se svým vojskem roku 1805 před Paduou a den po rozkazu dostal slušný nátěr.

Also written:Padua Hašek Padova cz Padua de Padova it

Jindřichův Hradecnn flag
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jhradec.jpg

Postcard from 1914

Jindřichův Hradec is mentioned when Švejk talks in his sleep, still strongly hit by the bottle of cognac he had to gulp down. In this dream an unidentified self-killer from this town resembled Piskora, watchmaker Lejhanz and Mr. Jaroš. The town also features in one of Švejk's final anecdotes, about the sausage-maker Josef Josef Linek who puts insect powder in his sausages.

Background

Jindřichův Hradec is a town in South Bohemia situated in a flat aera with many fish ponds. The historical centre is protected as heritage.

The town was also the seat of recruitment district No. 75 and the replacement battalion of k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 75. The regiment staff was also located here in periods and the regiment was always present with at least one regular battalion.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Z místa, kde ležel Švejk, ozvalo se zívnutí a bylo slyšet, jak Švejk mluví ze spaní: „To mají pravdu, paní Müllerová, že jsou si lidi podobný. V Kralupech stavěl pumpy nějaký pan Jaroš a ten se podobal hodináři Lejhanzovi z Pardubic, jako když mu z voka vypadne, a ten zas byl tak nápadně podobnej jičínskýmu Piskorovi a všichni čtyři dohromady neznámýmu sebevrahovi, kterýho našli voběšenýho a úplně zetlelýho v jednom rybníku u Jindřichova Hradce, zrovna pod dráhou, kde se asi vrhnul pod vlak.“

Also written:Neuhaus de

Literature

Veszprémnn flag
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veszprem.jpg

Český svět, 25.9.1908.

supponiert.png

Prager Tagblatt, 18.9.1908.

veszprem.png

Český svět, 25.9.1908.

Veszprém is mentioned in Švejk's excuse for not having woken up when Leutnant Dub dropped by the carriage to investigate if he reeked of cognac. He couldn't sleep because he had been thinking of the times when he took part in manouvres by Veszprém. He mentioned the strategical operations that involved the first, second, third and fourth army corps. He also spoke about other places where the manouvres took place: Styria, Vienna, Danube, Osijek, Lake Balaton and Pressburg.

Background

Veszprém is a Hungarian city situated north of Lake Balaton. It is one of the oldest cities of Hungary and one of the first to get a university. Veszprém was in 1914 a garrison town, and was home to Honvédinfanterieregiment Nr. 13.

Kaisermanövern 1908

Švejk's answer to Leutnant Dub was no doubt about the manoeuvres by Veszprém in 1908. That year western Hungary and some surrounding areas hosted the annual Kaisermanövern and staff headquarters was located in Hajmáskér, very close to Veszprém. The newspapers reported on the event and reveal that many luminaries attended: Kaiser Franz Joseph I., Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand, Erzherzog Karl Franz Joseph, Feldmarschall Conrad, Erzherzog Friedrich etc. Franz Ferdinand headed the manoeuvres that took place from 15 to 18 September 1908. The emperor and his entourage stayed in the bishop's residence in Veszprém proper.

Švejk's answer and the newspapers

Švejk is remarkably precise in his description of the manoeuvre's geographical extent and even on which army units took part. The troop movements themselves are reasonably accurately described. Indeed it is close enough to a summary printed in the weekly Český svět 25 September 1908 (right) to make one suspect that Hašek had this or a similar text at hand when he wrote part three of The Good Soldier Švejk in 1922. Or did his excellent memory served him so well that he remembered such details 14 years later? Austrian dailies had printed similar but more in-depth texts a week earlier, so the inspiration could also have been from one of them.

Note that Švejk's answer to Leutnant Dub surely was a trick to fend him off: the eight army corps that Švejk's IR 91 belonged to didn't participate in these manouvres.

The manouvres had already been mentioned in [2.3] but referred to indirectly as the "great manoeuvres by Sopron in 1908". See Erzherzog Stephan for more on the context.

Imperial manoeuvres

Kaisermanövern were annual large-scale military exercises where the emperor usually was present, joined by additional members of the upper echelons of society. It also happened that foreign heads of state were invited. The manoevres included various branches of the armed forces and almost always took place in September. They usually stretched over four days.

In The Good Soldier Švejk at least three of the manoeuvres are mentioned and Švejk took part in all of them. These are, in the order they appear in the novel: Písek in 1910, Veszprém and Velké Meziříčí. In addition the author mentions a large exercise by Sopron in 1908 but historical circumstances dictate that these were the same as those by Veszprém. Despite what Švejk told Wachtmeister Flanderka: there were no imperial exercises by Písek in 1910, instead they were arranged in South Bohemia, including the Písek region, in 1905 and 1913. The 1910 Imperial exercises were actually planned for Upper Hungary (Slovakia) but were cancelled due to a regional outbreak of a horse disease.

South Bohemia did however in 1910 host the manoeuvres of 8. Korps, centred around Týn nad Vltavou but activities also took place in the area around Písek. In these 4th battalion of IR 91 participated so Švejk could hypothetically have been there.

Kaisermanövern 1905-1913

Jahr Datum Bereich Bemerkung
1905 3.9 - 7.9 Südböhmen Štěkeň
1906 4.9 - 7.9 Schlesien Teschen
1907 2.9 - 7.9 Kärnten Klagenfurt
1908 14.9 - 18.9 West-Ungarn Veszprém
1909 8.9 - 11.9 Mähren Groß Meseritsch
1910 12.9 - 16.9 (abgesagt) Oberungarn, Komitat Zemplen Stropko, Felsövizköz
1911 12.9 - 15.9 Oberungarn und West-Galizien, Karpathen Bartfa, Felsövizköz
1912 9.9 - 11.9 Südungarn Mezöhegyes
1913 15.9 - 17.9 Südböhmen Chotowin

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] „Já jsem, poslušně hlásím, pane lajtnant, celou noc nespal, poněvadž jsem si vzpomínal na ty doby, když jsme ještě dělali manévry u Vesprimu. Tenkrát suponovanej první a druhej armádní sbor šel přes Štyrsko a západníma Uhrama vobklíčil náš čtvrtej sbor, kterej byl na lágru ve Vídni a v okolí, kde jsme měli všude festunky, ale voni vobešli nás a dostali se až na most, kterej dělali pionýři z pravýho břehu Dunaje. My jsme měli dělat ofensivu a nám na pomoc měly přijít vojska vod severu a potom taky vod jihu vod Voseka. To nám četli v rozkaze, že nám táhne na pomoc třetí armádní sbor, aby nás nerozbili mezi tím Blatenským jezerem a Prešpurkem, až budeme forikovat proti druhýmu armádnímu sboru. Ale nebylo to nic platný; když jsme měli vyhrát, tak se vodtroubilo a vyhráli to s bílejma páskama.“

Also written:Vesprim cz Wesprim/Weißbrunn de Vesprim hr

Literature

Lake Balatonnn flag
Wikipedia czdeenhunn Google mapsearch
balaton.jpg

A Balaton tudományos tanulmányozásának eredményei, 1897.

veszprem.png

Český svět, 25.9.1908.

Lake Balaton is mentioned in Švejk's excuse for not having woken up when Leutnant Dub dropped by the carriage to investigate if he reeked of cognac. He couldn't sleep because he had been thinking of the times when he took part in manoeuvres by Veszprém. In this context he also mentioned Lake Balaton.

Background

Lake Balaton is located in western Hungary and measured by area the largest lake in Central Europe.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] „Já jsem, poslušně hlásím, pane lajtnant, celou noc nespal, poněvadž jsem si vzpomínal na ty doby, když jsme ještě dělali manévry u Vesprimu<. Tenkrát suponovanej první a druhej armádní sbor šel přes Štyrsko a západníma Uhrama vobklíčil náš čtvrtej sbor, kterej byl na lágru ve Vídni a v okolí, kde jsme měli všude festunky, ale voni vobešli nás a dostali se až na most, kterej dělali pionýři z pravýho břehu Dunaje. My jsme měli dělat ofensivu a nám na pomoc měly přijít vojska vod severu a potom taky vod jihu vod Voseka. To nám četli v rozkaze, že nám táhne na pomoc třetí armádní sbor, aby nás nerozbili mezi tím Blatenským jezerem a Prešpurkem, až budeme forikovat proti druhýmu armádnímu sboru. Ale nebylo to nic platný; když jsme měli vyhrát, tak se vodtroubilo a vyhráli to s bílejma páskama.“

Also written:Balaton cz

Literature

Michalovcenn flag
Wikipedia czdeensk Google mapsearch Švejkova cesta

Michalovce is a place the train must have passed already as it is commented before Medzilaborce that the Germans from Kašperské Hory were still singing, but that their enthusiasmn had vained after they had seen the war cemeteries and the torn pieces of uniform in the devastated Laborec Valley.

Background

Michalovce is, to judge by plot, itinerary and timing, surely what the author thinks of when he writes Milovice. The nearest Milovice is a place near Nymburk which had a Soviet military base from 1968 to 1991. In 1914 more than half the population of Michalovce were Hungarians and the author has probably translated the name from old maps which still used Hungarian names.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Němci od Kašperských Hor, kteří seděli v zadních vagonech a ještě v Milovicích na stanici hulákali při vjezdu: „Wann ich kumm, wann ich wieda kumm...“, od Humenného silně ztichli, poněvadž nahlíželi, že mnozí z těch, jejichž čepice jsou na hrobech, zpívali totéž o tom, jak to bude pěkné, až se opět vrátí a zůstane pořád doma se svou milou.

Also written:Milovice Hašek Großmichel de Nagymihály hu Michalovce sk

Brestovnn flag
Wikipedia enhuitrueskuk Google mapsearch Švejkova cesta
brestov.jpg

Brestov, 2010

Brestov is mentioned by the narrator as the train moves on from Humenné towards Medzilaborce. The village has been burnt down during earlier fighting.

Background

Brestov is a village by the river Laborec in Slovakia. The population count is just 66, 49 of them Ruthenians. It is situated two km south of Radvaň nad Laborcom. When Jaroslav Hašek wrote the novel, the name of the village was Zbudský Brestov.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Za čtvrt hodiny se jelo dál na Novou Čabynu přes vypálené vesnice Brestov a Veliký Radvaň. Bylo vidět, že zde to již šlo do tuhého. Karpatské stráně a svahy byly rozryty zákopy jdoucími z údolí do údolí podél trati s novými pražci, po obou stranách veliké jámy od granátů. Někde přes potoky tekoucí do Laborce, jehož horní tok dráha sledovala, bylo vidět nové mosty a ohořelé trámy starých mostových přechodů.

Also written:Laborcbér hu Берестів над Лабірцём rue Берестiв над Лабiрцем ua

Radvaň nad Laborcomnn flag
Wikipedia enhuitsk Google mapsearch Švejkova cesta
radvan.jpg

German troops in the Laborec-vally

Radvaň nad Laborcom is mentioned by the narrator as the train moves on from Humenné towards Medzilaborce. The village has been burnt down during earlier fighting. The village had already been mentioned in Budapest by Rechnungsfeldwebel Bautanzel as he related his experiences at the front in the Carpathians.

Background

Radvaň nad Laborcom is a village between Humenné and Medzilaborce by the Laborec river. From 1920 to 1964 the place were two separate villages, called Vyšná Radvaň and Nižná Radvaň. By Veliký Radvaň Hašek presumably meant the former which was on the railway line. On the military survey map from 1910 the Hungarian name Laborcradvány shown.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Za čtvrt hodiny se jelo dál na Novou Čabynu přes vypálené vesnice Brestov a Veliký Radvaň. Bylo vidět, že zde to již šlo do tuhého. Karpatské stráně a svahy byly rozryty zákopy jdoucími z údolí do údolí podél trati s novými pražci, po obou stranách veliké jámy od granátů. Někde přes potoky tekoucí do Laborce, jehož horní tok dráha sledovala, bylo vidět nové mosty a ohořelé trámy starých mostových přechodů.

Also written:Radvaň/Veliký Radvaň Hašek Laborcradvány hu Радвань над Лабiрцем ua

Čabinynn flag
Wikipedia enhusk Google mapsearch Švejkova cesta

Čabiny is mentioned by the narrator as the train moves on from Humenné towards Medzilaborce. The village has been burnt down during earlier fighting.

Background

Čabiny is a village in the Laborec valley between Humenné and Medzilaborce. The place was destroyed during the Russian winter offensive in 1914-15. The village is quite spread out and there are two railway stations: Nišné Čabiny and Vyšné Čabiny. These were separate communities until 1964.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Za čtvrt hodiny se jelo dál na Novou Čabynu přes vypálené vesnice Brestov a Veliký Radvaň. Bylo vidět, že zde to již šlo do tuhého. Karpatské stráně a svahy byly rozryty zákopy jdoucími z údolí do údolí podél trati s novými pražci, po obou stranách veliké jámy od granátů. Někde přes potoky tekoucí do Laborce, jehož horní tok dráha sledovala, bylo vidět nové mosty a ohořelé trámy starých mostových přechodů.

Also written:Nová Čabyna Hašek Nagy-Czaba Reiner Csebény hu

Medzilaborcenn flag
Wikipedia czdeensk Google mapsearch Švejkova cesta

Medzilaborce witnesses a short stay by the march battalion. The main part is a description on how the army went about billetting from the local population. A farmers family had to let go of three pigs but they had few alternatives. The destruction wreaked on the town by recent fighting is described in some detail.

Background

Medzilaborce is a town in the Laborec valley of eastern Slovakia, near the Polish border and the Łupków Pass. In February 1915 Russian forces occupied the town but were driven out in May. This happended only a few weeks before Švejk and his march batallion arrived, so the traces of fighting described in the novel were very fresh.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] V Medzilaborci byla zastávka za rozbitým, vypáleným nádražím, z jehož začouzených stěn vyčnívaly zkroucené traversy. Nový dlouhý barák ze dřeva, namísto vypáleného nádraží rychle postavený, byl pokryt nalepenými plakáty ve všech řečích: „Upisujte rakouskou válečnou půjčku!“ V jiném dlouhém baráku byla i stanice Červeného kříže, odkud vyšly s tlustým vojenským lékařem dvě sestřičky a smály se na celé kolo tlustému vojenskému lékaři, který k jich obveselení napodoboval různé zvířecí zvuky a nepodařeně chrochtal.

Also written:Mezőlaborc hu Меджилабірці rt

Literature

Dolní Zahájínn flag
Wikipedia czennn Google mapsearch

Dolní Zahájí is mentioned by Offiziersdiener Baloun as he admits to his sins, one of them being that he battered the chaplain here.

Background

Dolní Zahájí can not be identified from a modern map but Baloun is probably talking about Zahájí by Mydlovary in South Bohemia, the district he is from.

Early story

In 1911 Hašek wrote a story centred around Mydlovary and Zahájí: Vislingská aféra v Mydlovarech. It was first printed in Karikatury 7 March 1911 and soon after it appeared in Šípy in Chicago![a]

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Baloun s naprostým zoufalstvím začal vyznávat generální zpověď: „Já jsem se vám rouhal svatejm i světicím božím, na Malši v hospodě a v Dolním Zahájí ztřískal jsem kaplana. V boha jsem ještě věřil, to nezapírám, ale o svatým Josefovi jsem pochyboval.
References
aVislingská aféra v MydlovarechJaroslav Hašek, Šípy22.4.1911
Palotann flag
Wikipedia enhuplrueskuk Google mapsearch Švejkova cesta

Palota is mentioned in passing when it's said that the troops are having lunch in the Łupków Pass, beyond Palota.

Background

Palota is a village on the Slovak side of the Łupków Pass, about 10 km north of Medzilaborce. There is no railway station here any more, although the railway line from Medzilaborce to Sanok goes through the village.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Mužstvu bylo oznámeno, že oběd bude za Palotou v Lupkovském průsmyku, a také vyšli do obce Medzilaborce batalionní účetní šikovatel s kuchaři od kumpanií a poručíkem Cajthamlem, který měl na starosti hospodářství batalionu. K nim byli přiděleni čtyři mužové jako patrola.

Also written:Палота rue Полата uk

Łupków Passnn flag
Wikipedia czennnplsk Google mapsearch Švejkova cesta
lupkow.jpg

Eine Bilderreihe aus den Kampfgebieten der 25. Reserve-Division 1914-1916.

Łupków Pass was a stop-over for one of the march battalion's lunch breaks, the scene was surely the railway station. The author mentions a monument that Germans from Reich hurriedly had erected on a rock behind the station, in honour of their fallen heroes from Brandenburg. It bore the inscription Den Helden von Lupkapaß[*] (To the heroes from the Lupka Pass).

The grotesque way food is distributed is revealingly described. Officers of course get most, then the distribution is on the discretion of the cooks who carefully dish out to those they believe they need to be on good terms with. The only person who openly reacts against this practice is Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek.

Otherwise Švejk has another clash with Leutnant Dub, ending with the lieutenant pulling his revolver. Finally there is an episode where Švejk reports Dub for having slapped Offiziersdiener Kunert. Here Oberleutnant Lukáš observes a hitherto unknown side to his officers' servant, far from the affable person he has got accustomed to.

Background

Łupków Pass is a mountain pass in the Carpathians, on the current border between Slovakia and Poland. The tunnel and the associated railway line were finished in 1874 and linked Galicia to the rest of the Austro-Hungarian Empire across the mountains. The pass was one of the strategically important Carpathian passes that were bitterly contested during the battles of 1914 and 1915. The railway tunnel was damaged and repaired multiple times during both world wars.

War Memorial
lupkow1.jpg

Stary Łupków, pozostałości pomnika I wojny światowej

© Henryk Bielamowicz, 2017

There is still a monument on a small hill behind the station but it was in 2017 in disrepair and it is difficult to judge what it may have looked like originally. Hašek with IR 91's XII. Marschbataillon travelled through the pass on or shortly after 2 July 1915 (they stopped in Humenné that day) so the description of it in the novel may largely be true. There is obviously no longer any sign of a bronze eagle at the top, nor any inscription "To the heroes from the Łupków Pass".

The Good Soldier Švejk is as far as known the only source that mentions the monument so we can not be fully sure that it is the one on the picture. It has not been independently established when it was erected and by whom. Still it is entirely possible that the monument was erected by soldiers from Brandenburg. The German Beskidenkorps drove the Russians away from the pass less than two months earlier so that it was built by German troops is overwhelmingly likely (assuming that it indeed was erected in 1915).

Excavations
lupkow3.jpg

Excavations in 2020

© Archeologia Żywa, 2020

In 2020 a team of archaeologists led by Dr. Marcin Czarnowicz from Kraków's Uniwersytet Jagielloński discovered two war cemeteries in the area and also investigated the monument. They do however date it to 1916, in which case it can't be the one mentioned in the novel. The archeologists also discover a grave beneath the monument. Three German officer's were supposed to have been burued there but it was discovered that the remains had been exhumed some time after 1943.

* Correct: Den Helden vom Lupkowpaß.

Archeologia Żywa

Zwrócił też uwagę na dodatkowe odkrycie nieopodal stacji kolejowej w Łupkowie, gdzie znajduje się pomnik opisywany przez Jaroslava Haska w „Przygodach dobrego wojaka Szwejka czasu wojny światowej”. „U podnóża obelisku miały znajdować się groby oficerów niemieckich, którzy zginęli podczas forsowania przełęczy. Okazało się jednak, że ciała poległych zostały ekshumowane, ale stało się to nie wcześniej niż w 1943 roku, o czym świadczą łuski znalezione w zasypisku grobu” – wyjaśnił Czarnowicz.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Hejtman Ságner dal již též rozkaz týkající se důstojnické kuchyně: „Vepřové na kmíně; vybrat to nejlepší maso, aby to nebylo příliš tučné!“ A tak se stalo, že když v Lupkovském průsmyku rozdávala se mužstvu menáž, v každém vojenském kotlíku ve své porci polévky našel jednotlivec dva malé kousíčky masa, a ten, který se narodil ještě na horší planetě, našel jenom kousek kůže.
[3.3] Za nádražím na skále pospíšili si již Němci z říše postavit pomník padlým Brandeburákům s nápisem: „Den Helden von Lupkapaß“, s velikou říšskoněmeckou orlicí vylitou z bronzu, přičemž na podstavci bylo výslovně podotčeno, že ten znak je vyroben z ruských děl ukořistěných při osvobození Karpat říšskoněmeckými pluky.

Sources: Alex Webber, Marcin Czarnowicz

Also written:Lupkovský průsmyk cz Łupków-passet nn Przełęcz Łupkowska pl Lupkovský priesmyk sk

Literature

Brandenburgnn flag
Wikipedia deennopl Google mapsearch
brandenburg.jpg

Kaserne des Dragoner-Regiments Nr. 12 in Gnesen, vor 1919 gelaufene Postkarte.

brandenburg.png

Österreich-Ungarns letzter Krieg, Band II, Beilage, Skizze 22..

Brandenburg enters the plot when the author informs that Germans from the Reich in a hurry had erected a monument behind the station in Łupków Pass, honouring fallen Brandenburgers. On the top was posted a bronze German eagle, and the inscription on the plaque was: Den Helden von Lupkapaß[*]. It was also added that the symbol was made from cannons captured as war booty by German regiments during the liberation of the Carpathians.

Background

Brandenburg is a historic province in Prussia that existed until 1945. It does not correspond to the current German state, as old Brandenburg included areas that are now part of Poland. The capital was Potsdam.

Beskidenkorps

The soldiers who erected the mentioned monument would have belonged to Beskidenkorps, a German unit that was formed in the Laborec valley in late March and early April 1915.

The troops who made up Beskidenkorps were mainly recruited from these provinces: Hesse (25. Reservedivision), East Prussia (35. Reservedivision) and Pomeriana (4. Division). The only possible Brandenburgers in this army corps appear to be Dragoner-Regiment „von Arnim“ (2. Brandenburgisches) Nr. 12, allocated to 4. Division. In peace time they were garrisoned in Gnesen (now Gniezno), actually in the province of Posen.

From 5 to 7 May Beskidenkorps fought a fierce battle against Russian forces who defended the Łupków Pass to cover the retreat of the 3rd army that was threatened by encirclement further west in the Carpathians. The Germans ultimately emerged victorious from the battle and the Russians withdrew northwards to positions by the river San. It would have been the destruction caused during this battle that Švejk observed during the break in the Łupków Pass.

* Correct: Den Helden vom Lupkowpaß.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Za nádražím na skále pospíšili si již Němci z říše postavit pomník padlým Brandeburákům s nápisem: „Den Helden von Lupkapaß“, s velikou říšskoněmeckou orlicí vylitou z bronzu, přičemž na podstavci bylo výslovně podotčeno, že ten znak je vyroben z ruských děl ukořistěných při osvobození Karpat říšskoněmeckými pluky.

SourcesÖsterreich-Ungarns letzter Krieg

Also written:Brandenburgia pl

Literature

Csapnn flag
Wikipedia czdeenhuskuk Google mapsearch

Csap is mentioned in a confused telegram from brigade staff indicating that the company were to move east towards the front already from Sátoraljaújhely.

Background

Csap is the Hungarian name of border town Чоп (Chop) between Ukraine, Slovakia and Hungary, until 1921 part of Hungary. It is now located on Ukrainian territory and is an important railway junction and border crossing.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Zprávy byly tak nejasné, že to vypadalo asi tak, že by ani neměli do Lupkovského průsmyku přijeti a měli jeti zcela jiným směrem od Nového Města pod Šiatorem, poněvadž v telegramech byla nějaká řeč o místech: Csap - Ungvár, Kis-Berezna - Uzsok.

Also written:Čop cz Tschop de Csap hu Čop sk Чоп ua

Ungvárnn flag
Wikipedia czdeenhunoruskuk Google mapsearch
uzhorod.jpg

Vídeňské illustrované noviny, 4.2.1915

Ungvár is mentioned in a confused telegram from brigade staff indicating that the regiment were meant to move east to the front already at Sátoraljaújhely.

Background

Ungvár is the Hungarian name of Ужгород (Uzhhorod), a city now on the border between Ukraine and Slovakia. Until 1921 it was part of Hungary, and until 1938 it belonged to Czechoslovakia. It located just inside Ukrainian territory and is an important railway junction. The city has a university and some industry. It is also a quite popular tourist destination. The city sports a bronze miniature statue of Švejk, mounted on the railings by the river.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Zprávy byly tak nejasné, že to vypadalo asi tak, že by ani neměli do Lupkovského průsmyku přijeti a měli jeti zcela jiným směrem od Nového Města pod Šiatorem, poněvadž v telegramech byla nějaká řeč o místech: Csap - Ungvár, Kis-Berezna - Uzsok.

Also written:Užhorod cz Ungvár hu Ужгород ru Užhorod sk Ужгород ua

Kisbereznann flag
Wikipedia czhuruskuk Google mapsearch

Kisberezna is mentioned in a confused telegram from brigade staff indicating that the regiment were to move east already at Sátoraljaújhely.

Background

Kisberezna is the Hungarian name of Малий Березний (Malyj Bereznyj), a village on the western side of Carpathians north of Užhorod. Until 1921 it was Hungarian, in the inter-war years it belonged to Czechoslovakia, from 1945 the Soviet Union and from 1991 Ukraine. In 1914 more than 70 per cent of the population were Rusyns.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Zprávy byly tak nejasné, že to vypadalo asi tak, že by ani neměli do Lupkovského průsmyku přijeti a měli jeti zcela jiným směrem od Nového Města pod Šiatorem, poněvadž v telegramech byla nějaká řeč o místech: Csap - Ungvár, Kis-Berezna - Uzsok.

Also written:Kisberezna hu Малый Берёзный ru Malá Berezná sk Малий Березний ua

Uszoknn flag
Wikipedia czdehupluk Google mapsearch
uzhok.jpg

Das interessante Blatt, 8.4.1915

Uszok is mentioned in a confused telegram from brigade staff indicating that the march batallion were to move east already at Sátoraljaújhely.

Background

Uszok (now Užok/Ужok) is a village in Ukraine, near the source of the river Už. It is best known through the mountain pass which it has given its name to. There was heavy fighting in the Uszok pass in 1914-15. From early May 1915 the pass was finally on Austro-Hungarian hands.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Zprávy byly tak nejasné, že to vypadalo asi tak, že by ani neměli do Lupkovského průsmyku přijeti a měli jeti zcela jiným směrem od Nového Města pod Šiatorem, poněvadž v telegramech byla nějaká řeč o místech: Csap - Ungvár, Kis-Berezna - Uzsok.

Also written:Użok pl Užok sk Ужok ua

Munkácsnn flag
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Munkács is mentioned in a confused telegram from brigade staff indicating that the march batallion were to move east already at Sátoraljaújhely.

Background

Munkács is the Hungarian name of Мукачеве, a city in the Ukrainian Carpathians. One of the three railwat tracks across the Carpathians passed the city, and it was also home of a Honvéd garrison. After 1921 it was called Mukačevo and was part of Czechoslovakia. From 1945 to 1991 it was on Soviet hands.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Mamlas v brigádní bási je udiven odpovědí, že jde o 7. pochodový prapor 91. pluku, i táže se, kdo dal rozkaz jeti na Munkačevo, po vojenské trati na Stryj, když maršruta je přes Lupkovský průsmyk na Sanok do Haliče.

Also written:Munkačevo Hašek Mukačevo cz Мукачеве ua

Stryjnn flag
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stryj.jpg

Das interessante Blatt, 24.6.1915

Stryj is mentioned in a confused telegram Hauptmann Ságner received from brigade staff in Sanok, indicating that the march batallion were to move east already at Sátoraljaújhely. The march battalion had arrived in Sanok two days early!

Background

Stryj (Стрий) is a city in oblast Lviv in Ukraine, and is also the name of the river flowing through the town. The city belonged to Galicia in 1914 and was thus part of Austria-Hungary.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Mamlas v brigádní bási je udiven odpovědí, že jde o 7. pochodový prapor 91. pluku, i táže se, kdo dal rozkaz jeti na Munkačevo, po vojenské trati na Stryj, když maršruta je přes Lupkovský průsmyk na Sanok do Haliče.

Also written:Стрий ua

Literature

Sannn flag
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San is mentioned by Leutnant Dub when he pretends to be an expert on military strategy.

The English description is not yet ready.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3]
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Bukowsko is mentioned by Lieutenant Leutnant Dub when he pretends to be an expert on military strategy.

Background

Bukowsko is a village in the Sanok district of Poland, in 1914 part of Austria.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Zejména jsou neobyčejně protivné jeho věty takovéhoto smyslu: „Potom jsme šli na Bukovsko, abychom měli pojištěnou linii Bukovsko-Dynov, majíce spojení s bardějovskou skupinou u Velké Polanky, kde jsme rozbili samarskou divisi nepřítele.“

Also written:Bukovsko Hašek

Literature

Dynównn flag
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Dynów is mentioned by Leutnant Dub when he pretends to be an expert on military strategy.

Background

Dynów is a town in Rzeszów county in Poland, in 1914 part of Austria.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Zejména jsou neobyčejně protivné jeho věty takovéhoto smyslu: „Potom jsme šli na Bukovsko, abychom měli pojištěnou linii Bukovsko-Dynov, majíce spojení s bardějovskou skupinou u Velké Polanky, kde jsme rozbili samarskou divisi nepřítele.“

Also written:Dynov Hašek

Literature

Velká Polankann flag
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Velká Polanka is mentioned by Leutnant Dub when he pretends to be an expert on military strategy.

Background

Velká Polanka is not one hundred per cent identfied, but by analyzing the text and historical events we can conclude that the place in question is Vyšná Polianka north of Bardejov. Until 2 May 1915, when the Central Powers started their offensive by Gorlice and Tarnów, the front went very close to the village. The Russian 48th Infantry Division (HQ in Samara) held this section of the front at the time. The division was almost completely destroyed during the first week of May.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Zejména jsou neobyčejně protivné jeho věty takovéhoto smyslu: „Potom jsme šli na Bukovsko, abychom měli pojištěnou linii Bukovsko-Dynov, majíce spojení s bardějovskou skupinou u Velké Polanky, kde jsme rozbili samarskou divisi nepřítele.“

SourcesÖsterreich-Ungarns letzter Krieg

Also written:Felsőpagony hu Vyšná Polianka sk

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samara.jpg

Jaroslav Hašek v revolučním Rusku

© Jaroslav Křížek, 1957

Samara is mentioned by Leutnant Dub when he pretends to be an expert on military strategy lecturing on how the Samara-division was destroyed.

Background

Samara is a city on the Volga river and is the sixth largest city in Russia. Samara is an important industrial city, known amongst other things for its arms industry. The city was provisional capital of the Soviet Union during World War II. From 1935 to 1991 it was called Kuybyshev.

The Samara Division that Leutnant Dub talks about is the Russian 48th Infantry Division (HQ in Samara) which during the first week of May 1915 was trapped and destroyed in the Carpathians. Large parts of it, including staff and its commander Lavr Kornilov were taken prisoners. The narrative in the novel corresponds well with historical events.

Hašek i Samara

Jaroslav Hašek stayed in Samara from early April 1918 until the city on 8 June was occupied by the Czech legions (see České legie). He was also there in 1915 and 1916 on the way to and from the prisoner's camp by Totskoye. Moreover he must have travelled through the city on his way back from Irkutsk in November 1920 after Comintern had called him back to act as an agitator in his homeland.

In 2013 a statue of Švejk was erected in Samara, being the fourth of his kind in Russia. The others are found in St. Petersburg, Omsk and Bugulma. There is also a Švejk-restaurant in the city and on the former Hotel San Remo where Jaroslav Hašek had his office in 1918 there used to be a memorial plaque on the wall but this had in 2010 been removed.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Zejména jsou neobyčejně protivné jeho věty takovéhoto smyslu: „Potom jsme šli na Bukovsko, abychom měli pojištěnou linii Bukovsko-Dynov, majíce spojení s bardějovskou skupinou u Velké Polanky, kde jsme rozbili samarskou divisi nepřítele.“

Also written:Самара ru

Literature

Poděbradynn flag
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Poděbrady is mentioned by Švejk in an anecdote about a chamberpot, as an apropos to the abandoned Russian chamberpot in the Łupków Pass.

Background

Poděbrady is a spa town in okres Nymburk. It is located 50 km east of Prague on the river plain by the Labe.

Švejk's anecdote is yet another example of the author mixing real people into the story. This time it is Hájek who was also mentioned in Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek's tale from his time as editor of Svět zvířat.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Na všechny to působilo ohromným dojmem, a když poručík Dub mlčel, ozval se Švejk: „Poslušně hlásím, pane lajtnant, že s takovým nočníkem byla jednou pěkná legrace v lázních Poděbradech. Vo tom se u nás vypravovalo na Vinohradech v hospodě. Tenkrát totiž začali vydávat v Poděbradech časopejsek ,Nezávislost’ a poděbradskej lekárník byl toho hlavní hlavou, a redaktorem tam udělali ňákýho Ladislava Hájka Domažlickýho.

Literature

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Vereidigung in Trient, 1914-18

trento06.png

16. Infanteriebrigade Trient, 1904

trento11.jpg

Dobrý voják Švejk a jiné podivné historky, 1912

trentonap.png

Prager Tagblatt, 1.7.1906

trento12.jpg

Dobrý voják Švejk a jiné podivné historky, 1912

trento104.png

In Trento Švejk served in the fictitious 104th regiment.

Dobrý voják Švejk, Slavie, 12.9.1912.

Trento is mentioned by the author in his discussion about the differing degrees of stupidity amongst civilian and military authorities. Here expressions like "half-fart", "fart" and "old arse-hole" are used by soldiers when they described senior officers.

In [4.3] the city is mentioned again in connection with the homosexual Oberst Habermaier who Švejk had heard or read about. He had tried to abuse a cadet 12 years ago, in the baths by Adige.

Background

Trento (de. Trient) is a city in northern Italy that until 1918 was part of Austria. It was one of Austria-Hungary's strongest fortresses, protecting Valle dell'Adige (the Adige valley) against Italy. The city was predominately Italian speaking.

The large garrison was in the year leading up to World War I the home of units from Tyroler Kaiserjäger, fortress artillery, mountain artillery, regular infantry, as well as k.k. Landwehr. The city and the neighbouring garrisons at Levico and Cavalese housed Infanteriebrigade Nr. 16, a unit that mostly consisted of Kaiserjäger but also contained infantry regiments from Bohemia. Thus many Czechs would have served in Trento during the years leading up to the outbreak of war.

The following Czech infantry regiments that were stationed here: k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 28 from Prague (1895-1899), IR102 from Benešov (1900-1904), IR88 from Beroun (1905-1910) and again IR28 (1911-1912). Typically staff and three battalions from these regiments were garrisoned in Trento and the surrounding area.

Švejk and Trento

In the first version of The Good Soldier Švejk, who Jaroslav Hašek wrote five stories about in 1911, the soldier was stationed here and the garrison formed the backdrop for the plot. In the first story, Švejk stojí proti Italií, the soldier crosses the border and captures an Italian donkey and a machine gun. A prominent person is also garrison chaplain Augustin Kleinschrodt. It should also be noted that Švejk here was a one year volunteer, a privilege he lost in the follow-ups from 1917 and 1921. Trento is also the first place ever that is mentioned in all three permutations of The Good Soldier Švejk and thus deserves a special mention in the history of "Švejkology"!

These persons appear in the stories from Trento: major Teller, officer Walk, field chaplain Kleinschrodt, officer Müller, officer Knobloch, air force lieutenant Herzig, and major Gregorescu. Geographical references from the region are Adige (the valley), Castel-Nuovo, and Merano. It is also interesting that Hašek mentions IR102 (3rd battalion) who were camped in the field by Castel-Nuovo. The author also mentions an air force unit.

Trento is also features in the second variation of the good soldier, Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí (The good soldier Švejk in captivity) (1917), but here the city plays a peripheral role. One recognizes field chaplain Kleinschrodt but otherwise there are few details that can be analysed.

It is striking that Hašek mentions Trento in all three variations of The Good Soldier Švejk, indicating that he had been there in person, or at least that he drew inspiration from his friends. Therefore theories surrounding Hašek and his link to Trento abound, but no one has ever (to my knowledge) provided any firm backup for the various claims.

A comparison of the gallery of figures from the first five stories about Švejk with the personnel list of Schematismus (1904) does not reveal a single name that can possibly be connected to Trento. The closest fit is August Kleinschrodt but he was a major in Infanterieregiment Nr. 16, a unit that was garrisoned in Zagreb and the surrounding area.

This lack of connection between the galleries of fictive persons and real persons stationed in Trento is a glaring contrast to the later versions of The Good Soldier Švejk. Here it is obvious that many names hail from Hašek's own surroundings. One would therefore assume that the stories from Trento, as opposed to the later Švejks, are NOT based on the author's own experiences. Whereas the other versions of The Good Soldier Švejk are replete with references to actual military units, here only IR102 and Infanterieregiment Nr. 104[c] are mentioned. Most of the first-mentioned regiment WAS actually stationed in Trento in 1904, but the 3rd battalion (that Hašek mentions) always remained at home in Benešov[a]. The latter regiment was Švejk's own but didn't exist at all (pointed out by Sergey Soloukh) as it was only raised towards the end of the war. In contrast to the later versions of The Good Soldier Švejk the five stories contain no references to local geographical points. Nor is there any trace of any Gefreiter Bozba, Oberst Habermaier or anyone with a similar name. Nor was any air force unit located in Trento.

Václav Menger
trento88.png

In 1906 IR88 were garrisoned in Trento...

trento28.png

... and IR28 everywhere else.

According to Václav Menger in his book Jaroslav Hašek doma, (1935) Hašek was called up in Trento in 1906. He allegedly enrolled the officer's school of k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 28, but was soon deemed unfit for service and dismissed (superarbitriert). His friends Josef Mach[1], Alois Hatina[2]and a son of the well known writer Alois Jirásek are said to have served here at the same time. Menger also adds that this group met Cesare Battisti[3]and also Benito Mussolini. The latter was supposedly inspired by Hašek to write a book about Hus...

Menger does however note that these are mostly stories that Hašek himself set in circulation, and in a revised edition of the book, Lidský profil Jaroslava Haška (1946), the references to Mach, Hatina, Jirásek, Battisti and Mussolini were removed. What remains after Menger's "clean-up" is that Hašek avoided the draft twice until he in 1906 appeared at the officer's school of k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 28. Here he was soon dismissed. If this is true the call-up date would have been 1 October 1906.

Even Menger's revised information could be questioned. In 1906 k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 28 could not have been garrisoned in Trento as this regiment didn't have any sub-units in the region that year[b]. Only in 1909 were three battalions and regiment staff relocated here. On the other hand: three battalions and staff of IR88 (Beroun) were here and in neighbouring Calvedese and Levico. Menger was often inaccurate in his use of years and other numbers (e.g. he wrote that Hašek wrote the five stories about The Good Soldier Švejk in 1910), so he may well have missed by a year or two or even swapped the regiments.

Battisti, Hatina, Mach, Mussolini
mach.jpg

Portrét Josefa Macha od V. H. Brunnera z roku 1904 uveřejněný v Machově výboru Básně, 1933.

© Bára Havlátová

The legends that Hašek himself allegedly spread are even less credible, and some details can easily be disproved. Obviously Battisti lived in Trento during this period, but Mussolini surely didn't. He stayed here in 1909 and briefly worked as an editor at Il Popolo before he was arrested and expelled at the end of September. The incident provoked a 24 hour general strike in the region, and was widely reported in the press. Mussolini's book about Hus was actually published, but only in 1913. The title was Giovanni Huss, il veridico and it was written about in Czech newspapers, amongst them Venkov. Hašek may thus well been aware it.

Alois Jirásek had one son, Jaromír. He was born in 1890 and therefore too young to have been a soldier in 1906. Alois Hatina would only by 1907 have reached an age where he could be called up for military service. Menger thus had good reasons to remove the information about Mussolini, Battisti, Hatina and Jirásek when he published a revised version of his biography on Hašek in 1946.

Josef Mach did, according to Bára Havlátová (2013), complete his military service with IR88 in Trento from 1905 to 1906, so it must be assumed that Menger simply mixed up k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 28 and IR88. This is however no proof that Hašek also was here in 1906, and in his biography on Hašek, The Bad Bohemian (1978), page 101, Cecil Parrott observes: "but like much that Menger writes there is not a scrap of evidence ...". According to Radko Pytlík Mach rejected that he ever served with Hašek in Trento.

Other theories
trentorp.png

Kniha o Švejkovi, s. 133

© Radko Pytlík, 1982

Alternative hypotheses also exist. According to the renowned Hašek-expert Radko Pytlík (Jaroslav Hašek. Data-fakty-dokumenty, (2013)) Josef Lada told the above mentioned Hatina that Hašek in 1904 was called up to serve with a battalion of k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 91 that was garrisoned in Trento at the time. This hypothesis is however undermined by the fact that no units from IR 91 were located here.

In 1904 Hašek set out on a longer journey to Bavaria, Switzerland and Tyrol and Pytlík raises the question whether he could have enlisted as a soldier in Trento during this trip. That Hašek could have been here that year seems probable (he mentions Bozen/Bolzano in one of his stories), but that this was for the purpose of military duty seems very far fetched.

Assentjahrgang 1914
assent.jpg

Hašek declared fit for service in 1914

© VÚA

vormerk.png

Kriegsgefangenekarte

© ÖStA

Despite the various theories it seems unlikely that Jaroslav Hašek ever was a soldier in Trento (or anywhere else) before World War I. In military archives it is at least twice recorded that he was "assentiert" (admitted) as late as 1914, indicating that he was never deemed fit for service in peace time. This does however not rule out that he was called up in his youth and superarbitrated (like Menger claims) and then called up again during the war[4], but no one has ever provided evidence supporting this claim.

Vormerkblatt Nr. 4886

The original German-language version of Hašek's Grundbuchblatt[5] has never been found but a Czech translation exists. It was probably written after 1915 because official documents from that year always refer to Vormerkblatt Nr. 4886. His Grundbuchblatt Nr. 1417 (translated into Czech) has no information that is not found in his Vorkmerkblatt.

An unlikely pre-war soldier
assent.png

Das Infanterieregiment Nr.91 am Vormarsch in Galizien

© VÚA

Already in Toulavé house (1971) and Kniha o Švejkovi (1982) Radko Pytlík concluded that the inspiration for the first stories about The Good Soldier Švejk probably came from his friends, more specifically Josef Mach. The literary historian also adds that Mach refuted the claim by Menger that Hašek enrolled in Trento in 1906. Wife Jarmila also wrote that Hašek was called up four times but was never passed fit for service. Emil Artur Longen even notes that Hašek in February 1915 told his friends that he was never drafted until now (Jaroslav Hašek, 1928, page 158).

As mentioned above several units from the Czech lands were located in Trento from 1895 onwards (or earlier) so Hašek may, apart from Mach, have had many friends who served here and could have provided him with material for his stories. As a theme for future research it would be to ascertain whether Alois Hatina and Jaromír Jirásek ever served here, and when. That could provide an insight into the background of the rumours about Hašek and Mussolini, stories that linger on even today.

Radko Pytlík, "Toulavé house", 1998

Do dnešního dne se nepodařilo dokázat, že Hašek už před válkou vykonával vojenskou službu."Čtyřikrát byl Míťa u odvodu a nikdy ho nevzali," píše Jarmila. Menger se domnívá, že byl Hašek na vojně v Tridentu, ale jen několik neděl, než byl superarbitrován pro "blbost". Josef Mach, který zde sloužil, však tuto zprávu vyvrací.

Radko Pytlík, "Jaroslav Hašek", 2013

Josef Lada v rozhovoru sdělil Aloisu Hatinovi, že Hašek se měl v roce 1904 dostavit k odvodu v Tridentu v Horním Tyrolsku(!), kde byl detašován jeden prápor 91. pluku – podle Lady to bylo právě v roce 1904!

Emil Artur Longen, "Jaroslav Hašek", 1928

Hašek vysedával v Unionce a vypravoval o příštích válečných činech: "Od svého čtyřiadvacátého roku pociťaval jsem trpce, že byla na mě spáchána velika křivda, poněvadž jsem nebyl odveden. Musila se přihnat válečna litice, aby vojenská správa pochopila, že jsem rozený vojín".

Václav Menger, "Jaroslava Haška doma", 1935

Jaroslav Hašek, ač již v obou předcházejících letech unikl onomu osudnému slovu "tauglich", při posledním odvodu v roce 1906 mu neunikl. Byl odveden a přidělen do důstojnické školy 28. pěšího pluku "Pražských dětí", který tou dobou byl rozložen v Tyrolích, v Tridentu a Levicu. Nezůstal tam však dlouho. Zde vlastně sebral své první zkušenosti pro "Dobrého vojáka Švejka před válkou", kterého však začal psát až v roce 1910. Když se vrátil z tohoto svého prvního vojenského tažení, vyprávěl - tak jako všichni ti, kteří na vojně strávili třeba jen jediný den - obsáhlé legendy. A ještě dlouhá léta dovedl vyprávěti o těch několika nedělích, které strávil v Tridentu, kdy byl po svém příchodu k pluku při dodatečné prohlídce uznán neschopným a jako takový poslán k superarbitrační komisi. Ta tento nález potvrdila a Hašek měl po své vojenské slávě.

V té době byl v Tridentu dávný přítel Haškův, básník Mach a současně s ním byli v Tridentu narukovaní syn Aloise Jiráska a nynější poslanec Hatina. Než byly vyřízeny obvyklé formality a než prošlo plukovním rozkazem Haškovo propuštění, uplynulo několik neděl, které trávil s jmenovanými druhy. Scházeli se, jak sám vypravoval, v jakési vinárně, kde je Mach seznámil s bývalým poslancem na říšském sněmu Caesarem Batisti, jenž byl za světové války rakouskou vládou odsouzen к smrti a popraven. Kolem Batistiho shromažďovala se také společnost italských emigrantů, z nichž jeden, jakýsi redaktor sociálně demokratických listů, se brzy spřátelil s Jaroslavem. Velmi ho zajímaly české dějiny a zejména doba husitská. Dokonce se odhodlal napsat o tom knížku a Hašek mu ochotně poskytl prameny i materiál. Zejména jej upozornil na knihu Friedricha von Bezolda: „Das Hussitentum”, která vyšla v Mnichově. Tato italsky psaná kniha o husitismu, inspirovaná Haškem, skutečně vyšla a jejím autorem není nikdo jiný než dnes „velký duce” — Mussolini, kterému se ovšem tenkráte, tak jako Haškovi, ještě ani nesnilo o velké slávě, neboť byl pouhým štvaným emigrantem.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] U některých posádek, jako například v Tridentu, místo prďoch říkalo se „náš starej hajzl“. Ve všech případech šlo o osobu starší, a jestli Švejk nazval v duchu poručíka Duba poloprďochern, vystihl naprosto logicky, že jak do stáří, tak do hodnosti a vůbec do všeho schází poručíkovi Dubovi do prďocha ještě 50 procent.
[4.3.1] Švejk pokračoval na své cestě do vesnice, a přemýšleje o plukovníkovi, dospěl k tomu úsudku, že před dvanácti lety byl v Tridentu nějaký plukovník Habermaier, který se také tak laskavě choval k vojákům, a nakonec vyšlo najevo, že je homosexuelní, když chtěl v lázních u Adiže zprznit jednoho kadetaspiranta, vyhrožuje mu „dienstreglamá“.

SourcesVáclav Menger,Radko Pytlík,Bára Havlátová

Also written:Trident cz Trient de Trento it

Notes
1. Josef Mach (1883-1951), poet and friend of Jaroslav Hašek and one of the key figures in Strana mírného pokroku v mezích zákona. Mach served as a one-years volunteer by IR88 in Trento from 1905 to 1906.
2. Alois Hatina (1886-1950), politician and pacifist, also a friend of Hašek. Close to the anarchist movement in his younger years, later member of Česká strana národně sociální for which he served as an MP after the war. Sentenced for anti-militarist agitation in 1909 and arrested again at the outbreak of war.
3. Cesare Battisti (1875-1916), journalist and socialist politician. Prominent spokesperson for the Irredentism movement who aimed to incorporate the Italian-speaking areas of Austria into Italy. Editor of Il Popolo in Trento. Member of the Austrian Imperial Council (Reichsrat) from 1911. At the outbreak of war he moved to Italia, and volunteered for military service against Austria-Hungary in 1915. Taken prisoner in 1916 and executed.
4. Many recruits who had been superarbitrated in peace time were eventually re-assessed and found "tauglich" during the war. One such example is Nemrava but in this case the "Grundbuchblatt" exists to shed light on the proceedings.
5. "Grundbuchblatt" (or Haupt-Grundbuchblatt) was a document that summarized details from a soldier's military career. Apart from personal details like birthplace/year, marital status, language skills, right of domicile, height, shoe size etc, it contained information about draft, military education, promotion, transfers, decorations and dismissal/retirement where applicable. "Vormerkblatt" was a smaller paper, often only one page and functioned as a working paper/note pad. Details from this and other documents where in general later copied to the soldier's "Grundbuchblatt".

Literature

References
aSchematismus für das k. u. k. Heer...K.k. Hof und Staatsdruckerei1904
bSchematismus für das k. u. k. Heer...K.k. Hof und Staatsdruckerei1906
cDobrý voják ŠvejkJarsolav Hašek, Slavie12.9.1911
Bytouchovnn flag
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Bytouchov is mentioned in connection with the soldier Koudela.

Background

Bytouchov (now Bítouchov) is a village by Mladá Boleslav.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] A nebejt mě, tak by se k tomu raportu snad vůbec nedostal, jako ten Koudela z Bytouchova, kterej za aktivní služby tak dlouho chodil k raportu, až byl přeloženej k marině, kde se stal kornetem, a byl na ňákým vostrově potom, v Tichým oceánu, vyhlášenej jako desertýr. Von se tam potom voženil a mluvil taky s cestovatelem Havlasou, kterej vůbec nepoznal, že to není domorodec
Mnichovo Hradištěnn flag
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Mnichovo Hradiště is mentioned in passing by Švejk in his conversation with Oberleutnant Lukáš after the episode with Leutnant Dub and Offiziersdiener Kunert.

Background

Mnichovo Hradiště is a town north of Mladá Boleslav.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Když odešel, obrátil se Švejk k nadporučíkovi Lukášovi jemným, přátelským tónem: „V Mnichově Hradišti byl taky takovej jeden pán a taky tak s tím druhým mluvil, a von mu vodpověděl: ,Na popravišti se sejdeme.’„

Also written:Münchengrätz de

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Szczawne, 4.7.2010

Szczawne is described by the author during the train trip from the Łupków Pass to Sanok. It is a tale of destruction, even more white crosses and a statue of Christ who has had his head blown off.

Background

Szczawne is a village in the Podkarpacki region of Poland, located by the railway line between the Łupków Pass and Sanok. The railway station is Szczawne-Kulaszne. The area was until 1947 mainly populated by Ukrainians but these were forcibly resettled during the ethnic cleansing the followed World War II.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Za stanicí Ščavne počaly se objevovat opět v údolích nové vojenské hřbitůvky. Pod Ščavne bylo vidět z vlaku kamenný kříž s bezhlavým Kristem pánem, který ztratil hlavu při odstřelu trati.

Also written:Ščavne cz

Literature

Kulasznenn flag
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Destroyed train by Komańcza (1915)

© Tomasz Nowakowski

Kulaszne is described by the author during the train trip from the Łupków Pass to Sanok. He writes that a Red Cross train has been attacked and derailed. The cook cook Jurajda asks if things have gone that far that it is allowed to shoot at a Red Cross train. Švejk philosophically retorts that there are many things that are not allowed that still can be done.

Background

Kulaszne is a village in Komańcza community in the Podkarpackie region of Poland, on the railway line between the Łupkow-passet and Sanok. The railway station is Szczawne-Kulaszne.

The village was occupied by the Russian army from November 1914 to 8 May 1915. At the time it was populated predominantly by Ukrainians with Greek Catholic faith. These were expelled after World War II but again (2010) the village has a Greek Catholic church.

With near certainty the 12th march battalion of k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 91 with Jaroslav Hašek passed this point on 2 July 1915 or shortly after. They had reached Humenné on that date and would presumably have travelled on very soon. We also know that they approached Sambor on 4 July.

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] Vlak zrychloval svou rychlost, žena se dolů údolím k Sanoku, obzory se rozšiřovaly a tím i četnějšírni stávaly se celé skupiny rozbitých vesnic po obou stranách do kraje. U Kulašné bylo vidět dole v říčce s železničního náspu zřícený, rozbitý vlak Červeného kříže.

Also written:Kulašná Hašek

Literature

Málagann flag
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Málaga is mentioned by cook Jurajda when he tells about the nurses at the Red Cross in Bruck who embezzled chocolate and Málaga wine.

Background

Málaga is a city in Andalusia, Southern Spain. The Málaga wine is a sweet dessert wine which is produced in the region around the city. The wine type has a history that goes back to Roman times and is protected by designation of origin (Denominación de Origen).

Quote(s) from the novel
[3.3] „Hlavně se krade u Červeného kříže,“ s velkou zlostí prohlásil kuchař Jurajda. „Měl jsem v Brucku známého kuchaře, který vařil pro sestřičky v baráku, a ten mně říkal, jak představená těch sestřiček a vrchní ošetřovatelky posílají domů celé bedny malaga a čokolády. To nese sama sebou příležitost, to je sebeurčení člověka.
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3. From Hatvan to the borders of Galicia


© 2009 - 2021 Jomar Hønsi Last updated: 19.10.2021