Hovudpersonen

The Good Soldier Švejk

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The novel The Good Soldier Švejk refers to a number of institutions and firms, public as private. These have until 15 September 2013 been categorised as 'Places'. This only partly makes sense as this type of entity can not be always be accosiated with fixed geographical point, in the way that for instance cities, montains and rivers can. This new page contains military and civilian institutions (including army units, regiments etc), hotels, public houses, newspapers and magazines.

The line between this page and "Places" is blurred, but the idea with this section is to include entities that are not necessarily located on a fixed spot on earth. Therefore Prague and Vienna will still be found in the "Places" database, because these have constant co-ordinates. On the other hand institutions may change location: K.u.k. Heer and U kalicha are not unequivocal geographical terms so they will from now on appear on this page.

>> The Good Soldier Švejk index of institutions mentioned in the novel (179) Show all
>> I. In the rear
Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

Introduction

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TBD (the entry will appear here in the future)

The English description is not yet ready.

Quote from the novel
Temple of Artemisnn flag
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Temple of Artemis is mentioned indirectly in the author's description of Herostratus, "he who set fire to the temple of the goddess in Ephesus".

Background

Temple of Artemis was a temple in Ephesus, regarded as one of the seven wonders of the world. It was raised in the honour of the goddess Artemis. The temple burnt down in 356 BC (Herostatos), but was rebuilt after. Today there are only ruins left.

Quote from the novel
[Úvod] On nezapálil chrám bohyně v Efesu, jako to udělal ten hlupák Herostrates, aby se dostal do novin a školních čítanek.

Also written:Artemidin chrám cz Tempel der Artemis de

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

1. The good soldier Švejk acts to intervene in the world war

Drogerie Průšann flag
Tylovo nám. 699/19, Vinohrady-František Průša [1910]
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Národní listy, 24.6.1903

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Narodní Politika, 6.5.1910

Drogerie Průša was the chemist's store where Ferdinand was an assistant.

Background

Drogerie Průša was a chemist's store at Tylovo náměstí right on the lower corner with Vávrova třída at Královské Vinohrady. Jaroslav Hašek worked as an apprentice here some time between March 1898 and September 1899.

Over the year several newspaper adverts testify to the existence of the chemists, confirmed by address book entries. In 1906 discrete newspaper adverts for remedies against "men's problems" appeared, but they also advertised remedies against bed-nugs. In August 1915 an advert appeared in Prager Tagblatt where large amounts of furniture was for sale, indicating that the shop was about to close down. The owner was Průša (František).

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SourceJaroslav Šerák, Radko Pytlík

Quote from the novel
[1.1] Jednoho, ten je sluhou u drogisty Průši a vypil mu tam jednou omylem láhev nějakého mazání na vlasy, a potom znám ještě Ferdinanda Kokošku, co sbírá ty psí hovínka. Vobou není žádná škoda.“
K.u.k. Heernn flag
Stubenring -/1, Wien I.-K.u.k. Ärar [1914]
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K.u.k. Heer is first mentioned (as "the army") in an anecdote Švejk tells from his time in the army (national service). This is in the conversation with Müllerová at the very start of the novel. After this the army is mentioned innumerable times, and is the most important backdrop for the novel (with Švejk as a soldier) from the middle of Book One. It is also the principal target of Hašek's satire.

Background

K.u.k. Heer (also k.u.k Armee or Gemeinsame Armee) was the largest and most important body in k.u.k Bewaffneten Macht (armed forces). Together with the k.k. Landwehr (Austrian national guard) and the k.u. Honvéd (Hungarian national guard) it made up the Landstreitkräfte (terrestrial forces). These and the k.u.k Kriegsmarine (navy) made up the total armed forces.

The common army consisted of infantry, cavalry, supply-troops and technical troops. The period of service was three years. During the war, losses were replaced by so-called March battalions, one of which Švejk was later to be assigned to. The k.u.k army existed from 1867 to 1918 and suffered catastrophic losses in WW1, the only full-scale war it ever participated in. At various time it fought on four fronts; Serbia, Galicia, Romania and Tyrol and after the heavy losses in 1914 it increasingly became dependant on German support.

The army command was from 1913 located in the building of the Kriegsministerium at Stubenring 1, Vienna. At the time when Švejk did his national service they were surely still at the old premises in Am Hof 2. This building was demolished in 1912.

Oberbefehl formally lay with the monarch who communicated with the army through Militärkanzlei Seiner Majestät des Kaisers und Königs. Kriegsministerium was responsible for the day to day operation of the army. From 1914 to 1917 Friedrich was general inspector of the army but he delegated the operative responsibility to Conrad.

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Quote from the novel
[1.1] Jó, paní Müllerová, dnes se dějou věci. To je zas ztráta pro Rakousko. Když jsem byl na vojně, tak tam jeden infanterista zastřelil hejtmana. Naládoval flintu a šel do kanceláře.

Also written:Austro-Hungarian Army en Rakousko-uherská armáda cz Austerrike-Ungarns Hær no

U kalichann flag
Na Bojišti 1732/14, Praha II-Vilém Juris [1913]
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Národní politika, 2.8.1899

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Mládenec, 7.11.1913

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Národní politika, 17.11.1917

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Národní politika, 14.11.1923

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Chytilův adresář, 1924

U kalicha is the tavern where Švejk and landlord Palivec were arrested by detective Bretschneider at the very start of the novel. This probably happened on 29 June 1914 as the news about the murders in Sarajevo appeared in the newspapers on that day (Müllerová had just read about it).

The plot returns to U kalicha in [I.6] when Švejk is released from his ordeal, again meets Bretschneider, and convinces the detective to buy dogs from him. His last visit is in [I.10] after he has started his career as officer's servant with Katz. Mrs Palivcová refuses to serve him as she thinks he is a deserter.

U kalicha is also mentioned in [II.4] in the classic scene from Bruck an der Leitha when Švejk and Vodička promise to meet there after the war, at six in the evening - one of the most famous quotes from the entire novel.

Background

U kalicha is the name of a restaurant in Na Bojišti street, and also the name of the building where the restaurant is located. Today it is thanks to Švejk a tourist attraction, but in 1914 it an ordinary pub with one tap-room, . Proofs of the tavern's existence appear already in 1896 when Vilém Šubert is listed as landlord at Na Bojišti 8. In 1899 adverts reveal that it already then was known as U kalicha and that it was located in Na Bojišti 1732/8, in the same building as today. That year the owner was trying to sell new bicycles, presumably as a side business. The building itself has been there at least since 1892. In 1907 the building was advertised for sale and the advert mentions the pub.

In the 1910 address book it is listed at Na Bojišti 1732/14, and the landlord is Vilém Juris. Police records revealed that he lived at the address from 18 July 1908, born in 1871 and married to Blahoslava. In 1913 he placed adverts specifically aimed at students and he used the name U zlatého kalichu. Juris marketed his establishment "as a well known meeting spot for students, with concerts every day and open until the morning". In 1917 some Vaneček had taken over the license. In April 1923 adverts reveal that the pub had been renamed Café Evropa and offered French cuisine, and the 1924 address book lists the owner as Josef Kyral. Adverts from November 1923 show signs that U kalicha had started to exploit its connection to Švejk.

Hašek and U kalicha, an unclear connection
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© VHA

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A blip from Elsbeth Wessel

It remains unclear why Jaroslav Hašek gave U kalciha such a prominent role in the novel as none of his biographers or friends mentions it as a place he frequented.

One possible connection is one Josef Švejk (1892-1965) who from 1912 onwards lived two houses down the street. This is a person the author may have known about, particularly since both were volunteers in České legie from 1916. In this context it is worth mentioning that there is no mention of U kalicha in the 1911 and 1917 versions of Švejk so the author's knowledge of this person may have inspired him to introduce U kalicha in the novel. His first name Josef is also introduced in the novel.

We also know that Jaroslav Hašek associated with students from the technical college so he may have been drawn to U kalicha by them. That he knew the environs of U kalicha is also clear. Two houses down, in number 463/10, a brothel was registered on Antonín Nosek (1912). This could explain why Švejk told Vodička that "they have girls there".

The well known Norwegian germanist Elsbeth Wessel contributes with a peculiar item. In an otherwise insightful chapter on Hašek she informs that "that the author slowly drank himself to death at U kalicha". Who the source of this claim is we don't know, but this should be regarded as a blip as the rest of her contribution is of high quality.

Legends starting to appear
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Prager Presse, 5.12.1929

Over the years a number of legends have been spun around U kalicha and Jaroslav Hašek’s novel. An early example is Maxmilian Huppert (Prager Presse, 5 December 1929) who claimed that a certain František Švejca (born 1875) was a regular there, traded in stolen dogs, and adds a number of details that bear the hallmarks of trying to adapt reality to fit the novel. Hupperts crown witness is a former landlord at U kalicha, P(Ferdinand Juris. He claims to have known this "Švejk". More tangible is the information that U kalicha no longer operated and that the premises now were used for storing flour.

In 1968 a related story appeared in the weekly magazine Květy (12 September 1968, signed J.R Veselý). It contained sensational claims that a Josef Švejk was in fact a friend of Jaroslav Hašek and that they met on several occasions before, during and after the war. Much of the story has been verified, but the details that attempt to connect this Švejk to Hašek appears to be invented. See Josef Švejk for details.

Boulevard news

In his book from 1989 Die Abenteuer des gar nicht so braven Humoristen Jaroslav Hašek Jan Berwid-Buquoy threw in several new but rather "coloured" items. It is claimed that a Marie Müllerova was a brothel madam in the same building, that František Strašlipka, the alleged model for Švejk, was a regular there and was even her lover, that Palivec was a waiter there, that the landlord was a certain foul-mouthed Václav Šmíd. The author has since re-spun and expanded the story a few times, through another book (2011) and an article in Reflex. He even changed the name of the landlord and other details, but the essence of the information has never been confirmed. Later it has is claimed that Anastasie Herzog bought the building in 1907. Police records show that the businessman Benno Herzog actually lived in the building in 1912, but the only Anastasie Herzog showing up in police records was his daughter, born in 1907! The 1906 address books lists the owner of the building U kalicha as Karel Císař.

In the end these stories appear to be based on hearsay. A more serious concern is that most it appears on the restaurant's own web site (even in English and Russian), so the nonsense gets propagated world-wide. Here even more "facts" are thrown in the pot: U kalicha is supposed to have become popular after the translation of Švejk into German (1926) and particularly during the thirties when German journalists and men of letter came to visit E.E. Kisch. In that case they would have been disappointed as the restaurant closed down some time between 1924 and 1929 (it is not found in the 1936 address book).

A tourist attraction
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The original tap-room at No. 14 (2011)

Around 1955 U kalicha was expanded (probably re-opened), and deliberately turned into a tourist attraction. From then on the restaurant occupies both No 14. and No 12. It lives well on the connection with Švejk, with prices above average and frequent tour groups visiting. Still U kalicha is worth a visit as it is decorated with memorabilia related to Švejk and the times of WW1. To avoid the crowds it is advisable to visit around lunchtime or early afternoon. The food is Czech, the menu comes in 27 languages.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.1] Já teď jdu do hospody „U kalicha“, a kdyby sem někdo přišel pro toho ratlíka, na kterýho jsem vzal zálohu, tak mu řeknou, že ho mám ve svém psinci na venkově, že jsem mu nedávno kupíroval uši a že se teď nesmí převážet, dokud se mu uši nezahojí, aby mu nenastydly. Klíč dají k domovnici.“

Also written:At the Chalice en Zum Kelch de Ved Kalken no

K.u.k. Staatspolizeinn flag
Bartolomějská 313/4, Praha I-K.u.k. Ärar [1906]
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© Pamatník Národního Písemnictvi

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Hašek's encounter with state police after having registered as a Russian trader at U valšů, 24 November 1914. © PNP

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Čechoslovan, 21.8.1916 (3.9)

K.u.k. Staatspolizei is mentioned when it is revealed that Bretschneider is in the service of the state police.

Background

K.u.k. Staatspolizei was the domestic civilian intelligence service of Austria-Hungary, which main task was surveillance of potential enemies of the state. The department was created in 1893 after civilian unrest and the unit reported directly to the "Statthalter". In Prague their servicemen and agents were operating from Policejní ředitelství. In their service were amongst others two young lawyers, Slavíček and Klíma. Head of the Prague office was Viktor Chum.

Jaroslav Hašek had intimate knowledge of the state police, originating from his period as an anarchist activist (from 1904). His most celebrated encounter with them was after his famous hoax at U Valšů on 24 November 1914 where he registered as a Russian trader, ostensibly to test the vigilance of the Austrian security service. He was let off with only 5 days in jail which he served immediately.

During the war the eyes of the state police again fell on Jaroslav Hašek. It happened after the author on 17 June 1916 (30 July) published a story in Čechoslovan in Kiev where he lets a tomcat soil pictures of the emperor. This led to charges of high treason and an arrest order was issued. Several of the other stories he wrote also aroused interest at home. They were translated to German for the benefit of the investigators and led to a lively exchange between the police headquarters in Prague and Vienna.

Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí: … Švejka vedli k výslechu do oddělení státní policie přímo k policejnímu komisaři Klímovi a Slavíčkovi.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.1] V hospodě „U kalicha“ seděl jen jeden host. Byl to civilní strážník Bretschneider, stojící ve službách státní policie. Hostinský Palivec myl tácky a Bretschneider se marně snažil navázat s ním vážný rozhovor.
Vinárna Sarajevonn flag
Nusle
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Vinárna Sarajevo was a wine tavern in Nusle where, according to Palivec, there was fighting every day.

Background

Vinárna Sarajevo was a wine tavern which existence and location has yet to be verified. According to Milan Hodík Palivec may have referred to a small pub known as Bosna in Michle.

Milan Hodík

Šlo nejspíš o malou hospodu zvanou Bosna na michelském kopce nad Bondyho statkem.

Quote from the novel
[1.1] „Ty nám to pěkně v tom Sarajevu vyvedli,“ se slabou nadějí ozval se Bretschneider. „V jakým Sarajevu?“ otázal se Palivec, „v tej nuselskej vinárně? Tam se perou každej den, to vědí, Nusle.“
Mladočešinn flag
Jungmannová tř. -/25, Praha II.
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Karel Kramář, Reichsrat 1896. © Radio Praha

Mladočeši is mentioned indirectly when Palivec tells Bretschneider that he serves whoever pays up, and that he didn't care at all if it was a Muslim, anarchist, Turk or a Young Czech who killed Franz Ferdinand.

Background

Mladočeši (officially Národní strana svobodomyslná) was a Czech political party that existed from 1874 to 1918, formally called the National Liberal Party. The party reached its zenith after 1890. Due to their for the time radical demands on universal suffrage and greater autonomy for the Czech lands of Austria-Hungary, they received considerable support in their homeland but correspondingly greater opposition from Vienna.

Thereafter the Social Democrats and the Agrarian Party made inroads into their electoral base, and the party lost much of its influence. The leading politician in the history of the party was Kramář. The party's official newspaper was Národní listy, to which Jaroslav Hašek contributed many short stories. At the 1911 election to Parlament they achieved 9.8 per cent of the votes in Bohemia and had 14 representatives.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.1] „Host jako host,“ řekl Palivec, „třebas Turek. Pro nás živnostníky neplatí žádná politika. Zaplať si pivo a seď v hospodě a žvaň si, co chceš. To je moje zásada. Jestli to tomu našemu Ferdinandovi udělal Srb nebo Turek, katolík nebo mohamedán, anarchista nebo mladočech, mně je to všechno jedno.“

Also written:Young Czech Party en Jungtschechen de Ungtsjekkarane no

Věznice Pankrácnn flag
Palackého tř. 88/-, Nusle Pankrác-K.u.k. Ärar [1906]
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Egon Erwin Ksich, Bohemia, 7.11.1913

Věznice Pankrác is implicitly mentioned by Palivec when he explains that talking politics might mean ending up in Pankrác.

The prison is also referred to in [I.3] where the unfortunate lathe operator who broke into Podolský kostelík was incarcerated and later died.

Background

Věznice Pankrác (C.k. trestnice pro mužké v Praze) was at the time a large penitary for men, and "pankrác" is almost synonymous with prison in Czech slang. The prison is named after the Pankrác district where it is located. Construction started in 1885 and was complete in 1889.

It was at the time a modern prison with good conditions for the inmates. In Austrian times the prison mostly housed dangerous male criminals but also saw the odd political prisoner.

The prison later became the scene of executions and 1580 persons were killed; 1087 of them during the Nazi occupation. During Communist rule from 1948 another few hundreds were executed.

Egon Erwin Kisch

The Raging Reporter has contributed his part to the fame of the prison. Denied permission to enter, he still climbed the walls, and reported from the cemetery of the inmates. Their graves were not marked! This is all revealed in the story Im Friedhof der Pankratzer Sträflinge (On the cemetery of the Pankrác inmates), first printed in Bohemia on 7 November 1913, in 1931 appearing in the book Prager Pivatal with the title changed.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.1] „Já se do takových věcí nepletu, s tím ať mi každej políbí prdel,“ odpověděl slušně pan Palivec, zapaluje si dýmku, „dneska se do toho míchat, to by mohlo každému člověku zlomit vaz. Já jsem živnostník, když někdo přijde a dá si pivo, tak mu ho natočím. Ale nějaký Sarajevo, politika nebo nebožtík arcivévoda, to pro nás nic není, z toho nic nekouká než Pankrác.“
[1.3] Potom ten soustružník zemřel na Pankráci.

Also written:Pankrác Prison en Pankratz Gefängnis de Pankrác fengsel no

Krajský soud Píseknn flag
Velké nám. 121/17, Písek-K.u.k. Ärar [1915]
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Krajský soud Písek is where the pig gelder from Vodňany was sentenced and executed, all whilst uttering the worst imaginable things about the emperor. At least this is what Švejk tells Bretschneider at U kalicha.

Background

Krajský soud Písek was an institution that was part of the judiciary of Austerrike, and also remained under Czechoslovakia. Písek also hosted an okresný soud (district court), and this court still exists. The location of the court is almost certainly the same as under Austria.

The court in Písek was involved in the infamous Hilsner-affair where a Jew was accused of ritual murder. His death-sentence was confirmed in Písek on 14 November 1900 but the verdict was converted to life imprisonment and in 1918 he was set free during a general amnesty. Future president Masaryk put his academic career at stake during his defence of Hilsner. The verdict at Písek was quashed as late as 1998.

Quote from the novel
[1.1] Když ho potom u krajského soudu v Písku věšeli, ukousl knězi nos a řekl že vůbec ničeho nelituje, a také řekl ještě něco hodně ošklivého o císařovi pánovi.“

Also written:Písek District Court en Landesgericht Písek de Distriktsretten Písek no

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

2. The good soldier Švejk at police headquarters

Policejní ředitelstvínn flag
Ferdinandová třída 313/15, Praha I-K.u.k. Ärar [1906]
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum
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Světozor, 13.9.1928

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Like the author in the novel Břetislav Hůla (1950) mixes up the 3rd department with the State Police

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Politický kalendář občanský … 1911

Policejní ředitelství was where was Švejk was led by detective Bretschneider after his arrest at U kalicha. He was accused of high treason, insulting His Majesty, and even sedition - accusations he agreed to without flinching. He stayed at police HQ through the whole of [I.2], a chapter which took place in the course of just one evening/night. In the morning he was taken to Zemský trestní soud in a police car which left through the main gate, i.e. in ul Karoliny Světlé 2.

The gate of the building and three places inside are mentioned: the reception, the cells on the first floor and the interrogation room in the 3rd department, up the stairs from the cells but unclear on which floor. Švejk rarely complained, but here he shows his dissatisfaction with the long way from the cell to the interrogators room.

In [I.6] Švejk pays police HQ another visit after he was arrested because of his strikingly enthusiastic reaction to the declaration of war. Her the author delivers his personal opinion of the institution "where the spirit of foreign authority wafted through the building".

Background

Policejní ředitelství (C.k. policejní ředitelství v Praze) was the police HQ in Prague and it's official address in 1914 was Ferdinandova třída 15. The entrance was around the corner in ul. Karoliny Světlé 2. It was (and is) a huge complex, located between Ferdinandova, Karoliny Světlé and Bartolomejská. It is still (2018) the HQ of the Prague's police.

The Police HQ was organised in five departments where the State Police (K.u.k. Staatspolizei), department III (public order), and department IV (safety) are the ones that are relevant in the context of Švejk. Department III is directly mentioned in the novel, although the author most probably has the State Police Department in mind. In 1913 the following of our acquaintances from the novel were employed: Slavíček and Klíma (State Police) and Drašner (department IV). Head of the 1st Department was Rudolf Demartini, a person who may have inspired Demartini, the fat gentleman at Zemský trestní soud.

The head of Policejní ředitelství carried the title "Police Director" (from 1912 "Police President") and the position was in the period 1902 to 1915 held by Court Councillor Karel Křikava, uncle of the writer Louis Křikava. He frequented the same environs as Hašek and is mentioned several times in Strana mírného pokroku v mezích zákona. Head of the State Police Department was Viktor Chum.

Karel Křikava (1860 - 1935) made a rapid career in the police but was pensioned in 1915 for political reasons. He was not informed about the arrest of Kramář and as a result of the conflict that followed he was pensioned due to "health problems". After the war he was reactivated and was given the task of organising the police in Slovakia.

The Good Soldier Švejk in Captivity

In the second version of Švejk, Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí, that Jaroslav Hašek wrote in 1917, police HQ is described in greater detail, particularly the department of K.u.k. Staatspolizei. Bartolomějská ulice is mentioned explicitly and so are the police commissioners Klíma and Slavíček and the author correctly notes that both worked for the state police. The description is more detailed than in the novel and Chum is referred to as head of the "triumvirate".

A Russian trader

In November 1915 Jaroslav Hašek acquired first hand knowledge of Policejní ředitelství. As a premeditated provocation he registered at U Valšů as a Russian trader and the State Police soon arrived and arrested the "foreigner".

Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí: … Švejka vedli k výslechu do oddělení státní policie přímo k policejnímu komisaři Klímovi a Slavíčkovi. Tito dva představitelé aparátu státní policie od vypuknutí války až po objevení Švejka v kanceláři vyšetřili několik set případů udání, provedli spoustu domovních prohlídek a odváděli muže od teplých večeří do Bartolomějské ulice. Jest zajímavé, proč department pražské státní policie právě se usadil v ulici připomínající svým jménem bartolomějskou noc …

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.2] Sarajevský atentát naplnil policejní ředitelství četnými oběťmi. Vodili to jednoho po druhém a starý inspektor v přijímací kanceláři říkal svým dobráckým hlasem: „Von se vám ten Ferdinand nevyplatí!“ Když Švejka zavřeli v jedné z četných komor prvého patra, Švejk našel tam společnost šesti lidí.
[1.6] Budovou policejního ředitelství vanul duch cizí authority, která zjišťovala, jak dalece je obyvatelstvo nadšeno pro válku. Kromě několika výjimek, lidí, kteří nezapřeli, že jsou synové národa, který má vykrvácet za zájmy jemu úplně cizí, policejní ředitelství představovalo nejkrásnější skupiny byrokratických dravců, kteří měli smysl jedině pro žalář a šibenici, aby uhájili existenci zakroucených paragrafů.

Also written:Police Headquarters en Polizeidirektion de Politihovudkvarteret no

U Brejškynn flag
Spálená ul. 107/47, Praha II-Karel Brejška [1910]
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Zlatá Praha, 15.5.1984

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Breaking ice by U Brejšky. Jaroslav Hašek third from the left. Zdeněk Matěj Kuděj is in the middle. The tall man on the left is landlord Karel Brejška.

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Právo lidu, 19.1.1914

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Národní listy, 17.5.1923

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Ladislav Hájek, 1925

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Egon Erwin Kisch, 6.12.1925

U Brejšky was where detective Brixi arrested an unusually fat owner of a paper shop who had bought beer for two Serbian students. The generous man was one of Švejk's inmates in the cell at Policejní ředitelství. The pub is mentioned several times, and in the final chapter it crops up in an anecdote Švejk tells Marek. In this anecdote it is named U Brejsků, a minor change from singular to plural.

Background

U Brejšky was a restaurant in Spalená ulice in Praha II. that in it's original form existed from 1884 until around 1920. It was known as a meeting place for journalists; Egon Erwin Kisch and others wrote about the phenomenon "news exchange" in Prager Tagblatt in 1925. Both Czech and German newspapermen frequented the place. Immediately after opening the restaurant had installed a telephone station (No. 180), a rare sight in 1884.

The restaurant served beer from Plzeň and was also known for its good food. Not only was it popular amongst journalists: visitors from the province also enjoyed it here. On the first floor it offered meeting rooms and accommodation. U Brejšky (aka. U Brejšků or Brejškova restaurace) was altogether one of the most best known and popular taverns in all of Prague, as indicated by the endless amount of newspaper clips. The restaurant was named after the original owner, Karel Brejška.

Jaroslav Hašek and Brejška

The author of Švejk frequented it regularly and he mentions the restaurant not only in the novel, but also in several of his short stories. Amongst them is Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí (1917) but here it occurs only briefly. On the other hand U Brejšky is the main focus of a story he wrote in 1912 about a meeting with the enormous black American Zipp. The landlord himself appears in the story and is described in positive terms.

U Brejšky is known from a photo where Jaroslav Hašek and Zdeněk Matěj Kuděj break ice on the street outside. A note in Právo lidu 19 January 1914 indicates that the picture was made 17 January 1914 and it was published with a text on 6 February in Světozor. Both texts refer to a strike amongst typographers. In his memoirs Hájek wrote about Karel Brejška, that the landlord liked Hašek and readily helped him when he was in trouble. Hájek incorrectly dates the picture to the winter of 1912, an error that later propagated into other literature about Hašek.

Karel Brejška

The owner of the restaurant was Karel Brejška (6 June 1856 - 15 May 1923), the big man seen to the left on the photo. He bought the building Zlatá váha in Spalená ulice 117/47 for 60,000 guilders early in 1884. Prager Tagblatt reported that the restaurant operated from 19 January that year. Police records reveal that Brejška moved here in 1884, was married and had children. He was also a dedicated sportsman, above all in cycling, and readily took on duties. He edited the guest house owner's magazine Hostimil and hosted their editorial offices at U Brejšky. Karel Brejška was a popular figure and when he died after long illness in 1923, Eduard Bass, a friend of Jaroslav Hašek, wrote a long obituary in Lidové noviny, and this was not the only newspaper that fondly remembered him. Brejška sold the restaurant three years before he died.

Modern times

In 1939 was still listed in the address book but whether or not there has been in continuous operation is not known. In any case it still exists in a modern variation (2016) with the name Haškova restaurace U Brejsků. It is decorated with photos from the era (many of them feature Hašek) and makes the most of its connection with Jaroslav Hašek. Their web page say little about the historical lines, focuses on Hašek and that the sports club Slavia was formed here on 31 May 1895. The current restaurant is found in the basement.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.2] Výjimku dělal neobyčejně tlustý pán s brýlemi, s uplakanýma očima, který byl zatčen doma ve svém bytě, poněvadž dva dny před atentátem v Sarajevu platil „U Brejšky“ za dva srbské studenty, techniky, útratu a detektivem Brixim byl spatřen v jejich společnosti opilý v „Montmartru“ v Řetězové ulici, kde, jak již v protokole potvrdil svým podpisem, též za ně platil.

Also written:Die Zeche Reiner

Montmartrenn flag
Řetězová ul. 224/7, Praha I-Josef Waltner [1911]
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montmartre_adv.png

Národní Politika, 27.2.1913

Montmartre is mentioned because the paper-shop owner who was Švejk's cell companion at Policejní ředitelství had been observed drunk here together with the two Serb students he had paid for earlier in the day, at U Brejšky.

Background

Montmartre was a café in the very centre of Prague which recently (as of 2010) was re-opened after a break of 70 years. The name is obviously taken from the famous Paris district of Montmartre. The cafe is decorated with period photos where Jaroslav Hašek plays a prominent role. The 1989 Sametová revoluce put a stop to official plans to turn Montmartre into a museum for Jaroslav Hašek.

Montmartre was opened in 1911 by the well-known actor and artits Josef Waltner. It was a night cafe and entertainment establishment, also known as Cabaret Montmartre. From the beginning it became a popular meeting place amongst artists, intellectuals and the bohemian set. Apart from Jaroslav Hašek it was also frequented by the likes of Kuděj, Max Brod, E.E. Kisch, Franz Werfel and Franz Kafka. Hašek wrote four short stories where was Montmartre involved, and E.E. Kisch also immortalised the café through his writing. Hašek wrote several stories set around Montmartre.

Und einer von ihnen hatte doch während jener Tagung noch die Habsburger geschützt, indem er dem Delegierten Jaroslav Hašek auf dessen Zwischenruf: "Borg mir eine Krone" ex praesidio die feierliche Rüge ersteilte: "Bitte die Krone nicht in die Debatte zu ziehen".

Links

Source: Egon Erwin Kisch: Die Abenteuer in Prag. Zitate vom Montmartre

Quote from the novel
[1.2] Výjimku dělal neobyčejně tlustý pán s brýlemi, s uplakanýma očima, který byl zatčen doma ve svém bytě, poněvadž dva dny před atentátem v Sarajevu platil „U Brejšky“ za dva srbské studenty, techniky, útratu a detektivem Brixim byl spatřen v jejich společnosti opilý v „Montmartru“ v Řetězové ulici, kde, jak již v protokole potvrdil svým podpisem, též za ně platil.
Spolek Dobromilnn flag
Kublov 55/-, Podolí-Václav Douda [1910]
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spolkadobromil.jpg

Garden restaurant in Hodkovičky, a possible location for "Dobromil's" celebration.

dobromil_adr.png

Address book from 1910

Spolek Dobromil was a charity in Hodkovičky who held a celebration on the day of the murders in Sarajevo. The police arrived and asked them to stop, but the chairman retorted that hey had to finish playing "Hej, Slované" (well known pan-slavic hymn) first. This led him straight to the cell at Policejní ředitelství.

Background

Spolek Dobromil is an association which so far has not been fully identified. It is still very likely that they existed and may well have congregated in the centre of Hodkovičky. In 1910 such a society existed in nearby Podolí and Dvorce, so it is quite likely that these are the people Jaroslav Hašek refers to.

Source: Milan Hodík

Quote from the novel
[1.2] Třetí spiklenec byl předseda dobročinného spolku „Dobromil“ v Hodkovičkách. V den, kdy byl spáchán atentát, pořádal „Dobromil“ zahradní slavnost spojenou s koncertem. Četnický strážmistr přišel, aby požádal účastníky, by se rozešli, že má Rakousko smutek, načež předseda „Dobromilu“ řekl dobrácky: „Počkají chvilku, než dohrajou ,Hej, Slované’.“
Národní politikann flag
Václavské nám. 835/21, Praha II.-Václav Beneš [1910]
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narodnipolitika.jpg

Národní politika, 29.6.1914

politika.png

Národní politika, 15.11.1915

Národní politika is first mentioned during the interrogation at Policejní ředitelství when Švejk reveals that he reads the afternoon issue to look for dog adverts. He also uses the term "čubička" (the little bitch), which provokes the interrogator with the animal traits to shout: Out!.

Národní politika is mentioned again both in [I.6], [I.13] and in [II.2].

Background

Národní politika was a conservative daily that was published in Prague from 1883 to 1945. The editorial offices were located at Václavské náměstí. The paper printed at least six of Jaroslav Hašek's stories and it was one of the first papers to report both his capture in 1915 and his return to Prague (1920). In other stories he makes fun of the newspaper.

According to Franta Sauer it was the author's preferred newspaper, and at first sight it appears that used snippets from it in the novel. The conversation between Lukáš and Wendler in [I.14] reveals word for word quotes from the paper. The evening issue from 4 April 1915 is a prime example. That said Kronika světové války is an even more obvious source for these fragments.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.2] „S kýmpak se stýkáte?“ „Se svou posluhovačko, vašnosti.“ „A v místních politických kruzích nemáte nikoho známého?“ „To mám, vašnosti, kupuji si odpoledníčka „Národní politiky“, ,čubičky’.“ „Ven!“ zařval na Švejka pán se zvířecím vzezřením.
[1.6] posledně od toho pana řídícího z Brna ta záloha šedesát korun na angorskou kočku, kterou jste inseroval v Národní politice a místo toho jste mu poslal v bedničce od datlí to slepé štěňátko foxteriéra.
[1.13] Když tenkrát ta sopka Mont Pelé zničila celý ostrov Martinique, jeden profesor psal v Národní politice, že už dávno upozorňoval čtenáře na velkou skvrnu na slunci. A vona, ta Národní politika, včas nedošla na ten vostrov, a tak si to tam, na tom vostrově, vodskákali."
[2.2] I u nás jsou nadšenci. Četli v ,Národní politice’ o tom obrlajtnantovi Bergrovi od dělostřelectva, který si vylezl na vysokou jedli a zřídil si tam na větví beobachtungspunkt?

Also written:National Politics en Nationalpolitik de Nasjonal Politikk no

Museumnn flag
Václavské nám. 1700/74, Praha II.
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muzeum.jpg

The National Museum around 1900

Museum is mentioned in an anecdote by Švejk about quartering av prisoners in the bad old days. This is supposed to have happened on a hill somewhere by the museum. The museum itself is later mentioned explicitly in an anecdote on the way to Budapest.

Background

Museum which is talked about is certainly the main building of Museum království Českého, now Národní muzeum in Prague. It is located at the southern end of Václavské náměstí. The building was erected between 1885 and 1891. It is currently (2014) closed for renovation.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.2] Takovejch případů bylo víc a ještě potom člověka čtvrtili nebo narazili na kůl někde u Musea.
Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

3. Švejk before the court physicians

Zemský trestní soudnn flag
Spalená 6/2, Praha II-K.u.k. Ärar [1906]
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum

Zemský trestní soud is the institution Švejk was driven to in a police car the morning after the arrest. Here he was interrogated by a good-natured judge who, when he read what Švejk had confessed to, qustioned his mental health. He concluded that Švejk had to undergo an investigation by a psychiatric commission, which resulted in him being sent to a lunatic asylum.

Background

Zemský trestní soud was located in Spálená ulice, at the corner of Karlovo náměstí. Today this building houses the City Court.

The author was taken to court here in 1907 after he at an anarchist meeting on 1 May allegedly incited violence against the police. For this he was sentenced to a month in prison, his longest conviction ever. He was sentenced on 1 July and served the prison term from 16 August to 16 September 1907.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.3] Čisté, útulné pokojíky zemského „co trestního soudu“ učinily na Švejka nejpříznivější dojem. Vybílené stěny, černě natřené mříže i tlustý pan Demartini, vrchní dozorce ve vyšetřovací vazbě s fialovými výložky i obrubou na erární čepici. fialová barva je předepsána nejen zde, nýbrž i při náboženských obřadech na Popeleční středu i Veliký pátek.

Also written:Regional Criminal Court en Landesstrafgericht de Landsstrafferetten no

Teissignn flag
Spálená ul. 85/5, Praha I-Karel Teissig [1910]
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"U kotvy" in 2010

teissig.png

Národní listy, 1.1.1896

Teissig was a place where the employees of Zemský trestní soud went to fetch peppers and Pilsner beer for lunch. Why they went to get peppers is a mystery. Translators Grete Reiner and Cecil Parrott both interpreted it as goulash, probably a bit far-fetched.

Hans-Peter Laqueur has voiced the theory that the author by "paprika" meant "paprikash" which is the Hungarian goulash, a soup which is quite different from Czech "guláš". In that case Reiner and Parrott's translation is more accurate than "peppers".

Background

Teissig was a restaurant located across the street from the massive City Court complex (former Zemský trestní soud) and owned by Karel Teissig. He had been running the restaurant at least from 1895. Teissig had previously owned U kotvy two houses down the road, a restaurant that still exists (2016). Address books confirm that U Teissigů existed as late as 1940.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.3] A vyšetřující soudcové, Piláti nové doby, místo aby si čestně myli ruce, posílali si pro papriku a plzeňské pivo k Teissigovi a odevzdávali nové a nové žaloby na státní návladnictví.
Státní návladnictvínn flag
Malostranské nám. 2/25, Praha III-K.u.k. Ärar [1910]
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Státní návladnictví was where the detainees were led after their stay at Zemský trestní soud. Here formal prosecution was in store. The institution had also been briefly mentioned in [I.1].

Background

Státní návladnictví is a term that is rarely used in modern Czech, and is now mostly referred to as Státní zastupitelství, a wording that was used even during the life-time of the author (see cut from the 1910 address book). The expression refers to the state prosecutor's office. Their main seat was at Malostranské náměstí in the building of the regional high court, but they were also represented in the same building as Zemský trestní soud. It is surely those premises that the author had in mind.

Quote from the novel
[1.3] A vyšetřující soudcové, Piláti nové doby, místo aby si čestně myli ruce, posílali si pro papriku a plzeňské pivo k Teissigovi a odevzdávali nové a nové žaloby na státní návladnictví.

Also written:State prosecutor's office en Staatsanwaltschaft de Statsadvokatkontoret no

U Bansethůnn flag
Palackého tř. 389/18, Nusle-Alois Banseth [1910]
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum
bansethu.jpg

U Bansethů, 2011

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Národní listy, 27.2.1906

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Národní politika, 1.9.1907

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Národní politika, 21.3.1908

U Bansethů crops up in one of Švejk's stories. He was on his way back from this pub when he was assaulted by the bridge across Botič. The perpetrators got the wrong man and gave him an extra slap due to the disappointment.

The tavern is mentioned again in [I.13] in the discussion about volcanic eruptions and sunspots. See Martinique.

It also appears in the final chapter of the novel, and now the owner Banseth is mentioned directly.

Background

U Bansethů was the name of two restaurants in Nusle, owned by Alois Banseth. One of them is still operating and it advertises its connection to Svejk; the interior has numerous pictures of Jaroslav Hašek. There is even a Stůl Jaroslava Haška (Jaroslav Hašek's table).

The original restaurant was located a few steps down the street in house No. 321. Banseth started operation in the autumn of 1900 and in March 1908 it was announced that it was sold to František Kocan, former landlord at U Kocanů. Around the same time he bought house No. 389 which still bears his name. The pub already existed under the name U Palackého and Banseth with his wife Anna paid 100,000 crowns for the house.

Which of the two public houses the author had in mind is uncertain, but the address information given above relates to the one that still exists. Mr. Banseth was in 1910 listed as owner of the building that housed his pub. He also lived here.

The original U Bansethů also arranged public meetings on its premises, for instance on 26 February 1906 where anarchists took part, amongst the Jaroslav Hašek was very likely to be found. On this occasion the anarchist Čeněk Körber (1875-1951) caused such uproar that the meeting was abandoned. The pub was also hosted meetings by Česká strana národně sociální, Sokol, Volná myšlenka and Mladočeši. Particularly the first seemed to have met a lot here, and in Strana mírného pokroku v mezích zákona Jaroslav Hašek describes on of their meetings where he provoked and caused disorder.

Strana mírného pokroku

Po onom velkém morálním vítězství U Banzetů sešly se naše rozptýlené řady až nahoře na Havlíčkově třídě. Kulhal jsem, pod okem jsem měl modřinu a mé tváře, jak praví Goethe, nevěstily nic dobrého. Byly opuchlé!

Links

Source: Jaroslav Šerák

Quote from the novel
[1.3] Jako jednou v Nuslích, právě u mostu přes Botič, přišel ke mně v noci jeden pán, když jsem se vracel od Banzetů, a praštil mě bejkovcem přes hlavu, a když jsem ležel na zemi, posvítil si na mne a povídá: ,Tohle je mejlka, to není von.’

Notice: Undefined offset: 1 in /var/www/honsi.org/public_html/svejk/source/php/book.php on line 288
[1.13] „Ty skvrny na slunci mají vopravdu velkej význam,“ zamíchal se Švejk, „jednou se vobjevila taková skvrna a ještě ten samej den byl jsem bit ,U Banzetů’ v Nuslích.

Notice: Undefined offset: 1 in /var/www/honsi.org/public_html/svejk/source/php/book.php on line 288
[4.3] Vona potom chtěla mít celou soupravu do domácnosti z takovejch nožů a posílala ho vždycky v neděli do Kundratic na vejlet, ale von byl tak skromnej, že nešel nikam než k Banzetovům do Nuslí, kde věděl, že když sedí v kuchyni, že ho dřív Banzet vyhodí, než může na něho někdo sáhnout.“

Also written:U Banzetů Hašek

Podolský kostelíknn flag
Přemyšlova ul. 91/-, Podolí
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kostelik_addr.png

Adresář Prahy (1907)

Podolský kostelík is mentioned in the series of stories about various mistakes that Švejk tells his fellow remand prisoners at Zemský trestní soud. A lathe operator (turner) who lived in Švejk's house locked himself into the chapel by mistake once he was drunk, and because he thought he was at home he slept overnight and the result was that the church had to be re-consecrated. The unfortunate intruder was convicted and died at Věznice Pankrác.

Background

Podolský kostelík is almost certainly the parish church kostel svatého Michala (Church of Saint Michael) in Podolí, south of Vyšehrad.

Jaroslav Šerák

Podolský kostel bude určitě kostel svatého Michala v ulici Pod Vyšehradem, je to farní kostel dodnes. Ostatní jsou jen hřbitovní kaple, nebo postavené později.

Links

Source: Jaroslav Šerák

Quote from the novel
[1.3] Nebo vám povím příklad, jak se zmejlil u nás v domě jeden soustružník. Votevřel si klíčem podolskej kostelík, poněvadž myslel, že je doma, zul se v sakristii, poněvadž myslel, že je to u nich ta kuchyně, a lehl si na voltář, poněvadž myslel, že je doma v posteli, a dal na sebe nějaký ty dečky se svatými nápisy a pod hlavu evangelium a ještě jiný svěcený knihy, aby měl vysoko pod hlavou.
Česká radikální stranann flag
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baxa.jpg

Karel Baxa, member of parliament from 1903-1918 and chairman of Státoprávně radikální strana

Česká radikální strana is is indirectly referred to in Švejk's story about the Czech radical deputy who by mistake is chased by Rotter's police dogs.

Background

Česká radikální strana was not the a name of any particular political party but it is quite obvious that Švejk had either Strana radikálně pokroková or Státoprávně radikální strana in mind. The former party existed from 1897 to 1908 and campaigned for extensive political reforms, whereas the latter was formed in 1899 and their main goal was extended state rights for the Czech lands.

In 1908 he two parties merged and founded Česká strana státoprávně pokroková. From 1914 the party openly campaigned for an independent Czech state and suffered persecution as a result. It can not be ruled out that label "radical" stuck with even the new party and that indeed was them Švejk had in mind.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.3] Nakonec se ukázalo, že ten člověk byl českej radikální poslanec, kterej si vyjel na vejlet do lánskejch lesů, když už ho parlament vomrzel.
Parlamentnn flag
Franzens-Ring -/1, Wien I.
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reichsrat.jpg

Abgeordneterhaus 1907

parlament2.png

A selection of Czech deputies in Reichsrat in 1914 (Josef Švejk highlighted).

Parlament is mentioned is Švejk's story about the Czech radical member of parliament who by mistake is chased by Rotter's police dogs.

Background

Parlament refers to Reichhsrat in Vienna. From 1867 until 1918 it was the national assembly of Cisleithanien, i.e. the Austrian part of the Dual Monarchy. The assembly consisted of a Herrenhaus (House of Lords) and a Abgeordneterhaus (House of Commons).

The last election to the Abgerodneterhaus was held in June 1911, and that year the house counted 506 deputies, of which 232 were Germans, 108 Czechs and 83 Poles. The remaining seats were occupied by Ukrainians, Slovenes, Italians, Romanians, Croats, Serbs and a lone Zionist!. Several of the politicians mentioned in our novel were deputies at the outbreak of war: Masaryk, Kramář, Klofáč and a certain agrarian politician Josef Švejk. A former deputy of interest was Alexander Dworski, see Grabowski.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.3] Nakonec se ukázalo, že ten člověk byl českej radikální poslanec, kterej si vyjel na vejlet do lánskejch lesů, když už ho parlament vomrzel. Proto říkám, že jsou lidi chybující, že se mejlejí, ať je učenej, nebo pitomej, nevzdělanej blbec. Mejlejí se i ministři.“
Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

4. They threw Švejk out of the madhouse

Blázinecnn flag
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum

Blázinec is referred to when Švejk is led to the psychiatric ward after a commision of psychiatrists conclude that he is a "malingerer with a feeble mind". He might have spent several weeks here as he was only released on 29 July 1914, the day Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.

Background

Blázinec was a mental hospital in Prague which is not explicitely located. We can still by near certainty conclude that the author means Kateřinky, an institution where he himself spent a few days in February 1911.

Quote from the novel
[1.4] Když později Švejk líčil život v blázinci, činil tak způsobem neobyčejného chvalořečení: „Vopravdu nevím, proč se ti blázni zlobějí, když je tam drží. Člověk tam může lézt nahej po podlaze, vejt jako šakal, zuřit a kousat. Jestli by to člověk udělal někde na promenádě, tak by se lidi divili, ale tam to patří k něčemu prachvobyčejnýmu. Je tam taková svoboda, vo kterej se ani socialistům nikdy nezdálo.

Also written:The Madhouse en Das Irrenhaus de Galehuset no

Ottův slovník naučnýnn flag
Karlovo náměstí 553/35, Praha II-Jan Otto [1910]
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cartonage.png

Ottův slovník naučný, 5. díl, 1892

ottuvplan.png

Ottův slovník naučný was mentioned in connection with the patient at Blázinec who claimed to be the 16th volume of this encyclopedia.

Background

Ottův slovník naučný is an encyclopaedia published by Otto that is regarded an outstanding work of reference also in an international context. A total of 28 volumes were released between 1888 and 1909 with additional supplements appearing thereafter. Otto's Encyclopaedia was at the time one of the largest in the world. The editorial offices were at Karlovo náměstí, in the building next to the publishing house of Otto.

Emil Artur Longen (1928) claims that Jaroslav Hašek made active use of the encyclopaedia when he wrote Švejk. He may well have a point as the long tirade recruit Pech used is almost a direct quote from the encyclopaedia.

The reference to kartonážní šička (cardboard stapler) can not be found in volume 16 (Lih-Media) and Antonín Měšťan also points out that there is no such entry in the encyclopaedia at all. If it had been a real entry it would have been found in volume 14. This volume does however have a reference to kartonáž that simply points to the entry cartonage in volume 5.

Antonín Měšťan

Durch einen Blick in den Ottův slovník naučný läßt sich leicht feststellen, daß das Stichwort "Kartonagenähgrin" nicht nur im 16. Band fehlt - es fehlt in diesem Lexikon überhaupt.

Links

SourceAntonín Měšťan, Emil Artur Longen

Quote from the novel
[1.4] Nejzuřivější byl jeden pán, kerej se vydával za 16. díl Ottova slovníku naučného a každého prosil, aby ho otevřel a našel heslo ,Kartonážní šička’, jinak že je ztracenej.

Also written:Otto's encyclopaedia en Ottos Konversationslexicon de Ottos konversasjonsleksikon no

Královy lázněnn flag
Ul. Karoliny Světlé 195/43, Praha I-Zdeněk Uhlíř [1910]
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lazne.png

Map from 1914

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Břetislav Hůla

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Baedeker

Královy lázně is indirectly mentioned by Švejk when he in Blázinec is asked if he enjoys likes getting a bath. "It is better than at the baths by Charles Bridge", is the answer.

Background

Královy lázně was a public bath at the end of Karlův most and is listed on the address Karoliny Světlé 43, indicated on the map. This is confirmed by Baedeker Österreich 1913 that refers to them as Königsbad.

Some baths north of the bridge are also shown, called Gemeindebad (Municipal Bath). This was more likely an open-air bath and to judge by the description in the novel, Švejk is almost certainly talking about the more luxurious indoor Royal Baths.

Břetislav Hůla refers to the bath as Karlovy lázně (Charles' Bath) and this corresponds to the entry in the address book of 1936. It is not known when exactly the renaming took place.

Links

Source: Archiv Hlavního Města Prahy (Sbírka map a plánů)

Quote from the novel
[1.4] V koupelně ho potopili do vany s teplou vodou a pak ho vytáhli a postavili pod studenou sprchu. To s ním opakovali třikrát a pak se ho optali, jak se mu to líbí. Švejk řekl, že je to lepší než v těch lázních u Karlova mostu a že se velmi rád koupe.

Also written:Royal Bath en Königsbad de

Regimentskanzlei IR91nn flag
Palackého třída 20/10, Karlín-K.u.k. Ärar [1914]
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Regimentskanzlei IR91 is mentioned by Švejk when he tells the medical commission at Blázinec that he has been released from the army due to feeblemindedness. He adds that this can be confirmed at the Ergänzungskommando in Karlín or the regimental office in Budějovice.

Background

Regimentskanzlei IR91 (main regimental staff office) was in 1914 stationed in Karlín and not in Budějovice as Švejk claims. At the outbreak of war, several regimental functions were indeed located in Ferdinandova kasárna in Karlín: 2. og 3. field battalion, regimental staff and the IR91 regimental command itself. This inconsistency is probably due to a mix-up with the Ergänzungsbezirkskommando which together with the 4th battalion and IR91 Ersatzbattailon were indeed stationed in Budějovice.

We should also take into account that the barracks in Karlín were converted to a Red Cross reserve hospital soon after outbreak of war, and that the administrative functions of the regiment would have been moved, some of them no doubt to Budějovice, and others to the front. Another explanation is that Švejk has the offices of IR91 Ersatzbattailon in mind (these were located in Budějovice until May 1915). See Ergänzungskommando.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.4] „Já, pánové,“ hájil se Švejk, „nejsem žádný simulant, já jsem opravdovej blbec, můžete se zpravit v kanceláři jednadevadesátýho pluku v Českých Budějovicích nebo na doplňovacím velitelství v Karlíně.“

Also written:Regimental office en Plukové kancelář cz Regimentskontoret no

Ergänzungskommandonn flag
Pekárenská ulice ?/?, Budějovice-K.u.k. Ärar [1912]
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ir91a.png

IR91, Seidels kleines Armeeschema August 1914

ergbudweis.png

91. Ergänzungsbezirk

Ergänzungskommando is mentioned by Švejk when he tells the medical commission at Blázinec that he has been released from the army due to feeblemindedness. He adds that this can be confirmed at the reserve command in Karlín or the Regimentskanzlei IR91 in Budějovice.

Background

Ergänzungskommando probably refers to the Ergänzungsbezirkskommando Nr. 91. It was located in Budějovice and not in Karlín as Švejk says, but at the outbreak of war several other regimental functions were located at Ferdinandova kasárna in Karlín: 2. og 3. field battalion, regimental staff and the IR91 Regimentskommando itself. We may therefore be witnessing a straight mix-up between Regimentskanzlei IR91 and Ergänzungsbezirkskommando. Both are mentioned in the same sentence, so Švejk appears to have simply swapped the respective geographical locations.

The district reserve command No. 91 was resposible for draft and calll-up of reserves in Ergänzungsbezirk Budweis, see map. Major towns of the district were: Budějovice, Týn nad Vltavou, Kaplice, Krumlov and Prachatice. The army units that the command provided recruits for were IR91 and 14. Dragonerregiment.

Commander in 1914 was Jan Splichal but he was sent to the front soon after hostilities began, and it is not clear who replaced him. Splichal was also head of IR91 Ersatzbattailon and in this role he was replaced by Karl Schlager, so it may well be that the latter also took over as head of the district reserve command.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.4] „Já, pánové,“ hájil se Švejk, „nejsem žádný simulant, já jsem opravdovej blbec, můžete se zpravit v kanceláři jednadevadesátýho pluku v Českých Budějovicích nebo na doplňovacím velitelství v Karlíně.“

Also written:Reserve command en Doplňovací velitelství cz Reservekommando no

Policejní komisařství Salmova ulicenn flag
Salmovská ul. 507/20, Praha II-K.u.k. Ärar [1910]
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polsalmovska.png

Politický kalendář, 1910

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Plan von Prag und Umgebung, 1910

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Zum Wortschatz des tschechischen Rotwelsch, Eugen Rippl, 1926

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Z.M. Kuděj, "Ve dvou se to lépe táhne, I.", s.68, 1924

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Denní raport - c.k. okresního policejního komisařství III.z. 31./12. 1908

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Československá republika, 26.6.1926

Policejní komisařství Salmova ulice is the scene of a full chapter in the novel. Švejk is taken straight here after refusing the leave Blázinec without lunch. His first encounter is with the brutal police inspector Braun but then the plot revolves mostly around a conversation with his fellow inmate, a very solid citizen who for the moment has slid off the path of virtue. Švejk does his utmost to convince him that his situation is hopeless.

The stay here was only one afternoon, and Švejk taken to the first floor for interrogation, this time by a fat and friendly police officer. Under escort he is led from the guard house (see Strážnice) on the ground floor onwards to Policejní ředitelství. It was on the way he read the emperor's declaration of war.

Background

Policejní komisařství Salmova ulice was the police station of the 3rd police district (Hořejší Nové Město - Upper New Town) in Prague, called "Salmovka" in common speech. It was located on the corner of Ječná ulice and Salmovská ulice. The police station was operating until 29 June 1926 when it was moved to Krakovská ulice where it is still located. The building was subsequently demolished and in 1928 the current edifice was erected on the site.

The station was often called "Salmovka" in day-to-day speech, a term used by e.g. Zdeněk Matěj Kuděj in one of his books about Jaroslav Hašek (Ve dvou se to lépe táhne, 1924). The term is also listed in a German-language dictionary of Czech slang (Eugen Rippl, 1926).

Chief inspector in 1906 and until 1910 was Karel Fahoun, and he was succeeded by Antonín Sklenička. No evidence has been found, in address books or elsewhere, that any Braun ever served here.

Hašek at Salmovská

This is a police station that Jaroslav Hašek knew well, because it within this police district he was born and grew up. Also in his adult life he for the most part lived within its jurisdiction. He was christened in Kostel sv. Štefána in the immediate vicinity and on several occasions he lived only a few steps away. It has also been claimed that the author was a personal friend of police chief Karel Fahoun and his family but Břetislav Hůla refutes this claim after consulting Fahoun's son.

Police records from 1902 to 1912 reveal that Jaroslav Hašek was brought to the station several times. Most of the cases refer to breaches of public order and small-scale vandalism, induced by drinking. On New Years eve 1908 he and Croat student (Rudolf Giunio) were arrested and locked up here after a pub brawl. The author was sentenced to five days in prison for his efforts. See Bendlovka for more information about this incident.

Links

SourceBřetislav Hůla, Sergey Soloukh, Jaroslav Šerák

Quote from the novel
[1.5] Švejk prohlásil, že když někoho vyhazují s blázince, že ho nesmějí vyhodit bez oběda. Výtržnosti učinil konec vrátným přivolaný policejní strážník, který Švejka předvedl na policejní komisařství do Salmovy ulice.

Also written:District police station No. 3 en Polizeikommisariat Nr. III de Bydelspolitistasjon Nr. 3 no

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

5. Švejk at the district police station in Salmova street

Emauzský klášternn flag
na Slovanech 320/1, Praha II
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The monastery at the turn of the century

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Address book 1907

Emauzský klášter is the place where a monk is supposed to have hung himself in a crucifix according to Švejk. This is a story he tells his unfortunate cell-mate at Salmova ulice police station, when the latter wants to hang himself.

The monastery is mentioned again in [I.9] as the place where Katz was baptised. The priest who christened him was páter Albán, see Schachleiter.

In [I.13] the monastery is mentioned for the third time, now by Švejk who tells Katz about a gardening assistant who worked there.

Background

Emauzský klášter is a Benedictine monastery in Prague, located south of Karlovo náměstí. It was founded by emperor Charles IV in 1347. The abovementioned Schachleiter served as abbot here from 1908 until 1918 and during the war part of the monastery was converted to a hospital for soldiers.

After the proclamation of Czechoslovak independence on 28 October 1918 the abbot and the German monks left the country after they were subjected to harassment from crowds and militia groups. This was caused by accusations in the press, one of them being that they spied for Germany.

The monastery was badly damaged during an allied bomb raid in 1945, and was reconstructed in a somewhat different style after the war. It was confiscated by both the Nazis (1941) and the Communists (1950) but was in 1990 returned to the Benedictine order.

Ottův slovník naučný

Slovany, též na Slovanech, klášter v Praze II., nyní obecně Emausy zvaný (viz G(Praha), OSN XX, strana 466), založen cís. Karlem IV. 1347 pro mnichy obřadu slovanského, povolané k nám z Přímoří. Je jedním z dokladů slovanského smýšlení Karlova, který chtěl takových slov. klášterů založiti více, „protože nám příbuzností a sladkostí přirozeného jazyka příjemni jsou”. V křížové chodbě jsou velmi pozoruhodné fresky z doby karolinské.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.5] Ledaže byste se pověsil vkleče u pryčny, jako to udělal ten mnich v klášteře v Emauzích, co se oběsil na krucifixu kvůli jedný mladý židovce.
[I.9] Křtili ho slavnostně v Emauzích. Sám páter Albán ho na máčel do křtitelnice.
[I.13] "Tak si koupíme katechismus, pane feldkurát, tam to bude," řekl Švejk, "to je jako průvodčí cizinců pro duchovní pastýře. V Emauzích pracoval v klášteře jeden zahradnickej pomocník, ...

Also written:Emmaus Monastery en Emmauskloster de Cloître d'Emmaüs fr Emmausklosteret no

Bendlovkann flag
Fügnerovo nám. 1867/2, Praha II-Marie Bendová [1907]
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Břetislav Hůla, 1951

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© AHMP

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Denní raport - c.k. okresního policejního komisařství III.z. 31./12. 1908

Bendlovka is mentioned in a story Švejk "comforts" his cell-mate at Policejní komisařství Salmova ulice with. Švejk had once at Bendlovka slapped an undertaker, who had returned the compliment. The next day it was in the newspapers.

Background

Bendlovka is by near certainty an alternative term for Bendova kavárna (also Bendovka), a former entertainment establishment in Nové Město that Jaroslav Hašek knew well. In his explanations from 1951 Břetislav Hůla identifies it as a night-café in Sokolská ulice and is supported by Radko Pytlík who locates it to the corner of Sokolská and Fügnerovo náměstí. The location was next to Apollo, and on the opposite corner of the square was U Šolců, another of Hašek's favourite taverns.

Hašek and Bendovka

A well documented incident that involved the author took place here 31 December 1908. According to police reports Jaroslav Hašek was involved in a brawl in the café during the small hours of the morning. He and Croatian technical student Rudolf Giunio refused to pay the bill, an argument erupted and glasses were broken. When the patrol-man Slepička arrived the humorist knocked the hat off his head so reinforcements were called. The two troublemakers were subsequently taken to Policejní komisařství Salmova ulice and were released the next morning.

Opočenský remembers

Another brawl involving the author is recorded by his friend Gustav Roger Opočenský’s in his is book about Jaroslav Hašek (1948). It was written almost 40 years after the incident, but there is little reason to doubt the essence of the story: a clash between the author and some employee of a funeral agency erupted at Bendovka. It took place “in the small hours of one hot spring Saturday evening, a few years before the war”. This story has certain parallels to both the 1908 incident, but also to the passage in Švejk. Otherwise Opočenský writes that Bendova kavárna offered live music, the beer was cheap and poor, had marble tables, and was open until early in the morning. By the time he wrote his book the premises were occupied by some printing works.

Strána mírného pokroku

Jaroslav Hašek devotes a story to Opočenský in his collection of tales about Strana mírného pokroku v mezích zákona and also here the night café is mentioned (as Bendova kavárna) and even in the same breath as Apollo. In another story the term "v Bendlovce" is used in the same manner as in the novel. It seems to refer to a tavern (or at least a place where people met). Jaroslav Hašek had a few showdowns with a certain editor of České Slovo here. The editor was of “Mosaic confession”.

In the papers
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Národní politika, 20.8.1910

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Národní politika, 3.11.1907

Newspaper reports confirm some of the information from Opočenský and also adds information about dancing arrangements. The café was operating at least from 1900 until the autumn of 1914, but at two locations. In the spring of 1905 the license of Marie Bendová was transferred from Nové Město house No. 1816 to No. 1867. An advert from the first autumn of war reveals that opening times were by now shortened, to two in the morning, a common occurrence all over Austria-Hungary after the war broke out.

From time to time adverts seeking employees appeared, but reports about thefts, drunkenness and fighting were more prominent. Jaroslav Hašek was not the only troublemaker here. Here are just some of the incidents: in 1908 three German students caused serious trouble (reported in several newspapers) and in 1913 a stabbing incident was reported by Čech.

Links

SourceBřetislav Hůla, Radko Pytlík, Jaroslav Šerák, Gustav Roger Opočenský

Quote from the novel
[1.5] Nebo v Bendlovce jsem dal jednou jednomu funebrákovi facku a on mně ji vrátil. Abychom se smířili, museli nás oba zatknout, a hned to bylo v odpoledníčku.
U mrtvolynn flag
Karlovo nám. 310/13, Praha II-Antonie Laadtová [1910]
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umrtvoly.jpg

Picture from 1926

umrtvoly3.png

Břetislav Hůla

U mrtvoly is mentioned in a story Svejk tells to "encourage" his fellow prisoner Policejní komisařství Salmova ulice. See Bendlovka.

Background

U mrtvoly has not been identified with certainty, but was in all probability a café at Karlovo náměstí, at the corner of Resslova ulice. The building which amongst others housed Pivovar U Šálků was demolished in 1939. There was a kavárna in the building, with entrance at Karlovo náměstí but the pictures do not reveal any name.

The address book from 1910 has an entry café "Rubáš" here and this gives a hint: "Rubáš" means "shroud" and "mrtvola" means "carcass/body". Břetislav Hůla states that U mrtvoly was a café opposite the technical college and this fits well.

A newspaper article in Národní listy in 1922 reveals that it by then had been renamed Děvín, but no further information relating to this name has been found. Vilém Mrštík also mentions the place in his novel Santa Lucia from 1893.

Links

SourceBřetislav Hůla,Jaroslav Šerák

Quote from the novel
[1.5] Nebo když v kavárně „U mrtvoly“ rozbil ten pan rada dva tácky, myslíte, že ho šetřili? Byl taky na druhej den hned v novinách.

Also written:At the Corpse en Zum Leichnam de Ved Liket no

Strážnicenn flag
Ječná ul. 507/6, Praha II-K.u.k. Ärar [1910]
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straznice2.png

Strážnice is briefly mentioned when Švejk is led onwards from the police station in Salmovská ulice. From the novel it is clear that the guard is on street level because Švejk was interrogated on the first floor and was taken down to the guard room before he was escorted onwards.

Background

Strážnice was the guard house at the police station at Salmovská ulice. It was located in the same building as the police station but the entrance was from Ječná ulice. See Policejní komisařství Salmova ulice.

Quote from the novel
[1.5] Ukloniv se uctivě, odcházel s policejním strážníkem dolů na strážnici a za čtvrt hodiny bylo již vidět na rohu Ječné ulice a Karlova náměstí Švejka v průvodu druhého policejního strážníka, který měl pod paždí objemnou knihu s německým nápisem „Arrestantenbuch“.

Also written:Guardroom en Wachstube de Vaktrom no

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

6. Švejk at home again, having broken through the vicious circle

Kostel svatého Apolinářenn flag
Apolinářská 443/20, Praha II
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apol_adr.png

Kostel svatého Apolináře is mentioned in the narrative because the servant from church was at U kalicha when Švejk dropped by the pub after his final release from Policejní ředitelství. This was probably on 29 July 1914 because Austria-Hungary had just declared war on Serbia.

Background

Kostel svatého Apolináře is a church in Nové Město which is located only a few hundred meters from U kalicha. It was built in the 15th century and named after Apollinaris of Ravenna.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.6] Ve výčepu panovalo hrobové ticho. Sedělo tam několik hostů, mezi nimi kostelník od sv. Apolináře.

Also written:Church of Saint Apollinaire en Apollinarkirche de

Volná myšlenkann flag
Korunní tř. 588/6, Kral. Vinohrady-Julius Myslík [1912]
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volna.png

Věstník volné myšlenky, 1910

volna.jpg

Karel Pelant. Volná myšlenka, 1.2.1925

Volná myšlenka is mentioned in when Palivec cries out in court: "Long live Free thought!". This is what Mrs. Palivcová tells Švejk when he returns to U kalicha after having been released at the time war broke out.

Background

Volná myšlenka was an association of freethinkers, an anticlerical an atheist movement that appeared in many countries in the 19th century. The best known freethinker internationally was Francesc Ferrer i Guàrdia (1859-1909).

The Czech organisation was founded in 1904, and provisionally dissolved in 1915. The best known representative of the organisation was Machar, chairman from 1909. The organization also published a monthly periodical of the same name. Their most immediate goal was separation of state and church.

Karel Pelant (1874 - 1925) was one of the founders of the Czech section and this was a person Hašek knew well. Zdeněk Matěj Kuděj describes a meeting between the two in Plzeň in 1913 that was arranged after Pelant,at the time editor of the weekly Směr, owed him money for a few stories he had written.

Pelant is also mentioned in connection with Strana mírného pokroku v mezích zákona. He is also listed as publishers of the organization's monthly.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.6] Já jsem se tak lekla toho příbuzenského poměru, aby snad ještě z toho něco nebylo, tak jsem se vzdala svědectví a on chudák stará se tak na mne podíval, do smrti na ty jeho oči nezapomenu. A potom, po rozsudku, když ho odváděli, vykřik jim tam na chodbě, jak byl z toho cele] pitomej: ,Ať žije Volná myšlenka!`
Mimosann flag
Havelská ul. 496/31, Praha I-Antonín Růžicka [1913]
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mimosa_adv.png

Národní Politika, 27.2.1913

Mimosa is mentioned because the doorman who had occupied Švejks room worked here.

Background

Mimosa was a well known night café that doesn't exist any more. The Czech-Jewish reporter Egon E. Kisch set the plot of his novel "Das Mädchenhirt" here. In the address book of 1910 another café is listed at number 496/31: U Hvězdičky tři zlaté, but already in 1913 newspaper advert locates Mimosa here. The café offered music and entertainment.

Links

Source: Jaroslav Šerák, Radko Pytlík

Quote from the novel
[1.6] Když si bral límeček a skládal kravatu, vzpamatoval se již do té míry, že mohl ujistit Švejka, že noční kavárna „Mimosa“ jest opravdu jedna z nejslušnějších nočních místností, kam mají přístup jedině dámy, které mají policejní knížku v úplném pořádku, a zval Švejka srdečně, aby přišel na návštěvu.
Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

7. Švejk goes in the military

Kriegsministeriumnn flag
Stubenring -/1, Wien I.-K.u.k. Ärar [1914]
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kriegsministerium.jpg

Seidels kleines Armeeschema (1914)

Kriegsministerium is mentioned by the author when he informs that the ministry remembered Švejk at the time when the Austrians where fleeing across Raba, and that Švejk was to help them out of the difficult situation.

The ministery appears gain at the start of [I.13] when Katz receives a directive about how to adminster the last rites.

Background

Kriegsministerium was the common ministery of war of Austria-Hungary, one of the few institutions that the two constituent parts of the Dual Monarchy shared. Minister of War from 1912 until 1917 was Alexander von Krobatin. He was regarded as one of the hawks, who wanted to settle scores with Serbia at the slighest pretext. As can be seen on the picture he gave audience to civilians two hours every week.

The war ministry was not responsible for K.k. Landwehr and Honvéd, the territorial armies of the two parts of the empire. The formal status Švejk held with regards to the ministery is unclear. He was classified as Landsturm (domobranec), reservists that were only called up on in great danger to the motherland.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.7] V době, kdy lesy na řece Rábu v Haliči viděly utíkat přes Ráb rakouská vojska a dole v Srbsku rakouské divise jedna za druhou dostávaly přes kalhoty to, co jim dávno patřilo, vzpomnělo si rakouské ministerstvo vojenství i na Švejka, aby pomohl mocnářství z bryndy.
[I.13] Polní kurát Otto Katz seděl zadumané nad cirkulářem, který právě přinesl z kasáren. Byl to rezervát ministerstva vojenství
K.k. Linien-Infanterieregiment Nummer 18nn flag
Hradec Králové-K.u.k. Ärar [1859]
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K.k. Linien-Infanterieregiment Nummer 18 is mentioned in the song Jenerál Windischgrätz a vojenští páni through the term "the eighteenth band". See Solferino and Piedmont.

Background

K.k. Linien-Infanterieregiment Nummer 18 was an infantry regiment with recruitment district Hradec Králové that took part in nearly every war the Habsburg Empire fought ever since the regiment was founded in 1682. This included the campaign of the second Italian war of independence in 1859, the actual theme of this song. At the battle of Solferino only the 4th battalion was present, the other battalions were fortunate enough to be assigned border duty. In 1914 the bulk of the regiment's soldiers were Czechs (75 per cent), the rest Germans.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.7]
Krve po kolena a na fůry masa, 
vždyť se tam sekala vosumnáctá chasa, 
hop, hop, hop!
Pražské úřední novinynn flag
Karmelitská ul. 387/6, Praha III.-Aladar Quido Przedak [1910]
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Adresář královského hlavního města Prahy a obcí sousedních, 1907

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Prager Tagblatt, 5.7.1914

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Prager Tagblatt, 8.9.1914

Pražské úřední noviny prints a glowing homage to the patriotic cripple Švejk after he was pushed to the draft commission in a wheelchair. The title was: "Patriotism of a cripple".

Background

Pražské úřední noviny is not listed in the newspaper section of the address books of 1907 and 1910, but there is little doubt that the author refers to the publications of C.k. Místodržitelství (K.u.k. Statthalterei), and these were often referred to by this or similar common names. Hence these publications were direct mouthpieces of the Austrian civil service who the Statthalter (governor) was the head of in Bohemia.

The newspapers were published in Czech and German, with one official and one regular commercial part. The main periodical was Prager Zeitung in German, in Czech Pražské Noviny. Both were morning papers that were published every day except Monday. In the afternoon of working days they also published Prager Abendblatt, albeit in German only. Official announcements were printed in a separate add-on on weekdays: Úřední list Pražských Novin and Amtsblatt der Prager Zeitung respectively. On Sundays an entertainment magazine was added.

The editorial offices were located in Malá Strana, right behind Kampa island. Some time between 1907 and 1910 they changed address, but were still in the same block. Editor in chief for all the papers was Aladar Guido Przedak, for the Czech part Jan Svátek. Przedak (1857-1926) main editor from 1900 until 1918 and also bore the title "K.u.k. Regierungsrat". The circulation of Prager Abendblatt was quintupled during his reign as editor.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.7] O celé této události objevil se v „Pražských úředních novinách“ tento článek:
[1.7] Vlastenectví mrzáka. Včera dopoledne byli chodci na hlavních pražských třídách svědky scény, která krásně mluví o tom, že v této veliké a vážné době i synové našeho národa mohou dáti nejskvělejší příklady věrnosti a oddanosti k trůnu stařičkého mocnáře. Zdá se nám, že se vrátily doby starých Řeků a Římanů, kdy Mucius Scaevola dal se odvésti do boje, nedbaje své upálené ruky. Nejsvětější city a zájmy byly včera krásně demonstrovány mrzákem o berlích, kterého stará matička vezla na vozíku pro nemocné. Tento syn českého národa dobrovolně, nedbaje své neduživosti, dal se odvésti na vojnu, aby dal svůj život i statky za svého císaře. A jestli jeho volání „Na Bělehrad!“ mělo tak živý ohlas v pražských ulicích, jest to jen svědectvím, že Pražané skýtají vzorné příklady lásky k vlasti a k panovnickému domu.

Also written:Prague Official Newspaper en Prager Amtszeitung de Praha Amtstidende no

Prager Tagblattnn flag
Panská ul. 896/12, Praha I.-Gustav Horn [1910]
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Prager Tagblatt, 1.12.1914

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Listed in the 1910 address book.

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Prager Tagblatt, 5.1.1923

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Prager Tagblatt, 17.1.1926

Prager Tagblatt briefly notes that Švejk was protected by Germans against Czech agents from the Entente who wanted to lynch him on his way to Střelecký ostrov.

Background

Prager Tagblatt was a German language daily published in Prague from 1877 until 1939. The paper had a reputation for outstanding journalistic qualities, and was regarded as one of the very best German-language newspapers of its time. It was over the years associated with a number of distinguished writers, amongst them Max Brod, Egon Erwin Kisch, Franz Kafka, Josef Roth, Michal Mareš and Friedrich Torberg. Politically it was regarded as liberal-democratic, and in Czech address books it is listed as "German-progressive". Chief editor in 1910 was Gustav Horn. Franz Kafka was amongst those who contributed to the newspaper and he was also an avid reader of it.

During the first world war the paper aligned with the propaganda, but was often the victim om censorship, and put more emphasis on the human costs of the war than many other papers. In the inter-war years the daily re-established its reputation for journalistic excellence, but hardly two months after the German invasion in March 1939 the paper was closed for good. The many Jewish staff had been dismissed already during the days after the invasion.

The editorial and administration offices were located in Panská ulice (Herrengasse), incidentally very close to where Kraus caught Lukáš red-handed with the stolen Fox.

Prager Tagblatt and Hašek

After the author's death on 3 January 1923 Prager Tagblatt played a major role in acknowledging and spreading the word about Jaroslav Hašek and his satirical masterpiece. This was largely thanks to Max Brod, an author and journalist who is better known as the custodian of Franz Kafka's literary heritage.

Already on 5 January the paper printed an obituary on Hašek, and Brod's own translation of the first chapter of the novel appeared in the same issue. During the next fifteen years Švejk and Hašek showed up repeatedly in the newspaper's columns, particularly in 1926 when the full translation into German by Grete Reiner was published.

Švejk greift in den Weltkrieg ein (Max Brod)

"Also den Ferdinand haben die uns erschlagen", sagte die Bedienerin zu Švejk, welcher, nachdem er vor Jahren den militärischen Dienst verlassen hatte (die ärtztliche Kommission erklärte ihn für vollkommen irrsinnig), sich durch den Verkauf von Hunden weisterbrachte, deren Stammbaum er fälschte.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.7] Ve stejném smyslu psal i „Prager Tagblatt“, který končil svůj článek slovy, že mrzáka dobrovolce vyprovázel zástup Němců, kteří ho svými těly chránili před lynchováním ze strany českých agentů známé Dohody.
Bohemiann flag
Liliova ul. 211/13, Praha I.-Andreas Haase [1914]
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The first issue after the change of names

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E.E. Kisch, 5.7.1914, Ferdinand Mestek de Podskal

Bohemia published an article that resembled the one from Prager Tagblatt about the cripple Švejk and his journey in a wheelchair. It adds that gifts for the benefit of the soldier can be presented at the administrative office.

In the next chapter it becomes clear that it was in this paper Botzenheim read about the keen soldier. On the train to Tábor [II.1] it is revealed that even Lukáš reads Bohemia.

Background

Bohemia was a German-language daily published in Prague from 1828 til 1938, associated with the German Liberal Party. During the war they took a strongly patriotic stance, and from 15 November 1914 even changed the name to Deutsche Zeitung Bohemia. The editorial and administration offices were located in Liliova ulice in Staré Město and chief editor in 1914 was Andreas Haase. He held the position for an impressive 40 years, from 1879 to 1919.

E.E. Kisch

Their best known reporter was without doubt the legendary Egon Erwin Kisch. He worked for the paper from 1906 to 1913, and published many reports from Prague, mainly focused on the shady underworld. Kisch dedicated a feuilleton to flea circus director Mestek, mentions the murderer Valeš and the Negro Kristian, and wrote about a number of dubious establishments that are familiar to readers of Švejk: Apollo, Tunel, U Kocanů, to name just a few. Kisch knew Jaroslav Hašek personally and even wrote about him on a few occasions.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.7]Bohemie“ uveřejnila tuto zprávu žádajíc, aby mrzák vlastenec byl odměněn, a oznámila, že pro neznámého přijímá od německých občanů dárky v administraci listu.
Odvodní komisenn flag
Střelecký ostrov 336/-, Praha I.-K.u.k. Ärar [1913]
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Commission on 31 December 1914

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Oveview of Landsturm medical examination commissions in Prague (Čech, 8 November 1914)

Odvodní komise is the Czech name for Draft commission, the body that examined Švejk at Střelecký ostrov. The head of the commision was the legendary Bautze.

Background

Odvodní komise refers to Landsturmmusterungskommision No. 1, a temporary body who were tasked with carrying out a renewed medical examination of Landsturm recruits who in peace time had either been declared unfit for armed service (Waffenunfähig) or had been dismissed from the armed forces after initially having started their military service (Superarbitriert).

Commission no. 1 was responsible for recruits who lived in Prague and had right of domicile in the city. In addition it examined residents of Prague with right of domicile elsewhere, if these were born from 1878 to 1883. Jaroslav Hašek belonged to the latter group (right of domicile Mydlovary, born 1883) and necessarily also Švejk. As a soldier in IR91 his right of domicile must have been in Ergänzungsbezirk Nr. 91. See Ergänzungskommando.

The commission started the examinations on 1 October 1914 when those born from 1892 to 1894 were called in. Amongst this group more than half were deemed fit for service. From 16 November to 31 December it was the turn of those born from 1878 to 1890. Amongst this group far fewer were passed capable Tauglich, less than one third. This latter group is the most interesting for us as it was here Jaroslav Hašek fit in. Everything indicates that also Švejk belonged to this group and was thus born between 1878 and 1883. On 20 January 1915 it was announced that those passed for service were to report at their Ergänzungskommando on 15 February.

The examinations took place in the garden restaurant at Střelecký ostrov, on the southern part of the island. The restaurant was in 1914 a popular destination.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.7] Když Švejk revírnímu inspektorovi ukázal, že to má černé na bílém, že dne musí před odvodní komisi, byl revírní inspektor trochu zklamán; kvůli zamezení výtržnosti dal doprovázet vozík se Švejkem dvěma jízdními strážníky na Střelecký ostrov.

Also written:Draft commission en Musterungskommision de Mønstringskommisjonen no

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

8. Švejk as a malingerer

Posádková věznicenn flag
Kapucínská 214/2, Praha IV.-K.u.k. Ärar [1914]
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Posádková věznice is apparently the scene of the plot of two entire chapters. Both [I.8] and [I.9] takes place in and around the garrison prison. The first part is set in the sick-barrack of the prison, then moves on to cell no. 16. Švejk's escape starts in the chapel when during holy mass field chaplain Katz takes to Švejk and consequently employs him as him officer's servant.

The prison is first mentioned at the end of [I.7] and it is said that this is where Švejk is going. Amongst the people Švejk met during his imprisonment are: Dr Grünstein, baroness von Botzenheim, captain Linhart, the warders Slavík, Řepa and Říha - and at the very end: the military prosecution represented by Bernis.

Background

Posádková věznice is the author's term for C.a.k. vojenská věznice v Praze (K.u.k. Militärgefängnis von Prag), a prison that was part of the garrison complex at Hradčany. It shared the building with the garrison court and the Landwehr court. The building is located behind Loreta; and was opened in 1896 and is still in use, but not publicly accessible. It's function as a prison and brutal interrogation centre was revitalised during the Nazi and Communist dictatorships. See also Vojenský soud.

In 1906 there were two Stabsprofusen employed at the prison, but none of them were named Slavík, Říha, or Řepa. The two were Jan Frkal and Josef Bureš and they lived on the premises. If any of them was a model for the literary figures is impossible to say. It can not be historically determined if the author had anything to do with the garrison prison at all, so we must assumed that the inspiration for those figures hailed from elsewhere. On the other hand it is possible that Jaroslav Hašek had heard some story from former inmates of the prison. The description of the conditions in the prison and the brutality of the warders all in all appears strongly exaggerated.

There is every sign that the author was not very familiar with the organisation of the garrison. There is contradicting information on where Švejk actually was: at Vojenská nemocnice Hradčany or in a sick-bay within the prison. One passage indicates that the author believes that the military hospital was part of the prison, which it clearly wasn't. In chapter nine the reader gets the impression that the garrison actually WAS the prison, which it wasn't (at most "garrison" was a colloquial term for the garrison prison).

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.8] Švejka v posádkové věznici do nemocničního baráku právě mezi takové malomyslné simulanty.

Also written:Garrison prison en Garnisonsgefängnis de Garnisonsarresten no

Vojenská nemocnice Hradčanynn flag
Loretánská 181/4, Praha IV.-K.u.k. Ärar [1914]
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© Stará Praha

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Český svět, 5.5.1916

Vojenská nemocnice Hradčany is mentioned by Grünstein when he asks Švejk if he enjoys his stay at the military hospital. It is however unclear if the hospital is part of the plot at all, as the information about Švejk's stay amongst the malingerers at Hradčany is somewhat contradictory. In other parts of the text the reader gets the impression that it is talk of a sick-bay that is part of the garrison prison. See Posádková věznice for more on this topic.

Background

Vojenská nemocnice Hradčany refers to a branch of K.u.k. military hospital no. 11 in Prague. It was located in the same barrack complex as the garrison prison, the military court, and other army institutions. The main military hospital in Praha was Vojenská nemocnice Karlovo náměstí.

Chief staff doctor in 1916 was dr. Křejčí as revealed when newspapers reported on a visit by Countess Coudenhove, the wife of Bohemia's governor. The visit took place on 10 April 1916, too late to fit chronologically with the visit of baroness Botzenheim, but nevertheless there are interesting similarities.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.8] Druhého dne při visitě otázal se dr Grünstein Švejka, jak se mu líbí ve vojenské nemocnici. Švejk odpověděl, že jest to podnik správný a vznešený.

Also written:Military hospital at Hradčany en Militärspital am Hradschin de Militærsjukehuset på Hradčany no

Československá Republikann flag
Karmelitská ul. 387/6, Praha III.-Josef Hevera [1924]
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Chytilův adresář 1924

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Národní Listy, 11.4.1931

Československá Republika is mentioned during the visit of baroness von Botzenheim at Hradčany where she gave Švejk the book Episodes from the life of our emperor that was written by the future editor in chief of this paper.

Background

Československá Republika was an official government daily newspaper that was published by this name from 1919 to 1932. It was a direct successor to Pražské úřední noviny, and was even located in the same offices. The mentioned editor, Otakar Filip, had been an working for the paper also during the old regime. From 1932 to 1938 it continued publishing, but now using the name Pražské noviny. The government's newspaper group also issued Úřední List Československá Republika and the evening paper Prager Abendblatt (in German).

In Rudé Pravo

Jaroslav Hašek also wrote a satirical article in Rudé Pravo where editor Filip and his newspaper is treated in more detail: What I would advise the Communists if I were the Chief Editor of the official Government newspaper Československá Republika. The article was dated 7 April 1921 printed on 8 May - around the time when the passages in the novel were written. In the article he claims that some Svátek was editor in chief, in the novel the author of the book about the emperor (i.e. Otakar Filip) has this role. According to the address book from 1924 the chief editor was Josef Hevera, and another of the names mentioned in the Rudé Pravo article, Adolf Zeman, was indeed on the editorial board. The article furthermore suggests that Jaroslav Hašek was still a Communist at heart.

On Hašek

The newspaper wrote about Hašek from time to time, mainly after he became famous, and on 5 January 1923 they printed an obituary. Shortly after his return from Russia they printed adverts for his appearance at the theatre Červená sedma where he related stories from his stay in Russia.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.8] Potom vytáhla z koše tři láhve vína pro rekonvalescenty a dvě krabice cigaret. Vše elegantně rozložila na prázdnou postel vedle Švejka, kam přibyla ještě pěkně vázaná kniha „Příběhy ze života našeho mocnáře“, kterou napsal nynější zasloužilý šéfredaktor naší úřední „Československé republiky“, který se ve starém Frantíkovi viděl.
Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

9. Švejk in the garrison prison

Katz a spol.nn flag
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Venkov, 1.5.1921

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Adresář Libeň, 1896

Katz a spol. is mentioned when the author introduces field chaplain Katz to the reader. The company traded in bills-of-exchange and was owned by Katz's father and his companion. When young Katz took over the business he drove it to bankruptcy within a short time. His father settled with the creditors and moved to North America whereas his companion emigrated to Argentina. Thus the firm continued to exists in the new world, as two incarnations.

Background

Katz a spol. is the author's term for a firm in Prague. At least two companies who traded in Praha at the time were owned by an Otto Katz. None of the two companies traded in bills-of-exchange. In 1983 Augustín Knesl made an attempt to identify Katz and thus the company, and concluded that a Katz (Otto) born in 1864 and educated at the Czechoslavonic Commercial Academy owned a company that went bankrupt in 1923.

The first firm existed from 1893 onwards in Libeň (Královská třída 358) and manufactured rape-seed oil. In 1902 the company is no longer listed but Otto Katz is still the owner of the property, as he is as late as 1932.

The second firm existed from at least 1918 until 1923 and was a weaver and linen manufacturer in Celetná ulice. The firm advertised widely in 1920 and 1921 and it may be that the author picked the name from these (Jaroslav Hašek was an avid reader of newspapers, including adverts).

Links

Source: Augustín Knesl, Jaroslav Šerák

Quote from the novel
[1.9] Studoval obchodní akademii a sloužil jako jednoroční dobrovolník. A vyznal se tak dobře v směnečném právu a ve směnkách, že přivedl za ten rok obchodní firmu Katz a spol. k bankrotu tak slavnému a podařenému, že starý pan Katz odjel do Severní Ameriky, zkombinovav nějaké vyrovnání se svými věřiteli bez vědomí posledních i svého společníka, který odjel do Argentiny.
Ústav šlechtičennn flag
U sv. Jíří 2-3/1, Praha IV
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Ústav šlechtičen is mentioned by the author in his description of the baptism of Katz where a lady from this Institute for Noblewomen was present.

Background

Ústav šlechtičen was an institution for education of daughters of noblemen who were incapable of providing their daughter with an existence that was in line with their rank in society. The foundation was created by Maria Theresa in 1755 and accomodated 30 ladies. It was located in Rožmberský palác at Hradčany. The abbess was always an unmarried lady of the house Habsburg-Lothringen, and from 1894 to 1918 Maria Annunziata, the sister of Franz Ferdinand, held the position.

On 1 May 1919 the nobility institute was dissolved and the palace transferred to the Ministry of Interior. The building is located on the castle premises, and is today (2015) the property of the Czech state. It recently underwent extensive renovation and is used as a museum and exhibition area.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.9] Křtili ho slavnostně v Emauzích. Sám páter Albán ho na máčel do křtitelnice. Byla to nádherná podívaná, byl u toho jeden nábožný major od pluku, kde Otto Katz sloužil, jedna stará panna z ústavu šlechtičen na Hradčanech a nějaký otlemený zástupce konsistoře, který mu dělal kmotra.

Also written:Institute for Noblewomen en Anstalt für adelige Frauen de Institutt for adelsdamer no

Konsistořnn flag
Hradčanské nám. 56/16, Praha IV
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Konsistoř is mentioned by the author in his description of the baptism of Katz where a representative of the consistory acted as Katz's godfather.

Background

Konsistoř (also called Curia) is a religious council that advises for instance the archbishop or the pope. In this case it is surely talk of the archbishop's consistory at Hradčany (Knížecí arcibiskupská konsistoř). In 1907 the council's address was the archbishop's palace itself, and they held meetings every Wednesday

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.9] Křtili ho slavnostně v Emauzích. Sám páter Albán ho na máčel do křtitelnice. Byla to nádherná podívaná, byl u toho jeden nábožný major od pluku, kde Otto Katz sloužil, jedna stará panna z ústavu šlechtičen na Hradčanech a nějaký otlemený zástupce konsistoře, který mu dělal kmotra.

Also written:Consistory en Konsistorium de Konsistoriet no

Seminářnn flag
Křižovnické nám. 1040/4, Praha I
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Praha 1910. ©AHMP

Seminář is mentioned by the author in his description of Katz's career. The newly converted priest was educated at the seminary.

Background

Seminář most probably refers to Arcibiskupský seminář, an institution for education of catholic priests that still exists. At the time of Jaroslav Hašek the seminary was located in Klementinum, but was in 1929 moved to Dejvice where they are still housed.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.9] Ale jednoho dne se opil a šel do kláštera, zanechal šavle a chopil se kutny. Byl u arcibiskupa na Hradčanech a dostal se do semináře. Opil se na mol před svým vysvěcením v jednom velmi pořádném domě s dámskou obsluhou v uličce za Vejvodovic a přímo z víru rozkoše a zábavy šel se dát vysvětit.

Also written:Seminary en Seminar de Seminaret no

U Vejvodůnn flag
Jilská ul. 353/2, Praha I-Petr Procházka [1910]
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Národní politika, 25.10.1910

U Vejvodů is mentioned in connection with Katz drinking himself to the ground the night before being ordained as vicar. This is supposed to have happened "in a descent house with lady service" in a small street behind Vejvodovice.

Background

U Vejvodů is a house and a restaurant in Staré Město in Prague and one of the oldest of its kind. It has existed at least since 1560. In 1717 Jan Václav Vejvoda bought the property and the building is named after him. Early in the 20th century Karel Klusáček took over and rebuilt it to become what it was known as until 1990. The house was also for a period the home of a cinema as well as hosting Umělecká beseda (the artist's union).

U Vejvodů still exists as a large restaurant which serves Czech food and Pilsner Urquell. The place is totally changed after the renovation in the 1990's, but is still very popular and relatively affordable considering the location.

Links

Source: Radko Pytlík, Milan Hodík

Quote from the novel
[1.9] Opil se na mol před svým vysvěcením v jednom velmi pořádném domě s dámskou obsluhou v uličce za Vejvodovic a přímo z víru rozkoše a zábavy šel se dát vysvětit.

Also written:Vejvodovice Hašek

Dům za Vejvodovicnn flag
Vejvodova ul. 442/10, Praha I-Čeněk Bartoníček [1913]
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Vejvodova ulice, the brothel by the street lamp

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Chytilův adresář 1913

Dům za Vejvodovic is mentioned in connection with Katz drinking himself to the ground the night before being ordained as priest. This is supposed to have happened "in a very descent house with lady service in a small street behind Vejvodovice".

Background

Dům za Vejvodovic most probably refers to a brothel owned by Čeněk Bartoníček in Vejvodova ulice 10, just a few steps east of U Vejvodů. Bartoníček was in the address book of 1913 listed as owner of the brothel at this address. This is also the only house of pleasure that fits the description in the novel.

In teh address book from 1910 a man who carried this name was listed as a "coffee-house" owner in Lužická ulice 29 in Malá strana. This café was entered as a brothel in 1913 but with František Stránský as owner. Bartoníček thus seems to have sold and re-established himself east of the Vltava. Police registers reveal that he lived in Lužická ulice (Prague III/124) already from 1901 and he is registered in Vejvodová ulice from 24 November 1910.

The house itself, also known as Bílý kříž (the white cross) was in 1910 owned by Josef Sobička. To judge by the address books there was no "café" in Vejvodova 10 in 1910 so Bartoníček seems to have started the establishment from scratch.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.9] Opil se na mol před svým vysvěcením v jednom velmi pořádném domě s dámskou obsluhou v uličce za Vejvodovic a přímo z víru rozkoše a zábavy šel se dát vysvětit.

Also written:House behind Vejvodovice;no en

Vězeňské kaplenn flag
Kanovnická ul. 72/11, Praha IV.-K.u.k. Ärar [1914]
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Vězeňské kaple was the scene of Katz' grand sermon for the prisoners in the garrison jail. Here he drunk field chaplain discovered Švejk when the latter started crying during his speech. It ended well for the good soldier who was eventually released and continued in a care-free existence, serving a field chaplain he got on with ever so well.

Background

Vězeňské kaple possibly refers Vojenský kostel sv. Jana Nepomuckého at Hradčany. The church belongs to the same building complex as the military hospital, the garrison prison, and the military court. It is easily accessible across the courtyard between the buildings. It shares the address with Voršilské kasárny.

Another place the author might have had in mind is a chapel on the premises of the Royal Country Penitary next door. This was not an army institution, but that will not necessarily have stopped the author from including it in the plot. It also fits the description in the novel more accurately as a house chapel (of the garrison) and and a prison chapel is mentioned.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.9] „Zejtra máme u nás divadlo. Povedou nás do kaple na kázání. My všichni v podvlíkačkách stojíme zrovna pod kazatelnou. To ti bude legrace!“ Jako ve všech věznicích a trestnicích, tak i na garnisoně těšila se domácí kaple velké oblibě. Nejednalo se o to, že by nucená návštěva vězeňské kaple sblížila návštěvníky s bohem, že by se vězňové více dověděli o mravnosti. O takové hlouposti nemůže být ani řeči.

Also written:Prison chapel at Hradčany en Gefängniskapell am Hradschin de Fengselskapellet på Hradčany no

Vojenský soudnn flag
Kapucínská 214/2, Praha IV-K.u.k. Ärar [1910]
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Address book from 1906

Vojenský soud the final part of [I.9] takes place here, during the process of transferring Švejk from the garrison prison to field chaplain Katz. Head of the court was Bernis. See also Posádková věznice.

The court was first mentioned by the angry policeman at Policejní ředitelství who wishes the devil may take Švejk. If the dares to appear once more he will be sent sraight to the military court.

Background

Vojenský soud was the military court of the Prague-based 8th army group. The court was located at Hradčany in the same building complex as the garrison prison and the military hospital. The Landwehr court was also located here. An article in Prager Tagblatt also mentions a brigade court, but it is not clear how these administrative subdivisions worked. To judge by newspapers reports from 1914 at appears as a certain captain G. Heinrich led the court. The address book of 1912 lists major Josef Plzák as the highest ranking officer. His assistant was premier lieutenant Vladimír Dokoupil.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.9] Vyšetřující auditor Bernis byl muž společnosti, půvabný tanečník a mravní zpustlík, který se zde strašně nudil a psal německé verše do památníků, aby měl pohotově vždy nějakou zásobu. Byl nejdůležitější složkou celého aparátu vojenského soudu, poněvadž měl tak hrozné množství restů a spletených akt, že uváděl v respekt celý vojenský soud na Hradčanech. Ztrácel obžalovací materiál a byl nucen vymýšlet si nový. Přehazoval jména, ztrácel nitě k žalobě a soukal nové, jak mu to napadlo.

Also written:Military court en Militärgericht de Militærdomstolen no

Policejní komisařství XIII.nn flag
Stejskalova ul. 185/-, Libeň-K.u.k. Ärar [1907]
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Policejní komisařství XIII. is mentioned by Švejk when Bernis asks him why he has ended up in the garrison prison. Švejk tells him that he doesn't know, just like the two year old who had walked from Královské Vinohrady to Libeň and was locked up at the local police station. The analogy is that Švejk was also a foundling, just like the two-year old child.

Background

Policejní komisařství XIII. was the police station in Libeň, Prague's police district number 13. It was located in Stejskalova ulice 185 and the station's head in 1906 was chief commissioner Josef Roubal.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.9] „Poslušně hlásím, že to mohu vysvětlit náramně jednoduchým způsobem. U nás v ulici je uhlíř a ten měl úplně nevinnýho dvouletýho chlapečka a ten se jednou dostal pěšky z Vinohrad až do Libně, kde ho strážník našel sedět na chodníku. Tak toho chlapečka odved na komisařství a zavřeli je tam, to dvouletý dítě. Byl, jak vidíte, ten chlapeček úplně nevinnej, a přece byl zavřenej.
Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

10. Švejk as a military servant to the field chaplain

Česká strana národně sociálnínn flag
Školská ulice 1741/10, Praha II.-Filip Dub [1910]
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The first party newspaper, one month after the party was founded

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Adresář 1910

Česká strana národně sociální is is indirectly mentioned when one of the soldiers in Švejk's escort on way from Hradčany to Karlín asks him if he is a national socialist.

Background

Česká strana národně sociální was a nationalistic and socialist party that was founded in April 1897 as a break-away group from the social democrats. Party chairman in the period up to the outbreak of war was Klofáč. At the 1911 election to Parlament they achieved 9.7 per cent of the votes in Bohemia and had 15 representatives. In Moravia the party was much weaker and had only one representative.

In the whole period until 1914 Klofáč was party chairman. The term "nacional socialist" was used in day-to-day speech even then, but was not related to the notorious NSDAP that emerged in Germany after the war. In 1918 the party was renamed the Czechoslovak Socialist Party and in 1926 even the National Socialist Party! Their best known public profile after 1914 is without doubt Edvard Beneš.

The party's official newspaper from 1906 was České Slovo, a paper for which Jaroslav Hašek briefly worked as a local news reporter in 1912. He wrote for the paper already in 1908, and during the first half of 1921 several of his stories were printed in the evening issue Večerní České Slovo. After the author's death the paper played a vital role in popularising his novel. It was their evening issue that published Josef Lada's famous drawings. These were to colour our perception of Švejk even until today. In 1924 the paper printed the first serious study of the novel. See Jan Morávek for more details.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.10.1] „Nejsi národní socialista?“ Nyní počal být malý tlustý opatrným. Vmísil se do toho. „Co je nám do toho,“ řekl, „je všude plno lidí a pozorujou nás. Aspoň kdybychom někde v průjezdu mohli sundat bodla, aby to tak nevypadalo. Neutečeš nám?

Also written:Czech National Social Party en Tschechische national-soziale Partei de Det tsjekkiske nasjonalsosiale parti no

Na Kuklíkunn flag
Petrské nám. 1130/6, Praha II-Vilém Srp [1910]
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Národní listy, 20.5.1901

Na Kuklíku was the tavern where Švejk and his guards had a long and happy break before they, under the influence, continued to feldkurát Katz in Karlín. A certain Serabona is reported to be the landlord, and as a member of Sokol he can be trusted.

Background

Na Kuklíku was a restaurant in Prague at Petrské náměstí. Newspaper adverts from 1877 reveal that the pub existed and that they also brewed their own beer. Towards the end of the 1880s brewing appears to have ceased, but the restaurant business continued.

Vilém Srp took over in 1901 and was in 1923 still the owner. That year a newspaper report reveals that treasures worth Kč 50,000 had been hidden in the loft but had been stolen at a time when the landlord couple were ill. The culprits were caught and sentenced. It is interesting that a postcard from 1906 reveals that the place was also called U Serabono. See Serabona. The building was demolished in 1928.

Kuklík is mentioned in a story by E.E. Kisch: Zitaten vom Montmartre where it is described as a rough place. Over the years several reports of disturbances appeared in the newspapers. There were several incidents involving unruly soldiers, and reported cases of theft and a gang cheating at cards.

Links

Source: Jaroslav Šerák, M. Smreček

Quote from the novel
[1.10.1] „Pojďme na Kuklík,“ vybízel Švejk, „kvéry si dáte do kuchyně, hostinský Serabona je Sokol, toho se nemusíte bát. Hrajou tam na housle a na harmoniku,“ pokračoval Švejk, „a chodějí tam pouliční holky a různá jiná dobrá společnost, která nesmí do Represenťáku.“ Čahoun s malým podívali se ještě jednou na sebe a pak řekl čahoun: „Tak tam půjdem, do Karlína je ještě daleko.“ Po cestě jim Švejk vypravoval různé anekdoty a v dobré náladě vstoupili na „Kuklík“ a udělali to tak, jak Švejk radil. Ručnice uschovali v kuchyni a šli do lokálu, kde housle a harmonika naplňovaly místnost zvuky oblíbené písně "Na Pankráci".
Sokolnn flag
Ferdinandova tř. 61/24, Praha II-Josef E. Scheiner [1910]
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Sokol exercise at Lipnice nad Sázavou castle, some time before 1913

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Národní listy, 30.11.1915

Sokol is briefly mentioned by Švejk when he tells his escort on the way to Katz that the landlord Serabona at Na Kuklíku is a Sokol member and thus no reason to be afraid of. They could without worry leave their rifles in the kitchen and have a drink.

Background

Sokol (Falcon) is a still existing patriotic gymnastics movement founded in Prague in 1862 by Miroslav Tyrš and Jindřich Fügner. They soon became an important part of the Czech national consciousness and also took root amongst other Slav peoples in Austria-Hungary and even in Russia, Serbia and Bulgaria. Throughout the time of the monarchy the authorities kept a close eye on the movement that had strong support from parties that advocated Czech state rights, namely Česká strana národně sociální and Mladočeši. In 1910 the main office was located in Ferdinandova tř. 24, the building has been demolished. The premises are now (2015) occupied by the supermarket Tesco. Scheiner was chairman of both the Czech and the international organisation, and both were located at this address.

On 24 November 1915 the two Prague-based umbrella organisations of Sokol, Česká Obec Sokolská and Svaz Slovanského Sokolstva, were dissolved at the order of the Ministery of Interior. Local organisations were however allowed to function. The official reason for the crackdown was pro-Serbian and pro-Russians activities, anti-Austrian propaganda, and contact with North American Sokol organisation that was very hostile to the ruling dynasty. Sokol leader Scheiner had been arrested already on 25 May. Many Sokol members were indeed active in the Czech resistance movement during the war. Sokol reached its pinnacle during the first republic, but was of course banned by both the Nazis and the Communist.

On 6 January 1923 members of Sokol carried Jaroslav Hašek's coffin to his grave at Lipnice nad Sázavou.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.10.1] „Pojďme na Kuklík“, vybízel Švejk, „kvéry si dáte do kuchyně, hostinský Serabona je Sokol, toho se nemusíte bát. Hrajou tam na housle a na harmoniku,“ pokračoval Švejk, „a chodějí tam pouliční holky a různá jiná dobrá společnost, která nesmí do Represenťáku.
Reprezenťáknn flag
Josefské nám. 1090/4, Praha I
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Reprezenťák is mentioned when Švejk tells his escort that Na Kuklíku is a pleasant place where street girl and other good company who are not allowed at Reprezenťák may enter.

Background

Reprezenťák is a concert hall and entertainment complex in Prague, now officially called Obecní dům. It was originally known as Reprezentační dům, hence the colloquial term that Švejk uses. It is one of the landmark Art Nouveau buildings in the city. The Czechoslovak independence was proclaimed here on 28 October 1918.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.10.1] Hrajou tam na housle a na harmoniku,“ pokračoval Švejk, „a chodějí tam pouliční holky a různá jiná dobrá společnost, která nesmí do Represenťáku.“
U Valšůnn flag
ul. Karoliny Světlé 286/22, Praha I-František Materna [1910]
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uvalsu.jpg

U Valšů, May 2011

valsu.png

Národní listy, 18.9.1910

uvalsu.png

Policejní ředitelstvi, 30.11.1914

U Valšů is referred to in a conversation at Na Kuklíku where it is claimed that a certain Mařka (Marie) had disappeared to U Valšů with a soldier. The place appears again in a story by Švejk on the train after Moson, [III.1].

Background

U Valšů was a coaching inn and hotel in Staré Město, in 1910 owned by Materna. It had long traditions and is mentioned in newspapers as early as 1862. It was still operating in 1917 (the same owner) but seems to have ceased soon after. Today the building is occupied by a theatre and next door is a restaurant and micro-brewery.

U Valšů was the scene of one of the author's most famous hoaxes. On 24 November 1914 Jaroslav Hašek hired a room there, registering as a Russian businessman and was soon arrested. He was taken to Policejní ředitelství, interrogated by Slavíček and sentenced to five days in prison. He claimed that the he did it to check how vigilant the security services were! The story even appeared in the newspapers, including the author's humorous response!

Another version of the story claims that he registered under a name which backwards read "lick my arse", but this is surely nothing more than a "good story" and is not supported by the police records.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.10.1] U hudby hádali se dva, že nějakou Mařku včera lízla patrola. Jeden to viděl na vlastní oči a druhý tvrdil, že šla s nějakým vojákem se vyspat k „Valšům“ do hotelu.
U Šuhůnn flag
Benediktská ul. 722/9, Praha I-Jan Schuha [1913]
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usuhu1.jpg

Konec bahna Prahy, K.L. Kukla, 1927

schuha.png

Národní listy, 2.1.1898

usuhu.jpg

© Mlan Hodík

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Wo Kafka und seine Freunde zu Gast waren. Hartmut Binder, 2000.

usuhu2.jpg

Pobytové přihlášky / Meldebuch

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Marriage record, 1901

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Death record, 26.5.1919

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Soupis pražského obyvatelstva 1830-1910 (1920)

U Šuhů was a brothel where Katz owed money, and subsequently didn't want visit any. The place is mentioned twice more: in Marek's story about the court of Marie Valerie and in the story about the tinsmith Pimpra.

Background

U Šuhů was a brothel in Benediktská 9. According to Chytilův úplný adresář království českého (1913) it was owned by Jan Schuha whom the establishment presumably was named after. In Cecil Parrott's translation of Švejk, a footnote describes U Šuhů as a "notorious brothel".

Kafka at Šuha

Field chaplain Katz and tinsmith Pimpra were not the only notabilities who frequented Šuha. In his diary Franz Kafka discretely mentions a visit on 28 September 1911 when he was served by a "Jewess with a narrow face". He also describes the interior in some detail. The brothel hostess is described in rather unflattering terms.

Kafka expert Hartmut Binder provides interesting information in his book Wo Kafka und seine Freunde zu Gast waren. He reveals that Jan Šuha obtained a brothel's license as a reward for acting as a police informer. It was his wife who managed the brothel, an arrangement that was quite common at the time. It is also revealed that Kafka must have visited more than once. After the death of her husband, Mrs. Šuha married Rudolf Kulhánek, the establishment's bouncer.

Newspaper clips

In a newspaper article from 1891 it is revealed that Šuha was a police informer who contributed to the capture of two thieves who attempted to rob a shop in Michle. The article also states that Šuha was 43 years old so he must have been born in 1848.

Šuha was already in 1896 listed as proprietor of a wine bar at the above mentioned address, and in 1898 a newspaper clip refers to Jan Šuha, owner of a night café in Benedikstká ulice. That year he bought a café in Konviktská ulice in Staré Město. In 1907 (3 April) Architektonický ozbor reported that Šuha had bought house no. 1030 in Benediktská for 96,000 crowns. This was the house on the corner next to the brothel.

In 1923 Národní politika reported of a fight in front of the house, when a drunk man tried to enter a flat because he thought this was where the brothel still was. So Šuha had ceased doing business some time between 1913 and 1923. He had by 1913 reached the age of 65 and in 1919 licensed brothels were made illegal although the ban was later relaxed somewhat.

Police registers

The police registration protocols reveal more. They confirm that "Johann Šucha" was born in 1848 and that he in 1901 married the 29 years younger "Marie Wykypěl". Šuha is listed with two occupations: Goldarbeiter (gold craftsman) and Weinschänker (wine tavern waiter), born and with Heimatrecht in Rakov(?) near Plzeň. On 4 March 1913 they are both entered as residents of Benediktinergasse 722/I. It should also be noted that Emilie Rossmann (born Vykypěl, Brno 1887) is entered at the same address. It is tempting to suggest that she may have been the sister of Marie.

Church records

Research in church records by Jaroslav Šerák (2019) provides more details about the proprietor of the brothel. The files provide birth and death dates, and also information about marriages.

Jan Schuh (name according to birth record) was born outside marriage at Hradčany on 3 June 1848, not in Raková as the police registers show. On 18 April 1901 he married 23 year old Marie Vykypělová who already then served as "madam" at his establishment. Marie Schuhová died already on 5 November 1910 so she could not have been the brothel madam who Kafka wrote about in his diary a year later (but it may have been her that Marek remembers). On 27 January 1913 Schuh married the younger sister of his late wife, Josefa Vykypělová. She also functioned as madam at the establishment so it was probably her Kafka described. Brothel owner Jan Schuh died on 26 May 1919.

It is also confirmed that Josefa Schuhová shortly after her husband's death married the 8 year younger head waiter at the brothel, Rudolf Kulhánek. Emilie Rossmannová, married to Leopold, was the sister of the two brothel mamas. Josefa Kulhánková died 5 September 1924, at the age of 43.

Franz Kafka, Diaries, 1 October 1911

In B. Suha the day before yesterday. The sole Jewess with a narrow face, continuing in a narrow chin, but with an extensively wavy and broad hair style . The three small doors leading from the interior of the building to the hall. Guests like in a guard house on the stage, drinks on the table, but are hardly touched. The woman with the flat face in a square dress that begins to move only deep down below the seam. Now, as before, some are dressed like puppets for a children’s theatre, as one sells them on the Christmas market, i.e. covered with ruffles and gold and loosely sewn, so that they can be separated in one go and they fall apart between one’s fingers. The hostess with the light blonde and tightly pulled hair, no doubt covering a disgusting foundation, with sharply declining nose, whose direction has some geometric relation to the sagging breasts and the tightly strung belly, complains of a headache, which is caused by the fact that today, Saturday, there was great hype but still nothing happens.

Franz Kafka, Tagebücher, 1. Oktober 1911

Im B. Suha vorvorgestern. Die eine Jüdin mit schmalem Gesicht, besser das in ein schmales Kinn verlauft, aber von einer ausgedehnt welligen Frisur ins Breite geschüttelt wird. Die drei kleinen Türen, die aus dem Innern des Gebäudes in den Salon führen. Die Gäste wie in einer Wachstube auf der Bühne, Getränke auf dem Tisch, werden ja kaum angerührt. Die Flachgsichtige im eckigen Kleid, das erst tief unten in einem Saum sich zu bewegen anfängt. Einige hier und früher angezogen wie die Marionetten für Kinderteater, wie man sie auf dem Christmarkt verkauft d.h. mit Rüschen und Gold beklebt und lose benäht, so daß man sie mit einem Zug abtrennen kann und daß sie einem dann in den Fingern zerfallen. Die Wirtin mit dem mattblonden über zweifellos ekelhaften Unterlagen straff gezogenem Haar, mit der scharf niedergehenden Nase, deren Richtung in irgendeiner geometrischen Beziehung zu den hängenden Brüste und dem steif gehaltenen Bauch steht, klagt über Kopfschmerzen, die dadurch verursacht sind, daß heute Samstag ein so großer Rummel und nichts daran ist.

Links

SourceJaroslav Šerák, Franz Kafka, Hartmut Binder, K.L. Kukla

Quote from the novel
[1.10.2] Polní kurát pustil se vrat a navalil se na Švejka: „Pojďme tedy někam, ale k Šuhům nepůjdu, tam jsem dlužen.“
[3.3] Kvůli pořádku, aby si snad dvorní lokajové nedovolili nějaké důvěrnosti ku dvorním dámám přítomným na hostině, objevuje se nejvyšší hofmistr baron Lederer, komoří hrabě Bellegarde a vrchní dvorní dáma hraběnka Bombellesová, která hraje mezi dvorními dámami stejnou úlohu jako madam v bordelu u Šuhů.
[3.4] Švejk velice vážně a důrazně řekl: „Nic jste neprováděl, pane lajtnant, byl jste jenom na návštěvě v jednom vykřičeným domě. Ale to byl asi nějakej vomyl. Klempíře Pimpra z Kozího plácku taky vždycky hledali, když šel kupovat plech do města, a našli ho také vždycky v podobnej místnosti, buď u ,Šuhů’, nebo u ,Dvořáků’, jako já vás našel.

Also written:Schuha de

Korpskommandonn flag
Malostranské nám. 258/15, Praha III-K.u.k. Ärar [1914]
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korps8.png

The recruitment area of the 8th Corps

korps8_sokal.png

Korpskommando at Sokal. Signed von Scheuchenstuehl.

Korpskommando is mentioned by Katz in his drunken stupor on the way back from Helmich's party.

Background

Korpskommando here refers to the 8. Armeekorps, one of a total of 16 army groups in Austria-Hungary. The corps, with headquarters in the Lichtenstein Palace in Malá Strana recruited from south, west and central Bohemia. Together with 9. korps (Litoměřice) it covered all of Bohemia.

Subordinated the corps were these units: 9. Infanteriedivision (with IR91), 19. Infanteriedivision, 1. Kavaleriebrigade and 8. Traindivision. Corps commander in 1914 was general Arthur Giesl von Gieslingen. After the fiasco in Serbia in 1914 he was replaced by Viktor von Scheuchenstuel.

Employed in the corps was also the master-spy Alfred Redl, chief of their general staff from 18 October 1912. In May 1913 his activities were uncovered: he had been spying for Russia for around 10 years. He is regarded as one of the best (worst) spies ever, and handed over whatever existed of value.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.10.2] Polní kurát, který zaslechl poslední slova, pobručuje si nějaký motiv z operety, kterou by nikdo nepoznal, vztyčil se k divákům: "Kdo je z vás mrtvej, ať se přihlásí u korpskomanda během tří dnů, aby mohla být jeho mrtvola vykropena."
Infanterieregiment Nr. 75nn flag
Salzburg-K.u.k. Ärar [1914]
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Town square in Jindřichův Hradec

lehen3.jpg

Lehener Kaserne

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Seidels kleines Armeeschema 1914

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Volksfreund, 8.8.1914

Infanterieregiment Nr. 75 is mentioned in passing when the inebriated Katz in the cab home from Helmich mistakes Švejk for colonel Just from the 75th regiment.

The regiment is mentioned again when Katz and Švejk have to borrow a trophy from Witinger for their field mass in [I.11].

Background

Infanterieregiment Nr. 75 was one of 102 Austro-Hungarian infantry regiments. It was founded in 1860 and had their baptism of fire already in 1866 at the second battle of Custoza.

It was a predominantly Czech regiment, recruited from Ergänzungsbezirk Nr. 75, Jindřichův Hradec (Neuhaus). The Ergänzungsbezirkskommando and 3rd battalion were located here in 1914. The staff and the other three battalions had been garrisoned in Salzburg from March 1912. In Salzburg they raised some attention with their Czech songs, and are said to have caused a boom in the local interest in football.

Regimental commander was colonel Franz Wiedstruck. The regiment had previously been moved around; between 1906 and 1909 in Prague, at Hradčany. Then it moved to Jindřichův Hradec where it remained until the 1912 transfer.

During the war

Already on 5 August 1914 the regiment departed for the front against Russia. They were allocated to the 4. Armee and in 1914 the fought mostly in the area between San and Kraków. In the new year they were transferred to the German Süd-Armee and moved to the area east of Munkács.

The regiment remained on the eastern front throughout the war. They received particular attention after the battle of Zborów on 2 July 1917. On this day many of the regiment's soldiers were taken prisoners by the Czechoslovak Brigade (Legions) and accusations of treason led to legal proceedings in Vienna.

Gott strafe England

The regiment is also mentioned in Jaroslav Hašek's polemic story Gott strafe England, (Československý voják - 10 October 1917). In this story the main character Adamička turns insane, is transferred to Infanterieregiment Nr. 75 and is taken prisoner at Zborów. The real Josef Adamička however never served in the regiment - and he was stationed in Belgrade at the time the battle was fought.

Wehrgeschichte Salzburg (Erwin Niedermann):

Auf Wunsch des Erzherzog-Thronfolgers Franz Ferdinand (1863– 1914), der in Blühnbach das Jagdschloß besaß, sollten beim zumeist nur deutschsprachigen Militär in Salzburg aber auch Angehörige einer anderen Sprache des multinationalen und multikulturellen Reiches den (ab 1908) zweijährigen Wehrdienst ableisten, so wie das längst in den anderen Kronländern üblich war. So wurden anstelle der „Rainer“ (es verblieb nur das 4. Bataillon) der Regimentsstab und drei Bataillone des Böhmischen Infanterie-Regimentes Nr. 75 aus Neuhaus/Jindrichuv Hradec (lichtblaue Aufschläge, weiße Knöpfe, 79 Prozent tschechische Umgangssprache, 20 Prozent deutsche,1 Prozent verschiedene) mit März 1912 hierher transferiert, wobei ein Bataillon auch in die Lehener Kaserne kam, die anderen zwei in die Franz Josef-Kaserne, bzw. Hofstall-Kaserne und Nonntalerkaserne, die „Rainer“ in die Hellbrunner-Straße, bzw. auf die Festung. Die Salzburger sollen sehr unverständig erstaunt gewesen sein über die in und außer Dienst gesungenen tschechischen Volkslieder der Soldaten, wie mehrfach überliefert wurde.

Die Soldaten dieses IR 75 sollen bereits vor dem Krieg sich für Fußball interessiert haben. Soldaten dieses Regimentes haben vermutlich den Fußball-Boom in Salzburg ausgelöst. Im Mai 1914 wurde im Rahmen eines Militärsportfestes ein Fußballspiel am Exerziergelände der Hellbrunner-Kaserne abgehalten. Salzburger Realschüler spielten gegen Soldaten des IR 75. Die Realschüler schlossen sich dann zu einem Fußballverein “Die Athletiker” zusammen, aus dem der “Erste Salzburger Athletiker-Klub (1.SAK 1914) entstand. Eine weitere Information dazu spricht von der Landwehr Nr.8 in der Hellbrunner-Kaserne, in der Fußball-Spieler aus den böhmischen Mannschaften SLAVIA und SPARTA als Soldaten Dienst versahen.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.10.2] Švejk ho vzbudil a za pomoci drožkáře dopravil do drožky. V drožce polní kurát upadl v úplnou otupělost a považoval Švejka za plukovníka Justa od 75. pěšího pluku a několikrát za sebou opakoval: „Nehněvej se, kamaráde, že ti tykám. Jsem prase.“
Sport-Favoritnn flag
Na Přikopě 583/15, Praha I.-Fussballclub Sport-Favorit in Prag [1910]
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The club's address in 1910

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Neues Wiener Tagblatt, 3.7.1902

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Světozor, 19.3.1909

Sport-Favorit is mentioned in connected with the running exploits of Witinger. Years ago he had won the trophy that Katz borrowed to use at the field mass and at the time he was running for Sport-Favorit. Later in the chapter it is revealed that the race in question was from Vienna to Mödling.

Background

Sport-Favorit was a German sports club from Prague and officially named Fussballclub Sport-Favorit. Despite the name and the main focus on football they also did athletics and cycling, at least during the early years.

The club was founded in 1900 by merger between Sport and Favorit. The offices were located on Na Přikopě (Graben), was associated with Café Central, and the football matches were played at Letná. The running competion mentioned in the article to the right took place at a course in Bubny on 13 July 1902.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.10.2] Tak dostaneme sportovní pohár od nadporučíka Witingra od 75. pluku. On kdysi před lety běhal o závod a vyhrál jej za ,Sport-Favorit’. Byl to dobrý běžec. Dělal čtyřicet kilometrů Vídeň-Mödling za 1 hodinu 48 minut, jak se nám vždycky chlubí. Jsem hovado, že všechno odkládám na poslední chvíli. Proč jsem se, trouba, nepodíval do té pohovky.“
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Pod Bruskou 132/2, Praha III.-K.u.k. Ärar [1907]
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum

Bruska was the barracks where captain Šnábl served. Švejk was sent here by Katz to borrow money and to buy ořechovka (nut spirits).

Background

Bruska refers to the now demolished barracks that were located at Klárov in Malá Strana, next to Klárův ústav slepců. They were named after the small (mostly underground) stream Bruska (Brusnice) that flows past the site.

These barracks were the home of the staff of IR28, the 2nd battalion, the replacement area command, and K.u.K. Artillerieregiment Nr. 8. In 1914 the building was sold to the city of Prague and the military personnel were moved to the Josefskaserne and the Ferdinandkaserne in Karlín. The Ergänzungsbezirkskommando was however still there in October, so if Šnábl had any base in the real world he would surely have belonged to this unit. Still it seems that the building was used by the military also later. In 1915 Landsturm drafts took place here and in 1916 Prager Tagblatt reports about Hungarian soldiers on the site. In 1919 the building was used for recruitment of army volunteers. The barracks were demolished in 1922 and the former site is now only partly occupied by buildings.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.10.3] Kdyby zde byla pravá ořechovka,“ povzdechl, „ta by mně spravila žaludek. Taková ořechovka, jako má pan hejtman Šnábl v Brusce.“
Vršovice kasárnann flag
Na Mičánkách 429/-, Vršovice-K.u.k. Ärar [1907]
Wikipedia czdeen Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum
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IR 73. - Vereidigung des VIII. Marschbataillon in Prag Wrschowitz, März 1915. © Michael Kummer

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Geschichte des ehemaligen Egerländer Infanterie-Regiments Nr. 73

Vršovice kasárna was a garrison where Švejk dropped by to borrow money from Lieutenant Mahler. In [I.14] and [I.15], the plot may the most part takes place in Vršovice, without this being stated explicitly. Some indication is the fact that Blahník took the stolen dog Max here, but in the next chapter Lukáš seems to live much nearer the centre.

Background

Vršovice kasárna probably refers to the barracks in Vršovice that were home of the 73rd infantry regiment (IR73) at the time. It housed the regiment's staff and three battalions. In contrary to other Bohemian regiments they were allowed to stay in their home barracks until 1918. Most of the military personnel left the barracks hastily after the revolution of 28 October 1918 and set off to their home region of Eger (now Cheb). The barracks were immediately taken over by local militiamen (Sokol) and a few days later the newly formed Czechoslovak artillery moved in. The site was used by the military until the 1950's and now houses the court of four districts.

There was also another barrack in Vršovice but as it was used by 8. Traindivision and is probably a less likely candidate than the above-mentioned infantry barracks. The address was Palackého třída 334 (now Moskevská). These barrack compex was eztenisve and contained staff buildings, stables, stores and officer's accommodation. The barracks were gradually demolished between 1965 and 1983 and the housing estate Vlasta now occupies the site.

Links

Source: Michael Kummer

Quote from the novel
[1.10.3] Jestli tam nepochodíte, tak půjdete do Vršovic, do kasáren k nadporučíkovi Mahlerovi.
Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

11. Švejk rides with the field chaplain to serve a field mass

České legienn flag
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Za svobodu, 1925.

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The execution of Josef Müller and Antonín Grmela, 12 December 1914. The chaplain František Havlík was present.

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Hašek's notes on execution of legionnaires, Samara spring 1918.

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Celebration in the 7th company, 1st rifle regiment.

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Čechoslovan announces the victory by Zborów on 2 July 1917.

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From the trenches by Zborów. © LA-PNP.

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Retreat from Zborów, July 1917.

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Masaryk visiting in August 1917.

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Czech volunteers in Russia, 1917. © VHU.

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Proposals for the borders of a future Czech state. Národní Listy, 21.10.1917

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On the origin of the Czechoslovak rebellion. "Gazette de Lausanne" 29 June 1918.

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Guards from the 4th regiment in Samara.

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The railway was the mainstay of the Legions.

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Švec's letter to Stanislav Čeček about the desperate plight of his troops.

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At the grave of colonel Švec, autumn 1918.

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The majority travelled home from Vladivostok.

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Rather death than the live of a slave

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The first regiment "Jan Hus" Prague for the first time.

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The first issue that Hašek contributed to.

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The story of the picture of emperor Franz Joseph I. Čechoslovan 17 July 1916 (30 July)

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The beginning of Hašek's "Klub českých Pickwiků". Revoluce 23 April 1917 (6 May).

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The only known photo of Jaroslav Hašek from his time in the Legions. Here with Jan Šípek and Václav Menger. Berezne 29 September 1917 (12 October).

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Advert in Čechoslovan, 6 August 1917 (19 August)

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Hašek announcing that he leaves the Czech army.

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The Czechoslovak Army's arrest order for Hašek, Omsk 25 July 1918. Here imprecisely reproduced in Národní Listy, 11 January 1919.

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Hašek's service sheet from the legions.

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Hašek's had according to Czechoslovak law not status as a legionnaire. The law that defined the status of the legionnaires was ratified in 1919.

České legie is the author's term for Československé Legie (Czechoslovak Legions) that he mentions indirectly when discussing the field chaplain's role at executions. He lists several examples to illustrate his point, amongst them execution of Czech legionnaires.

The Legions are barely mentioned in the novel so the reader may wonder why a page about The Good Soldier Švejk dedicates so much space to an organization the author touches upon only once ...

The answer is that there can be no doubt that the Legions would have been a main focus in the three volumes of the novel that the author had planned but never finalised. Jaroslav Hašek dedicated two years of his life to the Czech-Slovak independence movement, and there is every reason to believe that he would have continued to spice his novel with autobiographical details, add people from his own milieu and episodes from his time there, just as he drew inspiration from his far shorter time of service in K.u.k. Heer.

Background

České legie (more commonly Československé legie or Česko-slovenské legie) is a common term describing different groups of mainly Czech (and Slovak) volunteers who fought for the Entente against the Central Powers during WW1 and from May 1918 against the Bolsheviks (Communists) in the Russian Civil War. Politically they reported to Československá národní rada (the Czechoslovak National Council) in Paris (from February 1916), militarily they were part of armies of various Entente powers. From 1916 the Legions were an important instrument in the National Council's campaign to convince the allies to allow an independent Slavic state in Bohemia, Moravia and Slovakia. As Tomáš G. Masaryk, leader of the Czechoslovak independence movement, summarised: "a state without an army can hardly claim independence".

Already shortly after the outbreak of war units of Czech volunteers were formed in France and Russia (and later also in Italy). In the novel the author obviously refers to the legions in Russia because it was those he knew and had experience from.

Execution of legionnaires

Austrian and Hungarian citizens who served the enemy voluntarily had to expect rough justice if they were captured. The first Czechs who suffered this grim fate were Josef Müller and Antonín Grmela who were hanged publicly on the square in Wadowice near Kraków on 12 December 1914. František Havlík was the chaplain and witness at the execution (see the next paragraph). Many legionnaires were executed during the war, but this was the first and best known case and Hašek definitely knew about it.

František Havlík, Wadowice 12 December 1914

Poslední chvíle odsouzenců popsal zpovídající kněz František Havlík: „Pod šibenicí jim byl znovu přečten rozsudek. Na otázku, mají-li poslední prosbu, vůbec neodpověděli. Rozloučili se spolu kývnutím hlavy. Grmela šel hrdě, se vztyčenou hlavou. Vystoupil po schodkách, svlékl svrchní kabát a odhodil, odvázal šátek, který měl kolem krku a rovněž odhodil, pak se podíval na diváky, kterých bylo všude plno, uklonil se, usmál a vstrčil hlavu do smyčky. Pak přišel na řadu Müller. Zůstali viset do večera do šesti hodin. Potom byli zakopáni v koutě wadowického hřbitova.“

Execution of legionnaires continued throughout the war and as late as May 1918 Hašek himself mentions this in a propaganda poster he signed in Samara. The Germans had allegedly executed 200 of his compatriots in Jekaterinoslav (now Dnipropetrovsk) and in Kharkov an Austrian military court had sentenced 12 members of the Russian branch of the Czechoslovak National Council to death.

The Bolsheviks also executed a number of Czechs, something the author as a political official in the Bolshevik’s 5th army would have been well aware of. Still it is unlikely that these events would have inspired the passage in the novel, because the Communists are unlikely to have called in clerics for such occasions and the author would at this stage of the novel surely not have aimed his pen at his former comrades.

Česká družina [The Czech Cohort]

At the outbreak of the First World War around 65,000 Czechs and Slovaks are believed to have resided in Russia (some sources mention 100,000). Most of the Czechs lived in the Kiev Gubernate, mostly in Kiev proper and in the Volyn province near the border with Galicia. Among these were both Russian citizens and Austrian citizens who for various reasons lived in the Russian empire at the time.

From both categories volunteers reported to serve Russia and already in August 1914 the Tsar approved the creation of Česká družina as a semi-autonomous and non-fighting unit in the Russian army. On 11 October (the day of St. Václav according to the old Russian calendar) they swore their oath of allegiance in Kiev and then counted 762 men, a number that had increased to 990 by the end of the year. They were mainly given reconnaissance and agitation duties at the front and were assigned to the Russian 3rd Army that took part in the battles by Dunajec and Raba in November and December.

The number of "družiníci" grew only slowly until 1917 and recruitment of prisoners was rather unsuccessful. Russian authorities were uncooperative for various reasons: distrust ("once a traitor, always a traitor"), need for skilled labour in factories and agriculture and also doubt about the legality of recruiting prisoners. In the beginning the Russians only accepted those who volunteered on the spot after capture, but in April 1916 these restrictions were eased and recruitment in prisoner’s camps was permitted. Still the large majority of prisoners were under no circumstances keen to return to war duty and recruitment was sluggish.

Changes in Russia

By January 1916 the number of soldiers in Družina had grown to 1,650 and it was decided to transform the unit into a regiment. It was first renamed Česko-slovenský střelecký pluk (the Czecho-Slovak Rifle Regiment) on 2 February and then Česko-slovenská střelecká brigáda (the Czecho-Slovak Rifle Brigade) on 17 April. Thus it was the latter Jaroslav Hašek formally was enlisted in on 29 June 1916 after having reported as a volunteer in the prisoner's camp in Totskoye (these dates refer to the Russian orthodox calendar, 13 days behind our own).

During the so-called Kerensky offensive in July 1917 the Czechoslovak brigade for the first time operated as a collective unit in a regular battle. They still counted only around 3,500 (estimates vary) but distinguished themselves by Zborów 2 July 1917 (19 June) where they prevailed against numerically superior enemy forces and captured a large number of them (many of them Czechs from the 35th and 75th infantry regiments - see IR35 and Infanterieregiment Nr. 75). Although the military significance of the victory was negligible, the political impact was substantial: the victory raised attention in Petrograd and even in Western capitals.

Important was also that Zborów gave an impetus to recruitment and on 5 September the volunteers were re-organised into 1. Československá střelecká divize (the 1st Czechoslovak Rifle Division) and already on 26 September Československý armadní sbor (the Czechoslovak Army Corps) was formed. At the end of the year they counted around 38,500 and in addition to 8 infantry regiments there was artillery, a sapper company, a reserve regiment, supply- and communication troops. These were functions that previously had been covered by the Russian army but by now the Czechoslovak Corps was nearly autonomous despite still formally reporting to the Russian chain of command. The commanders were even at this time Russian officers.

From one army to another

Already in 1916 the Czech leadership abroad contemplated a transfer of the Legions to France in view of the increasingly uncertain situation in Russia. In the autumn of 1917 the war in Russia was practically over and another motive for the transfer was political: on the Western Front they would be more visible to the people who pulled the threads in the Allied capitals - western leaders were still opposed to dismembering Austria-Hungary (Masaryk). The October Revolution and the following armistice gave further impetus and 7 February 1918 the agreement on making the Legions part of the French army was formally signed. A deal covering financial support was agreed in March. Both those agreements were negotiated by Masaryk during his stay in Russia. Prior to this it had been decided to create an official Czechoslovak army of volunteers in France (December 1917) that reported to the French supreme command, but was politically responsible to the National Council.

The new order had led to tangible changes even before the deal was formally signed as French military structure and discipline was being introduced. Dissatisfaction with the new situation and also influence from the Bolsheviks led to attrition and some thousands Czechs eventually lent their services to the new regime in Moscow, among them was Jaroslav Hašek. Not to be forgotten in this context is the fact that the Bolsheviks offered better pay (Fic).

Siberian anabasis

The transfer to the western front proved difficult to carry out in the chaos that prevailed in Russia in 1918. Some were shipped out early via Murmansk, transfer via Romania and Caucasus was also considered but eventually one decided on an incredible round the world trip via the Trans-Siberian Railway and Vladivostok, later known as "Sibiřská anabase".

In February 1918 an agreement was signed between Masaryk and Mikhail A. Murayov (commander of the Red Guards occupying Kiev) on unhindered transport. Sooner than they had imagined the Legions and the Bolsheviks had to execute the evacuation after the Germans on February 18 attacked Russia in order to put force behind their demands in the peace negotiations in Brest-Litovsk. The German advance met little resistance and parts of Legion avoided encirclement after the 6th regiment successfully held up the Germans by Bachmach.

The deal on free passage eastwards was confirmed by Josef V. Stalin in mid-March on conditions that the Czechs agreed to partial disarmament. During these days the transfer progressed fairly smoothly but soon the authorities in Moscow put obstacles in the way. This was partly in the hope of recruiting the Legions for their own cause and partly a reaction to pressure from Germany. Large Czechoslovak troop units got stuck in cities like Penza and Chelyabinsk and had to witness that scarce rolling stock was used to transport prisoners from the Central Powers home.

Uprising

A serious incident occurred in Chelyabinsk on 14 May. A Hungarian prisoner was lynched by Czechs after having hurled a metal object at them from a train. Events escalated tension and Trotsky ordered the full disarmament of the Legions. The frustrated Czechs started an armed uprising on 25 May, against the expressed will of the National Council. Simultaneously with the crisis a congress was held in Chelyabinsk and it decided to no longer accept directives from the political leadership. During the next three months the rebels occupied all important points on the railway between the Volga and the Pacific Ocean.

In the regions the Czechs controlled the civilian administration was placed in the hands of anti-Bolshevik groups; the left-wing democratic Komuch in Samara and the Siberian Government in Omsk. These governments also established their own armed forces but these proved to be relatively useless as allies (according to Czech sources). The Legions had early been engaged in fighting with Czech Red Guards and at Penza and Lipjag hundreds of Czech Communists were killed.

An important consequence of the Czechoslovak take-over in Siberia was that the government in Moscow (and indirectly Germany) now were without access to vast resources. The transport of prisoners of war back home also stopped when the Legions took control of the railway stations and the prisoner's of war camps. German and Hungarian prisoners were often brutally treated and allegedly massacres took place. On one instance two Danish Red Cross nurses were executed as spies (Brändström).

Counter-order and a new front

The success of the of Czechoslovak Army in June drew attention all over the world, also amongst the Allied leadership. Plans were developed to use the Legions as the spearhead of a new allied front against Germany (hence also the Bolsheviks). This was agreed by the Russian rebel governments and the Czechoslovak political and military leadership. The Entente powers were however in two minds. With Allied support promised, the order was given that the Czechoslovak Army remain in Russia and fight on a new front on the Volga. The order was given by Stanislav Čeček, commander of the western group. At the same time his group achieved contact with the central group based in Omsk.

In the meantime the Bolsheviks had reintroduced conscription using brutal methods and harsh discipline. The volunteer Red Guards were now supplemented by a regular Red Army that was partly trained by German officers. The army was furthered strengthened by so-called "Internationalists", soldiers recruited from prisoner's camps. In some sectors they were even dominant, and many of them were German and Hungarian officers and soldiers with long war experience.

A dramatic interlude that occurred in 10 July, was the defection of the social-revolutionary colonel Mikhail A. Muravyov, the newly appointed commander of the Bolshevik front on the Volga. His agenda was a common front against the Germans together with the Czechoslovak and the Russian counter-revolutionaries but he was murdered in by Bolsheviks in Simbirsk the next morning.

The new front on the Volga was established by mid-July and in the beginning the Czechoslovaks and their allies made progress against the surprised Bolsheviks, and Simbirsk and Kazan were occupied. But during the summer Trotsky had remarkably quickly built up more powerful Red Army. The stronger army and the fact that promised military support from the allies hardly reached the Volga front, left the Czechoslovaks dangerously exposed and from late August 1918 they pulled back with heavy losses, pursued by a numerically superior enemy.

The worst set-back was the loss of Kazan on 10 September which was a turning point in war on the Volga. In many cases the enemy was also better equipped. Reserves were virtually non-existent and the Russian allies proved ineffective and unreliable. Amongst the exhausted legionnaires on the Volga-front demoralization crept in and it proved difficult to motivate soldiers for further participation in the civil war. There was also frustration with their own military leadership. On posters and flyers "defence minister" Rudolf Medek as recently as mid-September dreamt in writing about a march on Moscow, and this at a time when it was clear that the new front was doomed to collapse unless reinforcements arrived. From October the unwillingness to fight became even more pronounced as the world war drew to an end and the goal of an independent state was in sight.

A tragic incident that illustrated the crisis was the suicide of colonel Josef Jiří Švec on 25 October 1918 at the station of Asakovo. His soldiers had refused to obey order, but this was probably only the trigger for the suicide. Švec, who was commander of the 1st regiment at by Kazan, had already in September in a letter to František Langer expressed frustration over the critical state of his troops and also about his Russian allies who "protected by Czech bayonets enjoy life behind the front" and warned against the increasing demoralization in the ranks of his exhausted men.

By October 1918 all cities on the Volga were under Bolshevik control and they pushed steadily eastwards. Their most dangerous opponent was no longer the weakened Legions but the new ruler of Siberia, Admiral Kolchak. He had assumed power through a coup in Omsk on 18 November.

From the end of October 1918 the Legions for all practical purposes pulled out of the civil war despite ongoing skirmishes with Bolsheviks and other groups. Since the main political goal of the National Council, an independent state, now was achieved, further engagement in Russia made little sense. Still most of the soldiers were stuck in Sibiria and the Far East until the summer of 1920, and some Czechs units, mainly those reporting to maverick commander Radola Gajda, continued fighting the Bolsheviks as part of Kolchak's army.

Early in 1919 the Legions were made to report to the new Czechoslovak authorities, and after the end of the world war the previous policy of non-interference in Russian internal affairs was again in force. Accepting orders from Prague didn't always go down well and in a couple of cases there was danger of mutinies. Another complicating element was admiral Kolchak's coup in the October 1918: the majority of the Czechs had a strained relation to the dictator even if both nominally had a common enemy. After the collapse of his army and his retreat in early 1920 Kolchak relied on Czech protection but the Legions handed him over to a group who later passed him on to the Bolsheviks. In Irkutsk he was summarily executed, an incident that left Maurice Janin and the Legion's leadership in an unfavourable light. The rest of the retreat eastwards passed quite smoothly and by September 1920 the legionnaires had all left for home.

Jaroslav Hašek and the Legions

After having been a prisoner of war from 24 September 1915, Hašek was in June 1916 recruited by emissaries from Československá brigáda in Totskoye, a prisoner’s camp in oblast Orenburg in southern Ural, east of Volga. Together with a small group of other volunteers he went to Kiev where he was deemed unfit for regular service due to his poor health. Instead he was assigned agitation and recruitment duties. He resumed his activities as a writer and published stories and comments in the weekly Čechoslovan and later in other periodicals. The best known of these was Povídka o obrazu císaře Františka Josefa I. (The story of the picture of Emperor Franz Joseph I.) where he lets a tom-cat from Mladá Boleslav empty his bladder on a picture of His Imperial Highness. The result was a judicial process "in absentia" and some lively correspondence between Polizeidirektion in Prague and K.u.k. Divisionsgericht in Vienna.

In 1917 he also published the second version of Švejk, Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí (The Good Soldier Švejk in captivity). It was a book of 100+ pages and shared many details with the future novel. That said it lacked the anecdotes and humour of the successor and is probably better characterised as propaganda than satire. From June 1916 a certain Josef Švejk actually served in the Legions and it is quite possible that Hašek knew him or at least knew about him. Even more striking is the fact that this person lived next door to U kalicha in 1912...

Unsurprisingly disciplinary problems surfaced also during the author’s time in the Legions. One of these incidents of drunken disorderliness led to arrest and jail. The zenith was reached with the the merciless satire Klub českých Pickwiků where the non-conformist writer insulted six leaders of the Russian branch of the National Council. It was printed in Revoluce 6 May 1917 (23 April). The background was the ongoing squabble between Russian oriented and the western oriented groups in the Czech exile movement where Jaroslav Hašek sided with the first. After the episode he was prosecuted and was forced to apologise to the insulted parties. He was also locked up for a week. From now on he was an ordinary soldier and was assigned to the 1st Regiment's machine gun detachment. In this capacity he took part in the battle of Zborów on 2 July. He also took part in the retreat from Tarnopol after the collapse of the Kerensky offensive.

His regiment was from the beginning of August located by Berezne and here Masaryk paid them a visit soon after. Hašek now became a secretary at the regiments's staff, was elected to the regimental committee and was also decorated for his part in the battle of Zborów. During this period he played an important role in exposing the Austrian agent Alexandr Mašek. The spy was arrested and executed when the Legions left Ukraine in February 1918. It was only on 15 November that Jaroslav Hašek was back in Kiev as a writer, although he had written for Čechoslovan already in August.

Several of the articles and editorials Hašek wrote in the autumn of 1917 were highly critical of the Bolsheviks. He even described Lenin as a "paid agent of German imperialism" and as late as the turn of the year he voiced similar views. He also attacked Alois Muna and Arno Hais, the leaders of the Kiev section of the Czech Bolshevik movement in Russia. Muna didn't forget this and was instrumental in having Hašek "exiled" to Samara in spring 1918. At this time Hašek and other young radicals toyed with the idea of sending sabotage groups into Austria-Hungary, an idea rejected by the National Council.

At the beginning of 1918 the tone seemed to shift towards sympathy for the new regime and there is reason to believe that the young Communist Břetislav Hůla influenced this change in attitude. According to Václav Menger he and Hašek were inseparable at the time. In February this tendency became more pronounced and may have been further influenced by the Bolshevik occupation of Kiev from 8 February 1918. In an article in Průkopník 27 March he mentions two of their leaders directly: Mikhail A. Muravyov and Václav Fridrich. According to Josef Pospíšil he described them (implicitly) as "very capable people". In the article mentioned above Hašek also berated the Legions for not having joined the Red Guards in fighting the advancing Germans. At the beginning of March Hašek and Hůla left for Moscow where they joined the Czech section of the Russian Communist party.

Still it was as late as 13 April 1918 that Hašek officially and in writing left České vojsko. The justification was short: he disagreed with the policies of the National Council; to transfer the army to the western front. He also emphasized that he would still work for Czech interests against Austria-Hungary, so he was not yet in direct conflict with the Legions. His writing shows no trace of Marx or Lenin but he emphasises the similarities between the Hussite movement and the Communists. František Langer and Václav Menger wrote that Hašek socialised with his former companions from the Legions even after he had left. These encounters took place both in Moscow in March and in Samara in April and May. From the end of May his situation was complicated by the Czechoslovak rebellion against the Bolshevik authorities.

Hašek was now in direct conflict with his former brothers in arms and on 8 June he went underground as the Legions occupied Samara that day. Only three months later did he re-appear and it has been speculated that he during this time had been in contact with his former comrades. According to his own account he hid in the countryside and acted the retarded son of German colonist. This was revealed in a letter to the Czech Communist Jaroslav Salát-Petrlík (17 September 1920) but the recipient was hardly a person to whom he would have revealed any contacts with the Legions. Scattered pieces from various sources (including himself) indicate that he stayed east of Volga at least until mid July but thereafter news about his whereabouts are less reliable.

Dramatic events at the beginning of July changed the situation to the extent that Hašek now had good reasons to return to the Legions or at least to their Russian allies. As mentioned above it had been decided that the Czechoslovak Army was not going to France after all, but was to remain in Russia as the spearhead of a new anti German front. This meant that the reasons for Hašek leaving them was no longer valid. Again he had strong common interests with the Legions and the National Council. The fact that the Bolsheviks were now de-facto (reluctant) allied with the Central Powers must have made them inedible to the newly converted Czech Communist. He had as a revolutionary agitator always promoted the fight against the Central Powers side by side with a social revolution, and now this confluence of interests was opening up before his eyes.

What went wrong during these turbulent days is unclear but by 25 July 1918 all bridges were burnt. In Omsk the Czechoslovak Army Field Court issued an arrest order for Hašek. The wording was "repeated acts of treason against the Czechoslovak nation". Leading Communists politicians like Alois Muna, Arno Hais Václav Knoflíček and František Beneš were also wanted, but the wording was milder and the order issued a week earlier! Documents related to these warrants surely exist in the War Archive in Prague (VHA) but seem never to have been consulted by Hašek scholars.

In September Hašek was arrested in Simbirsk by the Bolsheviks. Presumably it was on suspicion of espionage or contact with the enemy. The Soviets must still have found him useful: in mid October he was sent to Bugulma where he served the rest of the year as deputy commander.

The most thorough (and probably only) scholarly investigation on Hašek by Volga during this period was presented by Pavel Gan at the Hašek-symposium in Bamberg (1983). His paper "Jaroslav Hašek als Rotarmist an der Volga" is very detailed and well documented, but still leaves more open questions than definite answers. That said it is difficult to argue with Gan’s main point: during those days Hašek shared a common cause not only with the Legions but also with Mikhail A. Muravyov, the colonel who on 10 July left his post as supreme commander of the Bolshevik's Volga front to join the Czechoslovaks and their Russian allies in a common front against the Germans. Muravyov was however shot the next morning in Simbirsk by people who were loyal to Moscow so the whole enterprise was probably too short-lived for Hašek to have got news of it (unless he was directly involved). Gan concludes that Hašek after the death of Muravjov went into hiding, thereafter served the Bolsheviks, disappeared again in Samara before finally reappearing in Simbirsk in October.

From October 1918 to October 1920 Jaroslav Hašek served directly in the Bolshevik 5th army, but was then sent back to his home country by Comintern to support the revolution locally. After returning to the now independent Czechoslovakia in December 1920, his break with the Czechoslovak Army had consequences. He was not a legionnaire according to the letter of the law, which meant he was stripped of pension rights. He was also met with hostility in wide circles and many of his former friends shunned him. In one case the police had to intervene to protect him from a lynch mob (Janouch).

Several of Hašek’s associates from the time in Russia achieved prominent positions in the new Czechoslovak Republic: Jan Šípek, Jaroslav Kejla, Rudolf Medek and František Langer amongst others.

Aftermath
folkeblad.png

Trondhjems Folkeblad, 3 August 1918

The great majority of the legionnaires were Czechs as Slovaks counted only around 7-8 per cent. There were probably more Russians than Slovaks in the Czechoslovak Army and also some Serbs and representatives of other nationalities. Jaroslav Hašek himself announced in April 1918 that he literally left České vojsko (the Czech Army), reflecting the fact that this was by and large a Czech army. The German and Jewish population of Bohemia and Moravia were virtully non-existent in the Czechoslovak independence movement.

The legionnaires themselves viewed the term "Legion" as an insult and it was only after 1918 the the word became widespread.

aftenpost.png

Aftenposten, 21 October 1918

After 1918 the Legions former a natural backbone of the Czechoslovak armed forces and the officers in particular were given prominent positions in the army and in the air force. The Legions were in the First Republic an important part in the nation building and were celebrated as heroes and national symbols. Literature about them proliferated, for instance the magnum opus Za svobodu (For Freedom), an important source for this write-up. Many monuments were erected and many streets were given names that associated them with the legions. Legionnaires advanced quickly in the state hierarchy and not the least in the military command structure, at the expensive of the great majority that after all had stayed loyal to Austria-Hungary.

During Communist rule from 1948 to 1989 the Legions were largely portrayed in a negative light - as "white Czechs" who intervened in the the Russian Civil war, paid by imperialists and reactionary states. Since 1990 the Legions have obviously been rehabilitated and is again a source of national pride in the Czech Republic. New literature about them appear regularly and the rich archive material is still not fully researched.

Links

Source: Tomáš G. Masaryk, VHA, Rudolf Medek, Victor M. Fic, Gerburg Thunig-Nittner, Pavel J. Kuthan, Jaroslav Hašek, František Langer, Václav Menger, Jaroslav Křížek, Karel Svoboda, Pavel Gan, Lev Trotsky, Elsa Brändström, Břetislav Hůla, Radko Pytlík, Josef Pospíšil, Radola Gajda

Quote from the novel
[1.11.1] Velká jatka světové války neobešla se bez požehnání kněžského. Polní kuráti všech armád modlili se a sloužili polní mše za vítězství té strany, čí chleba jedli. Při popravách vzbouřených vojáků objevil se kněz. Při popravách českých legionářů bylo vidět kněze.

Also written:Czech Legions en Tscehchische Legion de Tsjekkiske legionar no

K.u.k. Militärärarnn flag
Stubenring -/1, Wien I.-K.u.k. Militärärar [1914]
Google mapsearch
erar.png

Ottův slovník naučný

erar1.png

Prager Abendblatt, 12.10.1914

K.u.k. Militärärar is first mentioned when Švejk tells the pious teacher in Vršovice how serious it is to illegally posses military property.

The word appears again when Katz argues with the commander at Vojenská nemocnice Karlovo náměstí that the military owes him 150 crowns for the blessed oil and travel expenses.

Background

K.u.k. Militärärar is a term for the military treasury of Austria-Hungary, i.e. the property that belonged to Kriegsministerium and its property administration. The expression should not be confused with Ärar, the wider term for all state property.

The term derives from Latin Aerarium militare and was considered an "Austrianism". It is no longer used in the German language, not even in Austerrike. See also Vojenská intendantura.

Quote from the novel
[1.11.2] "Kvůli tomu zázraku," dodal Švejk, "můžou mít ještě vopletání. Voni koupili pohovku, a ne žádnej voltář, kterej patří vojenskému eráru.
[I.13] To byla tedy ta veliká sláva, o které mluvil Švejk. Polní kurát šel zatím do kanceláře vyřídit finanční stránku posledního pomazání a vypočítal již účetnímu šikovateli, že je mu vojenský erár dlužen na sto padesát korun za posvěcený olej a cestu.

Also written:C.a.k. vojenský erár cz

Vršovice kostelnn flag
Komenského nám. 84/-, Vršovice
Wikipedia czen Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum

Vršovice kostel is implicitly mentioned when Švejk and Katz go to Vršovice to recuperate the field altar which was hidden inside the sofa Katz had sold. Two spots are mentioned: the vicarage and the sacristy.

Background

Vršovice kostel is without doubt the is a catholic church kostel svatého Mikuláše in Vršovice. It is in baroque style and was built in 1704. The vicarage is next door to the church. The address information shows that František Dusil was vicar in 1907.

Jaroslav Hašek knew this church well because he in the spring of 1912 lived in nearby Palackého třída 363 (now Moskevská 363/33). This was also where his son Richard was born on 2 May 1912. Soon after the family father left his wife and the new-born child.

Quote from the novel
[1.11.2] Nakonec šli do sakristie kostela a farář vydal polní oltář pod touto zápiskou:
Přijal jsem polní oltář, který se náhodou dostal
do chrámu ve Vršovicích.
Polní kurát Otto Katz
Břevnovský klášternn flag
Markétská ul. 1/-, Břevnov
Wikipedia czdeen Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum

Břevnovský klášter is mentioned because Katz and Švejk got their equipment for the field mass here: monstrance, ciborium and a bottle of mass wine.

Background

Břevnovský klášter is a Benedictine monastery in the Břevnov district of Prague. It was founded in 933 and was the first of its kind in Bohemia. The architectural style is baroque and hails from the 18th century.

Abbot during the war was Lev Mojžíš, a cleric who has been subjected to claims that he was was a notorious alcoholic and also the model for Katz.

In 1951 the monastery was dissolved and the premises handed over to the archive of the ministery of interior (Archiv ministerstva vnitra). In 1990 it was handed back to the Benedictine order. Today Hotel Adalbert and restaurant Klášterní šenk are (inn addition to the monastery) both located on the premises.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.11.2] Neboť ještě jeli pro sportovní kalich k nadporučíku Witingrovi a potom pro monstranci, ciborium a jiné příslušnosti ke mši do břevnovského kláštera, včetně i láhve mešního vína.
Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

12. A religious debate

Zákopnícinn flag
Palackého třída 20/10, Karlín-K.u.k. Ärar [1906]
Google mapsearch
zakopnik2.png

Zlatá Praha, 23.7.1915

zakopnik3.png

Das Infanterieregiment Nr. 91 am Vormarsch in Galizien (© VHA)

zakopnik.png

Národní listy, 4.5.1909

zakopnik1.png

Seidels kleines Armeeschema, 1908

Zákopníci was mentioned when the author mentions that Švejk and Katz carried out yet another field mass, this time by the pioneers.

Background

Zákopníci is the Czech term for pioneer troops or engineer troops. The term indicates that their role was to dig trenches but their task went well beyond that, included the building of temporary roads and bridges.

In 1909 Pionierbataillon Nr. 3 was stationed in Prague (Ferdinandová kasárna in Karlín), but by 1914 no such units are found in the Bohemian capital. In the meantime the battalion had been transferred to Pettau (now Ptuj in Slovenia).

The author probably "transferred" Katz's field masses from the front so in this context it's hardly relevant that there were no pioneer troops in Prague in 1914. That said he surely came across them at the front during the summer of 1915 so this sequence is probably inspired by these encounters (if they are fact-based at all).

One such occasion was 20 July 1915 when pioneer company no. 8 from the 10th pioneer battalion were to assist IR91 and their sister regiments in building a bridge across Bug (see Ritter von Herbert). The attempt was abandoned due to the swollen river and that very night the regiment was ordered to urgently march to Sokal.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.12] Švejk sloužil s polním kurátem ještě jednu polní mši u zákopníků, kam byl omylem pozván ještě jeden polní kurát, bývalý katecheta, neobyčejně nábožný člověk, dívající se na svého kolegu velice udiveně, když ten mu nabízel ze Švejkovy polní láhve, kterou ten vždy nosil na takové náboženské úkony s sebou, doušek koňaku.

Also written:Pioneers en Pioniere de Pionerar no

U zlatého věncenn flag
Královská tř. 161/59, Karlín-Josef Tichý [1910]
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum
uvence.jpg

House No. 362 "Zlatý věnec" seen from Pobřezní třída

uvence1.png

Právo lidu, 21.1.1899

uvence.png

Národní politika, 20.4.1901

U zlatého věnce was mentioned when Švejk tells Katz that he dropped by and overheard a story about the man from Nová Paka who landed in trouble by handing back things he had found. This is, according to Švejk, a universally bad idea.

Background

U zlatého věnce refers to a tavern in Královská třída 59 named after the house Zlatý věnec (The Golden Wreath) in Pobřežní třída 30 that was attached to it from the back. In 1907 the owner of both buildings was Marie Holubová.

Newspaper adverts and minor notices from around the turn of the century show that there was a guest house here. The adverts announced meetings of a trade union and theatre performances so it was probably a spacious establishment. At the end of 1894 the Metal worker's trade union was founded here.

The landlord in 1892 and 1896 was Antonín Beran who already in 1884 is listed as owner of the house. In 1907 Marie Holubová is entered as owner of both house 161 and 362 but no hostelry is listed on the premises. In 1910 Josef Tichý is the landlord but in 1912 no pub is found at this address any more.

It is not known when the tavern started operation, but it must have been before 1891. Nor do we know when the establishment closed its doors for good.

Links

Source: Jaroslav Šerák

Quote from the novel
[1.12] Včera jsem mluvil v hospodě ,U zlatého věnce’ s jedním člověkem z venkova, je mu už šestapadesát let, a ten šel se optat na okresní hejtmanství do Nové Paky, proč mu rekvisírovali bryčku.

Also written:The Golden Wreath en Zum Goldenen Kranz de

Okresní hejtmanství Nová Pakann flag
Wikipedia de Google mapsearch
novapakaokres.png

Seznam míst v království Českém, 1913

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Reichsgesetzblatt, 2.9.1903

Okresní hejtmanství Nová Paka is mentioned by Švejk in anecdote he tells Katz. At U zlatého věnce he had spoken to a 56 year old man from the countryside who had gone to their offices to ask why his carriage had been requisitioned for war duty. Here he had been thrown out immediately.

Background

Okresní hejtmanství Nová Paka was the political administration of the Nová Paka district. It is not known exactly where the offices were located but it assumed that it was in the town centre. In 1913 the district's population number was 64,628 and consisted of the boroughs Hořice and Nová Paka. The district was relatively new, created on 1 October 1903 from areas that previously had belonged to "okresy" Jičín and Pardubice.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.12] Včera jsem mluvil v hospodě ,U zlatého věnce’ s jedním člověkem z venkova, je mu už šestapadesát let, a ten šel se optat na okresní hejtmanství do Nové Paky, proč mu rekvisírovali bryčku.

Also written:Bezirkshauptmannschaft Neupaka de

Uršulinkynn flag
Ferdinandova tř. 139/8, Praha II
Wikipedia cz Google mapsearch
ursulinky.png

Praha, hlava království Českého, 1901

Uršulinky is mentioned in the anecdote about the holy water of Lourdes that caused a loose stomach. Sjå Vlašim for more details.

Background

Uršulinky is the good soldier's term for Klášter Voršilek, a monastery with adjoining church in at Národní třída in Prague, until 1918 Ferdinandová třída. It belongs to the Ursuline order, a catholic organisation that is mainly preoccupied with the education of girls. It derives its name from St. Ursula. From 1958 the building complex has been under heritage protection.

The monastery was built from 1674 to 1676 and also during the Habsburg reign it provided boarding and education for girls.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.12] Vono by jich tam patřilo víc. U uršulinek mají v klášteře lahvičku s mlékem panny Marie, kterým kojila Ježíška, a v sirotčinci u Benešova, když jim tam přivezli lurdskou vodu, dostali po ní sirotkové takovou běhavku, že to svět neviděl.“

Also written:Ursulinenkloster de Ursula-klosteret no U uršulinek Švejk

Sirotčinec u Benešovann flag
Google mapsearch

Sirotčinec u Benešova is mentioned when Švejk tells he pious field chaplain about the holy water from Lourdes that caused stomach trouble for the children at the nursery home.

Background

Sirotčinec u Benešova surely refers to the home for parentless children in Benešov, "Domov". It was built around the turn of the century, was owned by the town, and seems to have been located below Konopiště castle.

Links

Source: Muzeum umění a designu Benešov

Quote from the novel
[1.12] U uršulinek mají v klášteře lahvičku s mlékem Panny Marie, kterým kojila Ježíška, a v sirotčinci u Benešova, když jim tam přivezli lurdskou vodu, dostali po ní sirotkové takovou běhavku, že to svět neviděl."
U Piaristůnn flag
Panská ul. 892/1, Praha II-Piaristy [1907]
Wikipedia cz Google mapsearch

U Piaristů is mentioned by the pious (and drunk) field chaplain when he asks his colleague Katz if he doesn't believe that the thumb of John the Baptist is found in this church.

Background

U Piaristů is a colloquial term for Kostel svatého Kříže, a monastery with church and a school located at the corner of Na Přikopě og Panská ulice that until 1912 belonged to the Piarist order. They are a Catholic educational order founded in 1617 in is the oldest of its kind. Their main purpose is to provide free education for poor children.

The church which is built in a classical style was constructed between 1816 and 1824. Amongst those who studied here was Vrchlický.

After the introduction of a new school law in 1869 the state took over and one part became a gymnasium (German) and the other a teacher's institute. In 1912 the Piarists finally sold the building. Today the church is run by the catholic institute Society of St. Francis de Sales (Salesians of Don Bosco).

It was on the street corner by this church that Lukáš was to meet a lady, when on a walk with the dog Fox, he unfortunately bumped into Kraus. We already know the end of that story.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.12] Mžouraje očima, otázal se Katze: „Vy nevěříte v neposkvrněné početí panny Marie, nevěříte, že palec sv. Jana Křtitele, který se chrání u piaristů, je pravý? Věříte vůbec v pána boha? A když nevěříte, proč jste polním kurátem?“
Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

13. Švejk goes to provide the last rites

Vojenská nemocnice Karlovo náměstínn flag
Karlovo námestí 504/39, Praha II.-K.u.k. Ärar [1914]
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum
vojnemoc3.jpg

11.6 1907 © AHMP

Vojenská nemocnice Karlovo náměstí was the destination of Švejk and Katz's mission to administer the last rites to the severely wounded.

Background

Vojenská nemocnice Karlovo náměstí refers to C.a.k vojenská nemocnice č. 11 (K.u.k. Militärspital Nr. 11) in Prague, a military hospital located at the southern end of Karlovo náměstí. Today the building is used by the university hospital (Všeobecná fakultní nemocnice v Praze).

A significant number of the locations mentioned in the first part of Švejk and in anecdotes throughout the novel are located within 10 minutes walk from the hospital, including U kalicha. The author lived in this area for the first 20 years of his life, and frequently also later in life. He graduated both from gymnasium and the commercial academy only a few hundred metres from here.

The military hospital where Švejk spent time as a malingerer in [I.8] was a branch. See Vojenská nemocnice Hradčany.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.13] Potom přečetl polní kurát ještě jednou předpis, ve kterém se mu oznamuje, že zítra má jít na Karlovo náměstí do Vojenské nemocnice zaopatřovat těžce raněné.

Also written:Military hospital at Charles square en Militärspital am Karlsplatz de Militærsjukehuset på Karlsplassen no

Kostel svátého Ignácenn flag
Ječná ul. 505/2, Praha II-Řád Tovaryšstva Ježíšova [1910]
Wikipedia cz Google mapsearch
ignac.jpg

24.10.1907 © AHMP

ignac.png

Zlatá Praha, 9.5.1913

Kostel svátého Ignáce is mentioned first time by Katz in a conversation with Švejk when he reveals that he many years ago performed a mass for military personnel here.

Later on the church appears in the story about Zátka on the gas works at Letná ([II.5]) where father Jemelka held a sermon.

The third mention is in an anecdote in the final chapter.

Background

Kostel svátého Ignáce is a church at the corner of av Ječná ulice and Karlovo náměstí which today serves as the main seat of the Jesuit order in the Czech Republic. It is named after the founder of the order: Ignatius of Loyola. Construction started in 1665 and was completed in 1699.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.13] Znal tu pakáž, jak ji nazýval, z chrámu od Ignáce, když před léty tam míval kázání pro vojsko. Tenkrát ještě vkládal do kázání mnoho a „Sdružení“ sedávalo za plukovníkem.
[II.5] A potom,“ řekl Švejk tiše, „to s tím Zátkou po čase skončilo moc špatně. Dal se do Mariánský kongregace, chodil s nebeskýma kozama na kázání pátera Jemelky k svatýmu Ignáci na Karlovo náměstí a zapomenul jednou zhasnout, když byli misionáři na Karláku u svatýho Ignáce, plynový svítilny ve svým rayoně, takže tam hořel po ulicích plyn nepřetržitě po tři dny a noci.
Vojenská intendanturann flag
Malostranské nám. 258/15, Praha III-K.u.k. Ärar [1907]
Wikipedia de Google mapsearch
intendance.png

Adresář královského hlavního města Prahy, 1907

intendance1.png

Seidel kleines Armeeschema, 1914

intendance2.png

Prager Tagblatt, 8.1.1915

Vojenská intendantura is mentioned by Katz when he says that the army's administrative department apparently doesn't supply holy oil consecrated by a bishop.

Background

Vojenská intendantura was the administrative body of K.u.k. Heer who's task was to supply the army and perform accounting. The main office was located in Vienna, but here one no doubt refers to their branch by 8th army corps in Prague. The offices were located at the second floor of the Lichtenstein Palace in Malá Strana. See Korpskommando and K.u.k. Militärärar.

The army administrative authority is also the centre of a story by Jaroslav Hašek from 1910, Čáka pěšáka Trunce (The parade helmet of infantryman Trunec). Here it is the head office in Vienna that has to find suitable headgear for Trunec's enormous head. The main office was located in the building of Kriegsministerium to which it also reported.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.13] Po těchto filosofických úvahách polní kurát umlkl a řekl: „Potřebujeme tedy olej posvěcený od biskupa. Tady máte 10 korun a kupte lahvičku. Ve vojenské intendantuře patrně takový olej nemají.“

Also written:Militärintendantur de

Firma Poláknn flag
Soukenická ulice? 1085/4, Praha I-Emil Pollak [1910]
Google mapsearch
polak1.png

Adresář hl. města Prahy, 1910

polak2.png

Prager Tagblatt, 30.7.1914

Firma Polák was the paint store in Dlouhá třída where Švejk bought Hampseed oil no. 3 for use when giving the last rites. The store was most probably named after the owner. The employee who served the good soldier was Tauchen.

Background

Firma Polák has not been possibly to identify uniquely although the author locates it in Dlouhá třída. According to the address book of 1910 there was only one outlet in Dlouhá třída that corresponds to the description in the novel, but the owner was Ferdinand Adler. The shop was located in Dlouhá 732/39.

In Soukenická ul. 1085/4, 100 metres to the east, a firm A. J. Pollak had a shop that also traded in oils and paints. It is probably this establishment that the author had in mind as it was located at the western end of Soukenická where it joins Dlouhá. The proprietor in 1910 was Emil Pollak (1848-1914), a Jewish merchant.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.13] V druhé chtěli telefonovat na ochrannou stanici a ve třetí mu řekl provisor, že firma Polák v Dlouhé třídě, obchod olejem a laky, bude mít rozhodně žádaný olej na skladě.
[1.13] Firma Polák v Dlouhé třídě byla opravdu firma agilní. Nepustila žádného kupce, aby neuspokojila jeho přání. Chtěl-li balsám kopaivu, nalili mu terpentýn a bylo také dobře.
[1.13] Když Švejk přišel a přál si za deset korun olej posvěcený od biskupa, řekl šéf k příručímu: „Nalejou mu, pane Tauchen, deset deka konopného oleje čís. 3.“
Sdružení šlechtičen pro náboženskou výchovu vojákůnn flag
Google search
adelige1.png

Brünner Zeitung, 23.10.1899

adelige.png

Prager Abendblatt, 10.9.1903

Sdružení šlechtičen pro náboženskou výchovu vojáků was the Association of nobility ladies for the religious education of soldiers who were to be present when Katz administered the last rites at Vojenská nemocnice Karlovo náměstí the day after Švejk and he first visited. The association consisted of hysterical old ladies.

Background

Sdružení šlechtičen pro náboženskou výchovu vojáků has not been possible to identify. There is no such or similar organisation listed in the 1910 address book and is probably an invention by the author.

Still there existed other organisations where ladies from the nobility were involved, mainly within charitable work. This could be contributing funds for hospitals, support for war veterans, wounded soldiers, widows and orphaned children.

During the war newspapers and magazines often featured ladies from the nobility on hospital visits and it could have been these that inspired the author to write this passage (and the similarly themed visit of baroness von Botzenheim to Vojenská nemocnice Hradčany).

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.13] Potom přišel ordonanc a přinesl paket, ve kterém se polnímu kurátovi oznamuje, že zítra bude při zaopatřování v nemocnici přítomno Sdružení šlechtičen pro náboženskou výchovu vojáků.

Also written:Vereinigung adeliger Damen zur Pflege der religiösen Erziehung der Soldaten Brousek Association of Noblewomen for the Religious Education of Soldiers Sadlon

U Křížkůnn flag
Karlín (?)
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum

U Křížků is mentioned once because Švejk went here to steal a bell for the journey to give the last rites. It is also stated that it is a roadside inn and that Švejk was back in half an hour.

Background

U Křížků was a hospoda which is unclear where was located. The novel states that Švejk used half an hour to steal the bell so it must have been within easy walking distance from Karlín. The text of the novel limits it further: it was a zajezdní hospoda (coaching inn) so is likely to have been located on a former approach road.

The place that best fit these criteria is no doubt the pub of František Kříčka which in the address book of 1910 is listed as Královská třída 110. This is both on a main road and well within walking distance from Katz's flat. Named after the owners(s) it would have been called U Kříčky/U Kříčků, but this type of minor error is far from uncommon in the novel.

Jaroslav Šerák mentions five other alternatives but further away, see web-link. But it should be notet that neither Kříčka nor those five are listed as coaching inns in the address book, so could the autor have mixed it up with some other place? The coaching inn U města Hamburku, which is located on the same street, could be a candidate.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.13] Obdržev svolení, Švejk přinesl za půl hodiny zvonek. „Je od vrat zájezdní hospody ,U Křížků,’“ řekl, „stál mne pět minut strachu a dlouho jsem předtím musel čekat, poněvadž se pořád trousili lidi.“
Militärgeistlichkeitnn flag
Skodagasse -/19, Wien VIII-K.u.k Ärar [1914]
Wikipedia de Google mapsearch
bjelik.jpg

Besuch des Apostolischen Feldvikars Bjelik, 1916.

vikariat.png

Zdeněk M. Kuděj

© LA-PNP

Militärgeistlichkeit is mentioned when Katz reads a directive from Kriegsministerium regarding restrictions on giving the last oil.

Later in the chapter the institution is referred to with contempt by the persistent money-lender when he complains to Švejk about military clerics. Field chaplain Katz has just popped out to a café just as the money lender appears at the door to claim his dues.

Background

Militärgeistlichkeit was a collective term for the military clergy of Austria-Hungary. It included Catholic (the largest), Jewish, Greek-Orthodox, Muslim and Protestant. The institution reported to Kriegsministerium. To every division was assigned one divisional field chaplain and one field chaplain and each regiment was assigned one field chaplain. Serving in this role at IR91 was Jan Eybl, he was at the regiment from 1 January 1914 to 24 April 1918.

Head of the military clergy from 1911 to 1918 was Emmerich Bjelik. His title was the resounding Apostolischer Feldvikar. Bjelik knew one of the models for figures in Švejk, namely Ludvík Lacina. Another person who knew Bjelik was Zdeněk Matěj Kuděj who for a period served at the Feldvikariat in Vienna. It may well be that Jaroslav Hašek drew inspiration for some of his field chaplains from what Kuděj told him. The two authors met several times during the period the novel was written.

The institution of military clergy plays a prominent role in Švejk and it is probably the authority that is subjected to the most stinging satire of them all. Already in [I.11] the author dedicates a complete sub-chapter to an attack on military clergy as a world phenomenon. Later the object of scorn is solely the Catholicy field clergy in Austria-Hungary. The field chaplains Katz, Martinec, Lacina and their pious colleague in [I.12] are either drunkards (and immoral) and those who are not soon slide into debauchery. Ibl is however only mentioned briefly, as an idiotic preacher.

Lacina and Ibl both have obvious real life models - Jan Eybl and Ludvík Lacina respectively. Martinec and Katz have no obvious link to any existing persons and no field chaplains with these names are listed in Schematismus from 1914. The marginal Matyáš could however have been inspired by a real person. See Link A. Jaroslav Hašek definitely knew Eybl from his time in IR91 in 1915, and it is very likely that he also knew Lacina in person.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.13] Ministerstvo ruší po dobu války platné předpisy týkající se zaopatřování vojínů posledním pomazáním a ustanovuje tyto pravidla pro vojenské duchovní:

Also written:Military Clergy en Vojenské duchovni cz Militærgeistlegheit no

U Exnerůnn flag
Královská tř. 457/-, Libeň-Karel Klapa [1910]
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum
palmovka.png

The building that Exner had erected in 1909 and 1910 and where he lived from then on. The pub can be seen to the right. From "Český svět", 20 May 1910.

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Adresář obce libeňské, 1896

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Národní politika, 23.2.1912

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Národní listy, 29.7.1913

U Exnerů is mentioned by Švejk in an anecdote he tells in order to put the persistent money-lender in his place. The soldier tells the uninvited guest about some Boušek from Libeň who was thrown out from this pub repeatedly but still came back time after time..

Background

U Exnerů was a restaurant that existed at least until 1939. It was located on the corner of Primátorská and Královská třída in Libeň. In the address books from 1896, 1907 and 1910 it is listed under the name Na Palmovce.

U Exnerů was also been used for organised meetings and events; in 1915 it is mentioned in the newspaper in connection with charities, for instance for poor children. It existed under the name U Exnerů at least until 1940. Today it is a Chinese restaurant.

Čeněk Exner

U Exnerů was named after local entrepreneur and owner of the property Čeněk Exner (10 July 1855 - 28 July 1913). The owner of the property never managed the restaurant, the pub landlord in 1910 was Karel Klapa. Exner, born in Vrchlabí in the Krkonoše mountains, was the proprietor of a meat company (smoked meat) and owned real estate. In 1890 he founded the enterprise in Karlín and moved it to Libeň in 1897. He was married to Anastazie, had two children and also grandchildren. He was also active in Sokol and other organisations

From 1897 to 1910 the family lived in the same building as the pub and the firm, then they moved to number 890 next door. This was an Art Deco building that he had built in 1909 and 1910 as a wedding present to his daughter Anastazie. Exner suffered a tragic end to his life: newspaper notes reveal that he committed suicide in 1913 by hanging himself in the bathroom. The reason was supposedly financial problems.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.13] „Poslušně hlásím, pane feldkurát,“ poznamenal Švejk, „že je to hotovej nezmar, jako nějakej Boušek z Libně. Vosumnáctkrát za večer ho vyhodili od ,Exnerů’, a vždycky se jim tam vrátil, že tam zapomněl fajfku.
Mariánská kongregacenn flag
Ve Smečkách 1354/32, Praha II-Josef Ticháček [1910]
Wikipedia czdeen Google mapsearch
kongregace.png

Adresář královského hlavního města Prahy, 1896

Mariánská kongregace is mentioned when Katz and Švejk are on the way to Vojenská nemocnice Karlovo náměstí to administer the last rites. In Vodičkova ulice a female custodian and member of the congregation runs after their horse cart to get blessed but complains how fast they ride.

Background

Mariánská kongregace (lat. Congregatio Mariana) is a Roman-Catholic educational institution, established by the Jesuit father Jean Leunis in 1563 and always associated with the Jesuit order.

In 1896 the Prague office of the institution was located in Ječná ulice 505/2 (see Kostel svátého Ignáce), with father Jemelka as chairman. By 1910 it had moved to Ve Smečkách 1354/32, not far from Vodičkova ulice (where Katz and Švejk drove past in their horse cab). The building no longer exists and the site is used by Hotel Fenix.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.13] A Švejk do toho zvonil, drožkář sekal bičem dozadu, ve Vodičkové ulici nějaká domovnice, členkyně mariánské kongregace, klusem dohnala drožku, dala si v jízdě požehnat, pokřižovala se, odplivla si poté: "Jedou s tím pánembohem jako všichni čerti! Člověk aby dostal souchotiny!" a vracela se udýchána na své staré místo.

Also written:Marianische Kongregation de Congregatio Mariana la

K.u.k. Dragonernn flag
Za Invalidovnou 8/-, Karlín-K.u.k. Miltärärar [1914]
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dragon.jpg

Světozor, 4.9.1914

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Seidels kleines Armeeschema, 1914

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Chytilův adresář 1912

K.u.k. Dragoner is mentioned by Katz when he argues with the commander at Vojenská nemocnice Karlovo náměstí about compensation for travelling and the cost of blessed oil. The field chaplain argues that when an officer from the Dragons go to a stud farm for a horse he is paid subsistence.

Background

K.u.k. Dragoner was the term for some of the cavalry units in the Austrian part of the Dual Monarchy. In total there were 15 Dragoon regiments in K.u.k. Heer, mostly from the German- and Czech-speaking areas of the empire. The organisation of the cavalry in Austria-Hungary was quite complex - in addition to the Dragoons there were also Ulans and Hussars.

In the novel the reference is surely to a local Dragoon regiment, and such a regiment actually existed: K.u.k. Dragonerregiment Nr. 14. From 1912 the 2nd and 5th squadron were garrisoned in the barracks behind Invalidovna in Karlín (now U Sluncové 6). The staff was located at Brandys nad Labem, and the rest of the regiment in Stará Boleslav and Dobřany. The recruitment area was No. 8, see Korpskommando. The recruitment command itself was located in Klatovy.

Several Dragoon regiments were recruited from district No. 8 and over the years other regiments were located in Karlín. In 1906 the 13th Dragoon Regiment occupied the same premises behind Invalidovna as the 14t regiment did from 1912.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.13] Potom následoval spor s velitelem nemocnice a polním kurátem, přičemž polní kurát několikrát udeřil pěstí do stolu a vyjádřil se: "Nemyslete si, pane hejtmane, že je poslední pomazání zadarmo. Když důstojník od dragounů je komandýrován do hřebčince za koňma, tak se mu také platí diety. Opravdu lituji, že se ti dva posledního pomazání nedočkali. Bylo by to o padesát korun dražší."

Also written:Dragons en Dragonen de Dragonar no

K.u.k. Generalstabnn flag
Stubenring -/1, Wien I.-K.u.k. Miltärärar [1914]
Wikipedia deen Google mapsearch
generalstab.png

Schematismus ..., 1914

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General Arthur Arz. Wiener Bilder, 11.3.1917

K.u.k. Generalstab is mentioned in a conversation at Vojenská nemocnice Karlovo náměstí where a soldier relates about a clerical member of parliament who before the war talk about God and his love for peace and harmony between humans. After the outbreak of war the tone however changed, and now he talked about God as if he was Chief of General Staff.

The General Staff is mentioned again during Biegler's dream on the train to Budapest. A painting of Chief of Staff Conrad decorates the wall at K.u.k. Gottes Hauptquartier.

Background

K.u.k. Generalstab was an institution that in times of war or times of a threatening war was responsible for planning, execution and supervision of military operations. General Staff formally belonged to Kriegsministerium and was located in the same building.

The Royal and Imperial General Staff existed from 1867 to 1918 but the institution was already in place long before the Vienna Accord split the Habsburg empire into two parts of equal standing.

Chief of staff from 1912 to 1917 was Conrad. He was demoted by the new emperor Karl I. (see Karl Franz Joseph) and replaced by infantry general Arthur Arz von Straußenburg who was to become the last ever Chief of Staff at K.u.k. Generalstab (picture to the right).

General staff officers were permanently present at major military units; at district, divisional and brigade level.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.13] A vida ho, vola, jakmile vypukla válka, ve všech kostelích se modlí za zdar zbraní a o pánubohu se mluví jako o nějakém náčelníkovi jenerálního štábu, který tu vojnu řídí a diriguje. Z téhle vojenské nemocnice už jsem viděl pohřbů, a uříznutých noh a ruk vozí odtud vozy
[3.1] Uprostřed pokoje, ve kterém po stěnách visely podobizny Františka Josefa a Viléma, následníka trůnu Karla Františka Josefa, generála Viktora Dankla, arcivévody Bedřicha a šéfa generálního štábu Konráda z Hötzendorfu, stál pán bůh.

Also written:Royal and Imperial General Staff en C.k. generální štáb cz

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

14. Švejk as military servant to senior lieutenant Lukáš

Stoletá kavárnann flag
Na Zderaze 267/10, Praha II-Antonín Kolář [1909]
Google mapsearch
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Národní politika, 1.12.1908

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Národní politika, 28.6.1909

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Adresář královského hlavního města Prahy a obcí sousedních, 1907

Stoletá kavárna is mentioned in Švejk's long anecdote that he tells Katz after the latter had played away his servant at cards. The game took place in a "hospoda" behind Stoletá kavárna and at the centre of events was the old plumber Vejvoda.

Background

Stoletá kavárna was a café with address Na Zderaze in Nové Město that existed from some time before 1887, but we don't know with certainty when it started and when it ceased operation. Early adverts show a certain Slavík as landlord. In 1908 these small adverts reveal that the landlord is Antonín Kolář and the address book from 1907 confirms him also as the owner of the building. See also Hospoda za Stoletou kavárnou.

In 1909 the old building was demolished and a new one erected on the premises. Jaroslav Hašek surely knew both versions of the café, but the time of Vejvoda was probably before the rebuild. In 1914 they advertised for a piano player, the place was also a dance- and concert establishment. In 1915 the building changed hands after a bankruptcy and in 1916 it is referred to as the former café. By 1918 it appears to have reopened and in 1920 the landlord was B. Michálek. On the present building the inscription "Stoletá kavárna" is still visible.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.1] „A bylo v banku hodně?“ otázal se Švejk klidně, „nebo jste málokdy dělal forhonta? Když nepadá karta, je to velmi špatný, ale někdy je to mizerie, když to jde až příliš dobře. Na Zderaze žil nějakej klempíř Vejvoda a ten hrával vždy mariáš v jedné hospodě za ,Stoletou kavárnou’. Jednou taky, čert mu to napískal, povídá: ,A což abychom si hodili jedníka o pětníček.’
[1.14.1] Kominickej mistr byl už do banku dlužen přes půldruhého miliónu, uhlíř ze Zderazu asi milión, domovník ze Stoletý kavárny 800 000 korun, jeden medik přes dva milióny.

Also written:Century Café en Hundertjähriges kaffeehaus de

Hospoda za Stoletou kavárnounn flag
Na Zbořenci 261/7, Praha II-Josef Pavlíček [1910]
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Hospoda za Stoletou kavárnou is mentioned in Švejk's long anecdote that he tells Katz after the latter had played away his servant at cards. The gambling party took place in a "hospoda" behind Stoletá kavárna and at the story was centered around old Vejvoda.

Background

Hospoda za Stoletou kavárnou was most probably an inn that belonged to Josef Pavlíček. The pub was located at Na Zbořenci No. 7, two houses up the street from Stoletá kavárna. Pavlíček also owned the building, he bought it at a bankrupcy auction in 1904.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.1] „A bylo v banku hodně?“ otázal se Švejk klidně, „nebo jste málokdy dělal forhonta? Když nepadá karta, je to velmi špatný, ale někdy je to mizerie, když to jde až příliš dobře. Na Zderaze žil nějakej klempíř Vejvoda a ten hrával vždy mariáš v jedné hospodě za ,Stoletou kavárnou’. Jednou taky, čert mu to napískal, povídá: ,A což abychom si hodili jedníka o pětníček.’

Also written:Pub behind the "Century Café" en Kneipe hinter dem "Hundertjährigen Kaffeehaus" de

Einjährig-Freiwilligenschule (Prag)nn flag
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Heerwesen, Selbstverlag Hugo Schmid, 1916

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The barracks of IR73 in Vršovice. Was it here that Lukáš trained One Year Volunteers?

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The barracks of IR11 and IR102

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Albrechtova kasárna, Smíchov. Here Sagner served as instructor at the reserve-officer school of IR11 in February 1915

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Sagner at the IR11 reserve officer's school. © VHA

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Pilsner Tagblatt, 15.4.1914

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Světozor, 17.9.1915

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Zákon branný, daný dne 5. prosince 1868

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Jaroslav Kejla, 1972. © LA-PNP

Einjährig-Freiwilligenschule (Prag) was the school where Lukáš was an instructor at the time he met Švejk. This is revealed when the author introduces Lukáš to the reader. The officer even tells his students: "Let us be Czechs but nobody needs to know about it. I am also Czech". The author also adds that all the students at the school were Czechs.

The school is also mentioned later, for instance when he tells Wendler what he is doing and about his future plans.

Background

Einjährig-Freiwilligenschule (Prag) is the author's term for some reserve officer's school in Prague. These schools belonged to the individual regiments, but as it is never revealed at which regiment Lukáš served, it is impossible to know where the school was located. The next step in the investigation is therefore to look at which infantry regiments still had staff functions located in the city in the winter of 1914-15. Those were IR11, IR73 and IR102 and Lukáš surely served as an instructor with one of these (that he was transferred from Landwehr is unlikely).

Conflicting traces

The description of the later dog theft does give some indication to where the school was located. Blahník dragged Fox in the direction of Vršovice, so it is logical to think that Lukáš lived there. Coupling this with the fact that Katy walked together with Švejk to the barracks where the officer taught, indicates IR73 and Vršovice kasárna.

One should however be careful with taking the geographical logic of the plot literally. Later there is the episode where Lukáš went for a walk with the recently stolen dog Fox. He bumped into the real owner of the dog, colonel Kraus at Na Přikopě. This suggests that the officer lived for closer to the centre. Walking the dog all the way from Vršovice (3.5 km) seems improbable. In addition the author mentions that the students at the one-year volunteer schools were Czechs, whereas IR73 was a regiment where the overwhelming majority were Germans.

On the other hand the barracks of IR102 and IR11 were located much closer (2 km), in Malá strána and Smíchov respectively. So if Lukáš lived within walking distance of one of these he wouldn't have had to walk that far to get to Na Přikopě.

The literary figure Lukáš partly inspired by the real Sagner?

The discussion about which school/regiment Lukáš instructed at is highly hypothetical because it is difficult to connect this part of the plot to any real persons or contemporary events. The author still hadn't aligned the story in the novel to that of his own career in K.u.k. Heer like he did from book two and onwards. Lukáš' main real life prototype, Rudolf Lukas, never served in Prague between 1911 and 1919. He did however teach one-year volunteers, but this was in Budějovice in 1911-12 and again in the autumn of 1914, that is before he met Jaroslav Hašek. Lukas served his entire career in K.u.k. Heer with IR91 so he could not have been transferred there like his literary counterpart was.

Inspiration for his role as an instructor must therefore originate somewhere else, perhaps from some other officer hew knew. These could have been several, for instance Josef Adamička, but similarities with Čeněk Sagner springs to the fore. After a period of recuperation in Prague he volunteered as an instructor at IR11 while still being officially on sick leave. He started in this role on 25 January 1915 but because it was against the rules to serve at another regiment, he was called back to IR91 in Budějovice on 28 February 1915. Here he was appointed commander of the First Replacement Company..

At the time Jaroslav Hašek served with this very compnay and was also a student at the regiment's reserve officer's school. He therefore probably knew about Čeněk Sagner's position in Prague and also his transfer. A few more details about Lukáš also fit better with Sagner than with Lukas: Sagner was Czech and he is known to have stood up for the Czechs in K.u.k. Heer. On the contrary oberleutnant Rudolf Lukas was an ethnic German. Exactly like the literary figure Lukáš, Sagner was educated at K.u.k. Infanteriekadettenschule Prag, whereas Lukas was not. Thus we have three details on Lukáš that could have been inspired by Sagner but could NOT have been derived from Lukas.

One-year volunteers and reserve officer's schools

The term "one-year volunteer" has created some confusion. Jaroslav Hašek himself wore this label, and some have therefore concluded that he volunteered for army service *). This is as far as we know not true, and if it was he would also have been called Kriegs-Freiwilliger and not only Einjährig-Freiwilliger.

*) An example of this misunderstanding is the article about Jaroslav Hašek in Spanish Wikipedia. Unfortunately this article also contains many other factual errors.

One-year volunteer was an entitlement given to young men with middle and higher education. They had the option to serve for one year instead of the compulsory three (since 1912 two years), providing they paid for their own equipment. The system was created in 1868 modelled after Prussia and was functioning until 1918. The motive was that it would save the state money and wouldn't unduly damage the careers of the recruits. The "volunteer" part was also that soldier could (but didn't have to) attend a course to become a reserve officer during his term of service. Those who didn't pass the reserve officer's exam had to serve another year, but this duty was abolished in 1912. The one-year volunteer could also choose which branch of the armed forces and which unit he wanted to serve with.

The one-year volunteer was expected to buy his own equipment whereas K.u.k. Militärärar provided accommodation (if the soldier wanted). Eligibility depended on the recruit having completed the eight year middle school (gymnasium, "Realschule", teacher's academy, commercial academy or similar). It was up to the candidate to apply for the right as a one-year volunteer, and everyone had to pass an exam. Someone who was sentenced for property crimes or immorality automatically lost the right to serve for one year.

Thus Reserveoffizier-Schulen was an institution that educated one-year volunteers to become reserve officers. It may first appear that Jaroslav Hašek is wrong in using the terms "one-year volunteer school" or "school for one-year volunteers", but this is not the case. Until the army reforms of 1912 the schools were officially called Einjährig-Freiwilligenschule and obsolete term generally stick for years after the change has taken place (see Salmova ulice).

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.3] Mluvil ve společnosti německy, psal německy, četl české knížky, a když vyučoval ve škole jednoročních dobrovolníků, samých Čechů, říkal jim důvěrně: „Buďme Češi, ale nemusí o tom nikdo vědět. Já jsem taky Čech.“
[1.14.5] „Zažádal jsem o přeložení k 91. pluku do Budějovic, kam asi pojedu, jakmile budu hotov se školou jednoročáků.
[1.15] Ukončiv vyučování ve škole jednoročních dobrovolníků, vyšel si nadporučík Lukáš na procházku s Maxem.
Pohodnice Pankrácnn flag
Na Dvorci 37/-, Dvorce-Rudolf Nešvara [1912]
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rasovna.jpg

"Prahou tisíciletou z dávna i dneška", Josef Veselý, 1926

Pohodnice Pankrác is mentioned when the author relates how unfortunate Lukáš had been with his servants. One of them had sold the senior lieutenant´s dog to the knacker at Pankrác.

Background

Pohodnice Pankrác was a "knacker's yard", i.e. a station for disposal of animal carcasses. It was also called a "Thermochemical station". The animal remains were mostly boiled to make fertilizers, bone flour and other residual products. Those were often used as ingredients in soap and glue. The enterprise was also allowed to collect dogs, cats and other stray animals from the eastern bank of the Vltava (a similar enterprise in Břevnov catered for the western bank). Prague city at the time defined stray dogs as "an animal that walked on its without a muzzle". The enterprises were licensed by the city, but privately owned and managed.

The dogs were kept in a quarantine station at Vyšehrad until their owner reported and paid the fine for allowing his dog onto the street "improperly equipped". Dog owners had to claim their pets within three days, otherwise the animal would be destroyed. The carcass processing factory was located on the open fields between Dvorce-Podolí and Pankrác.

Nešvara, a family of knackers

The owner in 1912 was Rudolf Nešvara, so this is likely to be the person the author refers to as pohodný na Pankrác (the knacker at Pankrác). It is said that he was the nightmare of every dog owner in Prague. Nešvara's father Václav also ran the knacker's yard. He died 19 November 1888 at the age of forty, his father Antonín (1814-1894) and mother Marie both survived him. All in all four generations of Nešvaras ran carcass destruction enterprises in Prague, the latest was Rudolf's son Jaromír who was in business as late as during the Second World War.

The yard had existed at least since 1888 and was operating until 1950, and the building lasted until around 1970 when it was demolished to make way for the new seat of Česká Televize.

Egon Erwin Kisch
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Bohemia, 27.11.1910 (Egon Erwin Kisch)

Nešrava and his undertaking is also the theme in the story Bei "Antouschek", dem Wasenmeister by the famous "raging reporter" Egon Erwin Kisch. The story was first printed in Bohemia on 27 November 1910, and was the 17th in his series called Prager Streifzüge. The story later appeared in books, including Aus Prager Gassen und Nächten (1912) and Abenteuer in Prag (1920). In the story Kisch describes a tour of the factory, his meeting with Herr Nešvara and he provides a number of details, both technical and also about the history and organisation of such enterprises in Prague. He also tells about his family and that his brother worked there. Kisch writes that the enterprise was relatively odourless, something that is at odds with the complaints that appeared in the inter-war years.

Links

SourceJaroslav Šerák, Jaromír Pešek, Egon Erwin Kisch, Josef Veselý

Quote from the novel
[1.14.3] Kanárka mořili hladem, jeden sluha angorské kočce vyrazil jedno oko, stájový pinč byl od nich práskán na potkání a nakonec jeden z předchůdců Švejka odvedl chudáka na Pankrác k pohodnému, kde ho dal utratit, nelituje dát ze své kapsy deset korun. Oznámil potom prostě nadporučíkovi, že mu pes utekl na procházce, a druhý den už mašíroval s rotou na cvičiště.
U Štupartůnn flag
Štupartská ul. 647/14, Praha I-Rudolf Holeček [1910]
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ustupartu.jpg

U Štupartů, 11 March 1911

ustupartu.png

Alois Jirásek "Temno"

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From the courtyard of "U Štupartů", 16 March 1911

U Štupartů is mentioned by Švejk in a conversation with Lukáš when he describes how the cat devoured the Harz canary. I similar episode is said to have taken place in this house but in this case the cat had eaten a parrot.

Background

U Štupartů is a building in Staré Město with a history dating back to the 14th century. The house is named after Peter Stupart von Löwenthal who bought it 20 October 1664. His grandson sold it out of the family on 10 September 1732. In 1910 the house had two street addresses in Štupartská 14 og Jakubská 2 and had many tenants. Amongst them a the pub named after the house, run by Rudolf Holeček. It's address was Štupartská 14.

The original building (surely this was the one mentioned in the novel) was demolished in the autumn of 1911 after much opposition. Klub za starou Prahou and others wanted to preserve it due to its historical and architectural value but they were overruled by the city council. Already in December that year the new building was under construction, was ready the next year and still occupies the premises. The builder was Josef Sochor from Prague VII.

The devil's inn

Another author who wrote about U Štupartů was Alois Jirásek, Jaroslav Hašek's teacher at the gymnasium in Žitná ulice. The novel "Temno" (Darkness) was first printed as a serial in Zlatá Praha and was published as a book in1914. It mentions the pub U Štupartů opposite the church Sv. Jakub as čertová krčma (a devil's inn). This historical novel is set at the beginning of the 18th century.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.3] V domě ,U Štupartů’ sežrala před léty kočka dokonce papouška, poněvadž se jí posmíval a mňoukal po ní. Voni ale mají kočky tuhej život. Jestli poručíte, pane obrlajtnant, abych ji vodpravil, tak ji budu muset trhnout mezi dveřmi, jinak nedodělá.“

Also written:Beim Stupart Reiner

Armin von Barheimnn flag
Google search
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Břetislav Hůla, "Vysvětlíky". © LA-PNP

Armin von Barheim was kennel in Bavaria. It enters the story when Švejk tells Lukáš about the finer details of dog breeding, and that one sometimes has to forge the pedigrees, because dog owners don't want mongrel dogs.

Background

Armin von Barheim is an institution which existence remains unidentified. No Bavarian kennel Armin von Barheim has been found, nor any kennel carrying this name anywhere in the world. Generic searches (Google and Wikipedia 2018) provide no meaningful hits, neither on geography nor people. Břetislav Hůla does list the kennel in his explanations to the novel (1951) but doesn't provide any complimentary details.

Searches in the Bavarian, Austrian and Czech digital newspaper collections do however show up a few hits, but nothing that is related to dog breeding in Bavaria or anywhere else. All this indicates that the name Barheim is either invented or misspelt.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.3] A každej hned chtěl rodokmen, tak jsem si musel dát rodokmeny natisknout a dělat z nějakýho košířskýho voříška, kerej se narodil v cihelně, nejčistokrevnějšího šlechtice z bavorskýho psince Armin von Barheim.
Kronika světové válkynn flag
Královská tř. 108/48, Karlín-Emil Šolc [1914]
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Rovnost, 12.10.1914

kronika.png

Světová válka slovem i obrazem, s. 505: "Rakouský následník trůnu rozmlouvá se dvěma letci, sestřelivšími ruský aeroplan".

Kronika světové války is mentioned when Švejk follows Katy to the barracks where Lukáš serves. There he has a chat with a soldier about the events of the war. He has an expression as stupid as can be seen on a picture in Kronika světové války where the Austrian successor to the throne appears in a conversation with two pilots who have shot down a Russian plane.

Background

Kronika světové války was not a book like the context here indicates, but sub-titles in the booklet series Světová válka slovem i obrazem (The World War in Words and Pictures) issued by the publisher Emil Šolc in Karlín from October 1914 onwards. They were published every two weeks and were later assembled in six large volumes. Editor in chief was Adolf Srb who was assisted by a group of experts. The series is richly illustrated, is very detailed and is generally of high quality. In total it contains nearly 2000 pages.

Emil Šolc was also publisher of the weekly Český svět who printed the eventually well known picture of Jaroslav Hašek and Zdeněk Matěj Kuděj in female bathing gear. Šolc originated from Telč where he also acted as a publisher. In 1913 he bought the bookshop and publishing house of Rudolf Storch in Karlín. In 1919 the publishing house was merged with Nakladatelství Šimáček.

Fragments used in the novel

It is obvious that Jaroslav Hašek used some of the instalments/books from the series as a source when he wrote the novel. The quote from Kronika světove války regarding the photo of the heir to the throne Karl Franz Joseph is copied letter by letter from volume II, page 505. It should be added that these brief daily reports appear also in periodicals like Národní politika and Roskvět, but with a slightly different spelling. Therefore everything indicates that the author used The World War in pictures and words, and not any of the others.

In chapter 14 fragments from Kronika appear repeatedly. The first example is the Sultan awarding the German Emperor the war medal, then general Kusmanek who arrived in Kiev. The longest direct quote is however the sub-title of the picture of the heir to the throne.

The conversation between Lukáš and Wendler

Then follows the conversation between Lukáš and hop trader Wendler when the latter arrives to fetch his wife. Here the officer lists a number of leading Turkish politicians and high ranking officers, and also three German officers serving the Ottoman Empire.

Wendler retorts with a tirade about the hopeless situation for the hop business, and a number of spots from the front in Belgium and France appear. He assigns a brewery to most of them and the names are all found in Kronika's summary of war events from 24 March to 2 April 1915. Some additional phrases are recognizable but adapted to the novel's context. These place names, persons and text fragments are all found on pages 505 to 507 of Kronika.

Further snippets appear on pages 508 to 511, but these are not from the brief daily updates. Instead they are from a longer article reporting on the Central Power's breakthrough by Dunajec on 2 May 1915, and on page 511 deliberations on Italy's entry in the war.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.4] Jedině když již stáli u kasáren, Švejk vyzval mladou dámu, aby počkala, a dal se do hovoru s vojáky ve vratech o vojně, z čehož musela mít mladá dáma náramnou radost, poněvadž chodila nervosně po chodníku a tvářila se velice nešťastně, když viděla, že Švejk pokračuje ve svých výkladech s tak hloupým výrazem, jaký bylo možno vidět též na fotografii uveřejněné v té době v „Kronice světové války“: „Rakouský následník trůnu rozmlouvá se dvěma letci, sestřelivšími ruský aeroplán“.

Also written:Chronice of the World War en Verdskrigens krønike no

The Turkish Parliamentnn flag
Wikipedia deentr Google mapsearch
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"Dünden Bugüne İstanbul Ansiklopedisi" 8 vol, İstanbul 1993-1995.

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Světozor, 15.1.1909

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Das interessante Blatt, 15.8.1912

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Das interessante Blatt, 2.12.1915

The Turkish Parliament is mentioned by Lukáš when he tells Wendler that the chairman of the Turkish parliament, Hali Bey, has arrived in Vienna.

Background

The Turkish Parliament (or General Assembly - tr. Meclis-i Umûmî) was opened in 1876 and functioned until 1920. It was the first attempt of a representative system of government in the Ottoman Empire. It was however dissolved by the Sultan already in 1878 and only revived in 1908 after the Young Turk Revolution.

The assembly consisted of two chambers, the Upper Chamber (Meclis-i Âyân) and the Lower Chamber (Meclis-i Mebusân). The Lower Chambers was made up of elected representatives, the Upper Chamber had its members picked by the Sultan.

At the election in 1908 several parties were represented, with the Committee for Unity and Progress (Young Turks) as the largest group. Many nationalities had seats in the parliament: Turks, Arabs, Armenians, Albanians, Greeks, Slavs, Jews etc.

The 1912 election was however won by the Committee with an overwhelming majority, after an election campaign where democratic rules were pushed to the side. The ethnic composition of the house remained much the same. After this election Halil Bey, the chairman of the Committee, was elected president of the lower chamber.

In 1914 new elections were held, but after the losses in the Balkan Wars the Committee had in 1913 taken power through a coup and in 1914 they were the only party participating. On 13 May 1914 Emir Ali Paşa and Hüseyin Cahit Bey were elected vice presidents of the lower chamber. Halil Bey was at the same time re-elected as speaker of the house with 180 of the 181 votes.

The last ever election to the parliament took place in 1919.

Hans-Peter Laqueur

Initialy (i.e. 1876) it assembled in the building designed for the Darülfünun, the predecessor of the University of Istanbul, but never used for that purpose. After the reopening in 1908 parliament assembled in Çırağan Sarayı on the Bosphorus, between Beşiktaş and Ortaköy (now Kempinski Çirağan Palace Hotel), which unfortunately burnt down two months later. After that the sessions were held in the Darülfünun building near Sultanahmet again.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] „Turci se drží dobře,“ odpověděl nadporučík, uváděje ho opět ke stolu, „předseda turecké sněmovny Hali bej a Ali bej přijeli do Vídně.

Also written:Turecká sněmovná cz Türkisches Parlament de det tyrkiske parlamentet nn Meclis-i Umûmî tr

Malý výčep pivann flag
Thunovská ul. 196/19, Praha III-František Šťáral [1910]
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vycep1.png

Adresář hl. města Prahy, 1910

Malý výčep piva (the small beer bar) was a small pub at the lower end Zámecké schody where Švejk and Blahník planned the theft of the dog the soldier had promised Lukáš, a misdeed that would later have fatal consequences.

Background

Malý výčep piva surely refers to a pub in Thunovská ulice, a street leading up to Zámecké schody. In 1907 the address book shows up three pubs in the street, at No. 14, 15 and 19. In 1910 the one at No. 14 was no longer listed. No. 15 hosted the well known U krále brabantského, but this place can not be described as small, so this is probably not the place where the two dog thieves met.

No. 19 was located directly at the end of the steps so this is most probably the bar the author had in mind. Pub landlord in 1907 and 1910 was František Šťáral, born in 1846 and died in 1917. He was registered at the address of the pub from 1900 to 1910, but may still have operated in 1914. That he remained as tenant does however appear unlikely as landlords at the time mostly lived on the premises where they managed public houses.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] Na Malé Straně u Zámeckých schodů je malý výčep piva. Jednoho dne tam seděli v šeru vzadu dva muži. Jeden voják a druhý civilista. Nakloněni k sobě šeptali si tajemně. Vyhlíželi jako spiklenci z dob Benátské republiky.

Also written:Small beer bar en Kleine Bierkneipe de Liten ølbar no

Psinec nad Klamovkounn flag
Bělohorská silnice 908/-, Smíchov-Václav Fuchs [1910]
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Svět zvířat, 1.2.1910

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Prager Tagblatt, 11.2.1900

Psinec nad Klamovkou (the kennel above Klamovka) is mentioned by Blahník when he and Švejk plan the dog-theft in the little pub by Zámecké schody. It turns out that Blahník worked at the kennel.

Background

Psinec nad Klamovkou refers to a breeding kennel that was owned by publisher and dog breeder Fuchs and located by the villa Svět zvířat in Košíře above Klamovka. The villa also housed the editorial offices of the magazine Svět zvířat (Animal World) where Jaroslav Hašek was lead editor in 1909 and 1910.

The kennel advertised already in 1899, and from 1901 it used the term Hundepark Fuchs or similar in their German language adverts. In Czech newspapers the term Fuchsův psinec or similar is often found. The sales pitch was particularly noticeable in Prague newspapers like Prager Tagblatt, Národní listy and Bohemia, although adverts and news at times appeared in many other newspapers across Austerrike. The weekly Das interessante Blatt from Vienna also often carried the adverts and even some articles where the breeding kennel was mentioned.

Fuchs moved to Klamovka from Jičín in 1898 and seem to have starting breeding dogs at the premises soon after. In 1906 the kennel advertised a dog exhibition that were open to the public and in 1909 and 1910 they claimed to have more than 100 animals on show. The assistant at the kennel was from 1908 Ladislav Čížek.

Police dogs

One of the important customers of the kennel was gendarme officer Rotter who let his two German shepherd dogs be trained here (see Wölfin). Rotter was featured in an article in Svět zvířat in 1909, and there was also a picture of him with his dogs. On 1 February 1910 the magazine also printed a letter of acknowledgement from him in an advert for the kennel.

Hašek on Klamovka
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Národní listy, 16.1.1910

In 1908 Hájek, one of Jaroslav Hašek's closest friends, became head editor of Švět zvířat. It was he who later that year brought Hašek to Klamovka in 1908, and the latter now came in close contact with the kennel, an experience that later was reflected not only in Švejk, but also in many of the short stories he wrote until 1914. Hájek soon fell out with his boss and resigned as editor. Hašek then succeeded him, this probably happened in February 1909.

According to police register he lived at the villa from 4 February 1909. From to 28 July 1910 he is registered at Smíchov No. 1125, below the Klamovka gardens. Note that these are registered dates and may not correspond to the actual dates he moved.

Hard-hitting adverts
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Prager Tagblatt, 21.3.1909

From February 1909 the adverts in Prager Tagblatt took on a more bombastic tone. The headline was "Raub und Mord" and the "dog park" was allegedly "world famous". The text of the adverts read: "robbery and murder is ruled out when a good guard dog is present". It is tempting to link the hard-hitting adverts to the arrival of Jaroslav Hašek in the editorial offices of Svět zvířat. These adverts ran for about 6 months and in the autumn the also appeared in Bohemia.

Imaginary animals

A well known theme from Švejk are the animals that Marek invented and these stories got back to Jaroslav Hašek himself. He wrote improbable articles about animals, some of them real, some of them invented and also advertised some of them for sale. Eventually his tricks were uncovered, he was dismissed adn Hájek was re-instated. Exactly when when this happened we don't know, but Hájek had been was apparently in charge again by mid October 1910.

Canisport
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The 1939 address book

Fuchs passed away 27 September 1911 and a few weeks later adverts show the firm Canisport operating from the address although adverts for Fuchs continued for the rest of the year. The two firms presumably shared the premises for some months but from 1912 the adverts for Fuchs disappear. Canisport was a well known firm that worked from Královské Vinohrady in 1908, moving to Radotín south of Prague in 1910. Then the adverts disappear for a year before surfacing again in November 1911 using the address Klamovka. Canisport remained in business at least until 1938 and specialised in breeding luxury dogs. The owner was František Pober, married to (Marie Fuchsová), the oldest daughter of FuchsV. Police records show them living in villa Svět zvířat from 16 November 1911.

Kynologický ústav

Hašek's legendary Cynological Institute should not be confused with the Fuchs kennel, but we include a chapter about it because the two were direct competitors, operating in the same neighbourhood. Importantly Švejk's occupation as a dog dealer was largely inspired by his creator's brief career as owner of the "institute".

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Prager Tagblatt, 16.11.1910

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Světozor, 21.4.1914

After his dismissal from Svět zvířat in 1910 Hašek set up his own dog trading firm with the imaginative name Kynologický ústav (Cynological institute), and from 16 November 1910 onwards adverts appeared in a.o. Prager Tagblatt, Národní listy and Čech, offering pure-bred dogs at prices half those of the "so-called" Hundeparks and breeding institutions, obviously a kick at the former employer up the hill. One of the adverts claims that the institute is the only of its kind in Central Europe and warns against "mixing up", no doubt another dig at Fuchs.

From 24 November 1910 the latter responded with for him unusually verbose adverts, claiming again to be world famous, and also warning against mix-ups. On 27 November and over the next week the adverts of the competing dog-sellers even appeared in Prager Tagblatt next to each others. The advertising war seems to have been short, at least in the columns of Prager Tagblatt. Hašek's last known entry was on 7 December whereas his competitor flooded the newspaper for the rest of the year, before reverting to the usual briefer notes.

The institute was officially registered on 24 November, in the name of his wife Jarmila Hašková, address Košíře no. 1125, below Klamovka. It is however improbable that he could have kept the dogs here as the recently married couple lived in an apartment.

By February 1911 the firm had gone bankrupt and there are various versions on what happened. Josef Mach wrote that Hašek imported two hyenas from Hamburg destined for a circus that in the end didn't take them. The loss on this deal was one of the reasons why the firm collapsed. There is also mention of tinkering with pedigrees, his agent Čížek stealing dogs, themes that have obvious parallels in Švejk. Mach confirms that Čížek was put on trial for dog theft.

The Hašek couple were also taken to court but 9 March 1912 they received a letter from their lawyer František Papoušek, informing that the proceedings had been cancelled.

In literature

Hašek himself immortalised his institute in the two near identical stories Můj obchod se psy and Kynologický ústav. The first story was featured in the book Můj obchod se psy a jiné humoresky, published in 1915. This book has been reprinted several times and headline story has even been filmed. The story is vague about where the dogs were kept, but the author indicated that the kennel was located "in the countryside", a theme also found in the novel.

Animals often appear is Hašek's writing and Švejk is far from the only example. The famous novel actually borrows a lot from themes that the author had used in his pre-war short stories. The inspiration from his experiences at Klamovka shine through in many of them. Entire stories are dedicated to animals, be it dogs, cats, goats etc. The monkey Miss Julie who features in one story was very real, pictures of her appeared in Svět zvířat.

Links

SourceJaroslav Šerák,Radko Pytlík

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] Voják s civilistou si ťukli a civilista dále šeptal: „Jednou ode mne jeden černej špic, kterýho jsem potřeboval pro psinec nad Klamovkou, nechtěl taky vzít buřt.
Pasteur-Institutnn flag
Boerhavegasse -/8, Wien III.-K.k. Ärar [1910]
Wikipedia czdeenfrno Google mapsearch
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Wien 3, Rudolfspital, Ansicht über Eck Boerhavegasse - Juchgasse, 1900

© Österreichische Nationalbibliothek

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Wiener Allgemeine Zeitung, 12.11.1899

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Die Gemeinde-Verwaltung Wien, 1894-1896

Pasteur-Institut was mentioned in the context of the dog thief Blahník having having been bitten by rabid dogs. His misfortunes made him a regular at the institute.

Background

Pasteur-Institut is a private non-profit organisation whose main goal is to combat infectious diseases. They were founded by and are named after the world famous bacteriologist and chemist Louis Pasteur. Their headquarters are located in Paris but have research centres and clinics all over the world.

The first institute was opened in Paris 14 November 1888 and very soon others opened all over the world. Their main task until WW1 was to battle rabies. Vienna was relatively late in providing a clinic for treatment of rabies and already in 1889 Wiener Allgemaine Zeitung that such an institution existed in Bucharest. Budapest soon followed.

Rudolfsanstalt

The so-called "Pasteur Institute" in Vienna was created in July 1894 as a clinic at k.k. Krankenanstalt Rudolfstiftung in III. Bezirk - Landstrasse. The founder was the renowned bacteriologist Richard Paltauf (1858-1924). The task of the institute was inoculation against rabies, both preventive and after the patient had been infected. Treatment was free apart but the patient had to pay for accommodation (for poor patients the bill was sent to his home council).

The clinic had no official name and the the connection to the institute in Paris was probably merely that they used the methods of Pasteur in treating the patients. In address books they are listed as Schutzimpfungsanstalt gegen Wut. They mainly served Vienna but patients from other parts of Austerrike were also welcome. Newspaper clips reveal that patients from Bohemia were treated here regularly.

Canine madness
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Battling rabies in the 16th century

Until around 1900 the of rate of human fatalities in Cisleithanien due to rabies was high but steadily decreasing. From 142 victims in 1873 the number was down to 81 by 1886. Measures like a law requiring the use of muzzles helped, and the knackers were permitted to kill any dog that didn't wear hit. Still it was the vaccine of Pasteur that brought the numbers drastically down.

In interwar Czechoslovakia there were still deaths, but far fewer (yearly average slighly above 7). Prague now had its own Pasteur Institute. After the Second World War the disease was nearly eliminated and since then no deaths amongst humans have been recorded.

Already before 1894 another "Pasteur-Institut" existed in Vienna, but their task was to treat animals. This institution operated under the auspices of the department of agriculture.

Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] Oba přátelé si opět ťukli. Ještě když Švejk se živil prodejem psů do vojny, Blahník mu je dodával. Byl to zkušený muž a vypravovalo se o něm, že kupoval pod rukou z pohodnice podezřelé psy a zas je prodával dál. Měl dokonce už jednou vzteklinu a v Pasteurově ústavu ve Vídni byl jako doma.

Also written:Pasteur Institute en Pasteurův ústav cz Institut Pasteur fr

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

15. Catastrophe

Svatý Haštalnn flag
Wikipedia cz Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum

Svatý Haštal is mentioned by Švejk when he warns Rudolf Lukas not to walk Fox near U mariánského obrazu, where the there is a dog every bit as ill-tempered as a certain beggar from Svatý Haštal.

Background

Svatý Haštal is a church in Prague, Staré Město.

Quote from the novel
[1.15] Jak uvidí ve svým rayoně cizího psa, hned je na něho žárlivej, aby mu tam něco nesežral. Von je jako ten žebrák od svatýho Haštala.“

Also written:Svatý Haštal de

U mariánského obrazunn flag
Hybernská ul. 1011/30, Praha II-Josef Šašek [1910]
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum

U mariánského obrazu is mentioned when Švejk informs Lukáš that an angry dog has his territory here and that he better not go there with Max.

Background

U mariánského obrazu was a restaurant in Hybernská ulice which does not exists any more. It was located on the ground floor in number 1011, right opposite present-day Masarykovo nádraží. It should not be confused with the current restaurant by the same name in Žižkov.

Quote from the novel
[1.15] A taky bych vám neradil vodit ho přes Havlíčkovo náměstí, tam se potlouká jeden zlej řeznickej pes vod ,Mariánskýho vobrazu’, kterej je náramně kousavej.
W. Staněknn flag
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Průvodce po městě Třeboni ..., 1902

stanek2.jpg

W. Staněk was a Chinese who had a convex mirror. Švejk told Rudolf Lukas this story when the latter was wondering if he liked his own looks. Švejk did not like the sight of himself in Staněk's mirror.

Background

W. Staněk was a warehouse at Ferdinandova třída 32 who dealt in exotic goods, mostly from the Far East. The founder was Vilém Staněk, and his wife Kateřina continued the business after his death. The warehouse was established in 1863.

Thus it was not a question of a "Chinese" in the true meaning of the word although the Chinese Li Gü was employed there. One of the shop windows displayed a convex mirror.

Eva Svobodová: První recepce žaponského umění v Česku a Volné směry aneb japonismem k modernímu obrazu: v Praze na tehdejší Ferdinandově třídě otevřel Vilém Staněk obchod s čajem a orientálním zbožím, nazvaný Maison Staněk.

Links

Source: Milan Hodík, Eva Svobodová

Quote from the novel
[1.15] „Poslušně hlásím, pane obrlajtnant, že se nelíbím, jsem v tom zrcadle nějakej takovej šišatej nebo co. Vono to není broušený zrcadlo. To jednou měli u toho Číňana Staňka vypouklý zrcadlo, a když se někdo na sebe podíval, tak se mu chtělo vrhnout. Huba takhle, hlava jako dřez na pomeje, břicho jako u napitýho kanovníka, zkrátka figura. Šel kolem pan místodržitel, podíval se na sebe a hned to zrcadlo museli sundat.“
Index Back Forward II. At the front Hovudpersonen

1. Švejk's mishaps on the train

V čubčím hájinn flag
Nekázanka ul. ?/?, Praha II
Google search
vcubcimhaji.jpg

Nekazánka ulice 2011

V čubčím háji is mentioned in an anecdote by Švejk when he tells Lukáš about Nechleba who always wants to do good but rarely succeeds.

Background

V čubčím háji was according to Švejk a pub in Nekázanka ulice but additional information is not available. In 1910 there were several public houses in this street.

Links

Quote from the novel
[2.1] „Poslušně hlásím, že jsem to, pane obrlajtnant, pozoroval. Já má, jak se říká, vyvinutej pozorovací talent, když už je pozdě a něco se stane nepříjemnýho. Já mám takovou smůlu jako nějakej Nechleba z Nekázanky, který tam chodil do hospody ,V čubčím háji’.

Also written:The Bitches' Grove en Hündin im Hain de

U Špírkůnn flag
Kožná ul. 1024/14, Praha I-Rosina Špirková [1912]
Google mapsearch
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Adressář hl.m. Prahy 1896

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Prager Tagblatt, 26.9.1897

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Národní listy, 11.5.1912

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Rovnost, 5.3.1916

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Národní politika, 27.9.1929

U Špírků is mentioned on the train to Budějovice as Švejk loudly ponders the possible causes of loss of hair, and unfortunately quotes a medical student from U Špírků on this. The bald gentleman sitting opposite him is the feared Major General von Schwarzburg, who doesn't take lightly to Švejk's comments.

Background

U Špírků was a coffee-house in Staré Město in Prague which still exists albeit in a different setting. According to the restaurant's web site it was founded as early as 1870 and renovated in a traditional style between 2004 and 2006.

The café is not listed in the pre-war address books, but in 1891 the police registered a certain Karel Špirk, entered with cafetier as occupation. During the 1890's Špirk and his wife on several occasions placed adverts in Prager Tagblatt where they wishes their Jewish guests a Happy New Year. In the 1896 address book the café is entered under the name U dvou kominíků (At the two Chimneysweeps) with wife Rozalie Špirková as the owner.

In 1912 Národni listy reported that Karel Špirk had passed away and they also add that he was 54 years old, was a café owner and a proprietor of real estate. Špirk was according to the police books born 12 October 1858 in Prague so the connection to the café is indisputable. He was married to the ten year younger Roselie, and they had a daughter Anna who was born in 1887. Karel Špirk died on 9 May 1912 in Senohraby and was buried at Vyšehrad cemetery.

A newspaper notice in Právu Lidu from 1916 confirms that the café was still in business and that it was subjected to a police raid on suspicion of illegal prostitution (Tunel is mentioned in the same item). As late as 1929 adverts reveal that the establishment was still running, now officially using the name U Špírků. They hosted concerts, and served Prazdroj (Pilsner Urquell).

The owner in 1924 was Josef Baloun. In 1936 Marie Balounová was the owner. A picture from 1945 reveals that the establishment survived the Nazi protectorate. During the first republic U Špírků also functioned as an unofficial brothel (licensed brothels were banned in 1921).

Another "U Špírků"

From 1920 onwards another tavern carrying the name appears in newspaper adverts. It was located in Sokolská třída in Nové Město and is also a place the author surely would have known about as he frequented this part of the city a lot (see Apollo, Bendlovka and U kalicha). Newspaper adverts reveal that this U Špírků was often used for meetings. Although there is no trace of this café in pre-war address books, one shouldn't rule out "backdating" as Jaroslav Hašek at times added pieces of information to his novel that were chronologically at odds with the 1914/1915 plot. See Siedliska, Lokesch, Batěk for some examples.

Links

Quote from the novel
[2.1] “A pokračoval neúprosně dál: „Potom říkal jednou jeden medik v kavárně „U Špírků“, že padání vlasů zaviňuje duševní pohnutí v šestinedělí.“
Index Back Forward II. At the front Hovudpersonen

2. Švejk's budějovická anabasis

Na Kocourkunn flag
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Na staré hospodě. Photo from 1931.

Na Kocourku was a pub in Putim where the gendarmes sent old Pejzlerka to fetch food and drink. There is no description of the inn, almost the whole plot takes place at the police station.

Background

Na Kocourku was a pub in Putim, the name is invented. At the time there were three pubs in the village: U Srnků (where U Cimbury is today), U Pavlů, and Stará hospoda. The latter is the more likely candidate, but as the whole Putim incident (including the police station) is invented, there shouldn't be too much emphasis put on the "facts" in this particular case.

Source: Václav Pixa

Quote from the novel
[2.2] „Tohle je velká výjimka,“ důstojně řekl strážmistr, „to je nějaký vyšší důstojník, nějaký štábní. To víte, že Rusové na špionáž sem nepošlou nějakého frajtra. Pošlou mu do hospody ,Na Kocourku’ pro nějaký oběd. Jestli už nic není, ať uvaří něco.
U černého koněnn flag
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Pubs is Protivín 1915

U černého koně was a pub where the gendarm Rampa was playing cards even when on duty.

Background

U černého koně was, according to the novel, a pub in Protivín. No confirmatory information is available.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Strážmistr zůstal sedět na strážnici vedle Švejka na kavalci prázdné postele četníka Rampy, který měl do rána službu, obchůzku po vesnicích, a který v tu dobu klidně seděl „U černého koně“ v Protivíně a hrál s obuvnickými mistry mariáš, vykládaje v přestávkách, že to Rakousko musí vyhrát.

Also written:The Black Horse en Den svarte hest no

Bezirksgendarmeriekommandonn flag
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum

Bezirksgendarmeriekommando is the scene of the end of Švejk's Anabasis. Rytmistr König soon verified that Švejk was no Russian spy, and dispatches him im-promptu to his regiment in Budějovice.

Background

Bezirksgendarmeriekommando was the former regional state police headquarters in Písek. The location of the police station is not known.

Links

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Závodčího zmocnila se naprostá deprese, a když po hrozném utrpení pozdě večer dorazili do Písku k četnickému velitelství, na schodech řekl úplně zdrceně závodčí Švejkovi: „Teď to bude hrozné. My od sebe nemůžem.“ A opravdu bylo to hrozné, když strážmistr poslal pro velitele stanice, rytmistra Königa. První slovo rytmistrovo bylo: „Dýchněte na mne.“ „Teď to chápu,“ řekl rytmistr, zjistiv nesporně situaci svým bystrým, zkušeným čichem, „rum, kontušovka, čert, jeřabinka, ořechovka, višňovka a vanilková.

Also written:Regional State Police Headquarters en Okresní četnické velitelství cz

Mariánská kasárnann flag
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum

Mariánská kasárna plays a prominent role in this chapter as part of the plot takes part in this garrison in Budějovice. This is where Švejk and Marek spent three days together in the regimental prison.

Background

Mariánská kasárna was a garrison-building in Budějovice which housed the replacement battalion of IR91 where Švejk and Lukás served. Jaroslav Hašek himself served here from 17 February to the end of May 1915. His experiences here are to a large degree retold by his alter ego Marek. The school for Einjährigfreiwilliger which Hašek attended was on the third floor. The building also housed the Regimentsarrest, a place which Švejk and his creator knew very well.

On 1 June 1915 the replacement battalion of IR91 was transferred to Királyhida under circumstances very similar to those described in the novel. Their replacement was as in the novel a Hungarian regiment, IR101 from Békéscsaba in south eastern Hungary.

The building was in 2014 dereclict and only partly used. By the main entrance there is a memorial plaque to Jaroslav Hašek.

Links

SourceFranta Hofer, Jaroslav Kejla

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Po celé cestě se Švejkem od nádraží do Mariánských kasáren v Budějovicích upíral své oči křečovitě na Švejka, a kdykoliv přicházeli k nějakému rohu nebo křižovatce ulic, jako mimochodem vypravoval Švejkovi, kolik dostávají ostrých patron při každé eskortě, načež Švejk odpovídal, že je o tom přesvědčen, že žádný četník nebude po někom střílet na ulici, aby neudělal nějaké neštěstí.

Also written:Mariánské kasárny Hašek Marienkaserne de

K.u.k. Reserve-Spitalnn flag
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K.u.k. Reserve-Spital is mentioned indirectly by Marek when he relates how he used the Regimentskrankenbuch to nip out of the hospital to enjoy himself on the town. The name of the hospital is not used explicitely.

Background

K.u.k. Reserve-Spital was the hospital in Budějovice where Jaroslav Hašek reportedly performed the same trick with the hospital book as Marek did in Švejk. Jaroslav Hašek was hospitalized here from 6 March 1915, suffering from rheumatism and heart problems. The hospital was located in former Landwehr barracks. The building is still in military use and is located near the railway station at in Žižkova třída, in 1915 still Radetzkygasse.

Links

Source: Radko Pytlík

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Může být,“ připouštěl jednoroční dobrovolník, „že při té tahanici padlo pár pohlavků, ale to myslím nic na věci nemění, poněvadž je to vyložený omyl. On sám přiznává, že jsem řekl: ,Servus, Franci’ a jeho křestní jméno je Anton. To je úplně jasné. Mně snad může škodit jenom to, že jsem utekl z nemocnice, a jestli to praskne s tím ,krankenbuchem’...
Port Arthurnn flag
Rudolfovská třída 326/-, Budějovice III-Bernard Machatý [1909]
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Zaniklé hospody, s.131

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Budivoj, 8.1.1904

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Budivoj, 7.11.1906

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Jihočeské Listy, 08.04.1907

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Official brothels in Budějovice (1915)

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Budweiser Zeitung, 9.8.1924

Port Arthur was a whorehouse that was visited daily by Marek. By doing this he hoped to contract venereal diseases and thus get declared unfit for service.

Background

Port Arthur is commonly known as the European term for Lüshunkou, a harbour in Manchuria that was besieged and captured by Japanese forces during the Russo-Japanese war in 1904-05.

Brothel established in 1904

More important in a Švejk context is that "Port Artur" indeed was a brothel in Budějovice. It was located in Rudolfovská třída in the eastern outskirts of the city, on a hill 401 metres above sea level called Pěkná vyhlídka (ge. Schöne Aussicht). The name literally means "Pretty View". In January 1904 Jan Filip bought the inn Na pěkné vyhlídce (house No. 326) and in the spring it was already operating as a brothel after the had been awarded a license. From the first moment there were reports in the newspapers about disorder, a fact that may have led to the nick-name "Port Artur", inspired by the war in the far east and the siege of the port (the siege started earlier that year).

In 1906 the owner Jan Filip appeared in the newspapers, accused of having betrayed the Czech nation and sold his vote for the city council election to the German mayor Josef Taschek. For this favour it was claimed that he was granted a license to run a brothel. The next year "Port Artur" was again in the news due to disturbances, but the negative press from the Czech newspapers smells of a smear campaign against the "Judas" Filip, the German nationalistic Taschek, and Germans in general. Newspapers were at this time, be it German or Czech, full of chauvinistic outbursts.

Uncertainty from 1909 onwards

In 1909 a certain Bernard Machatý bought the property and in the address book from 1915 he is listed as horse-cab owner. He seems to have gone broke because nr. 326 was in 1914 sold at a forced auction. Whether or not the brothel continued operating at the address after 1909 is not known, but in June 1915 there was another news item. Two thieves had been arrested and they had been drinking at "a certain brothel" in Rudolfovská třída. This may however not necessarily have been at the same property or had anything to do with "Port Artur". Otherwise the address book for 1915 mentions only two brothels in town, but none of them are in Rudolfovská třída. Still unofficial brothels may have been operating and address books may also contain errors.

In 1919 another possible connection appears. A note in Hlas lidu titled "A new house of shame?" informs that a certain Mrs. Machatá, the divorced wife of brothel owner Machatý, has sold the joint Tripolis and is about to establish another one. This happened in the northern part of town, not far from Mariánská kasárna.

After the war

The horse trader Felix Vazda advertises in 1919 Dutch horses for sale from this address and from 1920 to 1947 adverts show that the furniture factory of Václav Vazda (f. 1889) was located here. He had moved to the city from Ledenice. On the other hand local historian Milan Binder informs that the site was used by hospoda Na Mýtě. After the war the brothels were closed and it appears as if the place was converted to a regular inn. This may even have happened as early as 1909. A note in Budweiser Zeitung from 1924 reports that Mautwirtshaus now also had a Czech name Hostinec na Mytě. But at first it appears that "na Mytě" may not be at the address of "Port Artur" because the house numbers don't fit. Today the construction firm Edikt As is housed here but the number is 461, not 326 as one would expect. Number 326 does not exists in the area any more. Milan Binder adds that buildings in Budějovice have been renumbered twice, latest in 1979. This at least explains why the building numbers don't fit.

Links

Source: Milan Binder, Jihočeské Listy, Budivoj, Budweiser Zeitung

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Denně jsem chodil do ,Port Arthuru’, někteří kolegové už dostali zánět varlat, řezali jim pauchy, a já jsem byl pořád imunní. Smůla, kamaráde, nekřesťanská. Až jsem se ti jednou ,U růže’ seznámil s jedním invalidou z Hluboké.
U růženn flag
Pražská ul. -/5, Budějovice-Fratišek Vostl [1915]
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Zaniklé hospody, s.157

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Chytilův adresář, 1915

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Jihočeské listy, 9.1.1937

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Jihočeské listy, 31.12.1914

U růže is mentioned as Marek met a cripple from Hluboká here who could help him with rheumatism.

Background

U růže probably refers to U bílé růže, a pub two doors north of Mariánská kasárna in Pražská ulice 5, Budějovice. The inn has existed at least from 1879 and was used also for meetings, for instance election gatherings. In 1884 František Smauš announced that he had taken over the inn that at the time also was known as U hlavů. In 1896 there were puppet shows here and the landlord at the time was Jindřich Kopecký. He is also listed as innkeeper in 1905 when he advertised a carousel for sale. This apparatus has surely had its place in the restaurant's garden. In the 1890s they sold beer from Protivín but we don't know if this was still the case in 1915.

The landlord as of 31 December 1910 was František Vostl (also written Wostl), a person Jaroslav Hašek most definitely would have known as he is still listed as innkeeper in 1915. Vostl also ran a horse cab business and traded in fish. He died on 22 June 1933 at the age of 62. He was landlord at U bílé růže at least until 1924 and frequently placed adverts in Jihočeské listy wishing his customers "Happy New Year". The premises were used as an inn even after WW2 and he building was demolished as late as 1992.

Hašek at "The White Rose"

An article in Jihočeské listy from 9 January 1937 confirms that Jaroslav Hašek visited the pub back in 1915. He entertained guests with his patriotic shouting. The article is signed with the pseudonym Al. Terego mentions that the pub also was called simply "U růže".

An alternative

Marek may also have had the café U černého růže (Zur schwarzen Rose) in mind. It was situated on the corner of Piaristická ulice and Česká ulice. This hypothesis is however much weaker as the joint was located further away from the barracks and it also seems to have been largely frequented by Germans. Proprietor in 1915 was Anna Czech.

Milan Binder

Zmiňovaná hospoda "U růže" bude určitě hospoda "U bílá růže", která byla hned vedle Mariánských kasáren. Informace o ní najdete také v knize "Zaniklé hospody", na straně 157 a 158.

Links

Source: Milan Binder, Jihočeské listy, Budivoj

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Denně jsem chodil do ,Port Arthuru’, někteří kolegové už dostali zánět varlat, řezali jim pauchy, a já jsem byl pořád imunní. Smůla, kamaráde, nekřesťanská. Až jsem se ti jednou ,U růže’ seznámil s jedním invalidou z Hluboké. Ten mně řekl, abych jednou v neděli k němu přišel na návštěvu, a na druhý den že budu mít nohy jako konve. Měl doma tu jehlu i stříkačku, a já jsem opravdu sotva došel z Hluboké domů.

Also written:The Rose en Zur Rose de Ved rosa no

Měšťanská besedann flag
Na Sádech -/-, Budějovice-Vilém Sandholec [1915]
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besedacb.png

Hlas lidu, 29.9.1914

Měšťanská beseda according to Marek serves good food, as opposed to the garrison arrest where he and Švejk are locked up.

Background

Měšťanská beseda was a community building, restaurant and hotel in Budějovice that existed from 1870, owned by the citizen's association Českobudějovická Beseda. It was primarily used by the Czech part of the city's population and it was here Český akciovný pivovar (now known as Budweiser Budvar) was founded in 1891. The brewery commenced operation in 1895 and it is a foregone conclusion that the restaurant served beer from this brewery (and they still did at the outbreak of war).

From July 1914 and at least until 1922 the Beseda restaurant was run by Vilém Sandholec, brother of the owner of Hotel Slunce at Náměstí (the square). According to Radko Pytlík the restaurant was indeed frequented by Jaroslav Hašek so Marek presumably knew well what he was talking about. In 1924 the building was rewamped and in 2015 the restaurant was still open but we don't know if it's been operating continuously since then.

Links

SourceRadko Pytlík, Milan Binder, Jihočeské Listy

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Himlhergot, není co kouřit, kamaráde. Nechcete, abych vás naučil plivat na strop? Podívejte se, to se dělá takhle. Myslete si přitom něco, a vaše přání se splní. Jestli rád pijete pivo, mohu vám odporučiti výbornou vodu tamhle ve džbáně. Máte-li hlad a chcete-li chutně pojíst, doporučuji vám ,Měšťanskou besedu’.

Also written:City Club Parrott Burghers'Club Sadlon Bürgerressource de Borgarklubben no

Pionierkadettenschule Hainburgnn flag
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kshainburg1.jpg

Heerwesen, Hugo Schmid, 1916

Pionierkadettenschule Hainburg is mentioned as Marek tells Švejk about the moronic fähnrich Dauerling who did his training at this school.

Background

Pionierkadettenschule Hainburg existed from 1869 until 1913 when it was promoted to a Military academy. The institution was located at the Schloss.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Mladý Dauerling po hrozném zápase s čtyřmi třídami nižší reálky, které vystudoval soukromě, přičemž předčasně zešedivěl a zblbl jeho domácí učitel a druhý chtěl skočit v zoufalství se svatoštěpánské věže ve Vídni, přišel do hainburské kadetní školy. V kadetce se nikdy nedbalo na předběžné vzdělání, neboť to většinou nehodí se pro rakouské aktivní důstojníky.
Stephansdomnn flag
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Stephansdom is mentioned because Dauerling's teacher wanted to jump off the steeple of this cathedral due to his pupil's gross stupidity.

Background

Stephansdom is the most important cathedral in Vienna and one of the city's major attractions.

Links

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Mladý Dauerling po hrozném zápase s čtyřmi třídami nižší reálky, které vystudoval soukromě, přičemž předčasně zešedivěl a zblbl jeho domácí učitel a druhý chtěl skočit v zoufalství se svatoštěpánské věže ve Vídni, přišel do hainburské kadetní školy. V kadetce se nikdy nedbalo na předběžné vzdělání, neboť to většinou nehodí se pro rakouské aktivní důstojníky.

Also written:Saint Stephen's Cathedral en Dóm svatého Štěpána cz Stephansdom de

Theresianische Militärakademienn flag
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Theresianische Militärakademie is a place where, according to Marek, the biggest idiots end up.

Background

Theresianische Militärakademie is the oldest military academy in the world, founded by empress Maria Theresa in 1751. All the officers of Austria-Hungary were educated here. Today it is Austria's only remaining military educational establishment. The academy is located in Wiener Neustadt.

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Jeho odpovědi při zkouškách jasně hovořily o tom neštěstí a vynikaly takovou pitomostí, a byly považovány přímo za klasické pro svou hlubokou pitomost a popletenost, že profesoři kadetky jinak ho nenazývali než ,unser braver Trottel’. Jeho hloupost byla tak oslňující, že byla největší naděje, že snad po několika desetiletích dostane se do tereziánské vojenské akademie či do ministerstva vojenství.

Also written:Theresian Military Academy en Tereziánská vojenská akademie cz Theresianum Katonai Akadémia hu

Apollonn flag
Fügnerovo nám. 1866/4, Praha II-František Štastný [1910]
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apollo2.png

Národní listy, 4.2.1915

Apollo is mentioned in the story Švejk tells Marek about the first wounded of the war, a certain Mlíčko. In the Apollo someone tore is wooden leg off and whacked him over the head with it.

Background

Apollo was a large night cafe with dancing at Fügnerovo náměstí in Nové Město, not in Královské Vinohrady as Švejk says. It was included in E.E Kisch's list of 11 establishments that were forbidden to enter for members of the k.u.k armed forces [7].

In early February 1915 an advert for "dance entertainment" appeared in Národní Listy, and it confirms that František Štastný was still the landlord (he is listed as such in the address book of 1910).

Links

SourceJaroslav Šerák, Radko Pytlík, Hans-Peter Laqueur

Quote from the novel
[2.2] Jednou přišel do ,Apolla’ na Vinohradech a tam se dostal do sporu s řezníky z porážky, kteří mu nakonec utrhli umělou nohu a praštili ho s ní přes hlavu.
Index Back Forward II. At the front Hovudpersonen

3. Švejk's happenings in Királyhida

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Kateřinky is mentioned in the story about the negro Kristián and is almost certainly the very institution where Švejk himself spent some time before the outbreak of war. See also Blázinec.

Background

Kateřinky was a mental institution in Nové Město where Jaroslav Hašek spent a few days in February 1911 after a "suicide attempt", where he tried to jump from Karlův most. It has been claimed that this suicide attempt was fictive. The building is still used by Neurologicka klinika 1. LF UK a VFN v Praze.

Quote from the novel
[2.3] Tak se z toho pomátla, začala se ptát v časopisech o radu, co je proti mouřenínům, a vodvezli ji do Kateřinek a mouřenínka dali do sirotčince, kde z něho měli náramnou legraci.
Tunelnn flag
Štupartská ul. 642/5, Praha I
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Tunel is mentioned by Švejk when he coincidentally talks about orangutangs when the intellectual capabilities of the escorting corporal becomes the theme of the conversation on the train from Budějovice to Bruck an der Leitha.

Background

Tunel was a night-cafe in Prague. It was situated by Staroměstské náměstí, where Hotel Ungelt is now. Egon Erwin Kisch describes it as the worst of the worst, and it was on the list of places where military personell were not allowed to go. The entrance was from Týn square. In 2013 the premises are used by the restaurant Indian Jewel.

Jiřina Chrastilová: V průchodu, který vede ke sv. Jakubu, byla hospoda, říkalo se jí V tunelu a byla to jedna z nejhorších putyk Prahy s nejhoršími děvenkami, které tam byly k dispozici, ale to už bylo hodně pod úroveň."

E.E. Kisch: Die Abenteuer in Prag. Konsignation über verbotene Lokale:Nun knöpfen wir uns den Kragen ab, denn unser weg führt in jenes der Lokale, das als letztes auf der militärischen Konsignation steht und wohl wirklich das letzte aller Prager Lokale ist. Hier hat die verfaulte unterste Schicht der relativer Überbevölkerung ihr Stammlokal, jene Menschen, die nicht mehr direkt als Opfer der kapitalistischen Akkumulation anzusehehen sind, jene, die Marx im "Kapital" Verbrecher, Verkommenene und Verlumpte, das eigentliche Lumpenproletariat nennt, und vor deren Käuflichkeit zu reaktionären Zwecken das Kommunistische Manifest warnt. Es ist erstaunlich, dass das Nachtcafé "Im Tunnel" (Stupartgasse Nr. 642, Teinhof) erst seit 22. April 1913 verboten ist.

Links

Source: Hans-Peter Laqueur, Jiřina Chrastilová

Quote from the novel
[2.3] Jednou jsem seděl v noční kavárně v ,Tunelu’ a bavili jsme se vo orangutanech. Seděl tam s námi jeden mariňák a ten vyprávěl, že orangutana často nerozeznají od nějakýho vousatýho vobčana, že takovej orangutan má bradu porostlou chlupy jako... Jako,’ povídá, ,řekněme třebas tamhleten pán u vedlejšího stolu.’
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Na vyhlídce is mentioned in the same story as Pohořelec.

Background

Na vyhlídce was a pub at Pohořelec in Prague. It was almost certainly the same place as Na krásné vyhlídce, mentioned in the story about Josef Kalenda and his world tour.

Quote from the novel
[2.3] „Někdy,“ řekl Švejk, „se zas v gefechtu člověku udělá špatně, člověk si něco zvoškliví. Vypravoval v Praze na Pohořelci na Vyhlídce’ jeden nemocnej rekonvalescent od Přemyšlu, že tam někde pod festungem přišlo k útoku na bajonety a proti němu se vobjevil jeden Rus, chlap jako hora, a mazal si to na něho s bajonetem a měl pořádnou kapičku u nosu. Jak se mu von podíval na tu kapičku, na ten vozdr, že se mu hned udělalo špatně a musel jít na hilfsplac, kde ho uznali zamořenýho cholerou a odpravili do cholerovejch baráků do Pešti, kde se taky vopravdu nakazil cholerou.“
Schönbrunner Menagerienn flag
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Schönbrunner Menagerie is mentioned by Švejk when he tells the escort corporal in the arrest wagon that Vienna is an important city.

Background

Schönbrunner Menagerie was (and still is) a zoo on the grounds of Schönbrunn. It is now the main zoo in the city. Founded in 1752 it is the oldest existing zoo in the world.

Quote from the novel
[2.3] Vídeň je vůbec důležité město,“ pokračoval, „jenom co mají divokejch zvířat v tej schönbrunnskej menažerii. Když jsem byl před lety ve Vídni, tak jsem se nejradši chodil dívat na vopice, ale když jede nějaká osobnost z císařskýho hradu, tak tam nikoho nepouštěj přes kordon.

Also written:Schönbrunnské menažerie cz

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Offiziersbaracke und Allee

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Field mass

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© Petra Weiß

Brucker Lager forms a vital part of the story as the larger part of Book Two and the first chapter of book three takes place here. In total three eights of the novel is set in the camp and in the surrounding twin towns: Királyhida and Bruck an der Leitha.

Background

Brucker Lager was a military camp and training ground in Királyhida (from 1921 Bruckneudorf) that was founded in 1867 and is still operating. WW1 saw the camp's most active period; at any time up to 26,000 soldiers were located here, a number that dwarfed the combined populations of Bruck an der Leitha and Királyhida. The camp still exists as a military training ground, although parts of it has been turned into a nature reserve.

For IR91 Brucker Lager was no ordinary training ground: for three and a half years it was their home base. In early 1915 it was decided that most Bohemian regiments be dislocated to other parts of Austria-Hungary to avoid too much contact with an allegedly disloyal local population.

The IR91 Ersatzbattailon (replacement battalion) was thus transferred to Királyhida on 1 June 1915 and in Budějovice the Hungarian regiment IR101 replaced them. Camp commander from 1915 to 1918 was colonel Wladimir Rolle who might have lent his name to Ruller.

The 12th march battalion, to which Jaroslav Hašek belonged, was formed and trained here and left for the front on 30 June 1915. It was probably here that Jaroslav Hašek for the first time met Jan Vaněk, the best source we have for information about the author's life in K.u.k. Heer. It was also here that Rudolf Lukas became Hašek's commander.

When IR91 left the camp on 1 November 1918 they plundered it in order not to leave supplies on Hungarian hands, and a new round of destruction was inflicted in 1921 by Hungarian paramilitaries.

Links

Source: Klara Köttner-Benigni, Petra Weiß

Quote from the novel
[2.3] Nad vojenským táborem v Mostě panovalo noční ticho. V barácích pro mužstvo třásli se vojáci zimou a v důstojnických barácích otvírali okna, poněvadž bylo přetopeno. Od jednotlivých objektů, před kterými stály stráže, ozývaly se občas kroky hlídky, která si plašila chůzí spánek. Dole v Mostě nad Litavou zářily světla z c. k. továrny na masité konservy, kde se pracovalo dnem i nocí a zpracovávaly se různé odpadky. Poněvadž šel odtud vítr do alejí ve vojenském táboře, šel sem smrad z hnijících šlach, kopyt, paznehtů a kostí, které vařili do polévkových konserv.
K.u.k. Fleischkonservenfabriknn flag
Lagerstrasse -/8, Királyhida-K.u.k. Ärar [1915]
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Das Vaterland, 2.6.1897

K.u.k. Fleischkonservenfabrik is pungently described by the author in his introduction to Királyhida. Her they tin and make soup from sinews, hoofs and intestines, even rotten.

Background

K.u.k. Fleischkonservenfabrik is the author's term for K.u.k. Militär-Conservenfabrik, a tinning factory founded that operated from November 1896 in Királyhida, not in Bruck an der Leitha as it says in the novel. It didn't only manufacture tinned beat: vegetables, soups and coffee was also tinned here. Franz Joseph I. honoured the factory with a visit already on 1 June 1897 in connection with an inspection of Brucker Lager. He spend over an hour there and even tasted the produce.

At the time the factory had 350 employees but during the world war up to 3000 worked there, including prisoners of war. The running of the factory was outsourced to various enterprises and operation ceased after WW1.

In 2010 the 4,000 sqm building housed a shopping centre, the police headquarters and a car accessory dealer, but most of it is no longer used.

Klara Köttner-Benigni

In Királyhida war noch im Ersten Weltkrieg die „K.u.k. Militär-Conservenfabrik” (im „Schwejk” „k.u.k. Fleischkonservenfabrik”) in Betrieb. (S. 324) In ihr dürften sehr vorwiegend Fleisch-, Suppen-, Gemüse- und Kaffeekonserven hergestellt worden sein. Zumindest im Frieden waren die Rezepturen einwandfrei, wie Konrad Biricz nach deren Prüfung in Akten des Staatsarchivs (Kriegsarchivs) erklärt. Wegen kriegsbedingter Versorgungsschwierigkeiten wird die Qualität sicherlich schlechter geworden sein, aber die Bemerkung, daß dort — bereits 1915! — eine Mischung von stinkenden „verfaulten Sehnen, Hufen, Klauen und Knochen” zu „Suppenkonserven” verarbeitet wurde (S. 325), ist eine der grotesken Übertreibungen des Gourmets Hašek, dem es vor dem kulinarischen Massenbetrieb geekelt haben muß.

Links

Source: Petra Weiß, Klara Köttner-Benigni, Konrad Biricz

Quote from the novel
[2.3] Dole v Mostě nad Litavou zářily světla z c. k. továrny na masité konservy, kde se pracovalo dnem i nocí a zpracovávaly se různé odpadky. Poněvadž šel odtud vítr do alejí ve vojenském táboře, šel sem smrad z hnijících šlach, kopyt, paznehtů a kostí, které vařili do polévkových konserv.
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Hotel Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand.

Zum Kukuruzkolben was honoured by a visit from Archduke Stephan during the Imperial and Royal manoeuvres by Sopron in 1908. Now, in 1915, it was the playground of officers, ordinary soldiers were not allowed to enter. It was located in the valley by the Leitha and it's red electric lights were visible from the abandoned photo pavilion in Brucker Lager.

Background

Zum Kukuruzkolben was according to the author a distinguished brothel by the river Leitha, on which side is not known. There was no establishment here carrying this name in 1915. One possibility is Hotel Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand (also called Hotel Graf) on the riverbank the entrance to Brucker Lager [5]. The reported story about the archduke's visit to a brothel is probably hearsay or plain invention.

Kukuruz is the Austrian variant of the German word Mais, derived from Turkish kokoroz. The Czech word kukuřice is of the same origin.

Links

Source: Klara Köttner-Benigni, Radko Pytlík, Wolfgang Gruber

Quote from the novel
[2.3] Od opuštěného pavilónku, kde dřív za času míru fotografoval nějaký fotograf vojáky trávící zde mládí na vojenské střelnici, bylo vidět dole v údolí u Litavy červené elektrické světlo v bordelu „U kukuřičného klasu“, který poctil svou návštěvou arcivévoda Štěpán při velkých manévrech u Šoproně v roce 1908 a kde se scházela denně důstojnická společnost.

Also written:The Maize Cob Parrott At the Ear of Corn Sadlon U kukuřičného klasu cz Kukoricakalászhoz hu

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K.u.k. Mannschaftspuff, unkown where.

Rosenhaus is mentioned as a house of ill repute where the ordinary soldier cold enjoy himself. It's green lights were visible from the abandoned photo pavillion in Brucker Lager.

Background

Rosenhaus was the author's name of a brothel in Bruck an der Leitha or Királyhida. In 1915 there were five official brothels in the twin towns but none of them carried this name. There were also some unregistered brothels. Judging by the description in the novel it must be assumed that it was located near the river. Růžový dům may also be translated Das rosa Haus.

Links

Source: Wolfgang Gruber, Friedrich Petzneck

Quote from the novel
[2.3] Ti chodili do „Růžového domu“, jehož zelená světla byla též vidět od opuštěného fotografického ateliéru. Bylo to roztřídění jako později na frontě, kdy mocnářství nemohlo už svému vojsku ničím jiným pomoct než přenosnými bordely u štábů brigád, takzvanými „puffy“. Byly tedy k. k. Offizierspuff, k. k. Unteroffizierspuff a k. k. Mannschaftspuff.

Also written:Růžový dům Hašek The House of Roses Parrott Rosenhaus Reiner Pink House Sadlon Rózsaház hu

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Deutsches Kaffehaus

Zum Erzherzog Albrecht is mentioned because Lukáš popped in here after having been to the Hungarian theatre in Királyhida where he had seen the enchanting Mrs Etelka Kákonyi.

Background

Zum Erzherzog Albrecht was supposedly a large cafe and wine tavern in Bruck an der Leitha which was frequented by officers, but there are no historical traces of it. To judge by the author's description it may have been Deutsches Kaffehaus where only officers were allowed. Another possibility is Hotel Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand.

Links

Source: Klara Köttner-Benigni, Friedrich Petzneck

Quote from the novel
[2.3] Nadporučík Lukáš vzal si též z garderoby plášť a šel do města, kde setkal se ve velké vinárně a kavárně „U arcivévody Albrechta“ s několika důstojníky od 91. pluku.

Also written:The Archduke Albrecht Parrott At the Archduke Albert Sadlon U arcivévody Albrechta cz Albrecht főherceghez hu

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Zum Kreuz des Heiligen Stephan is mentioned as Lukáš wrote the famous letter to Etelka Kákonyi here.

Background

Zum Kreuz des Heiligen Stephan was supposedly a small café cum brothel in Bruck or Királyhida, but even this one can not be historically traced. According to Klara Köttner-Benigni the brothels in Bruck were not associated with cafés, so this connection is most likely invented and re-located from somewhere else. Small cafés did exist though, one of them was Café Pauli which fits the description quite well.

Links

Quote from the novel
[2.3] Ve velice dobré náladě odešel do malé kavárny „U kříže sv. Štěpána“, kde zašel do malého chambre séparée, vyhnal odtamtud nějakou Rumunku, která se nabízela, že se svlékne do naha a že si s ní může dělat, co chce, poručil si inkoust, péro a dopisní papír, láhev koňaku a napsal po bedlivé úvaze toto psaní, které se mu zdálo být vůbec nejhezčím, které kdy napsal:

Also written:At the Cross of St Stephen Parrott At the Cross of St. Steven Sadlon U kříže sv. Štěpána cz Szent István keresztjéhez hu

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Zum schwarzen Lamm was the pub where Švejk and Vodička refreshed themselves before going to Soproni utca to deliver the infamous letter from obrlajtnant Lukáš to Mrs Etelka Kákonyi.

Background

Zum schwarzen Lamm was supposedly a pub in Bruck an der Leitha, but there are no historical traces of it. The name may be a corruption of Zum schwarzen Adler, a café located in Altstadt. During WW1 this street was the entertainment district of Bruck.

A strange detail appears in Grete Reiner's German translation. She calls it "Zum roten Lamm", a place that according to Klara Köttner-Benigni may have existed. In that case it was located in Raiffeisengürtel 7 at the end of Altstadt. Has Jaroslav Hašek been "corrected", and in that case why? Reiner was not very solid in Czech but to make a basic error like mixing red and black (červený and černý) seems unlikely.

Links

Source: Klara Köttner-Benigni, Rudolf Stadlmayer, Konrad Biricz

Quote from the novel
[2.3] Nadporučík zabalil se opět do deky, ze které ho Švejk vytáhl, a spal dál, zatímco Švejk putoval dál do Királyhidy. Najít Sopronyi utczu čís. 16 nebylo by bývalo tak těžké, kdyby ho náhodou nebyl potkal starý sapér Vodička, který byl přidělen k „štajerákům“, jejichž kasárna byla dole v lágru. Vodička bydlíval před léty v Praze na Bojišti, a proto při takovém setkání nezbylo nic jiného, než že oba zašli do hospody „U černého beránka“ v Brucku, kde byla známá číšnice Růženka, Češka, které byli všichni čeští jednoročáci, kteří kdy byli v lágru, nějaký obnos dlužni.

Also written:The Black Lamb Parrott Zum Roten Lamm Reiner U černého beránka cz Fekete bárányt hu At the black Ram/The Little black Ram sadlon

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Invalidovna appears in the story Švejk tells Vodička about the pub-owner Paroubek who chased a Slovak across half of Prague.

Background

Invalidovna is a former home for war invalids in Prague. The building which was seriously damaged by the floods in 2002 is partially used by Vojenské ústřední archiv (Central War Archives).

Quote from the novel
[2.3] Potom ještě řekl Paroubkovi, že je huncút a šaščínská bestie, tak ho milej Paroubek chyt, votlouk mu jeho pastě na myši a dráty vo hlavu a vyhodil ho ven a mlátil ho po ulici tyčí na stahování rolety až dolů na Invalidovnu a hnal ho, jak byl zdivočelej, přes Invalidovnu v Karlíně až nahoru na Žižkov, vodtud přes Židovský pece do Malešic, kde vo něj konečně tyč přerazil, takže se moh vrátit nazpátek do Libně
Na růžovém ostrověnn flag
Zaběhlice 59/-, Zaběhlice-Václav Růžická [1901]
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Národní politika, 14.6.1903

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Na růžovém ostrově was yet another place where Vodička had been involved in fighting, the noise could be heard all the way to Michle.

Background

Na růžovém ostrově was a large restaurant with a garden owned by Václav Růžicka, located in Záběhlice on the artificial island of the same name (Rose Island). The restaurant was in business from at least 1891 until 1928 and also arranged dancing. Růžicka died in on 21 February 1924 and is buried at the cemetery in Zaběhlice.

Links

SourceJaroslav Šerák, Česká televize

Quote from the novel
[2.3] „Plácnu taky ženskou, Švejku, mně je to jedno, to ještě neznáš starýho Vodičku. Jednou v Záběhlicích na ,Růžovým ostrově’ nechtěla se mnou jít jedna taková maškara tančit, že prej mám voteklou hubu.
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Hauptwache is mentioned because Švejk and Vodička were led to the prison here after the fight in Soproni utca. It is also the place where Marek re-enters the story for the first time since Vienna. He had refused to clean the latrines and been locked up. The greater part of the action in [II.4] takes place here.

Background

Hauptwache was the main guard building in Brucker Lager in Királyhida. This was also where the camp prison was located. The building was later demolished. There was also a main guard in the so-called Neue Lager but it has not been possible to establish whether or not there were prison cells here.

Links

Quote from the novel
[2.3] Starý sapér Vodička po celou cestu tvrdošíjně mlčel. Až teprve když vcházeli na hauptvachu, řekl zasmušile k Švejkovi: „Nepovídal jsem ti to, že Maďary neznáš?“

Also written:Main guard-house en Hauptvacha/Hauptwacha Hašek Hovudvakta nn Hlavní stražnice cz

Index Back Forward II. At the front Hovudpersonen

4. New afflictions

U Flekůnn flag
Křemencová 183/7, Praha II-Ludvík Hotovec [1910]
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U Fleků is mentioned in an anecdote by Švejk, where he explains the advantages of feigning retardedness. See Hamburg.

Background

U Fleků is one of the most famous taverns in Prague and the worlds oldest brew-pub. It has been in existence since 1499. Today the focus is on attracting foreign tourists and is in this respect similar to U kalicha. The food is Czech, the price level certainly not.

Links

Quote from the novel
[2.4] Mívá též občasné silné bolení hlavy a v takových okamžicích že neví, co dělá, a v takovým stavu že taky vodešel z fronty do Prahy, a teprve když ho zatkla ,U Fleků’ vojenská policie, že přišel k sobě.
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Kartouzy is mentioned in an anecdote by Švejk, where he explains the advantages of feigning retardedness. See Hamburg.

Background

Kartouzy or Valdická kartouza is a monastery in Valdice which was converted into a prison. Babinský and Janeček are amongst the most notorious criminals that served time there.

Kartouzy is still in use (2016) as a high security prison and some of the inmates are amongst the most dangerous in the country, several of them serving life sentences.

Links

Quote from the novel
[2.4] Mladší sestra že se utopila, starší že se vrhla pod vlak, bratr že skočil s železničního mostu na Vyšehradě, dědeček že zavraždil svou ženu a polil se petrolejem a zapálil se, druhá babička že se toulala s cikány a otrávila se ve vězení sirkami, jeden bratranec že byl několikrát souzen pro žhářství a podřezal si v Kartouzích žíly na krku kouskem skla, sestřenice z otcovy strany že se vrhla ve Vídni s šestýho patra, von sám že je strašně zanedbanýho vychování a do deseti let že neuměl mluvit, poněvadž ve věku šesti měsíců, když ho převazovali na stole a někam vodběhli, kočka ho stáhla se stolu a pádem že se uhodil do hlavy.
Index Back Forward II. At the front Hovudpersonen

5. From Bruck on the Leitha toward Sokal

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Brucker Zuckerfabrik um 1910

Brucker Zuckerfabrik is mentioned by Lukáš (using the term "sugar factory") when he tells Vaněk about some manouvres in Bruck an der Leitha.

Background

Brucker Zuckerfabrik was from it started in 1909 until it was closed in 1986 one of the largest sugar refineries in Austria. Today it is the site of a biodiesel-factory. Wolfgang Gruber and Erwin Sillaber have written a detailed history of the sugar factory.

Trotz regionaler Widerstände und Schwierigkeiten entstand in Bruck im Jahre 1909 ein moderner Verarbeitungsbetrieb für Zuckerrüben. Die Brucker Zuckerfabrik wurde für die Ostregion südlich der Danube über Jahrzehnte zu einem wichtigen Arbeit- und Auftraggeber.

Links

Source: Wolfgang Gruber

Quote from the novel
[2.5] „Předevčírem při nachtübungu měli jsme, jak víte, manévrovat proti Einjährigfreiwilligen Schule za cukrovarem. První švarm, vorhut, ten šel ještě tiše po silnici, poněvadž ten jsem vedl sám, ale druhý, který měl jít nalevo a rozeslat vorpatroly pod cukrovar, ten si počínal, jako kdyby šel z výletu.

Also written:Bruck Sugar Factory en Bruck cukrovar cz Bruck sukkerfabrikk no

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Na Perstyně 360/4, Praha I-Ferdinand Kokoška [1891]
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House No. 360, 2 January 1905. © AHMP

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Národní listy, 1.7.1890

Drogerie Kokoška is mentioned by Švejk in his story from when he was a chemist's apprentice at Mr Kokoška in Na Perštýně. The pharmacy store was located in this street.

Background

Drogerie Kokoška was a chemist's store where Jaroslav Hašek in 1898 worked as an apprentice after prematurely ending his studies at the gymnasium. The shop was located at the corner of Na Perštýně and Martinská ulice, in the house U třech zlatých koulí. The information is confirmed by newspaper adverts, address books and a photo from 1905. The owner Kokoška opened the store/workshop in the summer of 1890. It was operating until 1906 when the proprietor died.

From the old pharmacy

The author's time at the chemists inspired a series of eight stories that were published in Veselá Praha in 1909 and 1910. Here Kokoška, Tauchen and Ferdinand all appear but the former two with their names slightly twisted but easily recognizable (Kološka and Tauben). The stories were translated to English by Cecil Parrott and included in the book The red commissar.

The stories that are written in the first person form describe the pharmacy, the people who worked there, and also customers and neighbours. Pivotal to the story is Mr. Kološka who is an elderly man with a kind heart. His assistant is the lazy Mr. Tauben who doesn't take his duties too seriously and also encourages the you apprentice not to run his shoes off for the boss. Another employee is Ferdinand who is known for his colourful and immaculately kept carriage into which he puts all his diligence and pride. Mrs. Kološka is described in extremely unflattering terms and she is also given the nick-name "acid". She torments her husband and the staff at the pharmacy. Her name is Marie (born Vanouš), she is a tall and corpulent lady but with quite attractive features. She and her father continuously remind Kološka that the business would have gone under by now if it hadn't been for their help. It is also revealed that Kološka and his wife live together with the evil father-in-law and that the marriage came about for financial reasons. They lived somewhere else, not in the pharmacy building, and appeared to be quite well off.

Ficton and facts

As commonly known in the writing of Hašek these stories are also a mix of facts and invention. There exists no doubt that the author was an apprentice at the pharmacy, that the owner was Kokoška and the location of the business is also correct. Václav Menger could confirm that a Tauben worked there, likewise a Ferdinand Vavra who probably is the model for the Ferdinand with the colourful cart. On the other had the young apprentice seem to have had a much more strained relationship with Tauben than what is apparent from the stories. The young Hašek was subjected to some envy from other staff members because he was capable and thus a favourite of the boss. Further Menger mentions Mrs. Kokošková and that she came from a wealthy background. This appears to be true but otherwise her biographical details are differ from those of her literary counterpart. From population registers we know that Mrs Kokošková was born Anna Milnerová in 1857 and not Marie Vanouš as in the stories. On the other hand it is true that the family lived somewhere else, and not in the building of the pharmacy. The address was Prague II, Pštrossová ul. 221/25. Here they are registered from 1880 and the year after their daughter Anna was born, so moving there was clearly a result of the marriage. Hašek may also have been touching real life when describing the obnoxious behaviour of Mrs. Kološková: Anna Kokošková eventually died in a lunatic asylum in Praha. On the other hand Tauben (or Tauchen) is a mystery. Despite Menger's claim that he existed there is not a single Tauben to find in population records or police registers, and the few Tauchen who are listed have no obvious link to Kokoška2 or any pharmacy.

Aftermath

After the death of Kokoška in 1906 the shop and the workshop was taken over by Václav Rubeš. In the meantime it had also moved from No. 360 to the next-door No. 359 with address Martinská ulice. Anna Kokošková died as late as 1916, 59 years old. It is not known what happened to the daughter Anna who was 26 when her father died.

Links

Quote from the novel
[2.5] „Já jsem se taky učil materialistou,“ řekl Švejk, „u nějakýho pana Kokošky na Perštýně v Praze. To byl náramnej podivín, a když jsem mu jednou vomylem ve sklepě zapálil sud benzinu a von vyhořel, tak mne vyhnal a gremium mne už nikde nepřijalo, takže jsem se kvůli pitomýmu sudu benzinu nemoh doučit. Vyrábíte také koření pro krávy?“

Also written:Drogerie Kokoschka de

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U milosrdných is mentioned by Švejk in his story from when he was a chemist's apprentice at Mr Kokoška.

Background

U milosrdných refers to the hospital Nemocnice na Františku associated with the monastry-komplex klášter milosrdných bratří s kostelem sv. Šimona a Judy in Staré Město. This hospital was the first in Europe to carry out anasthaesia (1847).

Quote from the novel
[2.5] Chytal holuby na půdě, uměl votvírat pult s penězma a ještě nás učil jinejm melouchům se zbožím. Já jako kluk jsem měl doma takovou lékárnu, kterou jsem si přines z krámu domů, že ji neměli ani ,U milosrdnejch’. A ten pomoh panu Tauchenovi; jen řek: ,Tak to sem dají, pane Tauchen, ať se na to kouknu,’ hned mu poslal pan Tauchen pro pivo.

Also written:U milosrdnejch Švejk

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U Královské Obory 138/37, Praha VII
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Plynární stanice Letna is mentioned in the story about the gas worker Zátka.

Background

Plynární stanice Letna refers to a gas station at Letná of which there were two in 1910. Both were guard-houses (strážnice) whose main duty was street-lighting. The most obvious candidate is situated on the Letná plain, in U Královské Obory 138 (now Nad Královskou oborou 138/37), but the station in Skuherského 724/32 (now Pplk. Sochora 724/30) can not be ruled out entirely.

Quote from the novel
[2.5] „Co se mý osoby týká, pane rechnungsfeldvébl, když jsem to slyšel, co vy jste vo těch outvarech povídal, tak jsem si vzpomněl na nějakýho Zátku, plynárníka; von byl na plynární stanici na Letný a rozsvěcoval a zas zhasínal lampy.
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Kostel svaté Kateřiny is mentioned in the same story as recruit Pech who was from nearby Dolní Bousov where this church is.

Background

Kostel svaté Kateřiny is the parish church in Dolní Bousov. According to local sources it was built in 1759 and 1760 in baroque style. There was probably a church there already, just as Pech says.

Quote from the novel
[2.5] Dolní Bousov, Unter Bautzen, 267 domů, 1936 obyvatelů českých, hejtmanství Jičín, okres Sobotka, bývalé panství Kosť, farní chrám svaté Kateřiny ze 14. století, obnovený hrabětem Václavem Vratislavem Netolickým, škola, pošta, telegraf, stanice české obchodní dráhy, cukrovar, mlýn s pilou, samota Valcha, šest výročních trhů.’
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stsava.jpg

The first church of St. Sava, 1895

Church of Saint Sava is mentioned because the entire 6th March Company got lost here during the withdrawal from Belgrade. This is brought up in connection with the trial of Teveles.

Background

Church of Saint Sava at first glance seems to refer to the largest and most important cathedral in Serbia, and the largest cathedral in south-eastern Europe, and also the largest orthodox cathedral in the world.

This assumption is however wrong, because in 1914 the cathedral was still only being planned. Construction started as late as 1935, but in 1914 there was a small church with the same name on the site, and this is surely the one the author has in mind. Both churches were/are located on the Vračar hill.

The missing march company

The story about the missing 6th March Company may be based on real events although this company never existed (each march battalion consisted of four companies, numbered I,II,III and IV). The author may however had IR91/6th field company or another company of IR91 in mind. These fought by Belgrade during the withdrawal from Serbia in the week before 15 December 1914. During this time the regiment lost three entire companies before the remainder pulled out to Hungary across the river Sava. The three missing field companies (5th, 13th and 14th) were however captured by Borak south of Belgrade, not in the city itself.

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Source: Rudolf Kiesswetter, Petr Novák

Quote from the novel
[2.5] Byl-li však pěšák Teveles povýšen v bělehradské válečné kampani za četaře, nedalo se naprosto zjistit, poněvadž celá 6. marškumpanie se ztratila u cerkve sv. Sávy v Bělehradě i se svými důstojníky.

Also written:Cerkev svaté Savy Hašek Kostel svaté Savy cz црква Светог Саве sr

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Zur weissen Rose is mentioned because this is where Peroutka was found when the company was about to depart for the front.

Background

Zur weissen Rose has not been identified, but may be a mis-translation or mis-spelling of Zum Weissen Rössel, a former guest-house in Bruck an der Leitha. Zum Weissen Rössel was located in Altstadt 6, and on the first floor was a Mannschaftspuff (brothel for the lower ranks). Altstadt is the name of a street, not the Old Town as the name suggests. During the first world war it was the centre of nightlife and entertainment in Bruck.

Bohumil Vlček recalls a Czech waitress Růženka who worked in a certain tavern named u Růže (Zur Rose) and that many Czechs, including Jaroslav Hašek, visited regularly. Further Jan Morávek, in an interview that was printed in Průboj 3.3. 1968, adds that the author, before departure to the front was picked up by the patrol at U zlatého růže (Zur goldenen Rose). It is surely the same place, but there is great confusion about the real name of the place. Vlček also mentions that Jaroslav Hašek in the same situation was detained in a pub by the railway station. If this is the case, the hypothesis about Zum Weissen Rössel is invalid as it was located about 10 minutes walk from the station. On the other hand Vlček explicitely states that the "Rose" was in Bruck, whatever color or shape it might have appeared in.

Bohumil Vlček

V lágru nás nic nepoutalo, proto po zaměstnáni navštěvovali jsme v Mostě hostinec u "Růže" kde nás obsluhovala naše česká číšnice Růženka / jak v románě též o tom zmínka :/ Tam byl stalým hostem Jaroslav Hašek, kterého jsem tam též osobni poznal. Většinou do restaurace chodili Češi, jednoročáci a i mužstvo od náhr. praporu.

Links

Source: Bohumil Vlček, Wolfgang Gruber, Friedrich Petzneck, Klara Köttner-Benigni, Jan Morávek

Quote from the novel
[2.5] Vymlouval se, že chtěl před odjezdem prohlédnout známý skleník hraběte Harracha u Brucku a na zpáteční cestě že zabloudil, a teprve ráno celý unavený že dorazil k „Bílé růži“. (Zatím spal s Růženkou od „Bílé růže“.)

Also written:At the White Rose en U bílé růže cz Fehér Rózsa hu Ved den Kvite Rose no

Index Back Forward III. The famous thrashing Hovudpersonen

1. Across Magyaria

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Klárův ústav slepců was the institution where the cook who replaced Jurajda in the officers mess at Királyhida hailed from.

Background

Klárův ústav slepců was from 1832 to 1945 an institute for the blind, now the location of Česká geologická služba (Czech Geology Service). The institute was founded by and is named after Alois Klar.

Quote from the novel
[3.1] Toto psaní bylo vynuceno okolnostmi, když kuchař okultista nadobro si rozlil ocet s plukovníkem Schröderem, který mu dosud držel palec, ale na kterého se při večeři na rozloučenou s důstojníky maršbatalionu opět, nešťastnou náhodou, nedostala porce rolované telecí ledviny, a plukovník Schröder ho poslal s marškumpačkou do pole, svěřiv důstojnickou kuchyni pluku nějakému nešťastnému učiteli z ústavu slepců na Klárově.

Also written:Klárov Institute of the Blind en Klárov Blindeinstitutt no

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Rytířská ul. 539/31, Praha I
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Průmyslová jednota in Prague is mentioned by Švejk because he once was refused admission in the reading room there due to his shabby appearance.

Background

Průmyslová jednota was an institution for promotion of technical education. It was founded in 1833 and was closed in 1950. The library and reading room in question was located in Rytířská ulice i Staré Město.

Source: Milan Hodík, Radko Pytlík.

Quote from the novel
[3.1] „Vo tom stěhování duší jsem už taky slyšel,“ ozval se Švejk. „Já jsem si také jednou umínil před léty, že se, jak se s vodpuštěním říká, sám budu vzdělávat, abych nezůstal pozadu, a chodil jsem do čítárny Průmyslové jednoty v Praze, ale poněvadž jsem byl roztrhanej a svítily mně díry na zadnici, tak jsem se nemoh vzdělávat, poněvadž mne tam nepustili a vyvedli ven, poněvadž myslili, že jsem šel krást zimníky.
K.u.k. Infanteriekadettenschule Pragnn flag
Mariánské hradby 221/-, Praha IV-K.u.k. Ärar [1910]
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K.u.k. Infanteriekadettenschule Prag is directly mentioned first time in the conversation Major General von Schwarzburg and Lukáš after the infamous episode on the train to Tábor. Here Lukáš is asked where he absolved Cadet School, and the answer is Prague. The school has already been indirectly mentioned in [I.14], when the author introduces Lukáš. In [III.1], at the station in Győr, it is revealed that Ságner and Lukáš were class-mates at the school.

Background

K.u.k. Infanteriekadettenschule Prag refers to an infantry cadet school in Prague which was opened in 1869 and was situated in the northern part of Hradčany from 1900. The building still exists and has had various functions since, and has also been used by Nazi and Soviet occupants. Today it houses the Czech Ministry of Defence.

The real life Čeněk Sagner actually attended this school (1901 - 1905) whereas another model, Rudolf Lukas did not. The courses lasted for four years and beside military education also provided general education.

Links

Source: Milan Hodík

Quote from the novel
[3.1] „Pane nadporučíku,“ řekl, „kde jste navštěvoval kadetní školu?“ „V Praze.“ „Vy jste tedy chodil do kadetní školy a nevíte ani, že důstojník je zodpověden za svého podřízeného. To je pěkné.

Also written:Infantry Cadet School Prague en Pěchotní kadetní škola Praha cz Praha Infanterikadettskule no

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Daňkovka was the factory where the metal caster Adamec worked. This is in an anecdote Švejk tells Lukáš, but the latter cuts off.

Background

Daňkovka refers to the industrial concern Breitfeld-Daněk a spol. that in 1927 was merged with Českomoravská-Kolben, a.s. to ČKD, a company that still exists. The Tatra tram is probably their best known product, still running in many of the former socialist countries. The first factory was located in Karlín and this is surely the one referred to by Švejk. See also Kristian.

Quote from the novel
[3.1] Nadporučík Lukáš mluvil takovým hlasem, jako by se o něho pokoušela horečka, a toho okamžiku, když umlkl, využitkoval Švejk k nevinné otázce: „Poslušně hlásím, pane obrlajtnant, za prominutí, proč se nikdy nedozvím, co jsem vyved hroznýho: Já, pane obrlajtnant, jsem se vopovážil na to zeptat jenom kvůli tomu, abych se příště mohl takový věci vystříhat, když se všeobecně povídá, že se vod chyby člověk učí, jako ten slejvač Adamec z Daňkovky, když se vomylem napil solný kyseliny...“
Wiener Illustrierte Zeitungnn flag
Gumpendorfer str. -/87, Wien VI-Gesellschaft für grafische Industrie [1914]
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wienzeitung.jpg

The front page of the first issue, 19.12.1914

Wiener Illustrierte Zeitung is mentioned when the author describes Biegler's dream. The landscape the cadet sees is as cut out of this magazine.

Background

Wiener Illustrierte Zeitung was an illustrated weekly that was published every Saturday. The first issue appeared on 19 December 1914. The magazine continued to the end of 1916, altogether 107 issues. In the address book of 1917 the paper is not listed. The emphasis was on pictures from the war, celebrities, and patriotic propaganda, and the photos were for that time of good quality. The paper was published by Gesellschaft für grafische Industrie, located in the city district of Mariahilf (VI. Bezirk) near the centre of Vienna.

Vídeňské illustrované noviny

A Czech weekly with the same title was also published in Vienna. This is however an entirely different periodical and was published much longer, from 1906 to 1920.

Links

Quote from the novel
[3.1] Krajina měla týž ráz jako na obrázcích „Wiener Illustrierte Zeitung“. Po pravé straně bylo vidět u stodoly dělostřelectvo, jak střílí do nepřátelských zákopů vedle silnice, po které projížděl s automobilem.
Index Back Forward III. The famous thrashing Hovudpersonen

2. In Budapest

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Kis Színkör is mentioned in a comment by Ságner who read in Pester Lloyd that the actress Weiner was to perform there.

Background

Kis Színkör was a theatre and cabaret in Városliget (City Park) in Budapest. It was founded in 1904.

Source: László Polgár

Quote from the novel
[3.2] Zklamal se však úplně, neboť hejtman Ságner, kterému přinesl batalionsordonanc Matušič ze stanice večerní vydání „Pester Lloydu“, řekl, dívaje se do novin: „Tak vida, ta Weinerová, kterou jsme viděli v Brucku vystupovat pohostinsky, hrála zde včera na scéně Malého divadla.“

Also written:Small Theatre en Vesle Teater nn Malé divadlo cz Kleines Theater de Kis Színkör hu

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Firma Löwenstein supplied the army with hay. Presumably it was named after the owner. Here the narrator reveals that the station commander in Pest had tucked away two carriages of hay that he sold to this firm.

Background

Firma Löwenstein may well have been a real compnay, or at least modelled on an existing firm. In the address book of Vienna 1915 several Löwenstein firms are listed, but none of them deliver hay or fit the description in other ways.

Quote from the novel
[3.2] Musí to zas zaplatit sám. Takových návštěv je denně několik. Už na to praskly dva vozy se senem, které dal zatáhnout na slepou kolej a které prodal firmě Löwenstein, vojenským dodavatelům sena, jako se prodává žito nastojatě. Erár zas ty dva vagony od nich koupil, ale on je tam nechal pro jistotu dál stát.
U staré panínn flag
Michalská ul. 441/11, Praha I
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U staré paní was the pub where Matějů had his jaw smashed by a brick. This is Švejk commenting that Mr István was hit in they eye with a chicken.

Background

U staré paní was a pub in Staré Město, now a restaurant and hotel.

Quote from the novel
[3.2] To vyrazili ,U starý paní’ soustružníkovi Matějů celou sanici cihlou za dvacet zlatejch, s šesti zubama, a tenkrát měly peníze větší cenu než dnes.
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Filipa is part of Švejk's perception of Dub's quote from Shakespeare on Philippi. In a conversation with Jurajda he concludes that Dub is a "buserant" (homosexual).

Background

Filipa was by interpreting the text a meeting place for homosexuals, surely somewhere in Prague.

Quote from the novel
[3.2] „Pro nás, poslušně hlásím, pane lajtnant. Podívejte se, co má sádla.“ Poručík Dub odcházel bruče: „U Filippi se sejdeme.“ „Cože ti říkal?“ obrátil se k Švejkovi Jurajda. „Ale dali jsme si schůzku někde u Filipy. Voni tihle vznešení páni bejvají obyčejně buseranti.“
Index Back Forward III. The famous thrashing Hovudpersonen

3. From Hatvan to the borders of Galicia

U Rozvařilůnn flag
Na Pořící 1047/24, Praha II-Antonín Ečer [1910]
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U Rozvařilů is mentioned in the anecdote about colonel Fliedler von Bumerang.

Background

U Rozvařilů was a brewery and restaurant at Pořící, also offering entertainment in the form of concerts.

The enterprise still exists (2010), albeit in another form: as a restaurant in the department store Bílá Labuť. The original building has obviously been demolished.

Links

Quote from the novel
[3.3] Železnýmu už to bylo všechno jedno. Tak jak šli přes Poříč, kolem Rozvařilů, Železný skočil do průjezdu a ztratil se mu průchodem a zkazil Kaučukovýmu dědkovi tu velikou radost, až ho bude sázet do arestu.
U Buckůnn flag
Na Pořící 1046/22, Praha II-Bohumil Hustoles [1910]
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U Bucků is mentioned in the anecdote about colonel Fliedler von Bumerang.

Background

U Bucků was a brewery and restaurant at Pořící in Prague, next door to U Rozvařilů.

Links

Quote from the novel
[3.3] Až takhle jednou vod našeho regimentu podařilo se jednomu probodnout jednoho dragouna v hospodě ,U Bucků’, kterej mu chodil za holkou, a tu nás seřadili do čtverce, museli vyjít všichni, i marodka, kdo byl moc marod, toho dva drželi.
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Nakladatelství Šimáček is indirectly mentioned by Dub who points to a melodramatic article about the killings Sarajevo in the magazine Šimáček's Four-leaved Clover from July 1914.

Background

Nakladatelství Šimáček was a Czech publishing house founded by František Šimáček in 1856. In 1914 it was managed by Bohuslav Šimáček. They published the illustrated magazine Šimáčkův čtyřlístek which is referred to in the novel. The magazine appeared twice a month. The company was located in Jerusalémská ulice in Nové Město.

Quote from the novel
[3.3] Nadporučík Lukáš jen zamručel k sobě, že asi zde v Humenném četníci odebírali Šimáčkův Čtyřlístek s tím dojemným článkem. Vůbec se mu počalo vše najednou hnusit a cítil jenom potřebu opít se, aby ho opustil světobol. Vyšel tedy z vagonu a šel vyhledat Švejka.
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Palackého tř. 713/78, Vinohrady
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Na zastávce was one of the pubs where Josef Kalenda made a stop on his World Tour. A pub with the same name is mentioned again in the next chapter in the anecdote about the construction site foreman who was not to drink alcohol.

Background

Na zastávce was seemingly a pub in Královské Vinohrady. It is most probably referred to a pub in Palackého třída 713, now Franczouska. There were nevertheless two other pubs with this name in Prague but none of them fit the route of Josef Kalenda.

Quote from the novel
[3.3] Strašnickej zahradník, nějakej Josef Kalenda, ten se taky jednou vzdálil z domova, šel ze Strašnic na Vinohrady, stavil se ,Na zastávce’ v hospodě, ale to mu ještě nic nebylo, ale jakmile přišel do Korunní třídy k vodárně, bral v Korunní třídě až za kostel svaté Ludmily hospodu za hospodou a cítil už malátnost.
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Vinohradská vodárna was the place where Josef Kalenda started to enter pubs on his way around the world.

Background

Vinohradská vodárna is a former water tower in Korunní třída, a neo-renaissance building finished in 1891.

Quote from the novel
[3.3] Strašnickej zahradník, nějakej Josef Kalenda, ten se taky jednou vzdálil z domova, šel ze Strašnic na Vinohrady, stavil se ,Na zastávce’ v hospodě, ale to mu ještě nic nebylo, ale jakmile přišel do Korunní třídy k vodárně, bral v Korunní třídě až za kostel svaté Ludmily hospodu za hospodou a cítil už malátnost.
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Kostel svaté Ludmily is also mentioned in the anecdote about Josef Kalenda. He walked past this church on his world tour.

Background

Kostel svaté Ludmily is a twin-spired church at Náměstí Míru in Královské Vinohrady, Prague. It was opened in 1892. Jaroslav Hašek and Jarmila Mayerová married here on 23 May 1910.

Quote from the novel
[3.3] Strašnickej zahradník, nějakej Josef Kalenda, ten se taky jednou vzdálil z domova, šel ze Strašnic na Vinohrady, stavil se ,Na zastávce’ v hospodě, ale to mu ještě nic nebylo, ale jakmile přišel do Korunní třídy k vodárně, bral v Korunní třídě až za kostel svaté Ludmily hospodu za hospodou a cítil už malátnost.
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Jungmannova tř. 107/-, Vinohrady-Josef Wagner [1910]
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uremisy.jpg

Map from 1911

U remisy was the pub where Josef Kalenda from Švejk's anecdote made a bet with a tram driver from that he could walk around the earth in three weeks.

Background

U remisy was apparantly a pub in Strašnice, to judge by the name near a tram depot (vozovna). There is a tram depot in Strašnice still, located in Vinohradská třída. It was opened in 1908 and was the oldest of its kind in Prague.

In 1910 there were three taverns close to the tram depot, two of them next door at Jungmannová třida 93 and 107. The landlords were Josef Šmíd and Josef Wagner respectively. Both are listed as na Kovárně but may still have been known as "U remisy" in day to day speak. The excact identification is therefore difficult, but Wagner's pub is probably the best bet as he is the only one listed in the address book for Královské Vinohrady from 1912.

Note that the border between Strašnice and Vinohrady went between the tram depot and the two pubs but Svejk would probably not have been aware of this fine distinction.

A restaurant with the same name in the same place still existed in 2010 although the address was very different both with respect to street names and house numbering.

Quote from the novel
[3.3] Nedal se však tím odstrašit, poněvadž se vsadil předtím ten večer v Strašnicích v hospodě ,U remisy’ s jedním řídičem vod elektriky, že udělá pěšky cestu kolem světa za tři neděle. Počal se tedy dál a dál vzdalovat vod svýho domova, až se přivalil do ,Černýho pivovaru’ na Karlově náměstí, a vodtamtuď šel na Malou Stranu k Sv. Tomáši do pivovaru a odtamtud přes restauraci ,U Montágů’ a ještě vejš přes hospodu ,U krále brabanskýho’, pak na ,Krásnou vyhlídku’, odtud do Strahovskýho kláštera do pivovaru.
Černý pivovarnn flag
Karlovo nám. 292/15, Praha II-Arthur Pflanzer [1910]
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Černý pivovar was one of the pubs Kalenda dropped by on his legendary pub crawl (world tour).

Background

Černý pivovar was a brewery and restaurant with address Karlovo náměstí 15. In 1891 it was registered in the name of František Fiala and was operating until 1920.

In 1934 the restaurant re-opened in the new building constructed on the site but we don't know when it closed down again. The bulding still exists but has an entirely different function.

Links

SourceJaroslav Šerák

Quote from the novel
[3.3] Počal se tedy dál a dál vzdalovat vod svýho domova, až se přivalil do ,Černýho pivovaru’ na Karlově náměstí, a vodtamtuď šel na Malou Stranu k Sv. Tomáši do pivovaru a odtamtud přes restauraci ,U Montágů’ a ještě vejš přes hospodu ,U krále brabanskýho’, pak na ,Krásnou vyhlídku’, odtud do Strahovskýho kláštera do pivovaru.

Also written:Black Brewery en Schwarze Brauerei de Svarte Bryggeri no

U svatého Tomášenn flag
Letenská ul. 28/20, Praha III-Josef Hloucha [1910]
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U svatého Tomáše was one of the pubs Josef Kalenda dropped by.

Background

U svatého Tomáše was a restaurant and brewery in Malá Strana, known for their dark beer. It was one of the oldest breweries in Bohemia but closed in 2006 when the building was converted to a hotel.

Quote from the novel
[3.3] Počal se tedy dál a dál vzdalovat vod svýho domova, až se přivalil do ,Černýho pivovaru’ na Karlově náměstí, a vodtamtuď šel na Malou Stranu k Sv. Tomáši do pivovaru a odtamtud přes restauraci ,U Montágů’ a ještě vejš přes hospodu ,U krále brabanskýho’, pak na ,Krásnou vyhlídku’, odtud do Strahovskýho kláštera do pivovaru.
U Montágůnn flag
Malostranské nám. 6/19, Praha III-Antonín Janda [1910]
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U Montágů was one of the pubs Josef Kalenda dropped by.

Background

U Montágů was a restaurant at Malostranské náměstí which in 1891 and even as late as 1910 was owned by Antonín Janda. The building U Montágů still exists but is better known by the name Palác Smiřických. It is a part of the building complex that is used as a seat of the Chamber of Deputies of the Czech Parliament. Note that the pub was in the next building down, also known as Šternberský palác.

Source: Jaroslav Šerák

Quote from the novel
[3.3] Počal se tedy dál a dál vzdalovat vod svýho domova, až se přivalil do ,Černýho pivovaru’ na Karlově náměstí, a vodtamtuď šel na Malou Stranu k Sv. Tomáši do pivovaru a odtamtud přes restauraci ,U Montágů’ a ještě vejš přes hospodu ,U krále brabanskýho’, pak na ,Krásnou vyhlídku’, odtud do Strahovskýho kláštera do pivovaru.
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Thunovská ul. 196/19, Praha III-Josef Král [1910]
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U krále brabantského was one of the eight named pubs that Kalenda visited on his world tour which ended up as a gigantic pub-crawl. It must have been about here that Blahník and Švejk planned the dog-theft in [I.14]. See Zámecké schody.

Background

U krále brabantského is one of the oldest existing pubs in Prague, now part of a chain which uses the Medieval times as a theme.

It has roots back to 1475 and amongst the prominent guests throughout the years are claimed to be: Edward Kelly, Jaroslav Hašek, Karel Čapek and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.

Links

Quote from the novel
[3.3] Počal se tedy dál a dál vzdalovat vod svýho domova, až se přivalil do ,Černýho pivovaru’ na Karlově náměstí, a vodtamtuď šel na Malou Stranu k Sv. Tomáši do pivovaru a odtamtud přes restauraci ,U Montágů’ a ještě vejš přes hospodu ,U krále brabanskýho’, pak na ,Krásnou vyhlídku’, odtud do Strahovskýho kláštera do pivovaru.

Also written:U krále brabanskýho Švejk

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Úvoz 156/31, Praha IV-Josef Prevor [1910]
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Na krásné vyhlídce was one of the eight pubs mentioned by name that Josef Kalenda visited.

Background

Na krásné vyhlídce was a pub near the Strahov Monastery. According to the address books from 1891 and 1910 there was a pub with this name in Úvoz 31 and the description fits well. Today the address does not exist, but from old maps it can be seen that it must have been current number 13/156. The building on the site today is from more recent times and houses the Swedish embassy.

Quote from the novel
[3.3] Počal se tedy dál a dál vzdalovat vod svýho domova, až se přivalil do ,Černýho pivovaru’ na Karlově náměstí, a vodtamtuď šel na Malou Stranu k Sv. Tomáši do pivovaru a odtamtud přes restauraci ,U Montágů’ a ještě vejš přes hospodu ,U krále brabanskýho’, pak na ,Krásnou vyhlídku’, odtud do Strahovskýho kláštera do pivovaru.
Strahovský klášternn flag
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Strahovský klášter is mentioned because Josef Kalenda popped into the monastery brewery just before homesickness overwhelmed him.

Background

Strahovský klášter is a monastery on the Strahov Hill in Prague and one of the Czech capitals many beautiful landsmarks. It is situated in the Hradčany area, not far from the castle itself. It belongs to the Premonstratensians order and was founded around 1140.

Quote from the novel
[3.3] Počal se tedy dál a dál vzdalovat vod svýho domova, až se přivalil do ,Černýho pivovaru’ na Karlově náměstí, a vodtamtuď šel na Malou Stranu k Sv. Tomáši do pivovaru a odtamtud přes restauraci ,U Montágů’ a ještě vejš přes hospodu ,U krále brabanskýho’, pak na ,Krásnou vyhlídku’, odtud do Strahovskýho kláštera do pivovaru.

Also written:Strahov Monastery en Kloster Strahov de Strahovklosteret no

Strahovský pivovarnn flag
Strahovské nádvoří 135/10, Praha IV-František Švancar [1910]
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strahovpivovar.jpg

Strahovský pivovar, 1867

strahovpivovar.png

Der Böhmische Bierbrauer, 1.12.1900

strahov.png

Čech, 20.1.1910

Strahovský pivovar was the final stop on the odyssey of Kalenda, before homesickness got the better of him down at Loretánské náměstí.

Background

Strahovský pivovar was a brewery and restaurant that appeared to have closed down some time before 1919, and is listed in the address books at least from 1870 to 1910. Beer has been brewed on the site at least since the 15th century, although not continuously.

Before the First World War

Tenant from 1896 to 1908 was Jan Řezníček (born 1841) and he was also the last ever brew master to make beer on the monastery premises in the 20th century. In 1899 the production volume was 2,304 hectolitres. In a speech at the 1908 Jubilee exhibition in Prague Řezníček informed that the brewery had been operating since 1780.

The brewery ceased operation in the autumn of 1908 and Řezníček took on a similar position in Stará Boleslav. In 1910 the restaurant part was re-opened after refurbishment but now with beer from the Smíchov brewery and František Švancar as landlord.

New beginning

In 2000 a microbrewery with restaurant called Klášterní pivovar Strahov was established on the same site but has no connection with the old brewery.

Links

Quote from the novel
[3.3] Počal se tedy dál a dál vzdalovat vod svýho domova, až se přivalil do ,Černýho pivovaru’ na Karlově náměstí, a vodtamtuď šel na Malou Stranu k Sv. Tomáši do pivovaru a odtamtud přes restauraci ,U Montágů’ a ještě vejš přes hospodu ,U krále brabanskýho’, pak na ,Krásnou vyhlídku’, odtud do Strahovskýho kláštera do pivovaru.
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Zmizelá Praha sv.5, 1919

Odkolek and the fire at their mills are mentioned by Švejk in his sleep.

Background

Odkolek is a flour mill and bakery which was founded by František Odkolek in 1850. The fire referred to happened in 1896, and it was the original mill at Kampa that burnt down. It was not reconstructed, a new mill was built at Vysočany instead. The factory is now owned by United Bakeries.

The old mill has since been rebuilt and today it houses Muzeum Kampa.

Links

Quote from the novel
[3.3] Jednoroční dobrovolník začal budit Švejka. „Švejku, hoří, vstávej!“ „Když tenkrát hořely Odkolkovy mlejny,“ zabručel Švejk, obraceje se opět na druhý bok, „přijeli hasiči až z Vysočan...“
Polevkové ústav města Prahynn flag
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Polevkové ústav města Prahy is mentioned by Švejk during a discussion on Marek's invented story about Vaněk's glorious death. This scene took place on the train just before Sanok.

Background

Polevkové ústav města Prahy has sureley been a municipal institution that ran soup kitchens, but further information is not available.

Hašek also wrote a short story called Polevkový ústav, which might reveal more information.

Quote from the novel
[3.3] „Moh to ten náš nebožtík,“ řekl Švejk, „vodevzdat polívkovýmu ústavu města Prahy, ale takhle je to přeci jen lepší, von by si třeba pan starosta za ten vobnos koupil jitrnici na gábl.“

Also written:Soup institute of the city of Prague en Suppenanstalt der Stadt Prag de

Index Back Forward III. The famous thrashing Hovudpersonen

4. Forward March!

Gimnazjum w Sanokunn flag
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Gimnazjum w Sanoku was where the march battalion was meant to be lodged in Sanok. They stayed only for a few hours because the reserves of the German Hanover division soon laid claim to it.

Background

Gimnazjum w Sanoku is by many assumed to be Gimnazjum nr 2 im. Królowej Zofii, a gymnasium in the centre of Sanok which is still thriving. On the wall there is a yellow plaque commemorating Švejk and even indicating that he was here on 15 July 1915. The name of the gymnasium is not explicitely mentioned in the novel.

Mystification becoming reality

It is in any case prudent to take this information with a pinch of salt. IR91's 12. marsjbataljon with Jaroslav Hašek could hardly have been here, at least not under the circumstances described in the novel. In the unlikely event that they stopped in Sanok it would have been on 2nd or 3rd July and not the 15th. The author surely gathered inspiration from elsewhere, and the gymnasium in Sokal is the only similar institution where the regiment during Hašek's service is known to have been lodged (there could of course have been others but definitely not in Sanok).

Links

Quote from the novel
[3.4] U slečny Elly byl pan poručík Dub, který, když maršbatalion byl už ve svých ubikacích v gymnasiu, zavolal si celý svůj šik a upozorňoval jej v dlouhé řeči, že Rusové při svém ústupu zakládali všude bordely s personálem pohlavně nakaženým, aby způsobili rakouské armádě tímto svým trikem velké ztráty.

Also written:Gymnasium in Sanok en Gymnas in Sanok de Gymnas i Sanok no

Bank Krakowskinn flag
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Bank Krakowski was the headquarters of the Eiserne Brigade (Iron Brigade) staff but these also had be evacuated for the benefit of the reserves of the Hanover division.

Background

Bank Krakowski was a reportedly bank at the Sanok town square (Rynek) but the information is not very solid. The building still exists but now (2010) it has other uses.

Links

Quote from the novel
[3.4] Plukovník reserv hanoverské divise ukazoval totiž disposice svého štábu, že má ubytovat své mužstvo v gymnasiu, kde právě nyní byli ubytováni jednadevadesátníci. Pro umístění svého štábu žádal vyklizení domu krakovské banky, ve kterém právě byl štáb brigády.

Also written:Krakovská Banka cz

Kawiarnia Miejskann flag
Jagiellońska -/13, Sanok
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Kawiarnia Miejska was the café/brothel in Sanok that Dub inspected so throurougly that Švejk had to go and grab him so he could take part in the trip onwards. Švejk here showed that he could be forceful and decisive.

Background

Kawiarnia Miejska is said to have existed and is still there functioning as Hotel Pod Trzema Różami (Under the three Roses). At present (2010) it is is a normal decent hotel with a restaurant/pizzeria attached. It should be added that Jaroslav Hašek and IR91 never passed through Sanok se the inspiration must be looked for somewhere else.

Quote from the novel
[3.4]Spojené zábavní místnosti a městská kavárna“, podnik, o kterém se Švejk zmiňoval, byly rozděleny také na dvě části. Kdo nechtěl jít přes kavárnu, šel zadem, kde se vyhřívala na slunci nějaká stará paní, která mluvila německy, polsky a maďarsky asi v tomto smyslu: „Pojďte, vojáčku, máme zde pěkné slečinky.“

Also written:City Café en Městská kavárna cz Bykaféen no

U Kocanůnn flag
ve Smečkách 605/3, Praha II-Václav Kocourek [1910]
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ukocanu.jpg

The building in 2011.

U Kocanů is mentioned in the angry letter from Božena that Švejk tells Lukáš about on the march from Sanok.

Background

U Kocanů was a dance restaurant which according to E.E. Kisch was identical to U města Slaného in Nové Město. The unofficial name 'U Kocanů' is taken from the former owner Karel Kocan who had sold the place some time before 1910. According to Kisch the owner was Herr W. Kocourek, and this was definitely the case in 1910. He was even listed in the address book from 1936.

U města Slaného was one of eleven establishment soldiers from k.u.k garrisons in Prague were forbidden to enter.

Source: Milan Hodík, Hans-Peter Laqueur

Quote from the novel
[3.4] Pan kaprál Kříž přijel do Prahy na urláb a já jsem s ním tančila ,U Kocanů’, a von mně povídal, že prej ty tancuješ v Budějovicích ,U zelený žáby’ s nějakou pitomou flundrou a že jsi mě už úplně vopustil.

Also written:Zum Stadt Schlan de

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U zelené ratolesti

U zelené žáby is mentioned in the angry letter from Božena to Švejk. She had been informed by corporal Kříž that Švejk had danced with a silly tart here. All this is revealed when Švejk empties his heart to Lukáš during the march from Sanok.

Background

U zelené žáby was a pub in Budějovice that remains unidentified and surely never existed under this name. Božena probably mixed up U zelené ratolesti (At the green Wig) and U žaby (At the Frog).

The former was a coaching inn at Říšská třída (now Husová) next to Mariánská kasárna. It also arranged dancing and this fits well with the description in the novel. The building is still in use as a restaurant and pension and the name is the same.

U žaby was in 2015 a café at Piaristické náměstí, probably named after a stone frog on the façade of the church opposite. The name has surely been used as a name by inns at the square also in 1915, although this has not been verified.

Č. Beránek

Myslím že hospoda „U zelené žáby“ byla buď na Piaristickém náměstí, kde je to tradiční název (podle místní pověsti o žábě a konci světa) a i dnes jsou tam dva podniky „U žáby“, druhou (dle mne pravděpodobnější) je možnost, že Hašek když psal román si to popletl, kousek od kasáren 91IR (tak 100m) je hostinec „U zelené ratolesti“ což byl známý hostinec už od počátku 19. století, byl a je dodnes velký s prostory pro tančírnu a pokoji.

Links

SourceJaroslav Šerák, Č. Beránek

Quote from the novel
[3.4] Pan kaprál Kříž přijel do Prahy na urláb a já jsem s ním tančila ,U Kocanů’, a von mně povídal, že prej ty tancuješ v Budějovicích ,U zelený žáby’ s nějakou pitomou flundrou a že jsi mě už úplně vopustil.

Also written:The Green Frog en Den grøne frosk no

Besedann flag
Vladislavova ul. 1477/20, Praha II-František Křížek [1910]
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Beseda is mentioned by Švejk when he tells Lukáš how unlucky he has been with the ladies.

Background

Beseda surely refers to Měšťanská beseda in Prague, Nové Město. The institution existed from 1845 until 1952 and the associated restaurant was in 1891 listed as belonging to Gustav Stejskal. The building has from 2008 hosted a four-star hotel.

Links

Quote from the novel
[3.4] To se ví, že se všichni smáli a její matinka, která ji tam hlídala, že ji vodvedla na chodbu v ,Besedě’ a že tu svou blbou nánu zkopala.

Also written:Burghers' Club Sadlon

U Dvořákůnn flag
Na Františku 774/44, Praha I-Jaroslav Dvořák [1913]
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dvorak.jpg

"Konec bahna Prahy", K.L. Kukla

udvoraku.jpg

Source: Milan Hodík.

U Dvořáků was one of the brothels the tin-smith Pimpra often ended up at when he went out to buy sheet metal. This is an anecdote Švejk appropriately tells Lieutenant Dub after the latters escapades in a similar establishment in Sanok.

Background

U Dvořáků was a brothel in Staré Město (Pytlík). Milan Hodik underpins this information by providing a list of brothels from Chytilův adresář 1913. It contains two entries with Dvořák as proprietor, but Jaroslav Dvořák is by far more likely, because the other address is in Malá Strana, and this story about Pimpra is clearly set in Staré Město.

Links

Source: K.L. Kukla, Milan Hodík

Quote from the novel
[3.4] Ale to byl asi nějakej vomyl. Klempíře Pimpra z Kozího plácku taky vždycky hledali, když šel kupovat plech do města, a našli ho také vždycky v podobnej místnosti, buď u ,Šuhů’, nebo u ,Dvořáků’, jako já vás našel.
Karmelitánynn flag
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Karmelitány is mentioned by Švejk in the long anecdote about Jenom, Bílek and the thundering fart.

Background

Karmelitány probably refers to kostel Panny Marie Vítězné in Malá Strana, Prague. It was owned by the Carmelitan order until 1784 and again from 1993.

Quote from the novel
[3.4] Naproti karmelitánům v Praze měl, pane obrlajtnant, před lety krám s králíky a jiným ptactvem pan Jenom. Ten si udělal známost s dcerou knihaře Bílka.
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Národní divadlo is mentioned in the anecdote about Hubička. The couple who got arrested in Resslova ulice had walked from the theatre to get some fresh air.

Background

Národní divadlo is the Czech National Theatre. The building was erected in neo-renaissance style in the years 1868-1883 and has become a national symbol.

Quote from the novel
[3.4] Ekvipáž že je dovezla až za Národní divadlo a nyní že se chtí provětrat a bydlí nedaleko, na Moráni, on že je vrchní místodržitelskej rada s chotí.
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The police station in the middle

Svatý Jindřich where was the editor dressed as a policeman said he was stationed.

Background

Svatý Jindřich probably refers to a police station by kostel Svatého Jindřicha in Prague. There is no police station there today, but in Švejk's lifetime there was a police station at Havlíčkovo náměstí 979/35, an address which is very close to the mentioned church.

Quote from the novel
[3.4] Ta paní už ani plakat nemohla a pan vrchní místodržitelský rada rozčilil se tak, že začal mluvit něco vo sprosťáctví, načež byl zatčen a předveden k nejbližší patrole v rayonu komisařství v Salmově ulici, které řekl převlečený redaktor, aby ten párek odvedli na komisařství, on že je od svatého Jindřicha a byl za služební cestou na Vinohradech, oba dopadl při rušení nočního klidu, při noční rvačce, a zároveň že ještě spáchali přestupek urážky stráže.
Index Back Forward IV. The famous thrashing continued Hovudpersonen

1. Švejk in the transport of russian prisoners of war

Na Zavadilcenn flag
Královská tř. 68/91, Karlín-Jan Kasalický [1910]
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Na Zavadilce is mentioned in Švejk's comment to the conversation between major Wolf and the captain where the formers conclusion is that Švejk is to be hanged after a summary trial. According to Švejk it was a pub in Libeň.

Background

Na Zavadilce has not been possible to identify with certainty. Any hospoda carrying this name doesn't seem to have existed in Libeň, but in Karlín there was a restaurant with this name. The location, Královská třída 91, isn't that far from Libeň, so it might be this one Švejk had in mind.

Links

Quote from the novel
[4.1] Švejk, kterého vedli napřed a slyšel celý zajímavý rozhovor, neřekl nic jiného svým průvodčím než: „Pěšky jako za vozem. To jsme se vám jednou v hospodě ,Na Zavadilce’ v Libni hádali mezi sebou, jestli máme nějakýho kloboučníka Vašáka, kerej vždycky dělal při zábavě neplechu, vyhodit, hned jak se vobjeví ve dveřích, nebo ho vyhodit, až si dá pivo, zaplatí a dopije, nebo mu vyndat boty, až přetančí první kolo.
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Ratskeller is the mentioned in the anecdote Švejk uses against the spy who enters his cell in Przemyśl.

Background

Ratskeller is a restaurant in Graz which is still in business. The address is Hauptplatz 17. The English translation of Cecil Parrott for some reason locates it to Steyr.

Quote from the novel
[4.1] Všechny lidi, který potkával na ulici, viděl buď na nádraží v Miláně, nebo s nimi seděl ve Štýrským Hradci v radničním sklepě při víně.

Also written:Townhall Cellar en

Lustige Blätternn flag
Markgrafenstraße -/77, Berlin-Alexander Moszkowski [1915]
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lustig.png

Lustige Blätter, 2.6.1915

lustig1.png

Berliner Adreßbuch, 1915

Lustige Blätter is by the author mentioned as the publisher of the silly humorous booklets that general Fink likes to quote from.

Background

Lustige Blätter was an illustrated humorous weekly that was published in Berlin from 1886 to 1944. It was founded and published by the writer Alexander Moszkowski who was editor in chief until 1928.

During the war they published a collection of booklets called Tornister-Humor. The author's description of the circumstances around the booklets is very accurate. In 1915 both Schloemp (see Schlemper) and Lokesch contributed and Jaroslav Hašek correctly lists the names of some of the booklets the two were involved in. He also lists some subtitles and gives the impression that these were also full titles.

Links

Quote from the novel
[4.1] Po všech instrukcích, které mu dával velitel garnizónní posádky, dával vždycky generál Fink něco ostrého nalít a potom mu vypravoval nejnovější anekdoty z nejblbějších svazečků, které pro vojsko byly vydány v Lustige Blätter.
Index Back Forward IV. The famous thrashing continued Hovudpersonen

3. Švejk again with his march company

Przemyśl City Bathsnn flag
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Przemyśl City Baths were paid a visit by major Derwota who needed to repair his appetite the day after the giant party and the ensuing stay in Švejk's cell.

Background

Przemyśl City Baths is yet to be identified.

Quote from the novel
[4.3] Major na strážnici nedělal už žádných výstupů, zcela odměřeně poručil, aby došli pro drožku, a za drkocání drožky po mizerném dláždění Přemyšlu měl v hlavě jen ty představy, že delikvent je blbec prvního řádu, ale že to bude patrně přece jen nevinné hovado, a pokud se týká jeho, majora, že mu nic jiného nezbývá, než aby se buď zastřelil ihned, jak přijede domů, nebo aby si poslal pro plášť a šavli ke generálovi a jel se vykoupat do městských lázní a po vykoupání zastavil se ve vinárně u Vollgrubera, spravil si povšechně chuť a na večer objednal si po telefonu lístek na představení do městského divadla.

Also written:Přemyšl městské lazné cz

Vollgrubernn flag
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Vollgruber (or the nearby wine bar) was paid a visit by major Derwota who needed to restore his appetite the day after the giant party and the ensuing stay in Švejk's cell.

Background

Vollgruber was some place in Przemyśl mentioned through a nearby wine bar, yet to be identified. According to Radko Pytlík it actually existed. It might also have been the name of the wine bar itself.

Source: Radko Pytlík

Quote from the novel
[4.3] Major na strážnici nedělal už žádných výstupů, zcela odměřeně poručil, aby došli pro drožku, a za drkocání drožky po mizerném dláždění Přemyšlu měl v hlavě jen ty představy, že delikvent je blbec prvního řádu, ale že to bude patrně přece jen nevinné hovado, a pokud se týká jeho, majora, že mu nic jiného nezbývá, než aby se buď zastřelil ihned, jak přijede domů, nebo aby si poslal pro plášť a šavli ke generálovi a jel se vykoupat do městských lázní a po vykoupání zastavil se ve vinárně u Vollgrubera, spravil si povšechně chuť a na večer objednal si po telefonu lístek na představení do městského divadla.
Przemyśl City Theatrenn flag
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Przemyśl City Theatre is mentioned in connection with Major Derwota and his tortured day after he had woken up in the cell with Švejk. Only after a visit to the city baths and a visit to the wine bar Vollgruber did he recover sufficiently to order tickets for the City Theatre.

Background

Przemyśl City Theatre is yet to be identified.

Quote from the novel
[4.3] Major na strážnici nedělal už žádných výstupů, zcela odměřeně poručil, aby došli pro drožku, a za drkocání drožky po mizerném dláždění Přemyšlu měl v hlavě jen ty představy, že delikvent je blbec prvního řádu, ale že to bude patrně přece jen nevinné hovado, a pokud se týká jeho, majora, že mu nic jiného nezbývá, než aby se buď zastřelil ihned, jak přijede domů, nebo aby si poslal pro plášť a šavli ke generálovi a jel se vykoupat do městských lázní a po vykoupání zastavil se ve vinárně u Vollgrubera, spravil si povšechně chuť a na večer objednal si po telefonu lístek na představení do městského divadla.

Also written:Přemyšl městské divadlo cz

Bartůňkův mlýnnn flag
Kunratice-Johann Bartůněk [1841]
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Bartůňkův mlýn is part of the anecdote about Mr Hauber from Nusle who been on a Sunday trip here when he got stabbed.

Background

Bartůňkův mlýn is a mill by Kunratický potok (Kunratice stream) in south-eastern Prague. It is also called Dolní mlýn and Kunratický mlýn.

Jaroslav Šerák: Je to Dolejší mlýn, Dolní mlýn. Má dodnes č.p. 45 a podle skizzy Josefského katastru z roku 1841 ho vlastnil skutečně Johann Bartůněk.

Quote from the novel
[4.3] Takovej člověk musí bejt skromnej a trpělivej. V Nuslích je nějakej pan Hauber, toho jednou v neděli v Kundraticích na silnici píchli omylem nožem, když šel z výletu od Bartůňkovýho mlejna. A von s tím nožem v zádech přišel až domů, a když mu žena svlíkala kabát, tak mu ho pěkně vytáhla ze zad a dopoledne už s tím nožem rozkrajovala maso na guláš, poněvadž byl ze solingenský vocele a pěkně nabroušenej a voni měli doma všechny nože pilkovatý a tupý.

Also written:Bartůněk's Mill Parrott Bartůněk's mill Sadlon


© 2009 - 2019 Jomar Hønsi Last updated: 29/6-2019