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The Good Soldier Švejk

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Who is who

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Jan Vaněk was arguably the most obvious of all the prototypes of characters in The Good Soldier Švejk.

This Who's who page on Jaroslav Hašek presents a gallery of persons from real life who to a varying degree are associated with The Good Soldier Švejk and Hašek. Several of the characters in the novel are known to be based on real-life people, mostly officers from k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 91. Some carry the names of their model, some names are only thinly disguised and some are different, be it intentionally or by accident.

A handful are easily recognisable like Rudolf Lukas and Jan Vaněk, others like Zdeněk Matěj Kuděj and Emanuél Michálek are less obvious inspirations. One would also assume that most of these characters borrow traits from more than one person, an example is Švejk himself.

A far larger number of assumed prototypes are connected to their literary counterparts by little more than the name. Josef Švejk is here the prime example, but Jan Eybl also fits in this category. The list of prototypes only contains those who inspired characters that directly take part in the plot.

Researchers in the field, the so-called Haškologists, are also included on this page but this list is per 8 March 2021 restricted to two important but relatively unknown contributors to our knowledge about Hašek and Švejk. In due course entries on better known experts like Václav Menger and Zdena Ančík will be added.



Wenzel, Franz
*12.9.1866 Niederhanichen - †12.7.1929 Reichenberg
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Entry in the civil registry, details on birth and marriage.

Franz Wenzel was clearly the main inspiration for Jaroslav Hašek's literary Major Wenzl. Apart from the near-identical surname, their ranks correspond and the association with Kutná Hora cements the connection further. Both served their emperor ingloriously in Serbia. Otherwise many of the biographical details differ.

Franz Wenzel (baptised Franciscus) was born in Niederhanichen (now Dolní Hanychov), son of gardener Wolf Wenzel and Karolina, born Miethig. His Heimatrecht was in neighbouring Oberhanichen (now Horní Hanychov). Both communities later became part of urban Liberec. Wenzel is registered in army records with German (i.e. Austro-German) nationality, religion roman-catholic.

From 1882 he attended cadet school in Pressburg (Bratislava), where he had initially joined IR69 as an infantryman. From 1886 to 1902 he served with k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 35 in Plzeň, Prague and Prachatice. He then transferred to IR10 and subsequently spent the next nine years in Przemyśl and nearby Jarosław. During those years by the river San, he advanced to the rank of captain.

Kutná Hora

IR21, Kutná Hora, 1914

On 30 April 1913 he moved again, and from now on it is possible to see parallels to his literary alter ego. The destination was Infanterieregiment Nr. 21 in Kutná Hora. On the very first day in his new regiment, he was promoted to major (his literary counterpart was, according to Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek, still a captain in Kutná Hora). In this assignment, he was in charge of the shooting range and had other administrative duties, information that bears remarkable similarity to Major Wenzl’s role in The Good Soldier Švejk. His army records reveal that he was unmarried in 1913, so Marek may well have invented parts of the story from Kutná Hora (where he had a Czech wife) or perhaps drawn from an incident involving someone else (Wenzel was still unmarried in 1919).

With IR 91 in Serbia

Qualifikationsbeschreibung, 1913.


His transfer to k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 91 took place on 13 August 1914, and he was soon sent to the Serbian front, where he served as commander of the 2nd battalion. It has not been possible to confirm the story about the pontoon bridge, but it may well refer to the catastrophic invasion attempt by the mouth of the river Drina on 8 September where Franz Wenzel was very quick to get himself into safety on the western bank of the river while many of his men were left behind and perished under enemy fire and drowning during the panic-stricken retreat. Wenzel remained battalion commander for the rest of IR 91's stay in Serbia (they retreated north of the Danube around 20 December) but had reported sick before the actual withdrawal. From then until June 1915 we have no records of his activities, but it must be assumed that Jaroslav Hašek had met him already in Budějovice.

Exposed by Kisch and Morávek

"Schreib das auf, Kisch!", 1930

Egon Erwin Kisch.

Franz Wenzel suffered the misfortune of being ridiculed not only in The Good Soldier Švejk, he briefly features in at least two more. Although Egon Erwin Kisch never mentions his name directly in his diary entry from 3 December 1914 it is obvious who he refers to. When Kisch's k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 met soldiers from IR 91 they heard running anecdotes underlining the stupidity of some major in the regiment (at the time there were not many majors left to choose from). Kisch indicates that this major carries a lot of responsibility for the disaster by the Drina on 8 September 1914.


"Špatný voják", 1930

Jan Morávek.

Jan Morávek is much more direct. He served Franz Wenzel as a messenger from 12 September 1914 onwards and delivered a damning verdict in his novel The Bad Soldier. The major is described as a madman, megalomaniac and even a coward. According to Morávek he had some crazy idea that his battalion alone could capture the entire Serbian army. He regularly pestered his subordinates with idiotic orders and was disliked even by his fellow officers. Morávek himself was ordered to keep an eye on the sun and report on sunset. For what reason remains unknown. Wenzel also ordered the arrest of an officer from IR73, thinking we was a spy!

During Hašek's time

Wenzel(1) flanked by lt. Gleissner(2) and regimental doctor Dub(3). Wołkowyje, 1.11.1915.

© ÖStA


Promotion dates.



Wenzel returning to Bohemia from Germany

Osobní věstník čs. ministerstva národní obrany, 16.7.1921.


Reichenberger Zeitung, 17.7.1929.

Franz Wenzel plays a much greater part in Jaroslav Hašek's own story than Major Wenzl does in The Good Soldier Švejk. Wenzel was in fact commander of the author's XII. Marschbataillon that left for the front on 30 June 1915 and joined IR 91's field unit on 11 July by Łonie. On 1 July he had been promoted to Oberstleutnant, a rank his literary counterpart never held. After joining the operative body of IR 91, he again took up his former position as commander of the 2nd Battalion. On 23 July the regiment was in position in the trenches by Sokal and during a fierce battle that raged between the 25th and the 31st.

Franz Wenzel took a far from glorious part in the battle. In the Gefechtsbericht (battle report) to the division on 9 August it transpires that he inexplicably sought refuge with the 4th battalion (which formed the regiment's reserve), and let Oberleutnant Peregrin Baudisch command his battalion. Despite the incriminating evidence he was promoted to interim k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 91 commander from 12 to 18 September due to illness further up the command chain. He remained battalion commander until 1916 when he reported sick and then became commander of k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 28's replacement battalion in Bruck an der Mur. By 1918 he appeared in Wiesbaden as Aufsichstsoffizier für Beurlaubte, i.e. supervising officer for men on leave.

Bohumil Vlček confirms that Franz Wenzel was extremely faint-hearted. He wore a soldiers cap to avoid being spotted by enemy snipers, and ordered his subordinates to cover him with their bodies during critical situations in Serbia. Still he was promoted to Oberst on 1 February 1918. The lasting impression is that Wenzel was a capable administrator but an extremely inept soldier in the field.


Franz Wenzel officially retired from the (now Czechoslovak) army on 1 January 1919. At the time he lived in Wiesbaden where he on 10 January 1920 married Ludmilla Stary, widowed after some Markoff. She appears to have been Czech but Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek could not possibly have known about this marriage five years in advance! In 1921 his records refer to an application that was dealt with by the Czechoslovak army, but so far it has not been possible to figure out the circumstances. It seems to be concerning his pension.


Wenzel's death

Osobní věstník čs. ministerstva národní obrany, 7.9.1929.

Franz Wenzel returned to Reichenberg in (now Liberec) in 1921 where he died on 12 July 1929 at the age of 63. The family of Stephan Wenzel placed an advert in Reichenberger Zeitung that instead of spending on flowers, they would prefer a donation to the local German Cultural Society in Nieder-Hanichen (now Dolní Hanychov), the place where Wenzel was born. Wenzel's last known domicile (1927) was Dolní Hanychov čp. 58.

Quote(s) from the novel

Sources: ÖStA, VÚA, MNO, Jan Morávek, Bohumil Vlček


Wenzel, Franz
*12.9.1866 Niederhanichen - †12.7.1929 Reichenberg
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© 2009 - 2021 Jomar Hønsi Last updated: 19.10.2021