Tooltip container
Hovudpersonen

The Good Soldier Švejk

Hovudpersonen Change languageChange language
Change languageChange language

Institutions

Novel on-lineŠvejk MuseumLiterární ArchivFacebookŠvejk CentralBlogTravel diaryContact

Mariánská kasárna in Budějovice, home of Švejk's k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 91 until 1 June 1915.

The novel The Good Soldier Švejk refers to a number of institutions and firms, public as private. These were until 15 September 2013 categorised as 'Places'. This only partly makes sense as this type of entity can not be always be associated with fixed geographical points, in the way that for instance cities, mountains and rivers can. This new page contains military and civilian institutions (including army units, regiments etc.), organisations, hotels, public houses, newspapers and magazines.

The line between this page and "Places" is blurred, churches do for instance rarely change location, but are still included here. Therefore Prague and Vienna will still be found in the "Places" database, because these have constant co-ordinates. On the other hand institutions may change location: Odvodní komise and Bendlovka are not unequivocal geographical terms so they will from now on appear on this page.

The names are colour coded according to their role in the plot, illustrated by these examples: U kalicha as a location where the plot takes place, k.u.k. Kriegsministerium mentioned in the narrative, Pražské úřední listy as part of a dialogue, and, Stoletá kavárna mentioned in an anecdote.

>> The Good Soldier Švejk index of institutions, taverns, military units, societies, periodicals ... (220) Show all
>> I. In the rear
>> II. At the front
Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

Introduction

Temple of Artemisnn flag
Wikipedia czdeenno Google mapsearch

Temple of Artemis is mentioned indirectly in the author's description of Herostratus, "he who set fire to the temple of the goddess in Ephesus".

Background

Temple of Artemis was a temple in Ephesus, regarded as one of the seven wonders of the world. It was raised in the honour of the goddess Artemis. The temple burnt down in 356 BC (Herostatos), but was rebuilt after. Today there are only ruins left.

Quote(s) from the novel
[Úvod] On nezapálil chrám bohyně v Efesu, jako to udělal ten hlupák Herostrates, aby se dostal do novin a školních čítanek.

Also written:Artemidin chrám cz Tempel der Artemis de

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

1. The good soldier Švejk acts to intervene in the world war

Drogerie Průšann flag
Královské Vinohrady/699, Tylovo nám. 19
Google mapsearch
prusa.png

Národní listy, 24.6.1903

prusa.jpg

Narodní Politika, 6.5.1910

Drogerie Průša was the chemist's store where the first servant Ferdinand was an assistant. He drank a bottle of hair oil by mistake.

Background

Drogerie Průša was a chemist's store at Tylovo náměstí right on the lower corner with Vávrova třída at Vinohrady. Jaroslav Hašek worked as an apprentice here some time between March 1898 and September 1899.

Over the year several newspaper adverts testify to the existence of the chemists, confirmed by address book entries. In 1906 discrete newspaper adverts for remedies against "men's problems" appeared, but they also advertised remedies against bed-bugs. In August 1915 an advert appeared in Prager Tagblatt where large amounts of furniture was for sale, indicating that the shop was about to close down. The owner was Průša(František).

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.1] Jednoho, ten je sluhou u drogisty Průši a vypil mu tam jednou omylem láhev nějakého mazání na vlasy, a potom znám ještě Ferdinanda Kokošku, co sbírá ty psí hovínka. Vobou není žádná škoda.“

SourcesJaroslav Šerák, Radko Pytlík

Literature

K.u.k. Heernn flag
Wien I., Stubenring 1
Wikipedia czdeen Google mapsearch
kukarmee.jpg

Schematismus für das k.u.k. Heer und für die k.u.k. Kriegsmarine 1914.

kukarmee1.jpg

Uniforms of the Austro-Hungarian armed forces

Český svět, 31.7.1914.

verlustliste.jpg

Example of casualty list

Verlustliste, 11.7.1916.

K.u.k. Heer is first mentioned (as "the army") in an anecdote Švejk tells from his time in the army (national service). This is in the conversation with Mrs. Müllerová at the very start of the novel. After this the army is mentioned innumerable times, and is the most important backdrop for the novel (with Švejk as a soldier) from the middle of Book One. It is also the principal target of Hašek's satire.

Background

K.u.k. Heer (also k.u.k Armee or Gemeinsame Armee) was the largest and most important body in k.u.k Bewaffneten Macht (Royal and Imperial armed forces). Together with the k.k. Landwehr (Austrian national guard) and the Honvéd (Hungarian national guard) it made up the Landstreitkräfte (terrestrial forces). These and the k.u.k. Kriegsmarine (navy) made up the total armed forces of the Dual Monarchy.

The common army consisted of infantry, cavalry, artillery, supply-troops and technical troops. The period of service was until 1912 three years, then two. During the war, losses were replaced by so-called march battalions, one of which Švejk was later to be assigned to. The common army existed from 1867 to 1918 and suffered disastrous losses in World War I, the only full-scale war it ever participated in. At various time it fought on four fronts; Serbia, Galicia, Romania and Tyrol and after the heavy losses in 1914 it became increasingly dependant on German support.

The army command was from 1913 located in the building of the k.u.k. Kriegsministerium at Stubenring 1, Vienna. At the time when Švejk did his national service they were surely still at the old premises in Am Hof 2. This building was demolished in 1912.

Oberbefehl formally lay with the monarch who communicated with the army through Militärkanzlei Seiner Majestät des Kaisers und Königs. k.u.k. Kriegsministerium was responsible for the day to day operation of the army. From 1914 to 1917 archduke Erzherzog Friedrich was general inspector of the army but he delegated the operative responsibility to field marshal Feldmarschall Conrad.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.1] Jó, paní Müllerová, dnes se dějou věci. To je zas ztráta pro Rakousko. Když jsem byl na vojně, tak tam jeden infanterista zastřelil hejtmana. Naládoval flintu a šel do kanceláře.

Also written:Austro-Hungarian Army en Rakousko-uherská armáda cz Austerrike-Ungarns Hær no

Literature

U kalichann flag
Praha II./1732, Na Bojišti 14
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum
ukalicha2.png

Národní politika, 2.8.1899.

kalicha.png

Mládenec, 7.11.1913.

ukalicha3.png

Národní politika, 17.11.1917.

ukalicha1.png

Národní politika, 14.11.1923.

kalicha24.png

Chytilův adresář, 1924.

U kalicha is the tavern where Švejk and landlord pubkeeper Palivec were arrested by detective Bretschneider at the very start of the novel. This probably happened on 29 June 1914 as the news about the murders in Sarajevo appeared in the newspapers on that day (Mrs. Müllerová had just read about it).

The plot returns to U kalicha in [1.6] when Švejk is released from his ordeal, again meets detective Bretschneider, and convinces the detective to buy dogs from him. His last visit is in [1.10] after he has started his career as officer's servant with Feldkurat Katz. Mrs. Palivcová refuses to serve him as she thinks he is a deserter.

U kalicha is also mentioned in [2.4] in the classic scene from Bruck an der Leitha when Švejk and Sappeur Vodička promise to meet there after the war, at six in the evening - one of the most famous quotes from the entire novel.

Background

U kalicha is the name of a restaurant in Na Bojišti street in Nové město, and also the name of the building where the restaurant is located. Today it is thanks to The Good Soldier Švejk a tourist attraction, but in 1914 it an ordinary pub with one tap-room, . Proofs of the tavern's existence appear already in 1896 when Vilém Šubert is listed as landlord at Na Bojišti 8. In 1899 adverts reveal that it already then was known as U kalicha and that it was located in Na Bojišti 1732/8, in the same building as today. That year the owner was trying to sell new bicycles, presumably as a side business. The building itself has been there at least since 1890. In 1907 the property was advertised for sale and the advert mentions the pub.

In the 1910 address book it is listed at Na Bojišti 1732/14. The landlord is now Vilém Juris, who in 1907 is registered as landlord of a pub in Smíchov. Police records reveal that he lived at Na Bojišti 1732 from 18 July 1908, was born in 10 June 1871 and married to Blahoslava. In 1913 he placed adverts specifically aimed at students and he used the name U zlatého kalichu. Juris marketed his establishment "as a well known meeting spot for students, with concerts every day and open until the morning". In 1917 some Vaneček had taken over the license. In April 1923 adverts reveal that the pub had been renamed Café Evropa and offered French cuisine, and the 1924 address book lists the owner as Josef Kyral. Adverts from November 1923 show signs that U kalicha had started to exploit its connection to The Good Soldier Švejk.

Hašek and U kalicha, an unclear connection
svejk483.png

© VÚA

wessel.png

A blip from Elsbeth Wessel

It remains unclear why Jaroslav Hašek gave U kalciha such a prominent role in the novel as none of his biographers or friends mentions it as a place he frequented.

One possible connection is one Josef Švejk (1892-1965) who from 1912 onwards lived two houses down the street. This is a person the author may have known about, particularly since both were volunteers in České legie from 1916. In this context it is worth mentioning that there is no mention of U kalicha in the 1911 and 1917 versions of The Good Soldier Švejk so the author's knowledge of this person may have inspired him to introduce U kalicha in the novel. His first name Josef is also introduced in the novel.

We also know that Jaroslav Hašek associated with students from the technical college so he may have been drawn to U kalicha by them. That he knew the environs of U kalicha is also clear. Two houses down, in number 463/10, a brothel was registered on Antonín Nosek (1912). This could explain why Švejk told Sappeur Vodička that "they have girls there".

The well known Norwegian germanist Elsbeth Wessel contributes with a peculiar item. In an otherwise insightful chapter on Hašek she informs that "that the author slowly drank himself to death at U kalicha". Who the source of this claim is we don't know, but this should be regarded as a blip as the rest of her contribution is of high quality.

Legends forming
huppert.png

Prager Presse, 5.12.1929.

Over the years a number of legends have been spun around U kalicha and Jaroslav Hašek’s novel. An early example is Maxmilian Huppert (Prager Presse, 5 December 1929) who claimed that a certain František Švejca (born 1875) was a regular there, traded in stolen dogs, and adds a number of details that bear the hallmarks of trying to adapt reality to fit the novel. Hupperts crown witness is a former landlord at U kalicha, Ferdinand Juris. He claims to have known this "Švejk". More tangible is the information that U kalicha no longer operated and that the premises now were used for storing flour.

In 1968 a related story appeared in the weekly magazine Květy (12 September 1968, signed J.R Veselý). It contained sensational claims that a Josef Švejk was in fact a friend of Jaroslav Hašek and that they met on several occasions before, during and after the war. Much of the story has been verified, but the details that attempt to connect this Švejk to Hašek appears to be invented. See Josef Švejk for details.

A web of hearsay

In his book Die Abenteuer des gar nicht so braven Humoristen Jaroslav Hašek (1989) Jan Berwid-Buquoy threw in several new but rather "colourful" items. It is claimed that a Marie Müllerova was a brothel madam in the same building, that František Strašlipka, the alleged model for Švejk, was a regular there and was even her lover, that Palivec was a waiter there, that the landlord was a certain foul-mouthed Václav Šmíd. The author has since re-spun and expanded the story a few times, through another book (2011) and an article in Reflex (2012). He even changed the name of the landlord and other details, but the essence of the information has not been possible to confirm. Later it was claimed that Anastasie Herzog bought the building in 1907. Police records show that the businessman Benno Herzog actually lived in the building in 1912, but the only Anastasie Herzog showing up in police records was his daughter, born in 1907! The 1906 address books lists the owner of the building U kalicha as Karel Císař.

In the end these stories appear to be based on hearsay. A more serious concern is that most it appears on the restaurant's own web site (even in English and Russian), so the myths get propagated world-wide. Here even more "facts" are thrown in the pot: U kalicha is supposed to have become popular after the translation of The Good Soldier Švejk into German (1926) and particularly during the thirties when German journalists and men of letter came to visit Egon Erwin Kisch. In that case they would have been disappointed as the restaurant closed down some time between 1924 and 1929 (it is not present in the 1936 address book).

A tourist attraction
u_kalicha.jpg

The original tap-room at No. 14 (2011)

Around 1955 U kalicha was expanded (probably re-opened), and deliberately turned into a tourist attraction. From then on the restaurant occupies both No 14. and No 12. It lives well on the connection with Švejk, with prices above average and frequent tour groups visiting. Still U kalicha is worth a visit as it is decorated with memorabilia related to Švejk and the times of World War I. To avoid the crowds it is advisable to visit around lunchtime or early afternoon. The food is Czech, the menu comes in 27 languages.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.1] Já teď jdu do hospody „U kalicha“, a kdyby sem někdo přišel pro toho ratlíka, na kterýho jsem vzal zálohu, tak mu řeknou, že ho mám ve svém psinci na venkově, že jsem mu nedávno kupíroval uši a že se teď nesmí převážet, dokud se mu uši nezahojí, aby mu nenastydly. Klíč dají k domovnici.“

Also written:At the Chalice en Zum Kelch de Ved Kalken no

Literature

Staatspolizeinn flag
Praha I./313, Bartolomějská 4
Google mapsearch
polizeidirektion.png

© LA-PNP

uvalsu.png

Hašek's encounter with state police after having registered as a Russian trader at "U Valšů", 24 November 1914.

© LA-PNP

postopach.png

Čechoslovan, 21.8.1916 (3.9).

Staatspolizei is mentioned when it is revealed that detective Bretschneider is in the service of the state police.

Background

Staatspolizei (officially k.k. Staatzpolizei) was the domestic civilian intelligence service of Cisleitanien, which main task was surveillance of potential enemies of the state. In the context of The Good Soldier Švejk we understand the Prag branch. The department was created in 1893 after civilian unrest and the unit reported directly to the "Statthalter" (Governor). In Prague their servicemen and agents were operating from Policejní ředitelství. In their service were amongst others two young lawyers, Mr. Slavíček and Mr. Klíma. Head of the unit was Viktor Chum.

U Valšů

Jaroslav Hašek had intimate knowledge of the state police, originating from his period as an anarchist activist (from 1904). His most celebrated encounter with them was after his famous hoax at U Valšů on 24 November 1914 where he registered as a Russian trader, ostensibly to test the vigilance of the Austrian security service. He was let off with only 5 days in jail which he served immediately.

During the war

During the war the eyes of the state police again fell on Jaroslav Hašek. It happened after the author on 17 June 1916 published a story in Čechoslovan in Kiev where he lets a tomcat soil pictures of the emperor. This led to charges of high treason and an arrest order was issued. Several of the other stories he wrote also aroused interest at home. They were translated to German for the benefit of the investigators and led to a lively exchange between the police headquarters in Prague and Vienna.

Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí

… Švejka vedli k výslechu do oddělení státní policie přímo k policejnímu komisaři Klímovi a Slavíčkovi.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.1] V hospodě „U kalicha“ seděl jen jeden host. Byl to civilní strážník Bretschneider, stojící ve službách státní policie. Hostinský Palivec myl tácky a Bretschneider se marně snažil navázat s ním vážný rozhovor.

Literature

Vinárna Sarajevonn flag
Nusle
Google mapsearch

Vinárna Sarajevo was a wine tavern in Nusle where, according to pubkeeper Palivec, there was fighting every day.

Background

Vinárna Sarajevo was a wine tavern which existence and location has yet to be verified. According to Milan Hodík pubkeeper Palivec may have referred to a small pub known as Bosna in Michle.

Milan Hodík

Šlo nejspíš o malou hospodu zvanou Bosna na michelském kopce nad Bondyho statkem.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.1] „Ty nám to pěkně v tom Sarajevu vyvedli,“ se slabou nadějí ozval se Bretschneider. „V jakým Sarajevu?“ otázal se Palivec, „v tej nuselskej vinárně? Tam se perou každej den, to vědí, Nusle.“
Mladočešinn flag
Praha II./1987, Ferdinandova tř. 20
Wikipedia czdeen Google mapsearch
kramar_reichsrat.jpg

Karel Kramář, Reichsrat 1896. © Radio Praha

Mladočeši is mentioned indirectly when pubkeeper Palivec tells detective Bretschneider that he serves whoever pays up, and that he didn't care at all if it was a Muslim, anarchist, Turk or a Young Czech who killed Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand.

Background

Mladočeši (officially Národní strana svobodomyslná) was a Czech political party that existed from 1874 to 1918, formally called the National Liberal Party. The party reached its zenith after 1890. Due to their for the time radical demands on universal suffrage and greater autonomy for the Czech lands of Austria-Hungary, they received considerable support in their homeland but correspondingly greater opposition from Vienna.

Thereafter the Social Democrats and the Agrarian Party made inroads into their electoral base, and the party lost much of its influence. The leading politician in the history of the party was Kramář. The party's official newspaper was Národní listy, to which Jaroslav Hašek contributed many short stories. At the 1911 election to Parlament they achieved 9.8 per cent of the votes in Bohemia and had 14 representatives.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.1] „Host jako host,“ řekl Palivec, „třebas Turek. Pro nás živnostníky neplatí žádná politika. Zaplať si pivo a seď v hospodě a žvaň si, co chceš. To je moje zásada. Jestli to tomu našemu Ferdinandovi udělal Srb nebo Turek, katolík nebo mohamedán, anarchista nebo mladočech, mně je to všechno jedno.“

Also written:Young Czech Party en Jungtschechen de Ungtsjekkarane no

Literature

Věznice Pankrácnn flag
Nusle/88, Palackého tř. -
Wikipedia czdeen Google mapsearch
pankrac2.png

Egon Erwin Ksich, Bohemia, 7.11.1913

Věznice Pankrác is implicitly mentioned by pubkeeper Palivec when he explains that talking politics might mean ending up in Pankrác.

The prison is also referred to in [1.3] where the unfortunate lathe operator who broke into Podolský kostelík was incarcerated and later died.

Background

Věznice Pankrác (C.k. trestnice pro mužké v Praze) was at the time a large penitary for men, and "pankrác" is almost synonymous with prison in Czech slang. The prison is named after the Pankrác district where it is located. Construction started in 1885 and was complete in 1889.

It was at the time a modern prison with good conditions for the inmates. In Austrian times the prison mostly housed dangerous male criminals but also saw the odd political prisoner.

The prison later became the scene of executions and 1580 persons were killed; 1087 of them during the Nazi occupation. During Communist rule from 1948 another few hundreds were executed.

Egon Erwin Kisch

The Raging Reporter has contributed his part to the fame of the prison. Denied permission to enter, he still climbed the walls, and reported from the cemetery of the inmates. Their graves were not marked! This is all revealed in the story Im Friedhof der Pankratzer Sträflinge (On the cemetery of the Pankrác inmates), first printed in Bohemia on 7 November 1913, in 1931 appearing in the book Prager Pivatal with the title changed.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.1] „Já se do takových věcí nepletu, s tím ať mi každej políbí prdel,“ odpověděl slušně pan Palivec, zapaluje si dýmku, „dneska se do toho míchat, to by mohlo každému člověku zlomit vaz. Já jsem živnostník, když někdo přijde a dá si pivo, tak mu ho natočím. Ale nějaký Sarajevo, politika nebo nebožtík arcivévoda, to pro nás nic není, z toho nic nekouká než Pankrác.“
[1.3] Potom ten soustružník zemřel na Pankráci.

Also written:Pankrác Prison en Pankratz Gefängnis de Pankrác fengsel no

Literature

Krajský soud Píseknn flag
Písek/121, Velké nám. 17
Wikipedia cz Google mapsearch
ksoudpisek.jpg

Velké náměstí in Písek (1917). The large building to the left housed the regional court.

© Písecký deník

ksoudpisek.png

"Královské město Písek", Jan Matzner, 1898

Krajský soud Písek is where the pig gelder from Vodňany was sentenced and executed, all whilst uttering the worst imaginable things about the emperor. At least this is what Švejk tells detective Bretschneider at U kalicha.

Background

Krajský soud Písek was an institution that was part of the judiciary of Austria, and also remained functional in Czechoslovakia until 1945. It resided in a large building at southern part of Velké náměstí, down towards Otava and adjacent to the smaller Okresní soud Písek. The court president in 1915 was František Soukup. At the site is today (2021) located the latter, i.e. the district court, is but the building is newer.

Hilsner

The court in Písek hosted the 2nd trail of the infamous Hilsner affair (or Polna affair) where the young Jew Leopold Hilsner was accused of ritual murder. His death-sentence was confirmed in Písek on 14 November 1900 but was converted to life imprisonment by Kaiser Franz Joseph I. and in 1918 he was set free during a general amnesty[a]. Future president professor Masaryk put his academic career at stake during his defence of Hilsner, and an article he wrote in on the case was confiscated[b]. The verdict at Písek was quashed as late as 1998.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.1] Když ho potom u krajského soudu v Písku věšeli, ukousl knězi nos a řekl že vůbec ničeho nelituje, a také řekl ještě něco hodně ošklivého o císařovi pánovi.“

Also written:Písek Regional Court en Kreisgericht Písek de Kretsretten Písek no

Literature

References
bBericht über die Revision der Polnaer ProcessesTomáš Masaryk, Die Zeit10.10.1900
Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

2. The good soldier Švejk at police headquarters

Policejní ředitelstvínn flag
Praha I./313, Ferdinandová třída 15
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum
bartolomejska.jpg

Světozor, 13.9.1928

hula_policie.png

Like the author in the novel Břetislav Hůla (1950) mixes up the 3rd department with the State Police

polred.png

Politický kalendář občanský … 1911

Policejní ředitelství was where was Švejk was led by detective Bretschneider after his arrest at U kalicha. He was accused of high treason, insulting His Majesty, and even sedition - accusations he agreed to without flinching. He stayed at police HQ through the whole of [1.2], a chapter which took place in the course of just one evening/night. In the morning he was taken to Zemský trestní soud in a police car which left through the main gate, i.e. in ul Karoliny Světlé 2.

The gate of the building and three places inside are mentioned: the reception, the cells on the first floor and the interrogation room in the 3rd department, up the stairs from the cells but unclear on which floor. Švejk rarely complained, but here he shows his dissatisfaction with the long way from the cell to the interrogators room.

In [1.6] Švejk pays police HQ another visit after he was arrested because of his strikingly enthusiastic reaction to the declaration of war. Her the author delivers his personal opinion of the institution "where the spirit of foreign authority wafted through the building".

Background

Policejní ředitelství (C.k. policejní ředitelství v Praze) was the police HQ in Prague and it's official address in 1914 was Ferdinandova třída 15. The entrance was around the corner in ul. Karoliny Světlé 2. It was (and is) a huge complex, located between Ferdinandova, Karoliny Světlé and Bartolomejská. It is still (2018) the HQ of the Prague's police.

The Police HQ was organised in five departments where the State Police (Staatspolizei), department III (public order), and department IV (safety) are the ones that are relevant in the context of The Good Soldier Švejk. Department III is directly mentioned in the novel, although the author most probably has the State Police Department in mind. In 1913 the following of our acquaintances from the novel were employed: Mr. Slavíček and Mr. Klíma (State Police) and Polizeikommissar Drašner (department IV). Head of the 1st Department was Rudolf Demartini, a person who may have inspired Demartini, the fat gentleman at Zemský trestní soud.

The head of Policejní ředitelství carried the title "Police Director" (from 1912 "Police President") and the position was in the period 1902 to 1915 held by Court Councillor Karel Křikava, uncle of the writer Louis Křikava. He frequented the same environs as Hašek and is mentioned several times in Strana mírného pokroku v mezích zákona. Head of the State Police Department was Viktor Chum.

Karel Křikava (1860 - 1935) made a rapid career in the police but was pensioned in 1915 for political reasons. He was not informed about the arrest of Kramář and as a result of the conflict that followed he was pensioned due to "health problems". After the war he was reactivated and was given the task of organising the police in Slovakia.

The Good Soldier Švejk in Captivity

In the second version of The Good Soldier Švejk (Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí), written by Jaroslav Hašek in 1917, police HQ is described in greater detail, particularly the department of Staatspolizei. Bartolomějská ulice is mentioned explicitly and so are the police commissioners Mr. Klíma and Mr. Slavíček and the author correctly notes that both worked for the state police. The description is more elaborate than in the novel and Chum is referred to as head of the "triumvirate".

A Russian trader

In November 1915 Jaroslav Hašek acquired first hand knowledge of Policejní ředitelství. As a premeditated provocation he registered at U Valšů as a Russian trader and the State Police soon arrived and arrested the "foreigner".

SZA: … Švejka vedli k výslechu do oddělení státní policie přímo k policejnímu komisaři Klímovi a Slavíčkovi. Tito dva představitelé aparátu státní policie od vypuknutí války až po objevení Švejka v kanceláři vyšetřili několik set případů udání, provedli spoustu domovních prohlídek a odváděli muže od teplých večeří do Bartolomějské ulice. Jest zajímavé, proč department pražské státní policie právě se usadil v ulici připomínající svým jménem bartolomějskou noc …

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.2] Sarajevský atentát naplnil policejní ředitelství četnými oběťmi. Vodili to jednoho po druhém a starý inspektor v přijímací kanceláři říkal svým dobráckým hlasem: „Von se vám ten Ferdinand nevyplatí!“ Když Švejka zavřeli v jedné z četných komor prvého patra, Švejk našel tam společnost šesti lidí.
[1.6] Budovou policejního ředitelství vanul duch cizí authority, která zjišťovala, jak dalece je obyvatelstvo nadšeno pro válku. Kromě několika výjimek, lidí, kteří nezapřeli, že jsou synové národa, který má vykrvácet za zájmy jemu úplně cizí, policejní ředitelství představovalo nejkrásnější skupiny byrokratických dravců, kteří měli smysl jedině pro žalář a šibenici, aby uhájili existenci zakroucených paragrafů.

Also written:Police Headquarters en Polizeidirektion de Politihovudkvarteret no

Literature

U Brejškynn flag
Praha II./107, Spálená ul. 47
Google mapsearch
brejska1.png

Zlatá Praha, 15.5.1884

brejsku.jpg

Breaking ice by U Brejšky. Jaroslav Hašek third from the left. Zdeněk Matěj Kuděj is in the middle. The tall man on the left is landlord Karel Brejška.

brejsku.png

Právo lidu, 19.1.1914

brejska3.jpg

Karel Brejška, 1912.

© Národní archiv - Archiv České strany národně sociální

brejska4.png

Národní listy, 17.5.1923

brejska3.png

Egon Erwin Kisch, Prager Tagblatt, 6.12.1925

brejska2.png

Ladislav Hájek, 1925

U Brejšky was where detective Brixi arrested an unusually fat owner of a paper shop who had bought beer for two Serbian students. The generous man was one of Švejk's inmates in the cell at Policejní ředitelství. The pub is mentioned several times, and in the final chapter it crops up in an anecdote Švejk tells Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek. In this anecdote it is named U Brejsků, a minor change from singular to plural.

Background

U Brejšky was a restaurant in Spalená ulice in Praha II. that in it's original form existed from 1884 until around 1920. It was known as a meeting place for journalists; Egon Erwin Kisch and others wrote about the phenomenon "news exchange" in Prager Tagblatt in 1925. Both Czech and German newspapermen frequented the place. Immediately after opening the restaurant had installed a telephone station (No. 180), a rare sight in 1884.

The restaurant served beer from Plzeň and was also known for its good food. Not only was it popular amongst journalists: visitors from the province also enjoyed it here. On the first floor it offered meeting rooms and accommodation. U Brejšky (aka. U Brejšků or Brejškova restaurace) was altogether one of the most best known and popular taverns in all of Prague, as indicated by the endless amount of newspaper clips. The restaurant was named after the original owner, Karel Brejška.

Jaroslav Hašek and Brejška

The author The Good Soldier Švejk frequented it regularly and he mentions the restaurant not only in the novel, but also in several of his short stories. Amongst them is Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí (1917) but here it occurs only briefly. On the other hand U Brejšky is the main focus of a story he wrote in 1912 about a meeting with the enormous black American Zipp. The landlord himself appears in the story and is described in positive terms.

U Brejšky is known from a photo where Jaroslav Hašek and Zdeněk Matěj Kuděj break ice on the street outside. A note in Právo lidu 19 January 1914 indicates that the picture was made 17 January 1914 and it was published with a text on 6 February in Světozor. Both texts refer to a strike amongst typographers. In his memoirs Hájek wrote about Karel Brejška, that the landlord liked Hašek and readily helped him when he was in trouble. Hájek incorrectly dates the picture to the winter of 1912, an error that later propagated into other literature about Hašek. Kuděj confirmed the information about the typographer's strike, that Brejška took pity on the two unemployed literates, and put them to work on writing menu's and breaking ice.

Karel Brejška

The owner of the restaurant was Karel Brejška (6 June 1856 - 15 May 1923), the big man seen to the left on the photo. He bought the building Zlatá váha in Spalená ulice 117/47 for 60,000 guilders early in 1884. Prager Tagblatt reported that the restaurant operated from 19 January that year. Police records reveal that Brejška moved here in 1884, was married and had children. He was also a dedicated sportsman, above all in cycling, and readily took on duties. He edited the guest house owner's magazine Hostimil and hosted their editorial offices at U Brejšky. Karel Brejška was a popular figure and when he died after long illness in 1923, Eduard Bass, a friend of Jaroslav Hašek, wrote a long obituary in Lidové noviny, and this was not the only newspaper that fondly remembered him. Brejška sold the restaurant three years before he died.

Modern times

In 1939 was still listed in the address book but whether or not there has been in continuous operation is not known. In any case it still exists in a modern variation (2016) with the name Haškova restaurace U Brejsků. It is decorated with photos from the era (many of them feature Hašek) and makes the most of its connection with Jaroslav Hašek. Their web page say little about the historical lines, focuses on Hašek and that the sports club Slavia was formed here on 31 May 1895. The current restaurant is found in the basement.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.2] Výjimku dělal neobyčejně tlustý pán s brýlemi, s uplakanýma očima, který byl zatčen doma ve svém bytě, poněvadž dva dny před atentátem v Sarajevu platil „U Brejšky“ za dva srbské studenty, techniky, útratu a detektivem Brixim byl spatřen v jejich společnosti opilý v „Montmartru“ v Řetězové ulici, kde, jak již v protokole potvrdil svým podpisem, též za ně platil.

Also written:Die Zeche Reiner

Literature

Montmartrenn flag
Praha I./224, Řetězová ul. 7
Wikipedia cz Google mapsearch
montmartre_adv.png

Venkov, 2.9.1911

Montmartre is mentioned because the paper-shop owner who was Švejk's cell companion at Policejní ředitelství had been observed drunk here together with the two Serb students he had paid for earlier in the day, at U Brejšky.

Background

Montmartre was a café in the very centre of Prague which recently (as of 2010) was re-opened after a break of 70 years. The name is obviously taken from the famous Paris district of Montmartre. The cafe is decorated with period photos where Jaroslav Hašek plays a prominent role. The 1989 Sametová revoluce put a stop to official plans to turn Montmartre into a museum for Jaroslav Hašek.

Montmartre was opened in 1911 by the well-known actor and artits Josef Waltner. It was a night cafe and entertainment establishment, also known as Cabaret Montmartre. From the beginning it became a popular meeting place amongst artists, intellectuals and the bohemian set. Apart from Jaroslav Hašek it was also frequented by the likes of Kuděj, Max Brod, Egon Erwin Kisch, Franz Werfel and Franz Kafka. Hašek wrote four short stories where was Montmartre involved, and Kisch also immortalised the café through his writing. Hašek wrote several stories set around Montmartre.

Und einer von ihnen hatte doch während jener Tagung noch die Habsburger geschützt, indem er dem Delegierten Jaroslav Hašek auf dessen Zwischenruf: "Borg mir eine Krone" ex praesidio die feierliche Rüge ersteilte: "Bitte die Krone nicht in die Debatte zu ziehen".

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.2] Výjimku dělal neobyčejně tlustý pán s brýlemi, s uplakanýma očima, který byl zatčen doma ve svém bytě, poněvadž dva dny před atentátem v Sarajevu platil „U Brejšky“ za dva srbské studenty, techniky, útratu a detektivem Brixim byl spatřen v jejich společnosti opilý v „Montmartru“ v Řetězové ulici, kde, jak již v protokole potvrdil svým podpisem, též za ně platil.

Sources: Egon Erwin Kisch: Die Abenteuer in Prag. Zitate vom Montmartre

Literature

Spolek Dobromilnn flag
Podolí/55, Kublov
Google mapsearch
spolkadobromil.jpg

Garden restaurant in Hodkovičky, a possible location for "Dobromil's" celebration.

dobromil_adr.png

Address book from 1910

Spolek Dobromil was a charity in Hodkovičky who held a celebration on the day of the murders in Sarajevo. The police arrived and asked them to stop, but the chairman retorted that hey had to finish playing "Hej, Slované" (well known pan-slavic hymn) first. This led him straight to the cell at Policejní ředitelství.

Background

Spolek Dobromil is an association which so far has not been fully identified. It is still very likely that they existed and may well have congregated in the centre of Hodkovičky. In 1910 such a society existed in nearby Podolí and Dvorce, so it is quite likely that these are the people Jaroslav Hašek refers to.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.2] Třetí spiklenec byl předseda dobročinného spolku „Dobromil“ v Hodkovičkách. V den, kdy byl spáchán atentát, pořádal „Dobromil“ zahradní slavnost spojenou s koncertem. Četnický strážmistr přišel, aby požádal účastníky, by se rozešli, že má Rakousko smutek, načež předseda „Dobromilu“ řekl dobrácky: „Počkají chvilku, než dohrajou ,Hej, Slované’.“

SourcesMilan Hodík

Národní politikann flag
Praha II./835, Václavské nám. 21
Wikipedia czde Google mapsearch
narodnipolitika.jpg

Národní politika, 29.6.1914

politika.png

Národní politika, 15.11.1915

Národní politika is first mentioned during the interrogation at Policejní ředitelství when Švejk reveals that he reads the afternoon issue to look for dog adverts. He also uses the term "čubička" (the little bitch), which provokes the interrogator with the animal traits to shout: Out!.

Národní politika is mentioned again both in [1.6], [1.13] and in [2.2].

Background

Národní politika was a conservative daily that was published in Prague from 1883 to 1945. The editorial offices were located at Václavské náměstí. The paper printed at least six of Jaroslav Hašek's stories and it was one of the first papers to report both his capture in 1915 and his return to Prague (1920). In other stories he makes fun of the newspaper.

According to Franta Sauer it was the author's preferred newspaper, and at first sight it appears that used snippets from it in the novel. The conversation between Oberleutnant Lukáš and Mr. Wendler in [1.14] reveals word for word quotes from the paper. The evening issue from 4 April 1915 is a prime example. That said Kronika světové války is an even more obvious source for these fragments.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.2] „S kýmpak se stýkáte?“ „Se svou posluhovačko, vašnosti.“ „A v místních politických kruzích nemáte nikoho známého?“ „To mám, vašnosti, kupuji si odpoledníčka „Národní politiky“, ,čubičky’.“ „Ven!“ zařval na Švejka pán se zvířecím vzezřením.
[1.6] posledně od toho pana řídícího z Brna ta záloha šedesát korun na angorskou kočku, kterou jste inseroval v Národní politice a místo toho jste mu poslal v bedničce od datlí to slepé štěňátko foxteriéra.
[1.13] Když tenkrát ta sopka Mont Pelé zničila celý ostrov Martinique, jeden profesor psal v Národní politice, že už dávno upozorňoval čtenáře na velkou skvrnu na slunci. A vona, ta Národní politika, včas nedošla na ten vostrov, a tak si to tam, na tom vostrově, vodskákali."
[2.2] I u nás jsou nadšenci. Četli v ,Národní politice’ o tom obrlajtnantovi Bergrovi od dělostřelectva, který si vylezl na vysokou jedli a zřídil si tam na větví beobachtungspunkt?

Also written:National Politics en Nationalpolitik de Nasjonal Politikk no

Literature

Museumnn flag
Praha II./1700, Václavské nám. 74
Wikipedia czdeensv Google mapsearch
muzeum.jpg

The National Museum around 1900

Museum is mentioned in an anecdote by Švejk about quartering av prisoners in the bad old days. This is supposed to have happened on a hill somewhere by the museum. The museum itself is later mentioned explicitly in an anecdote on the way to Budapest.

Background

Museum which is talked about is certainly the main building of Museum království Českého, now Národní muzeum in Prague. It is located at the southern end of Václavské náměstí. The building was erected between 1885 and 1891.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.2] Takovejch případů bylo víc a ještě potom člověka čtvrtili nebo narazili na kůl někde u Musea.

Literature

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

3. Švejk before the court physicians

Zemský trestní soudnn flag
Praha II./6, Spalená 2
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum

Zemský trestní soud is the institution Švejk was driven to in a police car the morning after the arrest. Here he was interrogated by a good-natured judge who, when he read what Švejk had confessed to, qustioned his mental health. He concluded that Švejk had to undergo an investigation by a psychiatric commission, which resulted in him being sent to a lunatic asylum.

Background

Zemský trestní soud was located in Spálená ulice, at the corner of Karlovo náměstí. Today this building houses the City Court.

The author was taken to court here in 1907 after he at an anarchist meeting on 1 May allegedly incited violence against the police. For this he was sentenced to a month in prison, his longest conviction ever. He was sentenced on 1 July and served the prison term from 16 August to 16 September 1907.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.3] Čisté, útulné pokojíky zemského „co trestního soudu“ učinily na Švejka nejpříznivější dojem. Vybílené stěny, černě natřené mříže i tlustý pan Demartini, vrchní dozorce ve vyšetřovací vazbě s fialovými výložky i obrubou na erární čepici. fialová barva je předepsána nejen zde, nýbrž i při náboženských obřadech na Popeleční středu i Veliký pátek.

Also written:Regional Criminal Court en Landesstrafgericht de Landsstrafferetten no

Teissignn flag
Praha II./85, Spálená ul. 5
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum
teissig.jpg

Teissigova plzeňská restaurace, 1915

© Photogen.cz

teissig.png

Národní listy, 1.1.1896

Teissig was a place where the employees of Zemský trestní soud went to fetch peppers and Pilsner beer for lunch. Why they went to get peppers is a mystery. Translators Grete Reiner and Cecil Parrott both interpreted it as goulash, probably a bit far-fetched.

Hans-Peter Laqueur has voiced the theory that the author by "paprika" meant "paprikash" which is the Hungarian goulash, a soup which is quite different from Czech "guláš". In that case Reiner and Parrott's translation is more accurate than "peppers".

Background

Teissig was a restaurant located across the street from the massive City Court complex (former Zemský trestní soud) and owned by Karel Teissig. He had been running the restaurant at least from 1895. Teissig had previously owned U kotvy two houses down the road, a restaurant that still exists (2019). Address books confirm that U Teissigů existed as late as 1940.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.3] A vyšetřující soudcové, Piláti nové doby, místo aby si čestně myli ruce, posílali si pro papriku a plzeňské pivo k Teissigovi a odevzdávali nové a nové žaloby na státní návladnictví.

Literature

Státní návladnictvínn flag
Praha III./2, Malostranské nám. 25
Google mapsearch

Státní návladnictví was where the detainees were led after their stay at Zemský trestní soud. Here formal prosecution was in store. The institution had also been briefly mentioned in [1.1].

Background

Státní návladnictví is a term that is rarely used in modern Czech, and is now mostly referred to as Státní zastupitelství, a wording that was used even during the life-time of the author (see cut from the 1907 address book). The expression refers to the state prosecutor's office. Their main seat for Bohemia was at Malostranské náměstí in the building of the regional high court, and their Prague office was located in the same building as Zemský trestní soud. It is surely those premises that the author had in mind.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.3] A vyšetřující soudcové, Piláti nové doby, místo aby si čestně myli ruce, posílali si pro papriku a plzeňské pivo k Teissigovi a odevzdávali nové a nové žaloby na státní návladnictví.

Also written:State prosecutor's office en Staatsanwaltschaft de Statsadvokatkontoret no

U Bansethůnn flag
Nusle/389, Palackého tř. 18
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum
bansethu.jpg

U Bansethů, 2011

bansethu1.png

Národní listy, 27.2.1906

banseth4.png

Národní politika, 1.9.1907

banseth.png

Národní politika, 21.3.1908

U Bansethů crops up in one of Švejk's stories. He was on his way back from this pub when he was assaulted by the bridge across Botič. The perpetrators got the wrong man and gave him an extra slap due to the disappointment.

The tavern is mentioned again in [1.13] in the discussion about volcanic eruptions and sunspots. See Martinique.

It also appears in the final chapter of the novel, and now the owner Banseth is mentioned directly.

Background

U Bansethů was the name of two restaurants in Nusle, owned by Alois Banseth. One of them is still operating and it advertises its connection to Švejk; the interior has numerous pictures of Jaroslav Hašek. There is even a Stůl Jaroslava Haška (Jaroslav Hašek's table).

The original restaurant was located a few steps down the street in house No. 321. Banseth started operation in the autumn of 1900 and in March 1908 it was announced that it was sold to František Kocan, former landlord at U Kocanů. Around the same time he bought house No. 389 which still bears his name. The pub already existed under the name U Palackého and Banseth with his wife Anna paid 100,000 crowns for the house.

Which of the two public houses the author had in mind is uncertain, but the address information given above relates to the one that still exists. Mr. Banseth was in 1910 listed as owner of the building that housed his pub. He also lived here.

The original U Bansethů also arranged public meetings on its premises, for instance on 26 February 1906 where anarchists took part, and amongst them Jaroslav Hašek was very likely to be found. On this occasion the anarchist Čeněk Körber (1875-1951) caused such uproar that the meeting was abandoned. The pub was also hosted meetings by Česká strana národně sociální, Sokol, Volná myšlenka and Mladočeši. Particularly the first seemed to have met a lot here, and in Strana mírného pokroku v mezích zákona Jaroslav Hašek describes on of their meetings where he provoked and caused disorder.

Strana mírného pokroku

Po onom velkém morálním vítězství U Banzetů sešly se naše rozptýlené řady až nahoře na Havlíčkově třídě. Kulhal jsem, pod okem jsem měl modřinu a mé tváře, jak praví Goethe, nevěstily nic dobrého. Byly opuchlé!

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.3] Jako jednou v Nuslích, právě u mostu přes Botič, přišel ke mně v noci jeden pán, když jsem se vracel od Banzetů, a praštil mě bejkovcem přes hlavu, a když jsem ležel na zemi, posvítil si na mne a povídá: ,Tohle je mejlka, to není von.’
[1.13] „Ty skvrny na slunci mají vopravdu velkej význam,“ zamíchal se Švejk, „jednou se vobjevila taková skvrna a ještě ten samej den byl jsem bit ,U Banzetů’ v Nuslích.
[4.3] Vona potom chtěla mít celou soupravu do domácnosti z takovejch nožů a posílala ho vždycky v neděli do Kundratic na vejlet, ale von byl tak skromnej, že nešel nikam než k Banzetovům do Nuslí, kde věděl, že když sedí v kuchyni, že ho dřív Banzet vyhodí, než může na něho někdo sáhnout.“

SourcesJaroslav Šerák

Also written:U Banzetů Hašek

Literature

Podolský kostelíknn flag
Podolí/91, Přemyšlova ul. -
Google mapsearch
kostelik_addr.png

Adresář Prahy (1907)

Podolský kostelík is mentioned in the series of stories about various mistakes that Švejk tells his fellow remand prisoners at Zemský trestní soud. A lathe operator (turner) who lived in Švejk's house locked himself into the chapel by mistake once he was drunk, and because he thought he was at home he slept overnight and the result was that the church had to be re-consecrated. The unfortunate intruder was convicted and died at Věznice Pankrác.

Background

Podolský kostelík is almost certainly the parish church kostel sv. Michala (Church of Saint Michael) in Podolí, south of Vyšehrad.

Jaroslav Šerák

Podolský kostel bude určitě kostel svatého Michala v ulici Pod Vyšehradem, je to farní kostel dodnes. Ostatní jsou jen hřbitovní kaple, nebo postavené později.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.3] Nebo vám povím příklad, jak se zmejlil u nás v domě jeden soustružník. Votevřel si klíčem podolskej kostelík, poněvadž myslel, že je doma, zul se v sakristii, poněvadž myslel, že je to u nich ta kuchyně, a lehl si na voltář, poněvadž myslel, že je doma v posteli, a dal na sebe nějaký ty dečky se svatými nápisy a pod hlavu evangelium a ještě jiný svěcený knihy, aby měl vysoko pod hlavou.

SourcesJaroslav Šerák

Literature

Česká radikální stranann flag
Wikipedia czdeen Google search
baxa.jpg

Karel Baxa, member of parliament from 1903-1918 and chairman of Státoprávně radikální strana

Česká radikální strana is indirectly referred to in Švejk's story about the Czech radical deputy who by mistake is chased by Rittmeister Rotter's police dogs.

Background

Česká radikální strana was not the a name of any particular political party but it is quite obvious that Švejk had either Strana radikálně pokroková or Státoprávně radikální strana in mind. The former party existed from 1897 to 1908 and campaigned for extensive political reforms, whereas the latter was formed in 1899 and their main goal was extended state rights for the Czech lands.

In 1908 he two parties merged and founded Česká strana státoprávně pokroková. From 1914 the party openly campaigned for an independent Czech state and suffered persecution as a result. It can not be ruled out that label "radical" stuck with even the new party and that indeed was them Švejk had in mind.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.3] Nakonec se ukázalo, že ten člověk byl českej radikální poslanec, kterej si vyjel na vejlet do lánskejch lesů, když už ho parlament vomrzel.

Literature

Parlamentnn flag
Wien I., Franzens-Ring 1
Wikipedia czdeen Google mapsearch
reichsrat.jpg

Abgeordneterhaus 1907

parlament2.png

A selection of Czech deputies in Reichsrat in 1914 (Josef Švejk highlighted).

Parlament is mentioned is Švejk's story about the Czech radical member of parliament who by mistake is chased by Rittmeister Rotter's police dogs.

Background

Parlament refers to Reichsrat in Vienna. From 1867 until 1918 it was the national assembly of Cisleithanien, i.e. the Austrian part of the Dual Monarchy. The assembly consisted of a Herrenhaus (House of Lords) and a Abgeordneterhaus (House of Commons).

The last election to the Abgerodneterhaus was held in June 1911, and that year the house counted 516 deputies, of which 232 were Germans, 108 Czechs and 83 Poles. The remaining seats were occupied by Ukrainians, Slovenes, Italians, Romanians, Croats, Serbs and a lone Zionist!. Several of the politicians mentioned in our novel were deputies at the outbreak of war: professor Masaryk, Kramář, Klofáč and a certain agrarian politician Josef Švejk. A former deputy of interest was Alexander Dworski, see Mr. Grabowski.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.3] Nakonec se ukázalo, že ten člověk byl českej radikální poslanec, kterej si vyjel na vejlet do lánskejch lesů, když už ho parlament vomrzel. Proto říkám, že jsou lidi chybující, že se mejlejí, ať je učenej, nebo pitomej, nevzdělanej blbec. Mejlejí se i ministři.“

Literature

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

4. They threw Švejk out of the madhouse

Blázinecnn flag
Praha II./468, Ul. Karlova 15
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum

Blázinec is referred to when Švejk is led to the psychiatric ward after a commission of psychiatrists conclude that he is a "malingerer with a feeble mind". He might have spent several weeks here as he was only released on 29 July 1914, the day Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.

Background

Blázinec was a mental hospital in Prague which is not explicitly located. We can still by near certainty conclude that the author means Kateřinky, an institution where he himself spent a few weeks in February 1911.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.4] Když později Švejk líčil život v blázinci, činil tak způsobem neobyčejného chvalořečení: „Vopravdu nevím, proč se ti blázni zlobějí, když je tam drží. Člověk tam může lézt nahej po podlaze, vejt jako šakal, zuřit a kousat. Jestli by to člověk udělal někde na promenádě, tak by se lidi divili, ale tam to patří k něčemu prachvobyčejnýmu. Je tam taková svoboda, vo kterej se ani socialistům nikdy nezdálo.

Also written:The Madhouse en Das Irrenhaus de Galehuset no

Ottův slovník naučnýnn flag
Praha II./553, Karlovo nám. 35
Wikipedia czdeen Google mapsearch
cartonage.png

Ottův slovník naučný, 5. díl, 1892

Ottův slovník naučný was mentioned in connection with the patient at Blázinec who claimed to be the 16th volume of this encyclopedia.

Background

Ottův slovník naučný is an encyclopaedia published by publisher Otto that is regarded an outstanding work of reference also in an international context. A total of 28 volumes were released between 1888 and 1909 with additional supplements appearing thereafter. Otto's Encyclopaedia was at the time one of the largest in the world. The editorial offices were at Karlovo náměstí, in the building next to the publishing house of Otto.

Emil Artur Longen (1928) claims that Jaroslav Hašek made active use of the encyclopaedia when he wrote Švejk. He may well have a point as the long tirade Rekrut Pech used is almost a direct quote from the encyclopaedia.

The reference to kartonážní šička (cardboard stapler) can not be found in volume 16 (Lih-Media) and Antonín Měšťan also points out that there is no such entry in the encyclopaedia at all. If it had been a real entry it would have been found in volume 14. This volume does however have a reference to kartonáž that simply points to the entry cartonage in volume 5.

Antonín Měšťan

Durch einen Blick in den Ottův slovník naučný läßt sich leicht feststellen, daß das Stichwort "Kartonagenähgrin" nicht nur im 16. Band fehlt - es fehlt in diesem Lexikon überhaupt.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.4] Nejzuřivější byl jeden pán, kerej se vydával za 16. díl Ottova slovníku naučného a každého prosil, aby ho otevřel a našel heslo ,Kartonážní šička’, jinak že je ztracenej.

SourcesAntonín Měšťan, Emil Artur Longen

Also written:Otto's encyclopaedia en Ottos Konversationslexicon de Ottos konversasjonsleksikon no

Literature

Královy lázněnn flag
Praha I./195, Ul. Karoliny Světlé 43
Google mapsearch
lazne.png

Map from 1914

lazne2.png

Břetislav Hůla

lazne3.png

Baedeker

Královy lázně is indirectly mentioned by Švejk when he in Blázinec is asked if he enjoys likes getting a bath. "It is better than at the baths by Charles Bridge", is the answer.

Background

Královy lázně was a public bath at the end of Karlův most and is listed on the address Karoliny Světlé 43, indicated on the map. This is confirmed by Baedeker Österreich 1913 that refers to them as Königsbad.

Some baths north of the bridge are also shown, called Gemeindebad (Municipal Bath). This was more likely an open-air bath and to judge by the description in the novel, Švejk is almost certainly talking about the more luxurious indoor Royal Baths.

Břetislav Hůla refers to the bath as Karlovy lázně (Charles' Bath) and this corresponds to the entry in the address book of 1936. It is not known when exactly the renaming took place.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.4] V koupelně ho potopili do vany s teplou vodou a pak ho vytáhli a postavili pod studenou sprchu. To s ním opakovali třikrát a pak se ho optali, jak se mu to líbí. Švejk řekl, že je to lepší než v těch lázních u Karlova mostu a že se velmi rád koupe.

Sources: Archiv Hlavního Města Prahy (Sbírka map a plánů)

Also written:Royal Bath en Königsbad de

Literature

Regimentskanzlei I.R. 91nn flag
Karlín/20, Palackého třída 10
Wikipedia de Google mapsearch

Regimentskanzlei I.R. 91 is mentioned by Švejk when he tells the medical commission at Blázinec that he has been released from the army due to feeblemindedness. He adds that this can be confirmed at the Ergänzungskommando in Karlín or the regimental office in Budějovice.

Background

Regimentskanzlei I.R. 91 (main regimental staff office) was in 1914 stationed in Karlín and not in Budějovice as Švejk claims. At the outbreak of war, several regimental functions were indeed located in Ferdinandova kasárna in Karlín: 2. og 3. field battalion, regimental staff and the IR 91 regimental command itself. This inconsistency is probably due to a mix-up with the Ergänzungsbezirkskommando which together with the 4th battalion and EB91 were indeed stationed in Budějovice.

We should also take into account that the barracks in Karlín were converted to a Red Cross reserve hospital soon after outbreak of war, and that the administrative functions of the regiment would have been moved, some of them no doubt to Budějovice, and others to the front. Another explanation is that Švejk has the offices of EB91 in mind (these were located in Budějovice). See Ergänzungskommando.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.4] „Já, pánové,“ hájil se Švejk, „nejsem žádný simulant, já jsem opravdovej blbec, můžete se zpravit v kanceláři jednadevadesátýho pluku v Českých Budějovicích nebo na doplňovacím velitelství v Karlíně.“

Also written:Regimental office en Plukové kancelář cz Regimentskontoret no

Literature

Ergänzungskommandonn flag
Budějovice, Pekárenská ulice
Wikipedia de Google mapsearch
ir91a.png

IR91, Seidels kleines Armeeschema August 1914

ergbudweis.png

91. Ergänzungsbezirk

Ergänzungskommando is mentioned by Švejk when he tells the medical commission at Blázinec that he has been released from the army due to feeblemindedness. He adds that this can be confirmed at the reserve command in Karlín or the Regimentskanzlei I.R. 91 in Budějovice.

Background

Ergänzungskommando by near certainty refers to Ergänzungsbezirkskommando Budweis. It was located in Backhaus in Budějovice (Pekárenská ulice) and not in Karlín as Švejk says. At the outbreak of war several other regimental functions resided Ferdinandova kasárna in Karlín: 3. field battalion, regimental staff and IR 91 Regimentskommando itself. We may therefore be witnessing a straight mix-up between Regimentskanzlei I.R. 91 and Ergänzungsbezirkskommando. Both are mentioned in the same sentence, so Švejk appears to have swapped the respective locations.

The district reserve Budweis was resposible for draft and calll-up of reserves in Ergänzungsbezirk Budweis, see map. The recruitment district covered five hejtmanství: Budějovice, Týn nad Vltavou, Kaplice, Krumlov and Prachatice. The army units that the district provided recruits for were IR 91 and 14. Dragonerregiment.

Commander in 1914 was Jan Splichal but he was sent to the front soon after hostilities began, and it is not clear who replaced him. Splichal was also head of EB91, and in this role he was replaced by Karl Schlager, so it may well be that the latter also succeeded him as head of the district reserve command. Usually these two positions were held by the same officer. That would however not been the case after 1 June 1915 when EB91 was transferred to Királyhida, whereas the recruitment command for obvious reasons remained in its home district.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.4] „Já, pánové,“ hájil se Švejk, „nejsem žádný simulant, já jsem opravdovej blbec, můžete se zpravit v kanceláři jednadevadesátýho pluku v Českých Budějovicích nebo na doplňovacím velitelství v Karlíně.“
[1.4] Že jsem mohl být felddienstunfähig. Taková ohromná protekce! Mohl jsem se válet někde v kanceláři na doplňovacím velitelství, ale má neopatrnost mně podrazila nohy.“

Also written:Reserve command en Doplňovací velitelství cz Reservekommando no

Literature

Policejní komisařství Salmova ulicenn flag
Praha II./507, Salmovská ul. 20
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum
polsalmovska.png

Politický kalendář, 1910

polsalmovska3.png

Plan von Prag und Umgebung, 1910

polsalmovska4.png

Zum Wortschatz des tschechischen Rotwelsch, Eugen Rippl, 1926

polsalmovska5.png

Z.M. Kuděj, "Ve dvou se to lépe táhne, I.", s.68, 1924

giunio.png

Denní raport - c.k. okresního policejního komisařství III.z. 31./12. 1908

polsalmovska6.png

Československá republika, 26.6.1926

Policejní komisařství Salmova ulice is the scene of a full chapter in the novel. Švejk is taken straight here after refusing the leave Blázinec without lunch. His first encounter is with the brutal police inspector Inspektor Braun but then the plot revolves mostly around a conversation with his fellow inmate, a very solid citizen who for the moment has slid off the path of virtue. Švejk does his utmost to convince him that his situation is hopeless.

The stay here was only one afternoon, and Švejk taken to the first floor for interrogation, this time by a fat and friendly police officer. Under escort he is led from the guard house (see Strážnice) on the ground floor onwards to Policejní ředitelství. It was on the way he read the emperor's declaration of war.

Background

Policejní komisařství Salmova ulice was the police station of the 3rd police district (Hořejší Nové Město - Upper New Town) in Prague, called "Salmovka" in common speech. It was located on the corner of Ječná ulice and Salmovská ulice. The police station was operating until 29 June 1926 when it was moved to Krakovská ulice where it is still located. The building was subsequently demolished and in 1928 the current edifice was erected on the site.

The station was often called "Salmovka" in day-to-day speech, a term used by e.g. Zdeněk Matěj Kuděj in one of his books about Jaroslav Hašek (Ve dvou se to lépe táhne, 1924). The term is also listed in a German-language dictionary of Czech slang (Eugen Rippl, 1926).

Chief inspector in 1906 and until 1910 was Karel Fahoun, and he was succeeded by Antonín Sklenička. No evidence has been found, in address books or elsewhere, that any Inspektor Braun ever served here.

Hašek at Salmovská

This is a police station that Jaroslav Hašek knew well, because it within this police district he was born and grew up. Also in his adult life he for the most part lived within its jurisdiction. He was christened in Kostel sv. Štefána in the immediate vicinity and on several occasions he lived only a few steps away. It has also been claimed that the author was a personal friend of police chief Karel Fahoun and his family but Břetislav Hůla refutes this claim after consulting Fahoun's son.

Police records from 1902 to 1912 reveal that Jaroslav Hašek was brought to the station several times. Most of the cases refer to breaches of public order and small-scale vandalism, induced by drinking. On New Years eve 1908 he and the Croat student Rudolf Giunio were arrested and locked up here after a pub brawl. The author was sentenced to five days in prison for his efforts. See Bendlovka for more information about this incident.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.5] Švejk prohlásil, že když někoho vyhazují s blázince, že ho nesmějí vyhodit bez oběda. Výtržnosti učinil konec vrátným přivolaný policejní strážník, který Švejka předvedl na policejní komisařství do Salmovy ulice.

SourcesBřetislav Hůla, Sergey Soloukh, Jaroslav Šerák

Also written:District police station No. 3 en Polizeikommisariat Nr. III de Bydelspolitistasjon Nr. 3 no

Literature

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

5. Švejk at the district police station in Salmova street

Emauzský klášternn flag
Praha II./320, na Slovanech 1
Wikipedia czdeen Google mapsearch
emaus.png

The monastery at the turn of the century

emaus2.png

Address book 1907

Emauzský klášter is the place where a monk is supposed to have hung himself in a crucifix according to Švejk. This is a story he tells his unfortunate cell-mate at Salmova ulice police station, when the latter wants to hang himself.

The monastery is mentioned again in [1.9] as the place where Feldkurat Katz was baptised. The priest who christened him was páter Albán, see pater Albán.

In [1.13] the monastery is mentioned for the third time, now by Švejk who tells Feldkurat Katz about a gardening assistant who worked there.

Background

Emauzský klášter is a Benedictine monastery in Prague, located south of Karlovo náměstí. It was founded by emperor Charles IV in 1347. The abovementioned pater Albán served as abbot here from 1908 until 1918 and during the war part of the monastery was converted to a hospital for soldiers.

After the proclamation of Czechoslovak independence on 28 October 1918 the abbot and the German monks left the country after they were subjected to harassment from crowds and militia groups. This was caused by accusations in the press, one of them being that they spied for Germany.

The monastery was badly damaged during an allied bomb raid in 1945, and was reconstructed in a somewhat different style after the war. It was confiscated by both the Nazis (1941) and the Communists (1950) but was in 1990 returned to the Benedictine order.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.5] Ledaže byste se pověsil vkleče u pryčny, jako to udělal ten mnich v klášteře v Emauzích, co se oběsil na krucifixu kvůli jedný mladý židovce.
[I.9] Křtili ho slavnostně v Emauzích. Sám páter Albán ho na máčel do křtitelnice.
[I.13] "Tak si koupíme katechismus, pane feldkurát, tam to bude," řekl Švejk, "to je jako průvodčí cizinců pro duchovní pastýře. V Emauzích pracoval v klášteře jeden zahradnickej pomocník, ...

Also written:Emmaus Monastery en Emmauskloster de Cloître d'Emmaüs fr Emmausklosteret no

Literature

Bendlovkann flag
Praha II./1867, Fügnerovo nám. 2
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum
bendlovka2.png

Břetislav Hůla, 1951

bendlovka5.png

© AHMP

giunio.png

Denní raport - c.k. okresního policejního komisařství III.z. 31./12. 1908

Bendlovka is mentioned in a story Švejk "comforts" his cell-mate at Policejní komisařství Salmova ulice with. Švejk had once at Bendlovka slapped an undertaker, who had returned the compliment. The next day it was in the newspapers.

Background

Bendlovka is by near certainty an alternative term for Bendova kavárna (also Bendovka), a former tavern in Nové město that Jaroslav Hašek knew well. In his explanations from 1951 Břetislav Hůla identifies it as a night-café in Sokolská ulice and is supported by Radko Pytlík who locates it to the corner of Sokolská and Fügnerovo náměstí. The location was next to Apollo, and on the opposite corner of the square was U Šolců, another of Hašek's favourite taverns.

Hašek and Bendovka

A well documented incident that involved the author took place here on 31 December 1908. According to police reports Jaroslav Hašek was involved in a brawl in the café during the small hours of the morning. He and Croatian technical student Rudolf Giunio refused to pay the bill, an argument erupted and glasses were broken. When the patrol-man Slepička arrived the humorist knocked the hat off his head so reinforcements were called. The two troublemakers were subsequently taken to Policejní komisařství Salmova ulice and were released the next morning.

Opočenský remembers

Another brawl involving the author is recorded by his friend Gustav Roger Opočenský’s in his book about Jaroslav Hašek (1948). It was written almost 40 years after the incident, but there is little reason to doubt the essence of the story: a clash between the author and some employee of a funeral agency erupted at Bendovka. It took place “in the small hours of one hot spring Saturday evening, a few years before the war”. This story has certain parallels to both the 1908 incident, but also to the passage in Švejk. Otherwise Opočenský writes that Bendova kavárna offered live music, had marble tables, and was open until early in the morning, and the beer was cheap and poor. By the time he wrote his book the premises were occupied by some printing works.

Strána mírného pokroku

Jaroslav Hašek devotes a story to Opočenský in his collection of tales about Strana mírného pokroku v mezích zákona and also here the night café is mentioned (as Bendova kavárna) and even in the same breath as Apollo. In another story the term "v Bendlovce" is used in the same manner as in the novel. It seems to refer to a tavern (or at least a place where people met). Jaroslav Hašek had a few showdowns with a certain editor of České Slovo here. The editor was of “Mosaic confession”.

In the papers
bendlovka1.png

Národní politika, 20.8.1910

bendlovka3.png

Národní politika, 3.11.1907

Newspaper reports confirm some of the information from Opočenský and also adds information about dancing arrangements. The café was operating at least from 1900 until the autumn of 1914, but at two locations. In the spring of 1905 the license of Marie Bendová was transferred from Nové město house No. 1816 to No. 1867. An advert from the first autumn of war reveals that opening times were by now shortened, to two in the morning, a common occurrence all over Austria-Hungary after the war broke out.

From time to time adverts seeking employees appeared, but reports about thefts, drunkenness and fighting were more prominent. Jaroslav Hašek was not the only troublemaker here. Here are just some of the incidents: in 1908 three German students caused serious trouble (reported in several newspapers) and in 1913 a stabbing incident was reported by Čech.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.5] Nebo v Bendlovce jsem dal jednou jednomu funebrákovi facku a on mně ji vrátil. Abychom se smířili, museli nás oba zatknout, a hned to bylo v odpoledníčku.

SourcesBřetislav Hůla, Radko Pytlík, Jaroslav Šerák, Gustav Roger Opočenský

Literature

U mrtvolynn flag
Praha II./310, Karlovo nám. 13
Google mapsearch
umrtvoly.jpg

Picture from 1926

umrtvoly2.png
umrtvoly3.png

Břetislav Hůla

U mrtvoly is mentioned in a story Švejk tells to "encourage" his fellow prisoner Policejní komisařství Salmova ulice. See Bendlovka.

Background

U mrtvoly has not been identified with certainty, but was in all probability a café at Karlovo náměstí, at the corner of Resslova ulice. The building which amongst others housed Pivovar U Šálků was demolished in 1939. There was a kavárna in the building, with entrance at Karlovo náměstí but the pictures do not reveal any name.

The address book from 1910 has an entry café "Rubáš" here and this gives a hint: "Rubáš" means "shroud" and "mrtvola" means "carcass/body". Břetislav Hůla states that U mrtvoly was a café opposite the technical college and this fits well.The owener in 1910 was Antonie Laadtová who also managed the café in 1907.

A newspaper article in Národní listy in 1922 reveals that it by then had been renamed Děvín, but no further information relating to this name has been found. Vilém Mrštík also mentions the place in his novel Santa Lucia from 1893.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.5] Nebo když v kavárně „U mrtvoly“ rozbil ten pan rada dva tácky, myslíte, že ho šetřili? Byl taky na druhej den hned v novinách.

SourcesBřetislav Hůla,Jaroslav Šerák

Also written:At the Corpse en Zum Leichnam de Ved Liket no

Literature

Strážnicenn flag
Praha II./507, Ječná ul. 6
Google mapsearch
straznice2.png

Strážnice is briefly mentioned when Švejk is led onwards from the police station in Salmovská ulice. From the novel it is clear that the guard is on street level because Švejk was interrogated on the first floor and was taken down to the guard room before he was escorted onwards.

Background

Strážnice was the guard house at the police station at Salmovská ulice. It was located in the same building as the police station but the entrance was from Ječná ulice. See Policejní komisařství Salmova ulice.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.5] Ukloniv se uctivě, odcházel s policejním strážníkem dolů na strážnici a za čtvrt hodiny bylo již vidět na rohu Ječné ulice a Karlova náměstí Švejka v průvodu druhého policejního strážníka, který měl pod paždí objemnou knihu s německým nápisem „Arrestantenbuch“.

Also written:Guardroom en Wachstube de Vaktrom no

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

6. Švejk at home again, having broken through the vicious circle

Kostel svatého Apolinářenn flag
Praha II./443, Apolinářská 20
Wikipedia czdeen Google mapsearch
apolinare.jpg

Rozkvět, 10.9.1911.

Kostel svatého Apolináře is mentioned in the narrative because the servant from church was at U kalicha when Švejk dropped by the pub after his final release from Policejní ředitelství. This was probably on 29 July 1914 because Austria-Hungary had just declared war on Serbia.

Background

Kostel svatého Apolináře is a church in Nové město which is located only a few hundred meters from U kalicha. It was built in the 15th century and named after Apollinaris of Ravenna.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.6] Ve výčepu panovalo hrobové ticho. Sedělo tam několik hostů, mezi nimi kostelník od sv. Apolináře.

Also written:Church of Saint Apollinaire en Apollinarkirche de

Literature

Volná myšlenkann flag
Kral. Vinohrady/588, Korunní tř. 6
Wikipedia czdeennn Google mapsearch
volna.png

Věstník volné myšlenky, 1910

volna.jpg

Karel Pelant. Volná myšlenka, 1.2.1925

Volná myšlenka is mentioned in when pubkeeper Palivec cries out in court: "Long live Free thought!". This is what Mrs. Palivcová tells Švejk when he returns to U kalicha after having been released at the time war broke out.

Background

Volná myšlenka was an association of freethinkers, an anticlerical an atheist movement that appeared in many countries in the 19th century. The best known freethinker internationally was Francesc Ferrer i Guàrdia (1859-1909).

The Czech organisation was founded in 1904, and provisionally dissolved in 1915. The best known representative of the Czech organisation was Machar, chairman from 1909. The organization also published a monthly periodical of the same name. Their most immediate goal was separation of state and church.

Karel Pelant (1874 - 1925) was one of the founders of the Czech section and this was a person Hašek knew well. Zdeněk Matěj Kuděj describes a meeting between the two in Plzeň in 1913 that was arranged after Pelant,at the time editor of the weekly Směr, owed him money for a few stories he had written.

Pelant also appears in Strana mírného pokroku v mezích zákona and is listed as publishers of the Freethinker's monthly.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.6] Já jsem se tak lekla toho příbuzenského poměru, aby snad ještě z toho něco nebylo, tak jsem se vzdala svědectví a on chudák stará se tak na mne podíval, do smrti na ty jeho oči nezapomenu. A potom, po rozsudku, když ho odváděli, vykřik jim tam na chodbě, jak byl z toho cele] pitomej: ,Ať žije Volná myšlenka!`

Literature

Mimosann flag
Praha I./496, Havelská ul. 31
Google mapsearch
mimosa_adv.png

Právo lidu, 16.5.1914

Mimosa is mentioned because the doorman who had occupied Švejks room worked here.

Background

Mimosa was a well known night café that doesn't exist any more. The Czech-Jewish reporter Egon Erwin Kisch set the plot of his only novel here. Der Mädchenhirt (The Pimp) was published in May 1914. In the address book of 1910 another café is listed at number 496/31: U Hvězdičky tři zlaté, but already in 1913 newspaper adverts revealed that Mimosa was operating. The café offered music and entertainment and to judge by adverts it started early in 1913.

In February 1917 Čech reported that the establishment had been forced to close down on demand from the police.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.6] Když si bral límeček a skládal kravatu, vzpamatoval se již do té míry, že mohl ujistit Švejka, že noční kavárna „Mimosa“ jest opravdu jedna z nejslušnějších nočních místností, kam mají přístup jedině dámy, které mají policejní knížku v úplném pořádku, a zval Švejka srdečně, aby přišel na návštěvu.

SourcesJaroslav Šerák, Radko Pytlík

Literature

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

7. Švejk goes in the military

K.u.k. Kriegsministeriumnn flag
Wien I./-, Stubenring 1
Wikipedia deenit Google mapsearch
kriegsministerium.jpg

Seidels kleines Armeeschema (1914)

K.u.k. Kriegsministerium is mentioned by the author when he informs that the ministry remembered Švejk at the time when the Austrians where fleeing across Raba, and that Švejk was to help them out of the difficult situation.

The ministery appears again at the start of [1.13] when Feldkurat Katz receives a directive about how to adminster the last rites. In [2.1] the author notes that issued the propaganda posters that Švejk read at the station in Tábor (see Trainsoldat Bong and Zugsführer Danko).

Background

K.u.k. Kriegsministerium was the common ministery of war of Austria-Hungary, one of the few institutions that the two constituent parts of the Dual Monarchy shared. Minister of War from 1912 until 1917 was Alexander von Krobatin. He was regarded as one of the hawks, who wanted to settle scores with Serbia at the slighest pretext. As can be seen on the picture he gave audience to civilians two hours every week.

The war ministry was not responsible for k.k. Landwehr and Honvéd, the territorial armies of the two parts of the empire. The formal status Švejk held with regards to the ministery is unclear. He was classified as Landsturm (domobranec), reservists that were only called up on in great danger to the motherland.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.7] V době, kdy lesy na řece Rábu v Haliči viděly utíkat přes Ráb rakouská vojska a dole v Srbsku rakouské divise jedna za druhou dostávaly přes kalhoty to, co jim dávno patřilo, vzpomnělo si rakouské ministerstvo vojenství i na Švejka, aby pomohl mocnářství z bryndy.
[1.13] Polní kurát Otto Katz seděl zadumané nad cirkulářem, který právě přinesl z kasáren. Byl to rezervát ministerstva vojenství
[1.15] Zatraceně, proč ministerstvo vojenství dává takové věci do školního programu. To je přece pro dělostřelectvo.
[2.1] Strážnice byla vyzdobena litografiemi, které v té době dalo rozesílat ministerstvo vojenství po všech kancelářích, kterými procházeli vojáci, stejně jako do škol i do kasáren.

Literature

K.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 18nn flag
Hradec Králové/-, - -
Wikipedia de Google mapsearch
ir18.png

Militärschematismus..., 1859.

K.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 18 is mentioned in the song Jenerál General Windischgrätz a vojenští páni through the term "the eighteenth band". See Solferino and Piedmont.

Background

K.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 18 was an infantry regiment with recruitment district Hradec Králové that took part in nearly every war the Habsburg Empire fought ever since the regiment was founded in 1682. This included the campaign of the second Italian war of independence in 1859, the actual theme of this song. At the battle of Solferino only the 4th battalion was involved, the other battalions were fortunate enough to be assigned border duty.

In 1914 the bulk of the regiment's soldiers were Czechs (75 per cent), the rest Germans.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.7]
Krve po kolena a na fůry masa, 
vždyť se tam sekala vosumnáctá chasa, 
hop, hop, hop!

Literature

Pražské úřední novinynn flag
Praha III./387, Karmelitská ul. 6
Google mapsearch
pnov2.png

Adresář královského hlavního města Prahy a obcí sousedních, 1907

pnov4.png

Prager Tagblatt, 5.7.1914

pnov5.png

Prager Tagblatt, 8.9.1914

Pražské úřední noviny prints a glowing homage to the patriotic cripple Švejk after he was pushed to the draft commission in a wheelchair. The title was: "Patriotism of a cripple".

Background

Pražské úřední noviny is not listed in the newspaper section of the address books of 1907 and 1910, but there is little doubt that the author refers to the publications of c.k. Místodržitelství (k.k. Statthalterei), often referred to by this or similar names like Pražské úřední listy, in German Prager Amtsblätter. These newspapers were mouthpieces of the Austrian authorities in Bohemia, headed by the Statthalter (governor).

The newspapers were published in Czech and German, with one official and one regular commercial part. The main periodical was Prager Zeitung in German, in Czech Pražské Noviny. Both were morning papers that were published every day except Monday. In the afternoon of working days they also published Prager Abendblatt, albeit in German only. Official announcements were printed in a separate add-on on weekdays: Úřední list Pražských Novin and Amtsblatt der Prager Zeitung respectively. On Sundays an entertainment magazine was added.

The editorial offices were located in Malá Strana, right behind Kampa island. Some time between 1907 and 1910 they changed address, but were still in the same block. Editor in chief for all the papers was Aladar Guido Przedak, for the Czech part Jan Svátek. Przedak (1857-1926) main editor from 1900 until 1918 and also bore the title k.u.k. Regierungsrat. The circulation of Prager Abendblatt was quintupled during his reign as editor.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.7] O celé této události objevil se v „Pražských úředních novinách“ tento článek:
[1.7] Vlastenectví mrzáka. Včera dopoledne byli chodci na hlavních pražských třídách svědky scény, která krásně mluví o tom, že v této veliké a vážné době i synové našeho národa mohou dáti nejskvělejší příklady věrnosti a oddanosti k trůnu stařičkého mocnáře. Zdá se nám, že se vrátily doby starých Řeků a Římanů, kdy Mucius Scaevola dal se odvésti do boje, nedbaje své upálené ruky. Nejsvětější city a zájmy byly včera krásně demonstrovány mrzákem o berlích, kterého stará matička vezla na vozíku pro nemocné. Tento syn českého národa dobrovolně, nedbaje své neduživosti, dal se odvésti na vojnu, aby dal svůj život i statky za svého císaře. A jestli jeho volání „Na Bělehrad!“ mělo tak živý ohlas v pražských ulicích, jest to jen svědectvím, že Pražané skýtají vzorné příklady lásky k vlasti a k panovnickému domu.

Also written:Prague Official Newspaper en Prager Amtszeitung de Praha Amtstidende no

Literature

Prager Tagblattnn flag
Praha I./896, Panská ul. 12
Wikipedia czdeenno Google mapsearch
tagblatt2.png

Prager Tagblatt, 1.12.1914

tagblatt1.png

Listed in the 1910 address book.

tagblatt4.png

Prager Tagblatt, 5.1.1923

tagblatt5.png

Prager Tagblatt, 17.1.1926

Prager Tagblatt briefly notes that Švejk was protected by Germans against Czech agents from the Entente who wanted to lynch him on his way to Střelecký ostrov.

The newspapers features again in connection with the theft of Fox. The dog's owner, Oberst Kraus, placed adverts both here and in Bohemia where he promises a reward of 100 crowns.

Background

Prager Tagblatt was a German language daily published in Prague from 1877 until 1939. The paper had a reputation for outstanding journalistic qualities, and was regarded as one of the very best German-language newspapers of its time. It was over the years associated with a number of distinguished writers, amongst them Max Brod, Egon Erwin Kisch, Franz Kafka, Josef Roth, Michal Mareš and Friedrich Torberg. Politically it was regarded as liberal-democratic, and in Czech address books it is listed as "German progressive". Chief editor in 1910 was Gustav Horn. Franz Kafka was amongst those who contributed to the newspaper and he was also an avid reader of it.

During World War I the paper aligned with the propaganda, but was often the victim om censorship, and put more emphasis on the human costs of the war than many other papers. In the inter-war years the daily re-established its reputation for journalistic excellence, but hardly two months after the German invasion in March 1939 it was closed for good. The many Jewish staff had been dismissed already during the days after the invasion.

The editorial and administration offices were located in Panská ulice (Herrengasse), incidentally very close to where Oberst Kraus caught Oberleutnant Lukáš red-handed with the stolen Fox.

Prager Tagblatt and Hašek

After Jaroslav Hašek's death on 3 January 1923 Prager Tagblatt played a major role in acknowledging and spreading the word about the late author and his satirical masterpiece. This was largely thanks to Max Brod, an author and journalist who is better known as the custodian of Franz Kafka's literary heritage.

Already on 5 January the paper printed an obituary on Hašek, and Brod's own translation of the first chapter of the novel appeared in the same issue. During the next fifteen years Švejk and Hašek showed up repeatedly in the newspaper's columns, particularly in 1926 when the full translation into German by Grete Reiner was published.

Švejk greift in den Weltkrieg ein (Max Brod)

"Also den Ferdinand haben die uns erschlagen", sagte die Bedienerin zu Švejk, welcher, nachdem er vor Jahren den militärischen Dienst verlassen hatte (die ärtztliche Kommission erklärte ihn für vollkommen irrsinnig), sich durch den Verkauf von Hunden weisterbrachte, deren Stammbaum er fälschte.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.7] Ve stejném smyslu psal i „Prager Tagblatt“, který končil svůj článek slovy, že mrzáka dobrovolce vyprovázel zástup Němců, kteří ho svými těly chránili před lynchováním ze strany českých agentů známé Dohody.
[1.15] „Pane nadporučíku,“ pokračoval plukovník, „považujete za správné jezdit na ukradeném koni? Nečetl jste inserát v ,Bohemii’ a v ,Tagblattu’, že se mně ztratil stájový pinč?
[1.15] V tiché resignaci seděl nadporučík na židli a měl takový pocit, že nemá tolik síly nejen dát Švejkovi pohlavek, ale dokonce ukroutit si cigaretu, a sám nevěděl ani, proč posílá Švejka pro „Bohemii“ a „Tagblatt“, aby si Švejk přečetl plukovníkův inserát o ukradeném psu.

Literature

Bohemiann flag
Praha I./211, Liliova ul. 13
Wikipedia deen Google mapsearch
bohemia2.png

The first issue after the change of names

bohemia3.png

Ferdinand Mestek de Podskal, E.E. Kisch

Bohemia, 5.7.1914.

Bohemia published an article that resembled the one from Prager Tagblatt about the cripple Švejk and his journey in a wheelchair. It adds that gifts for the benefit of the soldier can be presented at the administrative office. In the next chapter it becomes clear that it was in this paper Baronesse von Botzenheim read about the keen soldier.

In [1.14] the newspaper is mentioned again as Oberst Kraus placed an advert about the missing dog and offered a rward of 100 crowns.

On the train to Tábor [2.1] it is revealed that even Oberleutnant Lukáš reads Bohemia.

Background

Bohemia was a German-language daily published in Prague from 1828 til 1938, associated with the German Liberal Party. During the war they took a strongly patriotic stance, and from 15 November 1914 even changed the name to Deutsche Zeitung Bohemia. The editorial and administration offices were located in Liliova ulice in Staré město and chief editor in 1914 was Andreas Haase. He held the position for an impressive 40 years, from 1879 to 1919.

E.E. Kisch

Their best known reporter was without doubt the legendary Egon Erwin Kisch. He worked for the paper from 1906 to 1913, and published many reports from Prague, mainly focused on the shady underworld. Kisch dedicated a feuilleton to flea circus director Mestek, mentions the murderer Valeš and the Negro negro Kristian, and wrote about a number of dubious establishments that are familiar to readers of Švejk: Apollo, Tunel, U Kocanů, to name just a few. Kisch knew Jaroslav Hašek personally and even wrote about him on a few occasions.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.7]Bohemie“ uveřejnila tuto zprávu žádajíc, aby mrzák vlastenec byl odměněn, a oznámila, že pro neznámého přijímá od německých občanů dárky v administraci listu.
[1.15] „Pane nadporučíku,“ pokračoval plukovník, „považujete za správné jezdit na ukradeném koni? Nečetl jste inserát v ,Bohemii’ a v ,Tagblattu’, že se mně ztratil stájový pinč?
[1.15] V tiché resignaci seděl nadporučík na židli a měl takový pocit, že nemá tolik síly nejen dát Švejkovi pohlavek, ale dokonce ukroutit si cigaretu, a sám nevěděl ani, proč posílá Švejka pro „Bohemii“ a „Tagblatt“, aby si Švejk přečetl plukovníkův inserát o ukradeném psu.
[2.1] Nadporučíkovi bezděčně zacvakaly zuby, vzdychl si, vytáhl z pláště „Bohemii“ a četl zprávy o velkých vítězstvích, o činnosti německé ponorky „E“ na Středozemním moři...

Literature

Odvodní komisenn flag
Praha I./336, Střelecký ostrov -
Google mapsearch
odvod.png

Commission on 31 December 1914

strelov.png
odvod1.png

Oveview of Landsturm medical examination commissions in Prague (Čech, 8 November 1914)

Odvodní komise is the Czech name for Draft commission, the body that examined Švejk at Střelecký ostrov. Head of the commission was the notorious doctor Bautze.

Background

Odvodní komise refers in this context to Landsturmmusterungskommision No. 1, a temporary body who were tasked with carrying out a renewed medical examination of Landsturm recruits who in peace time had either been declared unfit for armed service (Waffenunfähig) or had been dismissed from the armed forces after initially having started their military service (Superarbitriert).

Commission no. 1 was responsible for recruits who lived in Prague and had right of Heimatrecht in the city. In addition it examined residents of Prague with right of domicile elsewhere, if these were born from 1878 to 1883. Jaroslav Hašek belonged to the latter group (right of domicile Mydlovary, born 1883) and necessarily also Švejk. As a soldier in k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 91 his right of domicile must have been in Heeresergänzungsbezirk Nr. 91. See Ergänzungskommando.

The commission started the examinations on 1 October 1914 when those born from 1892 to 1894 were called in. Amongst this group more than half were deemed fit for service. From 16 November to 31 December it was the turn of those born from 1878 to 1890. Amongst this group far fewer were passed capable Tauglich, less than one third. This latter group is the most interesting for us as it was here Jaroslav Hašek fit in. Everything indicates that also Švejk belonged to this group and was thus born between 1878 and 1883. On 20 January 1915 it was announced that those passed for service were to report at their Ergänzungskommando on 15 February.

The examinations took place in the garden restaurant at Střelecký ostrov, on the southern part of the island. The restaurant was in 1914 a popular destination.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.7] Když Švejk revírnímu inspektorovi ukázal, že to má černé na bílém, že dne musí před odvodní komisi, byl revírní inspektor trochu zklamán; kvůli zamezení výtržnosti dal doprovázet vozík se Švejkem dvěma jízdními strážníky na Střelecký ostrov.

Also written:Draft commission en Musterungskommision de Mønstringskommisjonen no

Literature

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

8. Švejk as a malingerer

Posádková věznicenn flag
Praha IV./214, Kapucínská 2
Wikipedia czen Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum
posadvez2.jpg
posadvez1.png
posadvez.png

Posádková věznice is apparently the scene of the plot of two entire chapters. Both [1.8] and [1.9] takes place in and around the garrison prison. The first part is set in the sick-barrack of the prison, then moves on to cell no. 16. Švejk's escape starts in the chapel when Feldkurat Katz during holy mass takes to Švejk and consequently employs him as him officer's servant.

The prison is first mentioned at the end of [1.7] and it is said that this is where Švejk is going. Amongst the people Švejk met during his imprisonment are: doctor Grünstein, Baronesse von Botzenheim, Hauptmann Linhart, the warders Stabsprofus Slavík, Feldwebel Řepa and Korporal Říha - and at the very end: the military prosecution represented by Auditor Bernis.

Background

Posádková věznice is the author's term for c.a.k. vojenská věznice v Praze (k.u.k. Militärgefängnis von Prag), a prison that was part of the garrison complex at Hradčany. It shared the building with the garrison court and the k.k. Landwehr court. The building is located behind Loreta; and was opened in 1896 and is still in use, but not publicly accessible. Its function as a prison and brutal interrogation centre was revitalised during the Nazi and Communist dictatorships. See also Vojenský soud.

In 1906 there were two Stabsprofusen employed at the prison, but none of them were named Stabsprofus Slavík, Korporal Říha, or Feldwebel Řepa. The two were Jan Frkal and Josef Bureš and they lived on the premises. If any of them was a model for the literary figures is impossible to say and it can not be determined if the author had anything to do with the garrison prison at all, so we must assumed that the inspiration for those figures hailed from elsewhere. On the other hand it is possible that Jaroslav Hašek had heard some story from former inmates of the prison. The description of the conditions in the prison and the brutality of the warders all in all appears strongly exaggerated.

There is every sign that the author was not very familiar with the organisation of the garrison. There is contradicting information on where Švejk actually was: at Vojenská nemocnice Hradčany or in a sick-bay within the prison. One passage indicates that the author believes that the military hospital was part of the prison, which it clearly wasn't. In chapter nine the reader gets the impression that the garrison actually WAS the prison, which it wasn't (at most "garrison" was a colloquial term for the garrison prison).

Antonín Matějovský
posadvez2.png

Antonín Matějovský

In 1923 a series of publications called "Documents from our national revolution" started to appear. Here one witness, A. Matějovský, gives some insight into the conditions at the prison. He was arrested after having distributed the so-called "Tsar Nicholas II's manifest" in 1914 and given a 10 year term. He spent the first 16 months at Hradčany before being transferred to Arad. His description of the prison is completely at odds with what Švejk experienced. The staff behaved impeccably towards the prisoners and gave them a friendly send-off to Arad, where the condition in the prison was much worse. Matějovský was released in 1917 during the general amnesty of the new emperor Karl I.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.8] Švejka v posádkové věznici do nemocničního baráku právě mezi takové malomyslné simulanty.

Also written:Garrison prison en Garnisonsgefängnis de Garnisonsarresten no

Literature

Vojenská nemocnice Hradčanynn flag
Praha IV./181, Loretánská 4
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum
vojnemoc2.jpg

© Stará Praha

vojnemoc.png

Český svět, 5.5.1916

Vojenská nemocnice Hradčany is mentioned by doctor Grünstein when he asks Švejk if he enjoys his stay at the military hospital. It is however unclear if the hospital is part of the plot at all, as the information about Švejk's stay amongst the malingerers at Hradčany is somewhat contradictory. In other parts of the text the reader gets the impression that it is talk of a sick-bay that is part of the garrison prison. See Posádková věznice for more on this topic.

Background

Vojenská nemocnice Hradčany refers to a branch of k.u.k. military hospital no. 11 in Prague. It was located in the same barrack complex as the garrison prison, the military court, and other army institutions. The main military hospital in Praha was Vojenská nemocnice Karlovo náměstí.

Chief staff doctor in 1916 was dr. Křejčí as revealed when newspapers reported on a visit by Countess Coudenhove, the wife of Bohemia's governor. The visit took place on 10 April 1916, too late to fit chronologically with the visit of Baronesse von Botzenheim, but nevertheless there are interesting similarities.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.8] Druhého dne při visitě otázal se dr Grünstein Švejka, jak se mu líbí ve vojenské nemocnici. Švejk odpověděl, že jest to podnik správný a vznešený.

Also written:Military hospital at Hradčany en Militärspital am Hradschin de Militærsjukehuset på Hradčany no

Literature

Československá Republikann flag
Praha III./387, Karmelitská ul. 6
Google mapsearch
cesrep2.png

Chytilův adresář 1924.

cesrep.png

Národní Listy, 11.4.1931.

Československá Republika is mentioned during the visit of Baronesse von Botzenheim at Hradčany where she gave Švejk the book Episodes from the life of our emperor that was written by the future editor in chief of this paper.

Background

Československá Republika was an official government daily newspaper that was published by this name from 1919 to 1932. It was a direct successor to Pražské úřední noviny, and was even located in the same offices. The mentioned editor, editor Filip, had been an working for the paper also during the old regime. From 1932 to 1938 it continued publishing, but now using the name Pražské noviny. The government's newspaper group also issued Úřední List Československá Republika and the evening paper Prager Abendblatt (in German).

In Rudé Pravo

Jaroslav Hašek also wrote a satirical article in Rudé Pravo where editor editor Filip and his newspaper is treated in more detail: What I would advise the Communists if I were the Chief Editor of the official Government newspaper Československá Republika. The article was dated 7 April 1921 printed on 8 May - around the time when the passages in the novel were written. In the article he claims that some Svátek was editor in chief, in the novel the author of the book about the emperor (i.e. Filip) has this role. According to the address book from 1924 the chief editor was Josef Hevera, and another of the names mentioned in the Rudé Pravo article, Adolf Zeman, was indeed on the editorial board. The article furthermore suggests that Jaroslav Hašek was still a Communist at heart.

On Hašek

The newspaper wrote about Hašek from time to time, mainly after he became famous, and on 5 January 1923 they printed an obituary. Shortly after his return from Russia they printed adverts for his appearance at the theatre Červená sedma where he related stories from his stay in Russia.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.8] Potom vytáhla z koše tři láhve vína pro rekonvalescenty a dvě krabice cigaret. Vše elegantně rozložila na prázdnou postel vedle Švejka, kam přibyla ještě pěkně vázaná kniha „Příběhy ze života našeho mocnáře“, kterou napsal nynější zasloužilý šéfredaktor naší úřední „Československé republiky“, který se ve starém Frantíkovi viděl.

Literature

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

9. Švejk in the garrison prison

Obchodní akademienn flag
Praha II./1780, Resslova ul. 8
Google search
akademie1.jpg

Resslova 1780/8: Českoslovanská akademie obchodní.

akademie.png

Address book from 1910.

rezabek.jpg

Jan Řežábek

Zlatá Praha, 21.10.1892.

Obchodní akademie is mentioned when the author introduces Feldkurat Katz to the reader. He had studied at a commercial academy.

Background

Obchodní akademie is an ambiguous term, but we must assume that Otto Katz studied at one of the two commercial academies in Prague. Because he was Jewish it is at first glance logical to assume that his mother tongue was German and he therefore studied at the German academy. On the other hand the field chaplain was no doubt bi-lingual so the Czech academy must also be considered.

Českoslovanská akademie obchodní in Resslova ulice is all in all the likelier candidate. Hašek himself studied here and this weighs heavily in favour of the latter when analysing which commercial academy the future field chaplain studied at. It should also be noted that some Otto Katz actually graduated from this academy in 1881 and the author may well have been aware of him. Augustín Knesl claimed that this very person was the model of Hašek's literary field chaplain.

Another Otto Katz graduated from the German academy in 1896, but in 1906 he lived in Trieste so it is less likely that Hašek knew him.

Commercial academies as institutions

In Austria commercial academies were institutions that offered three-year (later four-year) education in commerce and accounting. The first of those academies was founded in Prague in 1856 as Prager Handelsakademie, the first with Czech as instruction language was the very Českoslovanská akademie obchodní that was established in 1872. From the beginning they were located in Staré město but in 1892 they moved to Resslova ulice i Praha II. They are still (2020) operating but located in another building in the same street. Commercial academies as institutions to this day exist in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Austria.

Hašek and the Czechoslavonic Commercial Academy

Jaroslav Hašek studied here from 1899 to 1902 and left with good grades. Here he met some of his best friends, first and foremost Hájek, but also Karel Marek who probably lent his name to the literary Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek. Another fellow student was Jan Čulen who joined Hašek on a longer journeys in 1900 and 1901. It was this education that enabled Hašek to serve as a one-year volunteer in k.u.k. Heer. The institution was one the list of establishments that gave its graduates the right to shortened term of service and other privileges.

On bad terms with the headmaster

In 1909 Jaroslav Hašek wrote he story Obchodní akademie for Karikatury. Here head teacher "Jeřábek", in real life Jan Řežábek[1], is mercilessly pilloried and the piece was censored and was only printed the next year, in a revised version. Jeřábek was even assigned qualities that readers of The Good Soldier Švejk will recognise in Oberst Kraus. In addition the academy is mentioned multiple times in Strana mírného pokroku v mezích zákona.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.9] Studoval obchodní akademii a sloužil jako jednoroční dobrovolník. A vyznal se tak dobře v směnečném právu a ve směnkách, že přivedl za ten rok obchodní firmu Katz a spol. k bankrotu tak slavnému a podařenému, že starý pan Katz odjel do Severní Ameriky, zkombinovav nějaké vyrovnání se svými věřiteli bez vědomí posledních i svého společníka, který odjel do Argentiny.

SourcesAugustín Knesl, Jaroslav Šerák

Also written:Commercial academy en Handelsakademie de

Notes
1. Jan Řežábek (1862-1925), "Hofrat" and head of the Czechoslavonic Commercial Academy from 1900 to 1918.

Literature

Katz a spol.nn flag
Google search
katz0.png

Venkov, 1.5.1921

fkatz2.png

Adresář Libeň, 1896

Katz a spol. is mentioned when the author introduces Feldkurat Katz to the reader. The company traded in bills-of-exchange and was owned by Katz's father and his companion. When young Katz took over the business he drove it to bankruptcy within a short time. His father settled with the creditors and moved to North America whereas his companion emigrated to Argentina. Thus the firm continued to exists in the new world, as two incarnations.

Background

Katz a spol. is the author's term for a firm in Prague. At least two companies who traded in Praha at the time were owned by an Otto Katz. None of the two companies traded in bills-of-exchange. In 1983 Augustín Knesl made an attempt to identify Feldkurat Katz and thus the company, and concluded that Katz was born in 1864, was educated at Českoslovanská akademie obchodní and owned a company that went bankrupt in 1923.

The firm Knesl refers to existed from at least 1918 until 1923 and was a weaver and linen manufacturer in Celetná ulice. The firm advertised widely in 1920 and 1921 and it may be that the author picked the name from these (Jaroslav Hašek was an avid reader of newspapers, including adverts).

Another firm existed from 1893 onwards in Libeň (Královská třída 358) and manufactured rape-seed oil. In 1902 the company is no longer listed but Otto Katz is still the owner of the property, as he is as late as 1932.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.9] Studoval obchodní akademii a sloužil jako jednoroční dobrovolník. A vyznal se tak dobře v směnečném právu a ve směnkách, že přivedl za ten rok obchodní firmu Katz a spol. k bankrotu tak slavnému a podařenému, že starý pan Katz odjel do Severní Ameriky, zkombinovav nějaké vyrovnání se svými věřiteli bez vědomí posledních i svého společníka, který odjel do Argentiny.

SourcesAugustín Knesl, Jaroslav Šerák

Literature

Ústav šlechtičennn flag
Praha IV./2-3, U sv. Jíří 1
Wikipedia cz Google mapsearch

Ústav šlechtičen is mentioned by the author in his description of the baptism of Feldkurat Katz where a lady from this Institute for Noblewomen was present.

Background

Ústav šlechtičen was an institution for education of daughters of noblemen who were incapable of providing their daughter with an existence that was in line with their rank in society. The foundation was created by Maria Theresa in 1755 and accomodated 30 ladies. It was located in Rožmberský palác at Hradčany. The abbess was always an unmarried lady of the house Habsburg-Lothringen, and from 1894 to 1918 Maria Annunziata, the sister of Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand, held the position.

On 1 May 1919 the nobility institute was dissolved and the palace transferred to the Ministry of Interior. The building is located on the castle premises, and is today (2015) the property of the Czech state. It recently underwent extensive renovation and is used as a museum and exhibition area.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.9] Křtili ho slavnostně v Emauzích. Sám páter Albán ho na máčel do křtitelnice. Byla to nádherná podívaná, byl u toho jeden nábožný major od pluku, kde Otto Katz sloužil, jedna stará panna z ústavu šlechtičen na Hradčanech a nějaký otlemený zástupce konsistoře, který mu dělal kmotra.

Also written:Institute for Noblewomen en Anstalt für adelige Frauen de Institutt for adelsdamer no

Literature

Konsistořnn flag
Praha IV./56, Hradčanské nám. 16
Wikipedia czense Google mapsearch

Konsistoř is mentioned by the author in his description of the baptism of Feldkurat Katz where a representative of the consistory acted as Katz's godfather.

Background

Konsistoř (also called Curia) is a religious council that advises for instance the archbishop or the pope. In this case it is surely talk of the archbishop's consistory at Hradčany (Knížecí arcibiskupská konsistoř). In 1907 the council's address was the archbishop's palace itself, and they held meetings every Wednesday

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.9] Křtili ho slavnostně v Emauzích. Sám páter Albán ho na máčel do křtitelnice. Byla to nádherná podívaná, byl u toho jeden nábožný major od pluku, kde Otto Katz sloužil, jedna stará panna z ústavu šlechtičen na Hradčanech a nějaký otlemený zástupce konsistoře, který mu dělal kmotra.

Also written:Consistory en Konsistorium de Konsistoriet no

Literature

Seminářnn flag
Praha I./1040, Křižovnické nám. 4
Google mapsearch
seminar.png

Praha 1910. ©AHMP

Seminář is mentioned by the author in his description of Feldkurat Katz's career. The newly converted priest was educated at the seminary.

Background

Seminář most probably refers to Arcibiskupský seminář, an institution for education of catholic priests that still exists. At the time of Jaroslav Hašek the seminary was located in Klementinum, but was in 1929 moved to Dejvice where they are still housed.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.9] Ale jednoho dne se opil a šel do kláštera, zanechal šavle a chopil se kutny. Byl u arcibiskupa na Hradčanech a dostal se do semináře. Opil se na mol před svým vysvěcením v jednom velmi pořádném domě s dámskou obsluhou v uličce za Vejvodovic a přímo z víru rozkoše a zábavy šel se dát vysvětit.

Also written:Seminary en Seminar de Seminaret no

Literature

U Vejvodůnn flag
Praha I./353, Jilská ul. 2
Wikipedia cz Google mapsearch
vejvoda1.png

Národní politika, 25.10.1910

U Vejvodů is mentioned in connection with Feldkurat Katz drinking himself to the ground the night before being ordained as vicar. This is supposed to have happened "in a descent house with lady service" in a small street behind Vejvodovice.

Background

U Vejvodů is a house and a restaurant in Staré město in Prague and one of the oldest of its kind. It has existed at least since 1560. In 1717 Jan Václav Vejvoda bought the property and the building is named after him. Early in the 20th century Karel Klusáček took over and rebuilt it to become what it was known as until 1990. The house was also for a period the home of a cinema as well as hosting Umělecká beseda (the artist's union).

U Vejvodů still exists as a large restaurant which serves Czech food and Pilsner Urquell. The place is totally changed after the renovation in the 1990's, but is still very popular and relatively affordable considering the location.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.9] Opil se na mol před svým vysvěcením v jednom velmi pořádném domě s dámskou obsluhou v uličce za Vejvodovic a přímo z víru rozkoše a zábavy šel se dát vysvětit.

SourcesRadko Pytlík, Milan Hodík

Also written:Vejvodovice Hašek

Literature

Dům za Vejvodovicnn flag
Praha I./442, Vejvodova ul. 10
Google mapsearch
vejvodova.jpg

Vejvodova ulice, the brothel by the street lamp

bartonicek.png

Chytilův adresář 1913

Dům za Vejvodovic is mentioned in connection with Feldkurat Katz drinking himself to the ground the night before being ordained as priest. This is supposed to have happened "in a very descent house with lady service in a small street behind Vejvodovice".

Background

Dům za Vejvodovic most probably refers to a brothel owned by Čeněk Bartoníček in Vejvodova ulice 10, just a few steps east of U Vejvodů. Bartoníček was in the address book of 1913 listed as owner of the brothel at this address. This is also the only house of pleasure that fits the description in the novel.

In the address book from 1910 a man who carried this name was listed as a "coffee-house" owner in Věnceslava Lužická ulice 29 in Malá strana. This café was entered as a brothel in 1913 but with František Stránský as owner. Bartoníček thus seems to have sold and re-established himself east of the Vltava. Police registers reveal that he lived in Lužická ulice (Prague III/124) already from 1901 and he is registered in Vejvodová ulice from 24 November 1910.

The house itself, also known as Bílý kříž (the white cross) was in 1910 owned by Josef Sobička. To judge by the address books there was no "café" in Vejvodova 10 in 1910 so Bartoníček seems to have started the establishment from scratch.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.9] Opil se na mol před svým vysvěcením v jednom velmi pořádném domě s dámskou obsluhou v uličce za Vejvodovic a přímo z víru rozkoše a zábavy šel se dát vysvětit.

Also written:House behind Vejvodovice;no en

Literature

Vězeňské kaplenn flag
Praha IV./72, Kanovnická ul. 11
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum
vojkap.jpg

Vězeňské kaple was the scene of Feldkurat Katz' grand sermon for the prisoners in the garrison jail. Here he drunk field chaplain discovered Švejk when the latter started crying during his speech. It ended well for the good soldier who was eventually released and continued in a care-free existence, serving a field chaplain he got on with ever so well.

Background

Vězeňské kaple possibly refers Vojenský kostel sv. Jana Nepomuckého at Hradčany. The church belongs to the same building complex as the military hospital, the garrison prison, and the military court. It is easily accessible across the courtyard between the buildings. It shares the address with Voršilské kasárny.

Another place the author might have had in mind is a chapel on the premises of the Royal Country Penitary next door. This was not an army institution, but that will not necessarily have stopped the author from including it in the plot. It also fits the description in the novel more accurately as a house chapel (of the garrison) and and a prison chapel is mentioned.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.9] „Zejtra máme u nás divadlo. Povedou nás do kaple na kázání. My všichni v podvlíkačkách stojíme zrovna pod kazatelnou. To ti bude legrace!“ Jako ve všech věznicích a trestnicích, tak i na garnisoně těšila se domácí kaple velké oblibě. Nejednalo se o to, že by nucená návštěva vězeňské kaple sblížila návštěvníky s bohem, že by se vězňové více dověděli o mravnosti. O takové hlouposti nemůže být ani řeči.

Also written:Prison chapel at Hradčany en Gefängniskapell am Hradschin de Fengselskapellet på Hradčany no

Literature

K.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 28nn flag
Praha III./132, Pod Bruskou 2
Wikipedia czderu Google mapsearch
ir28.jpg

Vojáci 28. pěšího pluku shromáždění při pohovu u kasáren pod Bruskou (dům čp. 132 na Malé Straně). 1.3.1910.

ebzk28.png

Heeresergänzungsbezirk Nr. 28

Schematismus für das k. u. k. Heer..., 1911.

K.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 28 is mentioned many times in The Good Soldier Švejk. Their name first appears when Feldkurat Katz holds his sermon for the soldiers at Vězeňské kaple. His altar boy was a petty thief from the regiment.

In [2.1] the author mentions an episode where a soldier from the regiment explains how the Hungarians in Szeged ridiculed the Czech soldiers by holding their hands up above their head.

In [3.1] the 28th regiment re-enters the narrative in connection with a report that two of their battalions on 3 April 1915 crossed over to the Russians to the tunes of the regimental music. The regiment was disbanded by Imperial decree and their standard to the army museum in Vienna. The decree is read out for the departing soldiers in Királyhida, and so is a related order from Erzherzog Joseph Ferdinand.

The last mention is in [4.1] as a spy enters Švejk's cell in Przemyśl. He claims to have served in k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 28 (although he spoke Czech with a Polish accent).

Background

K.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 28 (c.a k. pěší pluk č. 28) was one of 102 infantry regiments in k.u.k. Heer. It was founded as early as in 1698 and was thus one of the oldest in the entire army. The regiment thus took part in many campaigns where they particularly distinguished themselves by Custoza 24 June 1866. They also participated in battles during the Napoleonic Wars, for instance at Aspern and Leipzig.

It was a predominantly Czech regiment (95 percent), recruited from Heeresergänzungsbezirk Nr. 28, Prague. They had moved here from Kutná Hora in 1817. Apart from the capital it recruited from Žižkov, Smíchov, Královské Vinohrady, Kladno, Slany, Kralupy a.o.

The regiment's home barracks were at Bruska in Malá Strana. In 1914 only the 2nd battalion and the recruitment district command were located here. The rest of the regiment had since 1912 been garrisoned in Tyrol: staff and the 3rd battalion in Innsbruck and the 1st and 4th battalions in Schlanders (it. Silandro) and Malè respectively. Regimental commander in 1914 was colonel Ferdinand SedlaczekSchematismus für das k. u. k. Heer..., K.k. Hof und Staatsdruckerei, 1914" href="#IR28a">[a].

During the war
ir28a.jpg

"Osmadvacátníci", Josef Srbek, 1936.

After the outbreak of war the three battalions from Tyrol[1] were sent to the Eastern Front and took part in the invasion of Russian Poland, including the battle by Komarów 28 August 1914. The rest of the year and until April 1915 they were fighting north of and in the Carpathians, for instance by Limanowa in December where they suffered severe losses.

It was however Easter Saturday 3 April 1915 that forever would become the most controversial day in the history of k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 28. At the front section north of Bardejov the bulk of the regiment surrended after having been attacked and by numerically superior Russian forces. Upwards in the k.u.k. command hierarchy it was however reported that two entire battalions of the regiment had given themselves up without firing a shot. The outcome was that it was dissolved by an imperial decree dated 17 April 1015 (the order is correctly reproduced in The Good Soldier Švejk).

In the meantime (February 1915) the replacement battalion had been transferred from Prague to Szeged. It was thus the first of many Czech regiments who were moved away from their recruitment area that year. The reason for these measures was fears in military circles that the increasing dissatisfaction with the war amongst Czechs would influence the attitudes of the soldiers. Already from September 1914 there were reports of poor discipline and dissent when the soldiers left Prague with the 2nd march battalion. Many were reportedly drunk and some demonstrated openly. Commander of the Ersatzbataillon, the pensioned but now re-activated Oberst Josef Krček, was also accused of neglect and for allowing an irresponsible lifestyle amongst the officers. After the regiment's transfer to Szeged he ordered 6,000 litres of beer a month for the officer's mess![c]

ir28b.jpg

Svět, 21.11.1918.

The 28th regiment was reconstituted in December 1915 after a court investigation in Kassa (Košice) and Temesvár (Timișoara) concluded that the alleged mass desertion was far less serious than first believed. Their cause was also helped by the fact that the 11th march battalion had excelled at the Italian front in early summer. During the rest of the war the regiment operated in Albania, Sarajevo, Carinthia and on the Isonzo front. They took part in the advance on Piave in October and November 1917 and also participated in the last battle of the war during the days of the final collapse of Austria-Hungary.

The replacement battalion was in 1916 moved from Szeged to Bruck an der Mur where they were garrisoned until the war ended. These were the first soldiers from the now dissolved k.u.k. Heer who returned to Prague. Here they were celebrated as heroes, and the regiment was absorbed into the Czechoslovak army using their old number, and streets were named after them.

A persistent myth
ir28.png

"Kronika světové války 1914-1919", František P. Vožický.

The incident on 3 April 1915 that The Good Soldier Švejk refers to is one of the best known involving Czechs units in k.u.k. Heer. The reality did however differ somewhat from Hašek's description. The incident did not happen by Dukla, but by Esztebnekhuta (now Stebnícka Huta), 30 km to the west, north of Bardejov, near the village of Zborov. Involved in the battle were the 1st, 3rd and 4th battalions. That two battalions crossed over to the tunes of the regiment's band is patently not true, nor did they surrended as a unit. It is true that a large number of soldiers were captured but loss list reveal that the missing soldiers were relatively evenly distributed across the three battalions. Around 350 reported back to the regiment.

ir28stebnik.png

"Slovenský Zborov", Klecanda, 1934.

After a surprise Russian attack early in the morning the regiment was in a hopeless situation, heavily outnumbered, threatened with encirclement and running out of ammunition. Many of the soldiers were from the recently arrived 8th match battalion and were poorly trained. Some of them had not even fired a rifle before.

The story about the full-scale desertion appeared as a result of misunderstandings and cover-ups in the command chain of k.u.k. Heer, and that there later existed political motives for keeping the myth alive. It served the nation building purposes of the new Czechoslovakia to exaggerate the disloyalty of Czech regiments whereas military circles in Austria were happy to blame Czechs to distract attention from their own failures. Research published in books by Josef Fučík (2006) and Richard Lein (2011) has shed light on those circumstances and the myths about the regiment's "betrayal" are slowly dying.

The "desertion" in history writing
ir28fane.jpg

Předání praporu 28. pěšího pluku do Vojenského historického muzea ve Vídni.

As mentioned above k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 28 has since the year 2000 been more or less rehabilitated, at least in the eyes of historians. Ironically this process started already in 1915, namely with the resurrection of the regiment, based on the outcome of hearings at the garrison court in Temesvár. Interestingly the trial didn't involve the field commanders but Oberst Krček of the replacement battalion due to alleged insufficient training and poor discipline. The main witness captain Bornemisza spoke of a chaotic situation at the replacement battalion, both in Prague and later in Szeged. Krček and other officers rejected most of the accusations and later Bornemisza was charged for lying under oath.

Information from the trials was kept secret, so the public was never informed about the real reasons for the decisions. The official story was that the regiment had been "pardoned" due to the performance of the 11th march battalion at the Isonzo front, the trial was not mentioned until after the war. This secrecy didn't serve any useful military purposes, but it did spare the blushes of the people who had contributed to the dissolution of the regiment in the first place; from regiment commander Oberstleutnant Florian Schaumeier[2], Infanteriebrigade Nr. 55 commander Generalmajor Heinrich Haustein, commander of Infanteriedivision Nr. 28 Generalmajor Alfred von Hinke, III. Korps commander Feldmarschall-Leutnant Josef Krautwald, III. Armee commander General Svetozar Boroević (1862-1920), Erzherzog Friedrich and even the Emperor.

ir28steb.jpg

War cemetery from Stebnícka Huta, 1918

"Osmadvacátníci", Josef Fučík, 2006.

The victim of the blame game was first and foremost the reputation of the 28th regiment but the affair also stigmatised the entire Czech nation as cowards and traitors. Friedrich's army order of 17 April 1915 that supplemented the Emperor's decree stated that "two battalions of the regiment had given themselves up to a single enemy battalion without firing a shot". This was at best a half-truth. Friedrich also claimed that the gap in the front left by the deserting regiment had to be filled by IR73 and German units. This was a blatant lie: at the time there were no German units at this section of the front and IR73 were engaged 100 km further east, in Východní Beskydy.[3]

More of these false stories circulated in Austria during the war: the regiment had allegedly mistaken Germans for Russians and crossed over to their own allies! The German troops had subsequently dealt with them. Another claim was that 40 officers and men from the regiment had been executed in Szeged on 5 May 1915.[g]

This version of events were largely left uncontested throughout the inter-war years, despite the details of the Temesvár trial now becoming available. There was however the odd dissenting voice both in Austria and in Czechoslovakia.

In inter-war Austria
ir28nowak.jpg

"Der Sturz der Mittelmächte", Karl Friedrich Nowak, 1921.

ir28friedrich.png

Erzherzog Friedrich's army order contained many inaccuracies and falsehoods.

Salzburger Chronik, 17.4.1926.

In 1921 historian Karl Friedrich Nowak[4] published the book Der Sturz der Mittelmächte (The fall of the Central Powers) where he openly questioned the established narrative. He wrote that the regiment fought for more than 24 hours against a superior enemy before giving up. He added that although some groups no doubt deserted or allowed themselves to be captured, it didn't apply to battalions as units.[f].

Still there is no indication that his observations made any impact on Austrian or Bohemian-German public opinion, nor in anything that was published in German in the inter-war years. Even Österreich-Ungarns letzter Krieg maintained the essence of the "desertion" story. On the 11th anniversary of the Emperor's army order Salzburger Chronik wrote about the 28th regiment but the narrative had not changed. k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 28 were still traitors, end of discussion. In September 1939 Kronen-Zeitung in the now Nazi-ruled Austria used the affair in some particularly crude anti-Czech propaganda[h]. This was during the days leading up to the infamous Munich-agreement that forced Czechoslovakia to cede Sudetenland to Nazi Germany).

The former k.u.k. officer Robert Nowak wrote a manuscript titled Die Klammer des Reiches. It deals with the attitudes of the eleven nations of the Dual monarchy during the war. Nowak tried to have parts of it published in a major Viennese newspaper to no avail. The editor said the content was not in line with the public mood! Many historians have since referred to the document but it remains unpublished, stored in Vienna's Kriegsarchiv[i].

Whether there was any serious historical research into the affair in post-World War II Austria until 1990 is not known to me. Manfried Rauchensteiner[5] dedicated some space to k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 28 in his Der Tod des Doppeladlers (1993) but I have not had the chance to consult his book.To judge by what he has written later[d] he would at least have scraped away some of the more fanciful myths, like "crossing over to the tunes of the Regimentsmusik".

The Czechoslovak "patriotic" version
ir28paris.png

La Nation tchèque, 1.6.1916.

ir28a.png

Trondhjems Adresseavis, 22.11.1916.

The Czech version of events had already started to develop in 1915. The Petrograd newspaper Čechoslovák reported about the "Easter Incident". The next year the story was embellished further with claims that the regiment crossed over to the tunes of the regiment's band, with 2000 men and all their equipment, that parts of the regiment immediately joined the Russians in fighting the Austrian. Later they were allegedly transported to Kiev where they received an enthusiastic welcome. This narrative seems first to have appeared on 1 June 1916 in the Paris-based Czech publication of the Czech National Council[b]. It was not signed but was probably written by either director Eduard Beneš or editor-in-chief Ernest Denis. The same article came up with a number of other improbable claims and extracts from it also appeared in the press of neutral countries, for instance in Switzerland and Norway. It was added that the 11th march battalion had been deliberately sacrificed by being forced to fight in the most exposed sectors of the Isonzo-front. 1000 men at the age 18 to 20 had allegedly been slaughtered, only a handful survived. This news item is said to have originated in the Italian press.

In inter-war Czechoslovakia the desertion myth was also cultivated but for different reasons than in Austria. The 28th regiment were celebrated as heroes who had voted with their feet against Habsburg oppression and for an independent Czechoslovak state. The deluge of legionnaire literature further underpinned this narrative and also partly credited the desertion to agitators from Družina (the predecessor the the Legions) who were operating in the area when the affair took place.

General Kunz
kunz.jpg

General Jaroslav Kunz. Probably the first Czech who openly questioned the official narrative of the desertion of IR28.

The only dissenting voice seems to have been pensioned general Jaroslav Kunz[6]. In 1931 he published an article called Falešná legenda in the weekly Pestrý týden where he openly questioned the official Czechoslovak and Austrian version of the affair. Referring to Nowak's book he went further in his analysis, investigating witness accounts from the trial. His conclusion was that although desertions no doubt took place, there was no reason to believe that the battalions deserted without putting up a fight. He pointed out that there were many war graves of 28ers in the area of the battle, that few of those captured on 3 April 1915 ever joined the Legions and when prisoners were returned after the Brest-Litovsk treaty in March 1918, the returning soldiers were NOT punished for desertion. Later that year Falešná legenda appeared as a chapter in the book Tajnosti rakouského generálního štábu. Here Kunz added more observations and noted the hostile reaction to his article in both Czechoslovakia and Austria.

General Klecanda who led the Družina reconnaissance patrols in the area where the 28th regiment was operating during Easter 1915 reacted immediately and called Kunz "unpatriotic". Kunz also reveals that his article was refused by many newspapers until Pestrý týden finally agreed to print it in February 1931.

Karel Pichlík
ir28pichlik.png

Karel Pichlík, Historie a vojenství, 1959

Under Communist rule there was little interest in setting the record straight. The most useful study from this period was surely that of the well known historian Karel Pichlík who in 1959 published a detailed and well documented paper in Historie a vojenství.[e] He does not refute the allegations of collective betrayal but takes aim at the agenda of "bourgeois" Czechoslovakia and by the Austrian "imperialists". He takes issues with Kunz and states that what Kunz proved was merely that the regiment put up some resistance. Drawing on many sources he convincingly documented the anti-Austrian sentiments amongst the Prague recruits both from k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 28 and Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 8 and how it manifested itself as open dissent. Predictably he fitted the narrative to the political dogma that prevailed at the time.

The Dukla incident mirrored in Švejk

The popularity of The Good Soldier Švejk has also played a part in spreading the word about the treacherous Prague regiment. This was however not the fault of Hašek, despite the fact that he on half a page propagated both the Austrian and Czechoslovak version. He simply replicated the facts, half-truths and falsehoods that were in circulation when he wrote the novel, including the ridiculous claim about the regiment's orchestra joining the desertion and the inaccuracy in archduke Erzherzog Friedrich locating the incident to Dukla instead of Stebnícka Huta. In 1957 his biographer Jaroslav Křížek repeated it all and he was surely not alone. Probably it was all the information he had access to.

Recent publications
ir28fucik.jpg

The recent reassessment of the history of k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 28 seems to have started with Josef Fučík[7] who in 1994 published a paper about the regiment in the journal Střední Evropa. Later he published the book Osmadvacátníci (The Twentyeighters, 2006) which is as an explicit rehabilitation of the regiment, to the extent that even the sleeve contains quotes from Nowak. The book is rich in details and very well researched. In 2011 Richard Lein followed up with more or less similar conclusions in his Pflichterfüllung oder Hochverrat. "Rehabilitation" in this context does not necessarily mean that the accusations of treason were entirely unfounded, simply that the bulk of the claims made about IR 28 and the events on 3 April 1915 were false and have served political purposes, including the fragments that found the way into The Good Soldier Švejk.

Hašek and IR28
trento28.png

There were no units from IR28 in Trento in 1906, the year that Hašek (according to Menger) enrolled with the regiment there.

Schematismus für das k. u. k. Heer..., 1906.

Apart from the author's own IR 91 and its subordinated units k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 28 is no doubt the military unit that is most often mentioned in The Good Soldier Švejk. This could be explained by the fact that the author himself was from Prague and thus would have known many who served in the regiment. Václav Menger even claimed that Hašek served with them in 1906 for a few weeks until he was superarbitrated. Closer investigations however reveal that this can't be true. See Trento for a background. It is however striking that this garrison features in all three versions of The Good Soldier Švejk but there is scant evidence that Hašek ever visited. Perhaps the inspiration comes from his acquaintances in IR28? The major part of the regiment was stationed there from 1895 to 1899 and again in 1911 and 1912 so many men of his age from Prague would have served here.

ir28hula.png

From Hůla's explanations to "Švejk" (1951).

© LA-PNP

Hašek would, as a volunteer in České legie, surely have known or known about several of the former soldiers from the 28th regiment. One such person that he definitely knew was Břetislav Hůla who according to the service record from the Legions was captured by Dukla 3 April 1915. Why the document states Dukla instead of Stebnícka Huta is a mystery but Austrian loss lists confirm that when Hůla went missing he served in the 10th company (3rd battalion). This battalion was indeed part of the fateful battle. Hůla himself wrote about k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 28 in his explanations to The Good Soldier Švejk (published in 1953) and states that "without offering serious resistance all three battalions let themselves get captured by much weaker Russian forces".

In the newspapers?

At least two of the historians who have touched on the alleged desertion of k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 28 claimed that newspapers started to write about the affair already in 1915 but without naming any concrete examples. The two are Josef Funčík and Manfried Rauchensteiner (quoting an unpublished paper by Robert Nowak)[i]. Searches in the digital libraries of Austria and the Czech Republic do however not show a single hit on the issue. The Austrian Reichsanzeiger is supposed to have printed a news item on this[g] but such a newspaper can't be identified. It also appears strange that censorship allowed these stories to be printed at all as they would damage the delicate and by now deteriorating relation between the nations of Austria-Hungary. So there is still research to be done (Hungarian newspapers have not been consulted by the author of this web page).

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.9] Zrzavý ministrant, dezertér z kostelnických kruhů, specialista v drobných krádežích u 28. pluku, snažil se poctivě vybavovat z paměti celý postup, techniku i text mše svaté.
[2.1] Od vedlejšího stolu řekl nějaký voják, že když přijeli do Segedina s 28. regimentem, že na ně Maďaři ukazovali ruce do výšky.
[2.2] Černožluté obzory počaly se zatahovat mraky revoluce. Na Srbsku, v Karpatech přecházely bataliony k nepříteli. 28. regiment, 11. regiment. V tom posledním vojáci z píseckého kraje a okresu.
[2.3] „Případ vašeho černocha Kristiána,“ řekl jednoroční dobrovolník, „třeba promyslit i ze stanoviska válečného. Dejme tomu, že toho černocha odvedli. Je Pražák, tak patří k 28. regimentu. Přece jste slyšel, že dvacátý osmý přešel k Rusům.
[3.1] Potom Švejk počal mluvit o známých rozkazech, které jim byly přečteny před vstoupením do vlaku. Jeden byl armádní rozkaz podepsaný Františkem Josefem a druhý byl rozkaz arcivévody Josefa Ferdinanda, vrchního velitele východní armády a skupiny, kteréž oba týkaly se událostí na Dukelském průsmyku dne 3. dubna 1915, kdy přešly dva batalióny 28. pluku i s důstojníky k Rusům za zvuků plukovní kapely.
[3.1] Armádní rozkaz ze dne 17. dubna 1915: Přeplněn bolestí nařizuji, aby c. k. pěší pluk čís. 28 pro zbabělost a velezrádu byl vymazán z mého vojska.
[3.1] C. k. pluk čís. 28 nařízením našeho mocnáře jest již vyškrtnut z armády a všichni zajatí přeběhlíci z pluku splatí svou krví těžkou vinu.
Arcivévoda Josef Ferdinand
[4.1] Já jsem sloužil u 28. regimentu a hned jsem vstoupil k Rusům do služby, a pak se dám tak hloupé chytit.
[4.1] ... snad ty si vzpomeneš na někoho, s kým si se tam tak stýkal, rád bych věděl, kdo tam je od našeho 28. regimentu?

Sources: Josef Fučík, Richard Lein, Jaroslav Kunz, Tomasz Nowakowski, Hans-Peter Laqueur

Notes
1. The Prague-based 2nd battalion was dispatched to the Serbian front by the Drina as part of Infanteriedivision Nr. 9. In February 1915 they were moved to the Carpathians, but were still detached from the rest of the regiment.
2. Florian Schaumeier, Austrian officer who served with the 28th regiment from 1903 to 1915. In 1914 he was commander of the replacement battalion, rank Major. By March 1915 he was regimental commander but was transferred to k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 after the regiment was dissolved. He later became commander of the regiment on the Italian front. In 1917 he was ennobled, taking the noble name von Anderschell.
3. Geschichte des ehemaligen Egerländer Infanterie-Regiments Nr. 73, Maximilian von Hoen, 1939
4. Karl Friedrich Nowak (1882-1932), Austrian journalist, publisher and historian who during the war worked for Kriegspressequartier. From 1916 he had access to Feldmarschall Conrad and the general staff.
5. Manfried Rauchensteiner (1942-), Austrian historian regarded as one of the leading experts on the Dual Monarchy and its role in World War I. Former director of Herresgeschichtliches Museum.
6. Jaroslav Kunz (1869-1933), Austrian, later Czechoslovak military lawyer and general. From 1915 to 1918 war he was head of the Divisional Court in Vienna, in Czechoslovakia he held several positions in the ministry of law. He wrote several books about where the theme was the Austro-Hungarian military and judiciary and their relation to Czechs matters.
7. Josef Fučík (1932-2018), Czech military historian who specialised in World War I.

Literature

References
aSchematismus für das k. u. k. Heer...K.k. Hof und Staatsdruckerei1914
bLes soldats tchécoslovaquesLa Nation tchèque1.6.1916
cThe “betrayal” of the k.u.k. Infantry regiment 28.Richard Lein2009
dHelden oder Feiglinge. Die Deserteure des Karpatenwinters 1915.Manfried Rauchensteiner2015
ePřechod pražského 28. pěšího pluku do ruského zajetí 3. dubna 1915Karel Pichlík, Historie a vojenství2.1959
fDer Sturz der MittelmächteKarl Friedrich Nowak1921
gSkandal um das k.u.k Böhmische Infanterie-Regiment 28Franz Wenisch
hTschechische Armee hetzt zum KriegKronen-Zeitung22.9.1938
iAls ob die Welt aus den Fugen gingeMartin Schmitz2016
Vojenský soudnn flag
Praha IV./214, Kapucínská 2
Google mapsearch
soud_hrad.png

Address book from 1907

Vojenský soud the final part of [1.9] takes place here, during the process of transferring Švejk from the garrison prison to Feldkurat Katz. Head of the court was Auditor Bernis. See also Posádková věznice.

The court was first mentioned by the angry policeman at Policejní ředitelství who wishes the devil may take Švejk. If the dares to appear once more he will be sent sraight to the military court.

In [2.2] the court is mentioned again as this is where Pepík Vyskoč was sentened.

Background

Vojenský soud was the military court of the Prague-based 8th army group. The court was located at Hradčany in the same building complex as the garrison prison and the military hospital. The k.k. Landwehr court was also located here. An article in Prager Tagblatt also mentions a brigade court, but it is not clear how these administrative subdivisions worked. To judge by newspapers reports from 1914 at appears as a certain captain G. Heinrich led the court. The address book of 1912 lists major Josef Plzák as the highest ranking officer. His assistant was premier lieutenant Vladimír Dokoupil.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.9] Vyšetřující auditor Bernis byl muž společnosti, půvabný tanečník a mravní zpustlík, který se zde strašně nudil a psal německé verše do památníků, aby měl pohotově vždy nějakou zásobu. Byl nejdůležitější složkou celého aparátu vojenského soudu, poněvadž měl tak hrozné množství restů a spletených akt, že uváděl v respekt celý vojenský soud na Hradčanech. Ztrácel obžalovací materiál a byl nucen vymýšlet si nový. Přehazoval jména, ztrácel nitě k žalobě a soukal nové, jak mu to napadlo.

Also written:Military court en Militärgericht de Militærdomstolen no

Literature

Policejní komisařství XIII.nn flag
Libeň/185, Stejskalova ul. -
Google mapsearch

Policejní komisařství XIII. is mentioned by Švejk when Auditor Bernis asks him why he has ended up in the garrison prison. Švejk tells him that he doesn't know, just like the two year old who had walked from Vinohrady to Libeň and was locked up at the local police station. The analogy is that Švejk was also a foundling, just like the two-year old child.

Background

Policejní komisařství XIII. was the police station in Libeň, Prague's police district number 13. It was located in Stejskalova ulice 185 and the station's head in 1906 was chief commissioner Josef Roubal.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.9] „Poslušně hlásím, že to mohu vysvětlit náramně jednoduchým způsobem. U nás v ulici je uhlíř a ten měl úplně nevinnýho dvouletýho chlapečka a ten se jednou dostal pěšky z Vinohrad až do Libně, kde ho strážník našel sedět na chodníku. Tak toho chlapečka odved na komisařství a zavřeli je tam, to dvouletý dítě. Byl, jak vidíte, ten chlapeček úplně nevinnej, a přece byl zavřenej.

Literature

K.k. Landwehrnn flag
Wien I./-, Schillerplatz 4
Wikipedia czdeenpl Google mapsearch
landwehr.png

Schematismus der K. k. Landwehr ...

landwehr.jpg

The recruitment districts of Landwehr

K.k. Landwehr is first mentioned in the cell at Posádková věznice when Švejk doesn't return because Feldkurat Katz has chosen him as his servant. A Landwehr soldier with a vivid imagination was of the opinion that he had been taken to Motolské cvičiště to be executed.

In [2.1] when an old landverák (home defence soldier) at the station in Tábor explained to a sergeant the meaning of the word miláček (that Švejk had addressed him with). Later in the chapter the author for the first time mentions a Landwehr regiment: k.k. Schützenregiment Nr. 21.

In [2.2] Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 7 is implicitly referred to as this is where Toníček Mašků was called up to.

Background

K.k. Landwehr (lit. Land Protection) was the territorial army in Cisleithanien, a force that was created in 1868 after Ausgleich. Their Hungarian counterpart was Honvéd. Landwehr reported to Ministerium für Landesverteidigung and was rather a regular fighting force than a pure territorial army/reserve force. Their units were not associated with k.u.k. Heer, had their own barracks and infrastructure, even their own military academies. The term of service was two or three years, and the arrangement with one-year volunteers functioned roughly like in the common army.

landwehr1.png

Handbuch für den Infanteristen des k. u. k. Heeres, sowie der k. k. Landwehr

Landwehr consisted of 37 infantry regiments but as opposed to k.u.k Heer the numbers of recruitment districts didn't always correspond to those of the infantry regiments. There was for instance a Landwehrergänzungsbezirk Nr. 38 (Beroun) but no corresponding k.k. Landwehr infantry regiment. Landwehr also contained artillery and cavalry units but had no fortresses. The infantry regiments were smaller than their counterparts in k.u.k. Heer, consisting mostly of three instead of four battalions. Because of the lower number of regiments the recruitment districts were larger than those of the common army. Drafting of recruits was however coordinated and the men were divided between k.u.k. Heer and Landwehr drawn by lot. At army corps level there was also some co-ordination as both the common army and Landwehr reported to the same Korpskommando.

The k.k. Landwehr high command was located in the building of the Ministry of Justice at Schillerplatz in Vienna. From the district of Landwehrterritorialkommando Prag hailed five Landwehr regiments (names according to Schematismus): Nr. 6 Eger, Nr. 7 Pilsen, Nr. 8 Prag, Nr. 28 Pisek and Nr. 29 Budweis. The number of infantry regiments in k.u.k. Heer in this area was eight.

During the war
landwehr1.jpg

Ehrenhalle des k. k. Landwehr, des k. k. Landsturmes und der k. k. Gendarmerie, 1916

Landwehr in Bohemia were mobilised already at the start of the war. As part of 8. Korps with HQ in Prague 21. Landwehr-infanterievisision was sent to the front against Serbia were they suffered huge losses and in addition were partly blamed for the failed invasions of Serbia. In February 1915 the unit was sent to the Carpathians where other k.k. Landwehr troops from Bohemia already were fighting.

Like the Czech regiments from k.u.k. Heer the reserve battalions from k.k. Landwehr in Bohemia were relocated to non-Czech parts of the empire. This happened in the autumn of 1914 and the first half of 1915, a step that was taken due to the feared disloyalty of Czech recruits (not entirely unfounded). Examples were Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 7 from Pilsen that was relocated to ethnic German Rumburk and Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 28 from Písek that already in late 1914 were moved to Linz.

K.k. Landwehr ⇒ K.k. Schützen
schutzen1.png

Arbeiter-Zeitung, 4.4.1917

In April 1917 k.k. Landwehr was renamed k.k. Schützen. The justification was the the new name better reflected that Landwehr were fighting units on level with k.u.k. Heer and not a second line home defence as the former name indicated. The Imperial decree deciding the name change was issued on 19 March 1917, published in Verordnungsblatt für die k.k. Landwehr on 4 April.[a]

Hašek and Landwehr

Jaroslav Hašek would obviously have known and been in contact with k.k. Landwehr throughout. In The Good Soldier Švejk Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek tells Švejk about the conflicts with Landwehr in Budějovice. In this setting it would have been Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 29 who were garrisoned here. At the end of his stay here he might also have been in touch with Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 6 from Eger (now Cheb) who were moved at the end of May 1915. Parts of this regiment were even housed in Mariánská kasárna, but probably only after IR 91 vacated it. Two of Hašek's closest friends served with Landwehr: Zdeněk Matěj Kuděj (LIR 6 and LIR 7) and Václav Menger (LIR 28).

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.9] Nějaký pihovatý voják od zeměbrany, který měl největší fantasii, rozhlásil, že Švejk střelil po svém hejtmanovi a že dnes ho odvedli na motolské cvičiště na popravu.
[2.1] „Was ist das Wort: milatschek?“ obrátil se šikovatel k jednomu ze svých vojáků, starému landverákovi, který podle všeho dělal svému šikovateli všechno naschvál, poněvadž řekl klidně: „Miláček, das ist wie Herr Feldwebel.“
[2.2] „U nás byl taky jeden takovej nezbeda. Ten měl ject do Plzně k landvér, nějakej Toníček Mašků,“ povzdechla si babička, „von je vod mojí neteře příbuznej, a vodjel.

Literature

References
aVerordnungsblatt für die k.k. LandwehrK.u.k. Kriegssministerium4.4.1917
Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

10. Švejk as a military servant to the field chaplain

Česká strana národně sociálnínn flag
Praha II./739, Dlouhá tř. 27
Wikipedia czdeenno Google search
narsoc1.png

The first party newspaper, one month after the party was founded

narsoc.png

Prager Tagblatt, 9.1.1909.

narsoc.jpg

Imprisoned anti-militarists, 1909

© Národní archiv - Archiv České strany národně sociální

sviha.jpg

Světozor, 25.6.1909.

narsoc2.png

Adresář královského hlavního města Prahy a obcí sousedních, 1910.

Česká strana národně sociální is indirectly mentioned when one of the soldiers in Švejk's escort on way from Hradčany to Karlín asks him if he is a national socialist.

Background

Česká strana národně sociální was a political party that was founded in April 1897 as a break-away group from the Social Democrats and some defectors from Mladočeši. The split came about mainly because the mother party advocated working within Cisleithanien as a whole, whereas the splinter group advocated state rights for the Czech Lands. The large number of Jews in the mother party also played a part in provoking the break. Their political platform was roughly based on reform socialism, radical nationalism, and anti-militarism. They were also strongly anti-clerical, anti-German, promoted more use of the Czech language in the public sector. The party was often referred to as "Czech Radicals". Party chairman from 1898 to 1938 Klofáč.

The first who printed Švejk

It may at first sight appear odd the so much space is dedicated to the party, but in a Švejk context there are two reason for doing so. It was the party's own press who printed the first three stories about Švejk in 1911 (Karikatury, Josef Lada), and their main newspaper České Slovo was one of the main promoters of the novel after the author's death. Hašek was also shortly employed by this paper in 1912 and also contributed in other periods. He was a personal friends of several of the newspapermen who served the party press, and Hašek as a nationalist and socialist was no doubt close to the party also ideologically.

Pre-war period

But now back to the party proper ... At the 1911 election to Reichsrat the party achieved 9.7 per cent of the votes in Bohemia and had 15 representatives. In Moravia the party was much weaker and had only one representative.

Already from the beginning Staatspolizei kept a keen eye on the party. Under particular scrutiny was the youth organisation and their newspaper Mladé proudy, led by Emil Špatný and Alois Hatina

The agent Mašek

On 8 January 1909 party chairman Klofáč claimed in České slovo that an agent provocateur in the service of the police had tried to incriminate the party with highly treasonous fabricated material connecting them to Serbia. A key person in this plot was Hynek Hynek Mašek, a well known adventurer and deceiver who the police already had employed to spy on politically suspect groups like the anarchists. According to Klofáč he was paid by Oberkommisar Chlum in Staatspolizei. Klofáč took the case as a matter of urgency to Reichsrat where he demanded Mašek arrested and a stop to the illegal activities of the police. The thunderous debate took place on 12 March, but the case was rejected.

Klofáč never managed to prove the allegations, and in parts of the German language press it was ridiculed as a "romantic spy novel". The Czech newspapers were more accomodating but Čas, the paper of professor Masaryk's Realist Party, commented in a terse and realist way that "the police have a strange connection both to the National Social party and to Hynek Mašek. No less, no more." That said many of the allegations were no doubt true, and none of them can be directly disproved.

Antimilitarist process

The youth organisation increasingly became a thorn in the eye of the authorities, mainly because they started to agitate and spread propaganda even within k.u.k. Heer, disturbing the draft process etc. In 1909 a court case against 46 of their leaders was instigated. In the first trial only a few were convicted, but after an appeal by the state attorney, almost all of them were sentenced in 1910. The longest sentences handed out were two years. Again the name Hynek Mašek appears, and Hašek mentions both him and the trial in his feulleton Po stopách státní policie v Praze (On the tracks of the state police in Prague), Jaroslav Hašek, Čechoslovan, 21 August 1916.

The Šviha affair

In the spring of 1914 the party was hit by a scandal of far greater dimensions. The chairman of the party's group in parliament, Karel Šviha, was revealed to be linked to k.u.k. Staatspolizei and as usual when this unit was mentioned, the names Mr. Klíma and Mr. Slavíček appear. Šviha was forced to resign and the scandal signalled the end to his political career.

Banned and persecuted

In 1914 the party was banned and the leaders arrested, and two party members were executed (Josef Kotek og Slavomír Kratochvíl) in November 1914. Klofáč was spared the same fate by the 1917 amnesty issue by the new emperor Karl I.

After the war

In 1918 the party was renamed the Czechoslovak Socialist Party and in 1926 even the National Socialist Party! Their best known public profile after the war was without doubt Eduard Beneš who joined in 1923. The party was during the inter-war years member of the five party ruling coalition. It was brutally persecuted during Nazi rule and in 1948 it was swallowed up by the Communists and became their puppet party. It reappeared after the 1989 Velvet Revolution but with dwindling number of votes, hight debts, and frequent name changes, the party is now for all practical purposes non-existing.

National Socialist

The term "national socialist" was, as the novel reveals, already used in daily speech already before the World War I, but was obviously not related to the notorious Nazi party that emerged in Germany after the war. Although the two parties shared the fervent nationalism, anti-Semitism and certain aspects of economic policies, there were differences were much more notable.

The Czech national socials didn't seek to overthrow the democratic system, didn't persecute their opponents and were openly anti-militarist. Nor did they share the Nazi party's hatred of Communism or their ideas on racial hygiene. Whereas the Czech party's nationalism was a reaction to external threats to national culture and self-determination, their German namesakes were driven by agressive ambitions to expand at the expense of other nations.

Hašek and the party
spatny.jpg

Emil Špatný, friend of Hašek - during a razzia on 27 March 1909 he swallowed a compromising letter!

© Národní archiv - Archiv České strany národně sociální

Jaroslav Hašek was a personal friend of several members of the national social youth organisation, amongst them Alois Hatina and Emil Špatný. Both were editors at the newspaper Mladé proudy, and like Hašek they were at the time close to the anarchists. If Hašek ever became a party member is not clear, but we know that he assisted during election campaigning in 1908 (Radko Pytlík).

Nor was he a stranger to the party's official newspaper České Slovo and the leadership of the party proper. Several party leaders and newspaper men are mentioned in his various stories. Klofáč himself is mentioned in The Good Soldier Švejk and features in Strana mírného pokroku v mezích zákona and elsewhere. Otherwise Karel Šviha, Jiří Škorkovský and many others fell victim to the satirist's sharp pen.

České Slovo (Czech Word) was founded in 1907 and Hašek's first story appeared in their columns on 28 June 1908 and he had altogether eleven stories printed in the paper that year. In 1909 his name disappeared, but in 1911 and 1912 there was some scattered activity.

Hašek briefly worked for České Slovo as a local reporter in 1912, but was soon dismissed. At the height of the Šviha affair in March 1914 he wrote a stinging obituary over the party in Kopřivy, a satirical magazine associated with the rival Social Democrats!

The publishing house Melantřich was closely linked to the party, and apart from České Slovo they published a number of smaller newspapers and magazines. On of them was Karikatury, a satirical magazine edited by Hašek's friend Josef Lada. It was on their pages that The Good Soldier Švejk appeared for the first time, on 22 May 1911.

Following Hašek's return from Russia, a new period of intense activity in the columns of České Slovo followed. The first story appeared already on 5 January 1921 and several more followed that spring. They mostly appeared in the evening paper Večerní České Slovo.

After the author's death České Slovo played a prominent role in popularising his novel. It was their evening issue that in 1924 and 1925 published Josef Lada's famous drawings that colour our perception of Švejk even until today. In the autumn of 1924 the paper printed the first serious study of the links between Hašek's own experiences in k.u.k. Heer and the plot of the novel. See Jan Morávek for more details on this theme.

The letter that was swallowed
spatny.png

Prager Tagblatt, 29.3.1909.

As a site note we have also made the following observation: One of Hašek's friends from the party may well have inspired one of the most memorable episodes from Švejk's stay in Királyhida. On 27 March 1909 the police carried out a house search at the homes of various members of Česká strana národně sociální. One of the subjects of the razzia was the aforementioned editor Emil Špatný. He showed himself to be very alert - and allegedly tore up and swallowed a compromising letter from the agent provocateur Mašek! The episode was reported in several papers, amongst them Prager Tagblatt and Neue Freie Presse.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.10.1] „Nejsi národní socialista?“ Nyní počal být malý tlustý opatrným. Vmísil se do toho. „Co je nám do toho,“ řekl, „je všude plno lidí a pozorujou nás. Aspoň kdybychom někde v průjezdu mohli sundat bodla, aby to tak nevypadalo. Neutečeš nám?

Sources: Svatopluk Herec

Also written:Czech National Social Party en Tschechische national-soziale Partei de Det tsjekkiske nasjonalsosiale parti no

Literature

Na Kuklíkunn flag
Praha II./1130, Petrské nám. 6
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum
kuklik2.png

Národní listy, 20.5.1901

Na Kuklíku was the tavern where Švejk and his guards had a long and happy break before they, under the influence, continued to Feldkurat Katz in Karlín. A certain pubkeeper Serabona is reported to be the landlord, and as a member of Sokol he can be trusted.

Background

Na Kuklíku was a restaurant in Prague at Petrské náměstí. Newspaper adverts from 1877 reveal that the pub existed and that they also brewed their own beer. Towards the end of the 1880s brewing appears to have ceased, but the restaurant business continued.

Vilém Srp took over in 1901 and was in 1923 still the owner. That year a newspaper report reveals that treasures worth Kč 50,000 had been hidden in the loft but had been stolen at a time when the landlord couple were ill. The culprits were caught and sentenced. It is interesting that a postcard from 1906 reveals that the place was also called U Serabono. See pubkeeper Serabona. The building was demolished in 1928.

Kuklík is mentioned in a story by Egon Erwin Kisch: Zitaten vom Montmartre where it is described as a rough place. Over the years several reports of disturbances appeared in the newspapers. There were incidents involving unruly soldiers, and reported cases of theft and a gang cheating at cards.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.10.1] „Pojďme na Kuklík,“ vybízel Švejk, „kvéry si dáte do kuchyně, hostinský Serabona je Sokol, toho se nemusíte bát. Hrajou tam na housle a na harmoniku,“ pokračoval Švejk, „a chodějí tam pouliční holky a různá jiná dobrá společnost, která nesmí do Represenťáku.“ Čahoun s malým podívali se ještě jednou na sebe a pak řekl čahoun: „Tak tam půjdem, do Karlína je ještě daleko.“ Po cestě jim Švejk vypravoval různé anekdoty a v dobré náladě vstoupili na „Kuklík“ a udělali to tak, jak Švejk radil. Ručnice uschovali v kuchyni a šli do lokálu, kde housle a harmonika naplňovaly místnost zvuky oblíbené písně "Na Pankráci".

SourcesJaroslav Šerák, M. Smreček

Literature

Sokolnn flag
Praha II./61, Ferdinandova tř. 24
Wikipedia czdeen Google mapsearch
sokol.jpg

Sokol exercise at Lipnice nad Sázavou castle, some time before 1913

sokol2.png

Národní listy, 30.11.1915

Sokol is briefly mentioned by Švejk when he tells his escort on the way to Feldkurat Katz that the landlord pubkeeper Serabona at Na Kuklíku is a Sokol member and thus no reason to be afraid of. They could without worry leave their rifles in the kitchen and have a drink.

Background

Sokol (Falcon) is a still existing patriotic gymnastics movement founded in Prague in 1862 by Miroslav Tyrš and Jindřich Fügner. They soon became an important part of the Czech national consciousness and also took root amongst other Slav peoples in Austria-Hungary and even in Russia, Serbia and Bulgaria. Throughout the time of the monarchy the authorities kept a close eye on the movement that had strong support from parties that advocated Czech state rights, namely Česká strana národně sociální and Mladočeši. In 1910 the main office was located in Ferdinandova tř. 24, the building has been demolished. The premises are now (2015) occupied by the supermarket Tesco. Scheiner was chairman of both the Czech and the international organisation, and both were located at this address.

On 24 November 1915 the two Prague-based umbrella organisations of Sokol, Česká Obec Sokolská and Svaz Slovanského Sokolstva, were dissolved at the order of the Ministery of Interior. Local organisations were however allowed to function. The official reason for the crackdown was pro-Serbian and pro-Russians activities, anti-Austrian propaganda, and contact with North American Sokol organisation that was very hostile to the ruling dynasty. Sokol leader Scheiner had been arrested already on 25 May. Many Sokol members were indeed active in the Czech resistance movement during the war. Sokol reached its pinnacle during the first republic, but was of course banned by both the Nazis and the Communist.

On 6 January 1923 members of Sokol carried Jaroslav Hašek's coffin to his grave at Lipnice.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.10.1] „Pojďme na Kuklík“, vybízel Švejk, „kvéry si dáte do kuchyně, hostinský Serabona je Sokol, toho se nemusíte bát. Hrajou tam na housle a na harmoniku,“ pokračoval Švejk, „a chodějí tam pouliční holky a různá jiná dobrá společnost, která nesmí do Represenťáku.

Literature

Reprezenťáknn flag
Praha I./1090, Josefské nám. 4
Wikipedia czdeen Google mapsearch
obecnidum.jpg

Architektonický obzor, 12.1912.

Reprezenťák is mentioned when Švejk tells his escort that Na Kuklíku is a pleasant place where street girl and other good company who are not allowed at Reprezenťák may enter.

Background

Reprezenťák is a concert hall and entertainment complex in Prague, now officially called Obecní dům. It was originally known as Reprezentační dům, hence the colloquial term that Švejk uses. It is one of the landmark Art Nouveau buildings in the city. The Czechoslovak independence was proclaimed here on 28 October 1918.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.10.1] Hrajou tam na housle a na harmoniku,“ pokračoval Švejk, „a chodějí tam pouliční holky a různá jiná dobrá společnost, která nesmí do Represenťáku.“

Literature

U Valšůnn flag
Praha I./286, ul. Karoliny Světlé 22
Google mapsearch
uvalsu.jpg

U Valšů, May 2011

valsu.png

Národní listy, 18.9.1910

uvalsu.png

Policejní ředitelstvi, 30.11.1914

U Valšů is referred to in a conversation at Na Kuklíku where it is claimed that a certain Mařka (Marie) had disappeared to U Valšů with a soldier. The place appears again in a story by Švejk on the train after Moson, [3.1].

Background

U Valšů was a coaching inn and hotel in Staré město, from 1908 owned by František Materna[a], a person who may have leant his surname to Einjährigfreiwilliger Materna. It had long traditions and is mentioned in newspapers like Fremdenblatt as early as 1861. It was still operating in 1917 (the same owner) but seems to have ceased soon after. Today (2011) the building houses a theatre.

A legendary hoax

U Valšů was the scene of one of the author's most famous hoaxes. On 24 November 1914 Jaroslav Hašek hired a room there, registering as a Russian businessman, born in Kiev, arriving from Moscow. He was soon arrested and taken to Policejní ředitelství. Here he was interrogated by Mr. Slavíček and eventually sentenced to five days in prison. Hašek claimed that the he did it to check how vigilant the security services were! The story soon appeared in newspapers, including the author's humorous response!

Both Václav Menger and Longen mention the episode in their books about Hašek and both brush up the the story with dialogues and other details. The police report didn't mention what name Hašek registered under whereas Menger claims it was Ivan Feodorovič Kuzněcov and Longen names him Lev Nikolajevič Turgeněv. Both the literary versions ought to be read with some scepticism, particularly Longen's. He lets the narrator be some detective Spanda and he even claims this the model for detective Bretschneider.

Another version of the story (origin unknown) claims that he registered under a name which backwards read "lick my arse", but this is surely nothing more than a "good story" and is not supported by the police records, nor by Menger and Longen.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.10.1] U hudby hádali se dva, že nějakou Mařku včera lízla patrola. Jeden to viděl na vlastní oči a druhý tvrdil, že šla s nějakým vojákem se vyspat k „Valšům“ do hotelu.

SourcesVáclav Menger, Emil Artur Longen

Literature

References
aPobytové přihlášky pražského policejního ředitelstvíNAČR1851 - 1914
U Šuhůnn flag
Praha I./722, Benediktská ul. 9
Google mapsearch
usuhu1.jpg

Konec bahna Prahy, K.L. Kukla, 1927

schuha.png

Národní listy, 2.1.1898

usuhu.jpg

© Mlan Hodík

usuhu1.png

Wo Kafka und seine Freunde zu Gast waren. Hartmut Binder, 2000.

usuhu2.jpg

Pobytové přihlášky / Meldebuch

schuh.png

Marriage record, 1901

schuh1.png

Death record, 26.5.1919

schuh2.png

Soupis pražského obyvatelstva 1830-1910 (1920)

U Šuhů was a brothel where Feldkurat Katz owed money, and subsequently didn't want visit any. The place is mentioned twice more: in Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek's story about the court of Erzherzogin Marie Valerie and in the story about the tinsmith tinsmith Pimpra.

Background

U Šuhů was a brothel in Benediktská 9. According to Chytilův úplný adresář království českého (1913) it was owned by Jan Schuha whom the establishment presumably was named after. In Cecil Parrott's translation of The Good Soldier Švejk, a footnote describes U Šuhů as a "notorious brothel".

Kafka at Šuha's brothel

Feldkurat Katz and tinsmith tinsmith Pimpra were not the only notabilities who frequented Šuha. In his diary Franz Kafka discretely mentions a visit on 28 September 1911 when he was served by a "Jewess with a narrow face". He also describes the interior in some detail. The brothel hostess is described in rather unflattering terms.

Kafka expert Hartmut Binder provides interesting information in his book Wo Kafka und seine Freunde zu Gast waren. He reveals that Jan Šuha obtained a brothel's license as a reward for acting as a police informer. It was his wife who managed the brothel, an arrangement that was quite common at the time. It is also revealed that Kafka must have visited more than once. After the death of her husband, Mrs. Šuha married Rudolf Kulhánek, the establishment's bouncer.

Newspaper clips

In a newspaper article from 1891 it is revealed that Šuha was a police informer who contributed to the capture of two thieves who attempted to rob a shop in Michle. The article also states that Šuha was 43 years old so he must have been born in 1848.

Šuha was already in 1896 listed as proprietor of a wine bar at the above mentioned address, and in 1898 a newspaper clip refers to Jan Šuha, owner of a night café in Benedikstká ulice. That year he bought a café in Konviktská ulice in Staré město. In 1907 (3 April) Architektonický ozbor reported that Šuha had bought house no. 1030 in Benediktská for 96,000 crowns. This was the house on the corner next to the brothel.

In 1923 Národní politika reported of a fight in front of the house, when a drunk man tried to enter a flat because he thought this was where the brothel still was. So Šuha had ceased doing business some time between 1913 and 1923. He had by 1913 reached the age of 65 and in 1919 licensed brothels were made illegal although the ban was later relaxed somewhat.

Police registers

The police registration protocols reveal more. They confirm that Johann Šucha was born in 1848 and that he in 1901 married the 29 years younger Marie Wykypěl. Šuha is listed with two occupations: Goldarbeiter (gold craftsman) and Weinschänker (wine tavern waiter), born and with Heimatrecht in Rakov near Plzeň. On 4 March 1913 they are both entered as residents of Benediktinergasse 722/I. It should also be noted that Emilie Rossmann (born Vykypěl, Brno 1887) is entered at the same address. It is tempting to suggest that she may have been the sister of Marie.

Church records

Research in church records by Jaroslav Šerák (2019) provides more details about the proprietor of the brothel. The files provide birth and death dates, and also information about marriages.

Jan Schuh (name according to birth record) was born outside marriage at Hradčany on 3 June 1848, not in Raková as the police registers show. On 18 April 1901 he married 23 year old Marie Vykypělová who already then served as "madam" at his establishment. Marie Schuhová died already on 5 November 1910 so she could not have been the brothel madam who Kafka wrote about in his diary a year later (but it may have been her that Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek remembers). On 27 January 1913 Schuh married the younger sister of his late wife, Josefa Vykypělová. She also functioned as madam at the establishment so it was probably her Kafka described. Brothel owner Jan Schuh died on 26 May 1919.

It is also confirmed that Josefa Schuhová shortly after her husband's death married the 8 year younger head waiter at the brothel, Rudolf Kulhánek. Emilie Rossmannová, married to Leopold, was the sister of the two brothel mamas. Josefa Kulhánková died 5 September 1924, at the age of 43.

Franz Kafka, Diaries, 1 October 1911

In B. Suha two days before yesterday. The sole Jewess with a narrow face, continuing in a narrow chin, but with an extensively wavy and broad hair style . The three small doors leading from the interior of the building to the hall. Guests like in a guard house on the stage, drinks on the table, but are hardly touched. The woman with the flat face in a square dress that begins to move only deep down below the seam. Now, as before, some are dressed like puppets for a children’s theatre, as one sells them on the Christmas market, i.e. covered with ruffles and gold and loosely sewn, so that they can be separated in one go and they fall apart between one’s fingers. The hostess with the light blonde and tightly pulled hair, no doubt covering a disgusting foundation, with sharply declining nose, whose direction has some geometric relation to the sagging breasts and the tightly strung belly, complains of a headache, which is caused by the fact that today, Saturday, there was great hype but still nothing happens.

Franz Kafka, Tagebücher, 1. Oktober 1911

Im B. Suha vorvorgestern. Die eine Jüdin mit schmalem Gesicht, besser das in ein schmales Kinn verlauft, aber von einer ausgedehnt welligen Frisur ins Breite geschüttelt wird. Die drei kleinen Türen, die aus dem Innern des Gebäudes in den Salon führen. Die Gäste wie in einer Wachstube auf der Bühne, Getränke auf dem Tisch, werden ja kaum angerührt. Die Flachgsichtige im eckigen Kleid, das erst tief unten in einem Saum sich zu bewegen anfängt. Einige hier und früher angezogen wie die Marionetten für Kinderteater, wie man sie auf dem Christmarkt verkauft d.h. mit Rüschen und Gold beklebt und lose benäht, so daß man sie mit einem Zug abtrennen kann und daß sie einem dann in den Fingern zerfallen. Die Wirtin mit dem mattblonden über zweifellos ekelhaften Unterlagen straff gezogenem Haar, mit der scharf niedergehenden Nase, deren Richtung in irgendeiner geometrischen Beziehung zu den hängenden Brüste und dem steif gehaltenen Bauch steht, klagt über Kopfschmerzen, die dadurch verursacht sind, daß heute Samstag ein so großer Rummel und nichts daran ist.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.10.2] Polní kurát pustil se vrat a navalil se na Švejka: „Pojďme tedy někam, ale k Šuhům nepůjdu, tam jsem dlužen.“
[3.3] Kvůli pořádku, aby si snad dvorní lokajové nedovolili nějaké důvěrnosti ku dvorním dámám přítomným na hostině, objevuje se nejvyšší hofmistr baron Lederer, komoří hrabě Bellegarde a vrchní dvorní dáma hraběnka Bombellesová, která hraje mezi dvorními dámami stejnou úlohu jako madam v bordelu u Šuhů.
[3.4] Švejk velice vážně a důrazně řekl: „Nic jste neprováděl, pane lajtnant, byl jste jenom na návštěvě v jednom vykřičeným domě. Ale to byl asi nějakej vomyl. Klempíře Pimpra z Kozího plácku taky vždycky hledali, když šel kupovat plech do města, a našli ho také vždycky v podobnej místnosti, buď u ,Šuhů’, nebo u ,Dvořáků’, jako já vás našel.

SourcesJaroslav Šerák, Franz Kafka, Hartmut Binder, K.L. Kukla

Also written:Schuha de

Literature

8. Korpskommandonn flag
Praha III./258, Malostranské nám. 15
Wikipedia de Google mapsearch
korps8.png

The recruitment area of the 8th Corps

korps8_sokal.png

Korpskommando at Sokal. Signed von Scheuchenstuehl.

8. Korpskommando is mentioned by Feldkurat Katz in his drunken stupor on the way back from Oberleutnant Helmich's party.

Background

8. Korpskommando here refers to the 8. Armeekorps, one of a total of 16 army groups in Austria-Hungary. The corps, with headquarters in the Lichtenstein Palace in Malá Strana recruited from south, west and central Bohemia. Together with 9. korps (Litoměřice) it covered all of Böhmen.

Subordinated the corps were these units: Infanteriedivision Nr. 9 (with IR 91), Infanteriedivision Nr. 19, 1. Kavaleriebrigade and Traindivision Nr. 8. Corps commander in 1914 was general Arthur Giesl von Gieslingen. After the fiasco in Serbia in 1914 he was replaced by Viktor von Scheuchenstuel.

Employed in the corps was also the master-spy Alfred Redl, chief of their general staff from 18 October 1912. In May 1913 his activities were uncovered: he had been spying for Russia for around 10 years. He is regarded as one of the best (worst) spies ever, and handed over whatever existed of value.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.10.2] Polní kurát, který zaslechl poslední slova, pobručuje si nějaký motiv z operety, kterou by nikdo nepoznal, vztyčil se k divákům: "Kdo je z vás mrtvej, ať se přihlásí u korpskomanda během tří dnů, aby mohla být jeho mrtvola vykropena."

Literature

K.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 75nn flag
Salzburg
Google mapsearch
ir75b.png

Town square in Jindřichův Hradec

lehen3.jpg

Lehener Kaserne

ir75.png

Seidels kleines Armeeschema 1914

ir75a.png

Volksfreund, 8.8.1914

K.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 75 is mentioned in passing when the inebriated Feldkurat Katz in the cab home from Oberleutnant Helmich mistakes Švejk for Oberst Just from the 75th regiment.

The regiment is mentioned again when Feldkurat Katz and Švejk have to borrow a trophy from Oberleutnant Witinger for their field mass in [1.11].

Background

K.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 75 was one of 102 Austro-Hungarian infantry regiments. It was founded in 1860 and had their baptism of fire already in 1866 at the second battle of Custoza.

It was a predominantly Czech regiment, recruited from Heeresergänzungsbezirk Nr. 75, Jindřichův Hradec (Neuhaus). The Ergänzungsbezirkskommando and 3rd battalion were located here in 1914. The staff and the other three battalions had been garrisoned in Salzburg from March 1912. In Salzburg they raised some attention with their Czech songs, and are said to have caused a boom in the local interest in football.

Regimental commander was colonel Franz Wiedstruck. The regiment had previously been moved around; between 1906 and 1909 in Prague, at Hradčany. Then it moved to Jindřichův Hradec where it remained until the 1912 transfer.

During the war

Already on 5 August 1914 the regiment departed for the front against Russia. They were allocated to the 4. Armee and in 1914 the fought mostly in the area between the river San and Kraków. In the new year they were transferred to the German Süd-Armee and moved to the area east of Munkács.

The regiment remained on the eastern front throughout the war. They received particular attention after the battle of Zborów on 2 July 1917. On this day many of the regiment's soldiers were taken prisoners by the Czechoslovak Brigade (Legions) and accusations of treason led to legal proceedings in Vienna.

Gott strafe England

The regiment is also mentioned in Jaroslav Hašek's polemic story Gott strafe England, (Československý voják - 10 October 1917). In this story the main character Hauptmann Adamička turns insane, is transferred to k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 75 and is taken prisoner at Zborów. The real Josef Adamička however never served in the regiment - and he was stationed in Belgrade at the time the battle was fought.

Wehrgeschichte Salzburg (Erwin Niedermann):

Auf Wunsch des Erzherzog-Thronfolgers Franz Ferdinand (1863– 1914), der in Blühnbach das Jagdschloß besaß, sollten beim zumeist nur deutschsprachigen Militär in Salzburg aber auch Angehörige einer anderen Sprache des multinationalen und multikulturellen Reiches den (ab 1908) zweijährigen Wehrdienst ableisten, so wie das längst in den anderen Kronländern üblich war. So wurden anstelle der „Rainer“ (es verblieb nur das 4. Bataillon) der Regimentsstab und drei Bataillone des Böhmischen Infanterie-Regimentes Nr. 75 aus Neuhaus/Jindrichuv Hradec (lichtblaue Aufschläge, weiße Knöpfe, 79 Prozent tschechische Umgangssprache, 20 Prozent deutsche,1 Prozent verschiedene) mit März 1912 hierher transferiert, wobei ein Bataillon auch in die Lehener Kaserne kam, die anderen zwei in die Franz Josef-Kaserne, bzw. Hofstall-Kaserne und Nonntalerkaserne, die „Rainer“ in die Hellbrunner-Straße, bzw. auf die Festung. Die Salzburger sollen sehr unverständig erstaunt gewesen sein über die in und außer Dienst gesungenen tschechischen Volkslieder der Soldaten, wie mehrfach überliefert wurde.

Die Soldaten dieses IR 75 sollen bereits vor dem Krieg sich für Fußball interessiert haben. Soldaten dieses Regimentes haben vermutlich den Fußball-Boom in Salzburg ausgelöst. Im Mai 1914 wurde im Rahmen eines Militärsportfestes ein Fußballspiel am Exerziergelände der Hellbrunner-Kaserne abgehalten. Salzburger Realschüler spielten gegen Soldaten des IR 75. Die Realschüler schlossen sich dann zu einem Fußballverein “Die Athletiker” zusammen, aus dem der “Erste Salzburger Athletiker-Klub (1.SAK 1914) entstand. Eine weitere Information dazu spricht von der Landwehr Nr.8 in der Hellbrunner-Kaserne, in der Fußball-Spieler aus den böhmischen Mannschaften SLAVIA und SPARTA als Soldaten Dienst versahen.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.10.2] Švejk ho vzbudil a za pomoci drožkáře dopravil do drožky. V drožce polní kurát upadl v úplnou otupělost a považoval Švejka za plukovníka Justa od 75. pěšího pluku a několikrát za sebou opakoval: „Nehněvej se, kamaráde, že ti tykám. Jsem prase.“

Literature

Sport-Favoritnn flag
Praha I./583, Na Příkopě 15
Google mapsearch
sportfav2.png

The club's address in 1910

sportfav1.png

Neues Wiener Tagblatt, 3.7.1902

sportfav0.png

Světozor, 19.3.1909

Sport-Favorit is mentioned in connected with the running exploits of Oberleutnant Witinger. Years ago he had won the trophy that Feldkurat Katz borrowed to use at the field mass and at the time he was running for Sport-Favorit. Later in the chapter it is revealed that the race in question was from Vienna to Mödling.

Background

Sport-Favorit was a German sports club from Prague and officially named Fussballclub Sport-Favorit. Despite the name and the main focus on football they also did athletics and cycling, at least during the early years.

The club was founded in 1900 by merger between Sport and Favorit. The offices were located on Na Příkopě (Graben), was associated with Café Central, and the football matches were played at Letná. The running competion mentioned in the article to the right took place at a course in Bubny on 13 July 1902.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.10.2] Tak dostaneme sportovní pohár od nadporučíka Witingra od 75. pluku. On kdysi před lety běhal o závod a vyhrál jej za ,Sport-Favorit’. Byl to dobrý běžec. Dělal čtyřicet kilometrů Vídeň-Mödling za 1 hodinu 48 minut, jak se nám vždycky chlubí. Jsem hovado, že všechno odkládám na poslední chvíli. Proč jsem se, trouba, nepodíval do té pohovky.“

Literature

Bruskann flag
Praha III./132, Pod Bruskou 2
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum

Bruska was the barracks where captain Hauptmann Šnábl served. Švejk was sent here by Feldkurat Katz to borrow money and to buy ořechovka (nut spirits).

Background

Bruska refers to the now demolished barracks that were located at Klárov in Malá Strana, next to Klárův ústav slepců. They were named after the small (mostly underground) stream Bruska (Brusnice) that flows past the site.

These barracks were for most of the pre-war time the home of the staff of k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 28, one or more battalions, the replacement district command, and K.u.K. Artillerieregiment Nr. 8. Units were frequently moved around so who occupied the barracks could change as often as each year. In 1914 only the 2nd battalion of IR28 was garrisoned here.

In 1914 the building was sold to the city of Prague and the military personnel were moved to Josefskaserne in Nové město and Ferdinandkaserne in Karlín. The recruitment command was however still there in October, so if Hauptmann Šnábl had any base in the real world he would surely have belonged to this unit. Still it seems that the building was used by the military also later. In 1915 Landsturm drafts took place here and in 1916 Prager Tagblatt reported on Hungarian soldiers on the site. In 1919 the building was used for recruitment of army volunteers. The barracks were demolished in 1922 and the former site is now only partly occupied by buildings.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.10.3] Kdyby zde byla pravá ořechovka,“ povzdechl, „ta by mně spravila žaludek. Taková ořechovka, jako má pan hejtman Šnábl v Brusce.“

Literature

Vršovice kasárnann flag
Vršovice/429, Na Mičánkách -
Wikipedia czdeen Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum
vrsovice_kasarna.png

IR 73. - Vereidigung des VIII. Marschbataillon in Prag Wrschowitz, März 1915.

© Michael Kummer

vrsovice_kasarna1.png

Geschichte des ehemaligen Egerländer Infanterie-Regiments Nr. 73

Vršovice kasárna was a garrison where Švejk dropped by to borrow money from Oberleutnant Mahler. In [1.14] and [1.15], the plot may the most part takes place in Vršovice, without this being stated explicitly. Some indication is the fact that Blahník took the stolen dog Max here, but in the next chapter Oberleutnant Lukáš seems to live much nearer the centre.

Background

Vršovice kasárna probably refers to the barracks in Vršovice that were home of IR73 at the time. In 1914 it housed the regiment's staff and three battalions. In contrary to other Bohemian regiments they were allowed to stay in their home garrison during the whole war. Most of the military personnel left the barracks hastily after the revolution of 28 October 1918 and set off to their home region of Eger (now Cheb). The barracks were immediately taken over by local militiamen (Sokol) and a few days later the newly formed Czechoslovak artillery moved in. The site was used by the military until the 1950's and now houses the court of four districts.

There was also another barrack in Vršovice but as it was used by Traindivision Nr. 8 and is a less likely candidate than the above-mentioned infantry barracks. The address was Palackého třída 334 (now Moskevská). This barrack compex was extenisve and contained staff buildings, stables, stores and officer's accommodation. The barracks were gradually demolished between 1965 and 1983 and the housing estate Vlasta now occupies the site.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.10.3] Jestli tam nepochodíte, tak půjdete do Vršovic, do kasáren k nadporučíkovi Mahlerovi.

Sources: Michael Kummer

Literature

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

11. Švejk rides with the field chaplain to serve a field mass

České legienn flag
Wikipedia czdeenno Google mapsearch
druzina.jpg

Za svobodu, 1925..

wadowice.jpg

The execution of Josef Müller and Antonín Grmela, 12 December 1914. The chaplain František Havlík was present.

vr2.png

Hašek's notes on execution of legionnaires, Samara spring 1918.

rota7.png

Celebration in the 7th company, 1st rifle regiment.

cs_zborov.png

Čechoslovan announces the victory by Zborów on 2 July 1917.

zborov1.png

From the trenches by Zborów.

© LA-PNP

zborov.png

Retreat from Zborów, July 1917.

berezne.png

Masaryk visiting in August 1917.

legie1917.png

Czech volunteers in Russia, 1917.

© VHU

nlmapa1917.png

Proposals for the borders of a future Czech state. Národní Listy, 21.10.1917

letemps1.png

On the origin of the Czechoslovak rebellion. "Gazette de Lausanne" 29 June 1918.

samara4pluk.jpg

Guards from the 4th regiment in Samara.

vlak.png

The railway was the mainstay of the Legions.

svec2.png

Švec's letter to Stanislav Čeček about the desperate plight of his troops.

svec.png

At the grave of colonel Švec, autumn 1918.

kurgan.jpg
vladivostok.jpg

The majority travelled home from Vladivostok.

grant.png
otrok.jpg

Rather death than the live of a slave

plukhusi.png

The first regiment "Jan Hus" Prague for the first time.

cechoslovan1.png

The first issue that Hašek contributed to.

povidka.jpg

The story of the picture of emperor FJI Čechoslovan, 17 July 1916 (30 July)

pickwick.png

The beginning of Hašek's "Klub českých Pickwiků". Revoluce 23 April 1917 (6 May).

hasek_kamarady_kiev.jpg

The only known photo of Jaroslav Hašek from his time in the Legions. Here with Jan Šípek and Václav Menger. Berezne 29 September 1917 (12 October).

zajeti.png

Advert in Čechoslovan, 6 August 1917 (19 August)

hasek1304.png

Hašek announcing that he leaves the Czech army.

zatykac.png

The Czechoslovak Army's arrest order for Hašek, Omsk 25 July 1918. Here imprecisely reproduced in Národní Listy, 11 January 1919.

hasek_legie1.png

Hašek's service sheet from the legions.

hasek_legie2.png

Hašek's had according to Czechoslovak law not status as a legionnaire. The law that defined the status of the legionnaires was ratified in 1919.

České legie is the author's term for Československé Legie (Czechoslovak Legions) that he mentions indirectly when discussing the field chaplain's role at executions. He lists several examples to illustrate his point, amongst them execution of Czech legionnaires.

The Legions are barely mentioned in the novel so the reader may wonder why a page about The Good Soldier Švejk dedicates so much space to an organization the author touches upon only once ...

The answer is that there can be no doubt that the Legions would have been a main focus in the three volumes of the novel that the author had planned but never finalised. Jaroslav Hašek dedicated two years of his life to the Czech-Slovak independence movement, and there is every reason to believe that he would have continued to spice his novel with autobiographical details, add people from his own milieu and episodes from his time there, just as he drew inspiration from his far shorter time of service in k.u.k. Heer.

Background

České legie (more commonly Československé legie or Česko-slovenské legie) is a common term describing different groups of mainly Czech (and Slovak) volunteers who fought for the Entente against the Central Powers during World War I and from May 1918 against the Bolsheviks (Communists) in the Russian Civil War. Politically they reported to Československá národní rada (the Czechoslovak National Council) in Paris (from February 1916), militarily they were part of armies of various Entente powers. From 1916 the Legions were an important instrument in the National Council's campaign to convince the allies to allow an independent Slavic state in Bohemia, Moravia and Slovakia. As Tomáš G. Masaryk, leader of the Czechoslovak independence movement, later summarised: "a state without an army can hardly claim independence".

Already shortly after the outbreak of war units of Czech volunteers were formed in France and Russia (and later also in Italy). In the novel the author obviously refers to the legions in Russia because it was those he knew and had experience from.

Execution of legionnaires

Austrian and Hungarian citizens who served the enemy voluntarily had to expect rough justice if they were captured. The first Czechs who suffered this grim fate were Josef Müller and Antonín Grmela who were hanged publicly on the square in Wadowice near Kraków on 12 December 1914. František Havlík was the chaplain and witness at the execution (see the next paragraph). Many legionnaires were executed during the war, but this was the first and best known case and Hašek definitely knew about it.

František Havlík, Wadowice 12 December 1914

Poslední chvíle odsouzenců popsal zpovídající kněz František Korporal Havlík: „Pod šibenicí jim byl znovu přečten rozsudek. Na otázku, mají-li poslední prosbu, vůbec neodpověděli. Rozloučili se spolu kývnutím hlavy. Grmela šel hrdě, se vztyčenou hlavou. Vystoupil po schodkách, svlékl svrchní kabát a odhodil, odvázal šátek, který měl kolem krku a rovněž odhodil, pak se podíval na diváky, kterých bylo všude plno, uklonil se, usmál a vstrčil hlavu do smyčky. Pak přišel na řadu Gefreiter Müller. Zůstali viset do večera do šesti hodin. Potom byli zakopáni v koutě wadowického hřbitova.“

Execution of legionnaires continued throughout the war and as late as May 1918 Hašek himself mentions this in a propaganda poster he signed in Samara. The Germans had allegedly executed 200 of his compatriots in Jekaterinoslav (now Dnipropetrovsk) and in Kharkov an Austrian military court had sentenced 12 members of the Russian branch of the Czechoslovak National Council to death.

The Bolsheviks also executed a number of Czechs, something the author as a political official in the Bolshevik’s 5th army would have been well aware of. Still it is unlikely that these events would have inspired the passage in the novel, because the Communists are unlikely to have called in clerics for such occasions and the author would at this stage of the novel surely not have aimed his pen at his former comrades.

Česká družina [The Czech Cohort]

At the outbreak of the First World War around 65,000 Czechs and Slovaks are believed to have resided in Russia (some sources mention 100,000). Most of the Czechs lived in the Kiev Gubernate, mostly in Kiev proper and in the Volhynia province near the border with Galicia. Among these were both Russian citizens and Austrian citizens who for various reasons lived in the Russian empire at the time.

From both categories volunteers reported to serve Russia and already in August 1914 the Tsar Nicholas II approved the creation of Česká družina as a semi-autonomous and non-fighting unit in the Russian army. On 11 October (the day of St. Václav according to the old Russian calendar) they swore their oath of allegiance in Kiev and then counted 762 men, a number that had increased to 990 by the end of the year. They were mainly given reconnaissance and agitation duties at the front and were assigned to the Russian 3rd Army that took part in the battles by Dunajec and Raba in November and December.

The number of "družiníci" grew only slowly until 1917 and recruitment of prisoners was rather unsuccessful. Russian authorities were uncooperative for various reasons: distrust ("once a traitor, always a traitor"), need for skilled labour in factories and agriculture and also doubt about the legality of recruiting prisoners. In the beginning the Russians only accepted those who volunteered on the spot after capture, but in April 1916 these restrictions were eased and recruitment in prisoner’s camps was permitted. Still the large majority of prisoners were under no circumstances keen to return to war duty and recruitment was sluggish.

Changes in Russia

By January 1916 the number of soldiers in Družina had grown to 1,650 and it was decided to transform the unit into a regiment. It was first renamed Česko-slovenský střelecký pluk (the Czecho-Slovak Rifle Regiment) on 2 February and then Česko-slovenská střelecká brigáda (the Czecho-Slovak Rifle Brigade) on 17 April. Thus it was the latter Jaroslav Hašek formally was enlisted in on 29 June 1916 after having reported as a volunteer in the prisoner's camp in Totskoye (these dates refer to the Russian orthodox calendar, 13 days behind our own).

During the so-called Kerensky offensive in July 1917 the Czechoslovak brigade for the first time operated as a collective unit in a regular battle. They still counted only around 3,500 (estimates vary) but distinguished themselves by Zborów 2 July 1917 (19 June) where they prevailed against numerically superior enemy forces and captured a large number of them (many of them Czechs from the 35th and 75th infantry regiments - see k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 35 and k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 75). Although the military significance of the victory was negligible, the political impact was substantial: the victory raised attention in Petrograd and even in Western capitals.

Important was also that Zborów gave an impetus to recruitment and on 5 September the volunteers were re-organised into 1. Československá střelecká divize (the 1st Czechoslovak Rifle Division) and already on 26 September Československý armadní sbor (the Czechoslovak Army Corps) was formed. At the end of the year they counted around 38,500 and in addition to 8 infantry regiments there was artillery, a sapper company, a reserve regiment, supply- and communication troops. These were functions that previously had been covered by the Russian army but by now the Czechoslovak Corps was nearly autonomous despite still formally reporting to the Russian chain of command. The commanders were even at this time Russian officers.

From one army to another

Already in 1916 the Czech leadership abroad contemplated a transfer of the Legions to France in view of the increasingly uncertain situation in Russia. In the autumn of 1917 the war in Russia was practically over and another motive for the transfer was political: on the Western Front they would be more visible to the people who pulled the threads in the Allied capitals - western leaders were still opposed to dismembering Austria-Hungary (professor Masaryk). The October Revolution and the following armistice gave further impetus and 7 February 1918 the agreement on making the Legions part of the French army was formally signed. A deal covering financial support was agreed in March. Both those agreements were negotiated by Masaryk during his stay in Russia. Prior to this it had been decided to create an official Czechoslovak army of volunteers in France (December 1917) that reported to the French supreme command, but was politically responsible to the National Council.

The new order had led to tangible changes even before the deal was formally signed as French military structure and discipline was being introduced. Dissatisfaction with the new situation and also influence from the Bolsheviks led to attrition and some thousands Czechs eventually lent their services to the new regime in Moscow, among them was Jaroslav Hašek. Not to be forgotten in this context is the fact that the Bolsheviks offered better pay (Fic).

Siberian anabasis

The transfer to the western front proved difficult to carry out in the chaos that prevailed in Russia in 1918. Some were shipped out early via Murmansk, transfer via Romania and Caucasus was also considered but eventually one decided on an incredible round the world trip via the Trans-Siberian Railway and Vladivostok, later known as "Sibiřská anabase".

In February 1918 an agreement was signed between professor Masaryk and Mikhail A. Murayov (commander of the Red Guards occupying Kiev) on unhindered transport. Sooner than they had imagined the Legions and the Bolsheviks had to execute the evacuation after the Germans on 18 February attacked Russia in order to put force behind their demands in the peace negotiations in Brest-Litovsk. The German advance met little resistance and parts of Legion avoided encirclement after the 6th regiment successfully held up the Germans by Bachmach.

The deal on free passage eastwards was confirmed by Josef V. Stalin in mid-March on conditions that the Czechs agreed to partial disarmament. During these days the transfer progressed fairly smoothly but soon the authorities in Moscow put obstacles in the way. This was partly in the hope of recruiting the Legions for their own cause and partly a reaction to pressure from Germany. Large Czechoslovak troop units got stuck in cities like Penza and Chelyabinsk and had to witness that scarce rolling stock was used to transport prisoners from the Central Powers home.

Uprising

A serious incident occurred in Chelyabinsk on 14 May. A Hungarian prisoner was lynched by Czechs after having hurled a metal object at them from a train. Events escalated tension and Trotsky ordered the full disarmament of the Legions. The frustrated Czechs started an armed uprising on 25 May, against the expressed will of the National Council. Simultaneously with the crisis a congress was held in Chelyabinsk and it decided to no longer accept directives from the political leadership. During the next three months the rebels occupied all important points on the railway between the Volga and the Pacific Ocean.

In the regions the Czechs controlled the civilian administration was placed in the hands of anti-Bolshevik groups; the left-wing democratic Komuch in Samara and the Siberian Government in Omsk. These governments also established their own armed forces but these proved to be relatively useless as allies (according to Czech sources). The Legions had early been engaged in fighting with Czech Red Guards and at Penza and Lipjag hundreds of Czech Communists were killed.

An important consequence of the Czechoslovak take-over in Siberia was that the government in Moscow (and indirectly Germany) now were without access to vast resources. The transport of prisoners of war back home also stopped when the Legions took control of the railway stations and the prisoner's of war camps. German and Hungarian prisoners were often brutally treated and allegedly massacres took place. On one instance two Danish Red Cross nurses were executed as spies (Brändström).

Counter-order and a new front

The success of the of Czechoslovak Army in June drew attention all over the world, also amongst the Allied leadership. Plans were developed to use the Legions as the spearhead of a new allied front against Germany (hence also the Bolsheviks). This was agreed by the Russian rebel governments and the Czechoslovak political and military leadership. The Entente powers were however in two minds. With Allied support promised, the order was given that the Czechoslovak Army remain in Russia and fight on a new front on the Volga. The order was given by Stanislav Čeček, commander of the western group. At the same time his group achieved contact with the central group based in Omsk.

In the meantime the Bolsheviks had reintroduced conscription using brutal methods and harsh discipline. The volunteer Red Guards were now supplemented by a regular Red Army that was partly trained by German officers. The army was furthered strengthened by so-called "Internationalists", soldiers recruited from prisoner's camps. In some sectors they were even dominant, and many of them were German and Hungarian officers and soldiers with long war experience.

A dramatic interlude that occurred in 10 July, was the defection of the social-revolutionary colonel Mikhail A. Muravyov, the newly appointed commander of the Bolshevik front on the Volga. His agenda was a common front against the Germans together with the Czechoslovak and the Russian counter-revolutionaries but he was murdered in by Bolsheviks in Simbirsk the next morning.

The new front on the Volga was established by mid-July and in the beginning the Czechoslovaks and their allies made progress against the surprised Bolsheviks, and Simbirsk and Kazan were occupied. But during the summer Trotsky had remarkably quickly built up more powerful Red Army. The stronger army and the fact that promised military support from the allies hardly reached the Volga front, left the Czechoslovaks dangerously exposed and from late August 1918 they pulled back with heavy losses, pursued by a numerically superior enemy.

The worst set-back was the loss of Kazan on 10 September which was a turning point in war on the Volga. In many cases the enemy was also better equipped. Reserves were virtually non-existent and the Russian allies proved ineffective and unreliable. Amongst the exhausted legionnaires on the Volga-front demoralization crept in and it proved difficult to motivate soldiers for further participation in the civil war. There was also frustration with their own military leadership. On posters and flyers "defence minister" Rudolf Medek as recently as mid-September dreamt in writing about a march on Moscow, and this at a time when it was clear that the new front was doomed to collapse unless reinforcements arrived. From October the unwillingness to fight became even more pronounced as the world war drew to an end and the goal of an independent state was in sight.

A tragic incident that illustrated the crisis was the suicide of colonel Josef Jiří Švec on 25 October 1918 at the station of Asakovo. His soldiers had refused to obey order, but this was probably only the trigger for the suicide. Švec, who was commander of the 1st regiment at by Kazan, had already in September in a letter to František Langer expressed frustration over the critical state of his troops and also about his Russian allies who "protected by Czech bayonets enjoy life behind the front" and warned against the increasing demoralization in the ranks of his exhausted men.

By October 1918 all cities on the Volga were under Bolshevik control and they pushed steadily eastwards. Their most dangerous opponent was no longer the weakened Legions but the new ruler of Siberia, Admiral Kolchak. He had assumed power through a coup in Omsk on 18 November.

From the end of October 1918 the Legions for all practical purposes pulled out of the civil war despite ongoing skirmishes with Bolsheviks and other groups. Since the main political goal of the National Council, an independent state, now was achieved, further engagement in Russia made little sense. Still most of the soldiers were stuck in Sibiria and the Far East until the summer of 1920, and some Czechs units, mainly those reporting to maverick commander Radola Gajda, continued fighting the Bolsheviks as part of Kolchak's army.

Early in 1919 the Legions were made to report to the new Czechoslovak authorities, and after the end of the world war the previous policy of non-interference in Russian internal affairs was again in force. Accepting orders from Prague didn't always go down well and in a couple of cases there was danger of mutinies. Another complicating element was admiral Kolchak's coup in the October 1918: the majority of the Czechs had a strained relation to the dictator even if both nominally had a common enemy. After the collapse of his army and his retreat in early 1920 Kolchak relied on Czech protection but the Legions handed him over to a group who later passed him on to the Bolsheviks. In Irkutsk he was summarily executed, an incident that left Maurice Janin and the Legion's leadership in an unfavourable light. The rest of the retreat eastwards passed quite smoothly and by September 1920 the legionnaires had all left for home.

Jaroslav Hašek and the Legions

After having been a prisoner of war from 24 September 1915, Hašek was in June 1916 recruited by emissaries from Československá brigáda in Totskoye, a prisoner’s camp in oblast Orenburg in southern Ural, east of Volga. Together with a small group of other volunteers he went to Kiev where he was deemed unfit for regular service due to his poor health. Instead he was assigned agitation and recruitment duties. He resumed his activities as a writer and published stories and comments in the weekly Čechoslovan and later in other periodicals. The best known of these was Povídka o obrazu císaře Františka Josefa I. (The story of the picture of Emperor Kaiser Franz Joseph I.) where he lets a tom-cat from Mladá Boleslav empty his bladder on a picture of His Imperial Highness. The result was a judicial process "in absentia" and some lively correspondence between Polizeidirektion in Prague and k.u.k. Divisionsgericht in Vienna.

In 1917 he also published the second version of Švejk, Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí (The Good Soldier Švejk in captivity). It was a book of 100+ pages and shared many details with the future novel. That said it lacked the anecdotes and humour of the successor and is probably better characterised as propaganda than satire. From June 1916 a certain Josef Švejk actually served in the Legions and it is quite possible that Hašek knew him or at least knew about him. Even more striking is the fact that this person lived next door to U kalicha in 1912...

Unsurprisingly disciplinary problems surfaced also during the author’s time in the Legions. One of these incidents of drunken disorderliness led to arrest and jail. The zenith was reached with the the merciless satire Klub českých Pickwiků where the non-conformist writer insulted six leaders of the Russian branch of the National Council. It was printed in Revoluce 6 May 1917 (23 April). The background was the ongoing squabble between Russian oriented and the western oriented groups in the Czech exile movement where Jaroslav Hašek sided with the first. After the episode he was prosecuted and was forced to apologise to the insulted parties. He was also locked up for a week. From now on he was an ordinary soldier and was assigned to the 1st Regiment's machine gun detachment. In this capacity he took part in the battle of Zborów on 2 July. He also took part in the retreat from Tarnopol after the collapse of the Kerensky offensive.

His regiment was from the beginning of August located by Berezne and here professor Masaryk paid them a visit soon after. Hašek now became a secretary at the regiments's staff, was elected to the regimental committee and was also decorated for his part in the battle of Zborów. During this period he played a part in exposing the alleged Austrian agent Hynek Mašek who was shot when the Legions left Ukraine in February 1918. It was only on 15 November 1917 that Jaroslav Hašek was back in Kiev as a writer, although he had written for Čechoslovan already in August.

Several of the articles and editorials Hašek wrote in the autumn of 1917 were highly critical of the Bolsheviks. He even described Lenin as a "paid agent of German imperialism" and as late as the turn of the year he voiced similar views. He also attacked Alois Muna and Arno Hais, the leaders of the Kiev section of the Czech Bolshevik movement in Russia. Muna didn't forget this and was instrumental in having Hašek "exiled" to Samara in spring 1918. At this time Hašek and other young radicals toyed with the idea of sending sabotage groups into Austria-Hungary, an idea rejected by the National Council.

At the beginning of 1918 the tone seemed to shift towards sympathy for the new regime and there is reason to believe that the young Communist Břetislav Hůla influenced this change in attitude. According to Václav Menger he and Hašek were inseparable at the time. In February this tendency became more pronounced and may have been further influenced by the Bolshevik occupation of Kiev from 8 February 1918. In an article in Průkopník 27 March he mentions two of their leaders directly: Mikhail A. Muravyov and Václav Fridrich. According to Josef Pospíšil he described them (implicitly) as "very capable people". In the article mentioned above Hašek also berated the Legions for not having joined the Red Guards in fighting the advancing Germans. At the beginning of March Hašek and Hůla left for Moscow where they joined the Czech section of the Russian Communist party.

Still it was as late as 13 April 1918 that Hašek officially and in writing left České vojsko. The justification was short: he disagreed with the policies of the National Council; to transfer the army to the western front. He also emphasized that he would still work for Czech interests against Austria-Hungary, so he was not yet in direct conflict with the Legions. His writing shows no trace of Marx or Lenin but he emphasises the similarities between the Hussite movement and the Communists. František Langer and Václav Menger wrote that Hašek socialised with his former companions from the Legions even after he had left. These encounters took place both in Moscow in March and in Samara in April and May. From the end of May his situation was complicated by the Czechoslovak rebellion against the Bolshevik authorities.

Hašek was now in direct conflict with his former brothers in arms and on 8 June he went underground as the Legions occupied Samara that day. Only three months later did he re-appear and it has been speculated that he during this time had been in contact with his former comrades. According to his own account he hid in the countryside and acted the retarded son of German colonist. This was revealed in a letter to the Czech Communist Jaroslav Salát-Petrlík (17 September 1920) but the recipient was hardly a person to whom he would have revealed any contacts with the Legions. Scattered pieces from various sources (including himself) indicate that he stayed east of Volga at least until mid July but thereafter news about his whereabouts are less reliable.

Dramatic events at the beginning of July changed the situation to the extent that Jaroslav Hašek now had good reasons to return to the Legions or at least to their Russian allies. As mentioned above it had been decided that the Czechoslovak Army was not going to France after all, but was to remain in Russia as the spearhead of a new anti German front. This meant that the reasons for Hašek leaving them was no longer valid. Again he had strong common interests with the Legions and the National Council. The fact that the Bolsheviks were now de-facto (reluctant) allied with the Central Powers must have made them inedible to the newly converted Czech Communist. He had as a revolutionary agitator always promoted the fight against the Central Powers side by side with a social revolution, and now this confluence of interests was opening up before his eyes.

What went wrong during these turbulent days is unclear but by 25 July 1918 all bridges were burnt. In Omsk the Czechoslovak Army Field Court issued an arrest order for Hašek. The wording was "repeated acts of treason against the Czechoslovak nation". Leading Communists politicians like Alois Muna, Arno Hais Václav Knoflíček and František Beneš were also wanted, but the wording was milder and the order issued a week earlier!

In September Hašek was arrested in Simbirsk by the Bolsheviks. Presumably it was on suspicion of espionage or contact with the enemy. The Soviets must still have found him useful: in mid October he was sent to Bugulma where he served the rest of the year as deputy commander.

The most thorough (and probably only) scholarly investigation on Hašek by Volga during this period was presented by Pavel Gan at the Hašek-symposium in Bamberg (1983). His paper "Jaroslav Hašek als Rotarmist an der Volga" is very detailed and well documented, but still leaves more open questions than definite answers. That said it is difficult to argue with Gan’s main point: during those days Hašek shared a common cause not only with the Legions but also with Mikhail A. Muravyov, the colonel who on 10 July left his post as supreme commander of the Bolshevik's Volga front to join the Czechoslovaks and their Russian allies in a common front against the Germans. Muravyov was however shot the next morning in Simbirsk by people who were loyal to Moscow so the whole enterprise was probably too short-lived for Hašek to have got news of it (unless he was directly involved). Gan concludes that Hašek after the death of Muravjov went into hiding, thereafter served the Bolsheviks, disappeared again in Samara before finally reappearing in Simbirsk in October.

From October 1918 to October 1920 Jaroslav Hašek served directly in the Bolshevik 5th army, but was then sent back to his home country by Comintern to support the revolution locally. After returning to the now independent Czechoslovakia in December 1920, his break with the Czechoslovak Army had consequences. He was not a legionnaire according to the letter of the law, which meant he was stripped of pension rights. He was also met with hostility in wide circles and many of his former friends shunned him. In one case the police had to intervene to protect him from a lynch mob (Janouch).

Several of Hašek’s associates from the time in Russia achieved prominent positions in the new Czechoslovak Republic: Jan Šípek, Jaroslav Kejla, Rudolf Medek and František Langer amongst others.

Aftermath
folkeblad.png

Trondhjems Folkeblad, 3 August 1918.

The great majority of the legionnaires were Czechs as Slovaks counted only around 7-8 per cent. There were probably more Russians than Slovaks in the Czechoslovak Army and also some Serbs and representatives of other nationalities. Jaroslav Hašek himself announced in April 1918 that he literally left České vojsko (the Czech Army), reflecting the fact that this was by and large a Czech army. The German and Jewish population of Bohemia and Moravia were virtully non-existent in the Czechoslovak independence movement.

The legionnaires themselves viewed the term "Legion" as an insult and it was only after 1918 the the word became widespread.

aftenpost.png

Aftenposten, 21 October 1918.

After 1918 the Legions former a natural backbone of the Czechoslovak armed forces and the officers in particular were given prominent positions in the army and in the air force. The Legions were in the First Republic an important part in the nation building and were celebrated as heroes and national symbols. Literature about them proliferated, for instance the magnum opus Za svobodu (For Freedom), an important source for this write-up. Many monuments were erected and many streets were given names that associated them with the legions. Legionnaires advanced quickly in the state hierarchy and not the least in the military command structure, at the expensive of the great majority that after all had stayed loyal to Austria-Hungary.

During Communist rule from 1948 to 1989 the Legions were largely portrayed in a negative light - as "white Czechs" who intervened in the the Russian Civil war, paid by imperialists and reactionary states. Since 1990 the Legions have obviously been rehabilitated and is again a source of national pride in the Czech Republic. New literature about them appear regularly and the rich archive material is still not fully researched.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.11.1] Velká jatka světové války neobešla se bez požehnání kněžského. Polní kuráti všech armád modlili se a sloužili polní mše za vítězství té strany, čí chleba jedli. Při popravách vzbouřených vojáků objevil se kněz. Při popravách českých legionářů bylo vidět kněze.

Sources: Tomáš G. professor Masaryk, VÚA, Rudolf Medek, Victor M. Fic, Gerburg Thunig-Nittner, Pavel J. Kuthan, Jaroslav Hašek, František Langer, Václav Menger, Jaroslav Křížek, Karel Svoboda, Pavel Gan, Lev Trotsky, Elsa Brändström, Břetislav Hůla, Radko Pytlík, Josef Pospíšil, Radola Gajda

Also written:Czech Legions en Tscehchische Legion de Tsjekkiske legionar no

Literature

K.u.k. Militärärarnn flag
Wien I., Stubenring 1
Google mapsearch
erar.png

Ottův slovník naučný

erar1.png

Prager Abendblatt, 12.10.1914

K.u.k. Militärärar is first mentioned when Švejk tells the pious teacher in Vršovice how serious it is to illegally posses military property.

The word appears again when Feldkurat Katz argues with the commander at Vojenská nemocnice Karlovo náměstí that the military owes him 150 crowns for the blessed oil and travel expenses.

Background

K.u.k. Militärärar was a term for the military treasury of Austria-Hungary, i.e. the property that belonged to k.u.k. Kriegsministerium and its property administration. The word should not be confused with Ärar, the wider term for all state property.

The term derives from Latin Aerarium militare and was considered an "Austrianism". It is no longer used in the German language, not even in Austria. See also Vojenská intendantura.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.11.2] "Kvůli tomu zázraku," dodal Švejk, "můžou mít ještě vopletání. Voni koupili pohovku, a ne žádnej voltář, kterej patří vojenskému eráru.
[I.13] To byla tedy ta veliká sláva, o které mluvil Švejk. Polní kurát šel zatím do kanceláře vyřídit finanční stránku posledního pomazání a vypočítal již účetnímu šikovateli, že je mu vojenský erár dlužen na sto padesát korun za posvěcený olej a cestu.

Also written:C.a.k. vojenský erár cz

Vršovice kostelnn flag
Vršovice/84, Komenského nám. -
Wikipedia czen Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum

Vršovice kostel is implicitly mentioned when Švejk and Feldkurat Katz go to Vršovice to recuperate the field altar which was hidden inside the sofa Katz had sold. Two spots are mentioned: the vicarage and the sacristy.

Background

Vršovice kostel is without doubt the is a catholic church kostel svatého Mikuláše in Vršovice. It is in baroque style and was built in 1704. The vicarage is next door to the church. The address information shows that František Dusil was vicar in 1907.

Jaroslav Hašek knew this church well because he in the spring of 1912 lived in nearby Palackého třída 363 (now Moskevská 363/33). This was also where his son Richard was born on 2 May 1912. Soon after the family father left his wife and the new-born child.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.11.2] Nakonec šli do sakristie kostela a farář vydal polní oltář pod touto zápiskou:
Přijal jsem polní oltář, který se náhodou dostal
do chrámu ve Vršovicích.
Polní kurát Otto Katz
Firma Moritz Mahlernn flag
Google search

Firma Moritz Mahler was a Jewish enterprise from Vienna who manufactured religious artefacts, in this case the field altar of Feldkurat Katz.

Background

Firma Moritz Mahler is not found in the address book of Vienna, 1915. Suppliers of religious artefacts existed of course but in this case the name appears to be invented. Firma Moritz Löwenstein in [3.2] seems to be a variation of the same theme.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.11.2] Slavný polní oltář byl od jedné židovské firmy, Moritz Mahler ve Vídni, která vyráběla všemožné mešní potřeby a předměty náboženské, jako růžence a obrázky svatých.
Břevnovský klášternn flag
Břevnov/1, Markétská ul. -
Wikipedia czdeen Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum

Břevnovský klášter is mentioned because Feldkurat Katz and Švejk got their equipment for the field mass here: monstrance, ciborium and a bottle of mass wine.

Background

Břevnovský klášter is a Benedictine monastery in the Břevnov district of Prague. It was founded in 933 and was the first of its kind in Bohemia. The architectural style is baroque and hails from the 18th century.

Abbot during World War I was Lev Mojžíš, a cleric who has been subjected to claims that he was a notorious alcoholic and also the model for Feldkurat Katz.

In 1951 the monastery was dissolved and the premises handed over to the archive of the ministery of interior (Archiv ministerstva vnitra). In 1990 it was handed back to the Benedictine order. Today Hotel Adalbert and restaurant Klášterní šenk are (inn addition to the monastery) both located on the premises.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.11.2] Neboť ještě jeli pro sportovní kalich k nadporučíku Witingrovi a potom pro monstranci, ciborium a jiné příslušnosti ke mši do břevnovského kláštera, včetně i láhve mešního vína.

Literature

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

12. A religious debate

Zákopnícinn flag
Karlín/20, Palackého třída 10
Google mapsearch
zakopnik2.png

Zlatá Praha, 23.7.1915

zakopnik3.png

Das Infanterieregiment Nr. 91 am Vormarsch in Galizien (© VÚA)

zakopnik.png

Národní listy, 4.5.1909

zakopnik1.png

Seidels kleines Armeeschema, 1908

Zákopníci was mentioned when the author mentions that Švejk and Feldkurat Katz carried out yet another field mass, this time by the pioneers.

Background

Zákopníci is the Czech term for pioneer troops or engineer troops. The term indicates that their role was to dig trenches but their task went well beyond that, included the building of temporary roads and bridges.

In 1909 Pionierbataillon Nr. 3 was stationed in Prague (Ferdinandová kasárna in Karlín), but by 1914 no such units are found in the Bohemian capital. In the meantime the battalion had been transferred to Pettau (now Ptuj in Slovenia).

The author probably "transferred" Feldkurat Katz's field masses from the front so in this context it's hardly relevant that there were no pioneer troops in Prague in 1914. That said he surely came across them at the front during the summer of 1915 so this sequence is probably inspired by these encounters (if they are fact-based at all).

One such occasion was 20 July 1915 when pioneer company no. 8 from the 10th pioneer battalion were to assist IR 91 and their sister regiments in building a bridge across Bug (see General Ritter von Herbert). The attempt was abandoned due to the swollen river and that very night the regiment was ordered to urgently march to Sokal.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.12] Švejk sloužil s polním kurátem ještě jednu polní mši u zákopníků, kam byl omylem pozván ještě jeden polní kurát, bývalý katecheta, neobyčejně nábožný člověk, dívající se na svého kolegu velice udiveně, když ten mu nabízel ze Švejkovy polní láhve, kterou ten vždy nosil na takové náboženské úkony s sebou, doušek koňaku.

Also written:Pioneers en Pioniere de Pionerar no

Literature

U zlatého věncenn flag
Karlín/161, Královská tř. 59
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum
uvence.jpg

House No. 362 "Zlatý věnec" seen from Pobřezní třída

uvence1.png

Právo lidu, 21.1.1899

uvence.png

Národní politika, 20.4.1901

U zlatého věnce was mentioned when Švejk tells Feldkurat Katz that he dropped by and overheard a story about the man from Nová Paka who landed in trouble by handing back things he had found. This is, according to Švejk, a universally bad idea.

Background

U zlatého věnce refers to a tavern in Královská třída 59 named after the house Zlatý věnec (The Golden Wreath) in Pobřežní třída 30 that was attached to it from the back. In 1907 the owner of both buildings was Marie Holubová.

Newspaper adverts and minor notices from around the turn of the century show that there was a guest house here. The adverts announced meetings of a trade union and theatre performances so it was probably a spacious establishment. At the end of 1894 the Metal worker's trade union was founded here.

The landlord in 1892 and 1896 was Antonín Beran who already in 1884 is listed as owner of the house. In 1907 Marie Holubová is entered as owner of both house 161 and 362 but no hostelry is listed on the premises. In 1910 Josef Tichý is the landlord but in 1912 no pub is found at this address any more.

It is not known when the tavern started operation, but it must have been before 1891. Nor do we know when the establishment closed its doors for good.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.12] Včera jsem mluvil v hospodě ,U zlatého věnce’ s jedním člověkem z venkova, je mu už šestapadesát let, a ten šel se optat na okresní hejtmanství do Nové Paky, proč mu rekvisírovali bryčku.

SourcesJaroslav Šerák

Also written:The Golden Wreath en Zum Goldenen Kranz de

Literature

Okresní hejtmanství Nová Pakann flag
Wikipedia de Google mapsearch
novapakaokres.png

Seznam míst v království Českém, 1913

neupaka.png

Reichsgesetzblatt, 2.9.1903

Okresní hejtmanství Nová Paka is mentioned by Švejk in anecdote he tells Feldkurat Katz. At U zlatého věnce he had spoken to a 56 year old man from the countryside who had gone to their offices to ask why his carriage had been requisitioned for war duty. Here he had been thrown out immediately.

Background

Okresní hejtmanství Nová Paka was the political administration of the Nová Paka district. It is not known exactly where the offices were located but it assumed that it was in the town centre. In 1913 the district's population number was 64,628 and consisted of the boroughs Hořice and Nová Paka. The district was relatively new, created on 1 October 1903 from areas that previously had belonged to okres Jičín and okres Pardubice.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.12] Včera jsem mluvil v hospodě ,U zlatého věnce’ s jedním člověkem z venkova, je mu už šestapadesát let, a ten šel se optat na okresní hejtmanství do Nové Paky, proč mu rekvisírovali bryčku.

Also written:Bezirkshauptmannschaft Neupaka de

Literature

Uršulinkynn flag
Praha II./139, Ferdinandova tř. 8
Wikipedia cz Google mapsearch
ursulinky.png

Praha, hlava království Českého, 1901

Uršulinky is mentioned in the anecdote about the holy water of Lourdes that caused a loose stomach. Sjå Vlašim for more details.

Background

Uršulinky is the good soldier's term for Klášter Voršilek, a monastery with adjoining church in at Národní třída in Prague, until 1918 Ferdinandová třída. It belongs to the Ursuline order, a catholic organisation that is mainly preoccupied with the education of girls. It derives its name from St. Ursula. From 1958 the building complex has been under heritage protection.

The monastery was built from 1674 to 1676 and also during the Habsburg reign it provided boarding and education for girls.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.12] Vono by jich tam patřilo víc. U uršulinek mají v klášteře lahvičku s mlékem panny Marie, kterým kojila Ježíška, a v sirotčinci u Benešova, když jim tam přivezli lurdskou vodu, dostali po ní sirotkové takovou běhavku, že to svět neviděl.“

Also written:Ursulinenkloster de Ursula-klosteret no U uršulinek Švejk

Literature

Sirotčinec u Benešovann flag
Google mapsearch

Sirotčinec u Benešova is mentioned when Švejk tells he pious field chaplain about the holy water from Lourdes that caused stomach trouble for the children at the nursery home.

Background

Sirotčinec u Benešova surely refers to the home for parentless children in Benešov, "Domov". It was built around the turn of the century, was owned by the town, and seems to have been located below Konopiště castle.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.12] U uršulinek mají v klášteře lahvičku s mlékem Panny Marie, kterým kojila Ježíška, a v sirotčinci u Benešova, když jim tam přivezli lurdskou vodu, dostali po ní sirotkové takovou běhavku, že to svět neviděl."

Sources: Muzeum umění a designu Benešov

Literature

U Piaristůnn flag
Praha II./892, Panská ul. 1
Wikipedia cz Google mapsearch

U Piaristů is mentioned by the pious (and drunk) field chaplain when he asks his colleague Feldkurat Katz if he doesn't believe that the thumb of John the Baptist is found in this church.

Background

U Piaristů is a colloquial term for Kostel svatého Kříže, a monastery with church and a school located at the corner of Na Příkopě og Panská ulice that until 1912 belonged to the Piarist order. They are a Catholic educational order founded in 1617 in is the oldest of its kind. Their main purpose is to provide free education for poor children.

The church which is built in a classical style was constructed between 1816 and 1824. Amongst those who studied here was Vrchlický.

After the introduction of a new school law in 1869 the state took over and one part became a gymnasium (German) and the other a teacher's institute. In 1912 the Piarists finally sold the building. Today the church is run by the catholic institute Society of St. Francis de Sales (Salesians of Don Bosco).

It was on the street corner by this church that Oberleutnant Lukáš was to meet a lady, when on a walk with the dog Fox, he unfortunately bumped into Oberst Kraus. We already know the end of that story.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.12] Mžouraje očima, otázal se Katze: „Vy nevěříte v neposkvrněné početí panny Marie, nevěříte, že palec sv. Jana Křtitele, který se chrání u piaristů, je pravý? Věříte vůbec v pána boha? A když nevěříte, proč jste polním kurátem?“

Literature

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

13. Švejk goes to provide the last rites

Vojenská nemocnice Karlovo náměstínn flag
Praha II./504, Karlovo námestí 39
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum
vojnemoc3.jpg

11.6 1907 © AHMP

Vojenská nemocnice Karlovo náměstí was the destination of Švejk and Feldkurat Katz's mission to administer the last rites to the severely wounded.

Background

Vojenská nemocnice Karlovo náměstí refers to c.a.k vojenská nemocnice č. 11 (k.u.k. Militärspital Nr. 11) in Prague, a military hospital located at the southern end of Karlovo náměstí. Today the building is used by the university hospital (Všeobecná fakultní nemocnice v Praze).

A significant number of the locations mentioned in the first part of The Good Soldier Švejk and in anecdotes throughout the novel are located within 10 minutes walk from the hospital, including U kalicha. The author lived in this area for the first 20 years of his life, and frequently also later in life. He graduated both from gymnasium and the commercial academy only a few hundred metres from here.

The military hospital where Švejk spent time as a malingerer in [1.8] was a branch. See Vojenská nemocnice Hradčany.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.13] Potom přečetl polní kurát ještě jednou předpis, ve kterém se mu oznamuje, že zítra má jít na Karlovo náměstí do Vojenské nemocnice zaopatřovat těžce raněné.

Also written:Military hospital at Charles square en Militärspital am Karlsplatz de Militærsjukehuset på Karlsplassen no

Literature

Kostel svátého Ignácenn flag
Praha II./505, Ječná ul. 2
Wikipedia czen Google mapsearch
ignac.jpg

Pohled na kostel sv. Ignáce na Karlově náměstí, vpravo Ječná ulice. 24.10.1907.

© AHMP

ignac.png

Zlatá Praha, 9.5.1913.

Kostel svátého Ignáce is mentioned first time by Feldkurat Katz in a conversation with Švejk when he reveals that he many years ago performed a mass for military personnel here.

Later on the church appears in the description of Oberst Kraus and in the story about plynárník Zátka on the gas works at Letná [2.5] where páter Jemelka held a sermon.

The third mention is in an anecdote in the final chapter.

Background

Kostel svátého Ignáce is a church at the corner of av Ječná ulice and Karlovo náměstí which today serves as the main seat of the Jesuit order in the Czech Republic. It is named after the founder of the order: Ignatius of Loyola. Construction started in 1665 and was completed in 1699.

Hašek and St. Ignatius

Jaroslav Hašek knew the church very well. Václav Menger tells us that he was ministrant (altar server) there during the 2nd last year at primary school (i.e. when he was around 9 years old). His knowledge of Catholic liturgy is no doubt in part due to this experience.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.13] Znal tu pakáž, jak ji nazýval, z chrámu od Ignáce, když před léty tam míval kázání pro vojsko. Tenkrát ještě vkládal do kázání mnoho a „Sdružení“ sedávalo za plukovníkem.
[1.15] Byl při své tuposti neobyčejně nábožný. Měl doma v bytě domácí oltář. Chodil často ke zpovědi a k přijímání k Ignáci a od vypuknutí války modlil se za zdar zbraní rakouských a německých.
[2.5] A potom,“ řekl Švejk tiše, „to s tím Zátkou po čase skončilo moc špatně. Dal se do Mariánský kongregace, chodil s nebeskýma kozama na kázání pátera Jemelky k svatýmu Ignáci na Karlovo náměstí a zapomenul jednou zhasnout, když byli misionáři na Karláku u svatýho Ignáce, plynový svítilny ve svým rayoně, takže tam hořel po ulicích plyn nepřetržitě po tři dny a noci.

SourcesVáclav Menger

Literature

Vojenská intendanturann flag
Praha III./258, Malostranské nám. 15
Wikipedia de Google mapsearch
intendance.png

Adresář královského hlavního města Prahy, 1907

intendance1.png

Seidel kleines Armeeschema, 1914

intendance2.png

Prager Tagblatt, 8.1.1915

Vojenská intendantura is mentioned by Feldkurat Katz when he says that the army's administrative department apparently doesn't supply holy oil consecrated by a bishop.

Background

Vojenská intendantura was the administrative body of k.u.k. Heer who's task was to supply the army and perform accounting. The main office was located in Vienna, but here one no doubt refers to their branch by 8th army corps in Prague. The offices were located at the second floor of the Lichtenstein Palace in Malá Strana. See 8. Korpskommando and k.u.k. Militärärar.

The army administrative authority is also the centre of a story by Jaroslav Hašek from 1910, Čáka pěšáka Trunce (The parade helmet of infantryman Trunec). Here it is the head office in Vienna that has to find suitable headgear for Trunec's enormous head. The main office was located in the building of k.u.k. Kriegsministerium to which it also reported.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.13] Po těchto filosofických úvahách polní kurát umlkl a řekl: „Potřebujeme tedy olej posvěcený od biskupa. Tady máte 10 korun a kupte lahvičku. Ve vojenské intendantuře patrně takový olej nemají.“

Also written:Militärintendantur de

Literature

Firma Poláknn flag
Praha I./1085, Soukenická ulice? 4
Google mapsearch
polak1.png

Adresář hl. města Prahy, 1910

polak2.png

Prager Tagblatt, 30.7.1914

Firma Polák was the paint store in Dlouhá třída where Švejk bought Hampseed oil no. 3 for use when giving the last rites. The store was most probably named after the owner. The employee who served the good soldier was Mr. Tauchen.

Background

Firma Polák has not been possibly to identify uniquely although the author locates it in Dlouhá třída. According to the address book of 1910 there was only one outlet in Dlouhá třída that corresponds to the description in the novel, but the owner was Ferdinand Adler. The shop was located in Dlouhá 732/39.

In Soukenická ul. 1085/4, 100 metres to the east, a firm A. J. Pollak had a shop that also traded in oils and paints. It is probably this establishment that the author had in mind as it was located at the western end of Soukenická where it joins Dlouhá. The proprietor in 1910 was Emil Pollak (1848-1914), a Jewish merchant.

The firm Jakub Pollak were located in Dlouhá no. 45 but they were book-binders and would therefore be an unlikely candidate.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.13] V druhé chtěli telefonovat na ochrannou stanici a ve třetí mu řekl provisor, že firma Polák v Dlouhé třídě, obchod olejem a laky, bude mít rozhodně žádaný olej na skladě.
[1.13] Firma Polák v Dlouhé třídě byla opravdu firma agilní. Nepustila žádného kupce, aby neuspokojila jeho přání. Chtěl-li balsám kopaivu, nalili mu terpentýn a bylo také dobře.
[1.13] „Tak už máme volej,“ řekl slavnostně Švejk, když se vrátil od firmy Polák, „konopnej volej čís. 3, první kvality, můžeme s ním namazat celej batalion. Je to solidní firma. Prodává taky laky, fermež a štětce. Ještě potřebujeme zvoneček.“

Literature

Sdružení šlechtičen pro náboženskou výchovu vojákůnn flag
Google search
adelige1.png

Brünner Zeitung, 23.10.1899

adelige.png

Prager Abendblatt, 10.9.1903

Sdružení šlechtičen pro náboženskou výchovu vojáků was the Association of nobility ladies for the religious education of soldiers who were to be present when Feldkurat Katz administered the last rites at Vojenská nemocnice Karlovo náměstí the day after Švejk and he first visited. The association consisted of hysterical old ladies.

Background

Sdružení šlechtičen pro náboženskou výchovu vojáků has not been possible to identify. There is no such or similar organisation listed in the 1910 address book and is probably an invention by the author.

Still there existed other organisations where ladies from the nobility were involved, mainly within charitable work. This could be contributing funds for hospitals, support for war veterans, wounded soldiers, widows and orphaned children.

During the war newspapers and magazines often featured ladies from the nobility on hospital visits and it could have been these that inspired the author to write this passage (and the similarly themed visit of Baronesse von Botzenheim to Vojenská nemocnice Hradčany).

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.13] Potom přišel ordonanc a přinesl paket, ve kterém se polnímu kurátovi oznamuje, že zítra bude při zaopatřování v nemocnici přítomno Sdružení šlechtičen pro náboženskou výchovu vojáků.

Also written:Vereinigung adeliger Damen zur Pflege der religiösen Erziehung der Soldaten Brousek Association of Noblewomen for the Religious Education of Soldiers Sadlon

Literature

U Křížkůnn flag
Karlín (?)
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum

U Křížků is mentioned once because Švejk went here to steal a bell for the journey to give the last rites. It is also stated that it is a roadside inn and that Švejk was back in half an hour.

Background

U Křížků was a hospoda which is unclear where was located. The novel states that Švejk used half an hour to steal the bell so it must have been within easy walking distance from Karlín. The text of the novel limits it further: it was a zajezdní hospoda (coaching inn) so is likely to have been located on a former approach road.

The place that best fit these criteria is no doubt the pub of František Kříčka which in the address book of 1910 is listed as Královská třída 110. This is both on a main road and well within walking distance from Feldkurat Katz's flat. Named after the owners(s) it would have been called U Kříčky/U Kříčků, but this type of minor error is far from uncommon in the novel.

Jaroslav Šerák mentions five other alternatives but further away, see web-link. But it should be notet that neither Kříčka nor those five are listed as coaching inns in the address book, so could the autor have mixed it up with some other place? The coaching inn U města Hamburku, which is located on the same street, could be a candidate.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.13] Obdržev svolení, Švejk přinesl za půl hodiny zvonek. „Je od vrat zájezdní hospody ,U Křížků,’“ řekl, „stál mne pět minut strachu a dlouho jsem předtím musel čekat, poněvadž se pořád trousili lidi.“

Literature

Militärgeistlichkeitnn flag
Wien VIII., Skodagasse 19
Wikipedia de Google mapsearch
bjelik.jpg

Besuch des Apostolischen Feldvikars Bjelik, 1916.

vikariat.png

Zdeněk M. Kuděj

© LA-PNP

Militärgeistlichkeit is mentioned when Feldkurat Katz reads a directive from k.u.k. Kriegsministerium regarding restrictions on giving the last oil.

Later in the chapter the institution is referred to with contempt by the persistent money-lender when he complains to skriven about military clerics. Feldkurat Katz has just popped out to a café just as the money lender appears at the door to claim his dues.

Background

Militärgeistlichkeit was a collective term for the military clergy of Austria-Hungary. It included Catholic (the largest), Jewish, Greek-Orthodox, Muslim and Protestant. The institution reported to k.u.k. Kriegsministerium. To every division was assigned one divisional field chaplain and one field chaplain and each regiment was assigned one field chaplain. Serving in this role at k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 91 was Jan Eybl, he was at the regiment from 1 January 1914 to 24 April 1918.

Head of the military clergy from 1911 to 1918 was Emmerich Bjelik. His title was the resounding Apostolischer Feldvikar. Bjelik knew one of the models for figures in The Good Soldier Švejk, namely Ludvík Lacina. Another person who knew Bjelik was Zdeněk Matěj Kuděj who for a period served at the Feldvikariat in Vienna. It may well be that Jaroslav Hašek drew inspiration for some of his field chaplains from what Kuděj told him. The two authors met several times during the period the novel was written.

The institution of military clergy plays a prominent role in The Good Soldier Švejk and it is probably the authority that is subjected to the most stinging satire of them all. Already in [1.11] the author dedicates a complete sub-chapter to an attack on military clergy as a world phenomenon. Later the object of scorn is solely the Catholicy field clergy in Austria-Hungary. The field chaplains Katz, Martinec, Lacina and their pious colleague in [1.12] are either drunkards (and immoral) and those who are not soon slide into debauchery. Feldoberkurat Ibl is however only mentioned briefly, but as an idiotic preacher.

Feldoberkurat Lacina and to a lesser degree Feldoberkurat Ibl are both inspired by living persons - Ludvík Lacina and Jan Eybl respectively. Feldkurat Martinec and Feldkurat Katz have no obvious link to any existing persons and no field chaplains with these names are listed in Schematismus from 1914. The marginal Feldkurat Matyáš could however have been inspired by a real person. See Link A. Jaroslav Hašek definitely knew Eybl from his time in IR 91 in 1915, and it is very likely that he also knew Lacina in person.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.13] Ministerstvo ruší po dobu války platné předpisy týkající se zaopatřování vojínů posledním pomazáním a ustanovuje tyto pravidla pro vojenské duchovní:

Also written:Military Clergy en Vojenské duchovni cz Militærgeistlegheit no

Literature

U Exnerůnn flag
Libeň/457, Královská tř. -
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum
palmovka.png

The building that Exner had erected in 1909 and 1910 and where he lived from then on. The pub can be seen to the right. From "Český svět", 20 May 1910.

exner.png

Adresář obce libeňské, 1896

uexneru1.png

Národní politika, 23.2.1912

exner1.png

Národní listy, 29.7.1913

U Exnerů is mentioned by Švejk in an anecdote he tells in order to put the persistent money-lender in his place. The soldier tells the uninvited guest about some Boušek from Libeň who was thrown out from this pub repeatedly but still came back time after time..

Background

U Exnerů was a restaurant that existed at least until 1939. It was located on the corner of Primátorská and Královská třída in Libeň. In the address books from 1896, 1907 and 1910 it is listed under the name Na Palmovce.

U Exnerů was also been used for organised meetings and events; in 1915 it is mentioned in the newspaper in connection with charities, for instance for poor children. It existed under the name U Exnerů at least until 1940. Today it is a Chinese restaurant.

Čeněk Exner

U Exnerů was named after local entrepreneur and owner of the property Čeněk Exner (10 July 1855 - 28 July 1913). The owner of the property never managed the restaurant, the pub landlord in 1910 was Karel Klapa. Exner, born in Vrchlabí in the Krkonoše mountains, was the proprietor of a meat company (smoked meat) and owned real estate. In 1890 he founded the enterprise in Karlín and moved it to Libeň in 1897. He was married to Anastazie, had two children and also grandchildren. He was also active in Sokol and other organisations

From 1897 to 1910 the family lived in the same building as the pub and the firm, then they moved to number 890 next door. This was an Art Deco building that he had built in 1909 and 1910 as a wedding present to his daughter Anastazie. Exner suffered a tragic end to his life: newspaper notes reveal that he committed suicide in 1913 by hanging himself in the bathroom. The reason was supposedly financial problems.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.13] „Poslušně hlásím, pane feldkurát,“ poznamenal Švejk, „že je to hotovej nezmar, jako nějakej Boušek z Libně. Vosumnáctkrát za večer ho vyhodili od ,Exnerů’, a vždycky se jim tam vrátil, že tam zapomněl fajfku.

Literature

Mariánská kongregacenn flag
Praha II./1354, Ve Smečkách 32
Wikipedia czdeen Google mapsearch
kongregace.png

Adresář královského hlavního města Prahy, 1896

Mariánská kongregace is mentioned when Feldkurat Katz and Švejk are on the way to Vojenská nemocnice Karlovo náměstí to administer the last rites. In Vodičkova ulice a female custodian and member of the congregation runs after their horse cart to get blessed but complains how fast they ride.

Background

Mariánská kongregace (lat. Congregatio Mariana) is a Roman-Catholic educational institution, established by the Jesuit father Jean Leunis in 1563 and always associated with the Jesuit order.

The Prague section of the society was founded 28 April 1892. In 1896 the the institution was located in Ječná ulice 505/2 (see Kostel svátého Ignáce), with father páter Jemelka as chairman. In 1907 and 1910 the address was Ve Smečkách 1354/32, not far from Vodičkova ulice (where Feldkurat Katz and Švejk drove past in their horse cab). The building no longer exists and the site is used by Hotel Fenix.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.13] A Švejk do toho zvonil, drožkář sekal bičem dozadu, ve Vodičkové ulici nějaká domovnice, členkyně mariánské kongregace, klusem dohnala drožku, dala si v jízdě požehnat, pokřižovala se, odplivla si poté: "Jedou s tím pánembohem jako všichni čerti! Člověk aby dostal souchotiny!" a vracela se udýchána na své staré místo.

Also written:Marianische Kongregation de Congregatio Mariana la

Literature

K.u.k. Dragonernn flag
Karlín/8, Za Invalidovnou -
Wikipedia de Google mapsearch
dragon.jpg

Světozor, 4.9.1914

dragon1.png

Seidels kleines Armeeschema, 1914

dragon.png

Chytilův adresář 1912

K.u.k. Dragoner is mentioned by Feldkurat Katz when he argues with the commander at Vojenská nemocnice Karlovo náměstí about compensation for travelling and the cost of blessed oil. The field chaplain argues that when an officer from the Dragons go to a stud farm for a horse he is paid subsistence.

Background

K.u.k. Dragoner was the term for some of the cavalry units in the Austrian part of the Dual Monarchy. In total there were 15 Dragoon regiments in k.u.k. Heer, mostly from the German- and Czech-speaking areas of the empire. The organisation of the cavalry in Austria-Hungary was quite complex - in addition to the Dragoons there were also Ulans and Hussars.

In the novel the reference is surely to a local Dragoon regiment, and such a regiment actually existed: k.u.k. Dragonerregiment Nr. 14. From 1912 the 2nd and 5th squadron were garrisoned in the barracks behind Invalidovna in Karlín (now U Sluncové 6). The staff was located at Brandys nad Labem, and the rest of the regiment in Stará Boleslav and Dobřany. The recruitment area was No. 8, see 8. Korpskommando. The recruitment command itself was located in Klatovy.

Several Dragoon regiments were recruited from district No. 8 and over the years other regiments were located in Karlín. In 1906 the 13th Dragoon Regiment occupied the same premises behind Invalidovna as the 14t regiment did from 1912.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.13] Potom následoval spor s velitelem nemocnice a polním kurátem, přičemž polní kurát několikrát udeřil pěstí do stolu a vyjádřil se: "Nemyslete si, pane hejtmane, že je poslední pomazání zadarmo. Když důstojník od dragounů je komandýrován do hřebčince za koňma, tak se mu také platí diety. Opravdu lituji, že se ti dva posledního pomazání nedočkali. Bylo by to o padesát korun dražší."

Also written:Dragons en Dragonen de Dragonar no

Literature

K.u.k. Generalstabnn flag
Wien I., Stubenring 1
Wikipedia deen Google mapsearch
generalstab.png

Schematismus ..., 1914

arz.png

General Arthur Arz

Wiener Bilder, 11.3.1917.

K.u.k. Generalstab is mentioned in a conversation at Vojenská nemocnice Karlovo náměstí where a soldier relates about a clerical member of parliament who before the war talk about God and his love for peace and harmony between humans. After the outbreak of war the tone however changed, and now he talked about God as if he was Chief of General Staff.

The General Staff is mentioned again through the pondering of Oberleutnant Lukáš when he is on the disastrous walk with Max, and also during Kadett Biegler's dream on the train to Budapest. A painting of Chief of Staff Feldmarschall Conrad decorates the wall at k.u.k. Gottes Hauptquartier.

Background

K.u.k. Generalstab was an institution that in times of war or times of a threatening war was responsible for planning, execution and supervision of military operations. General Staff formally belonged to k.u.k. Kriegsministerium and was located in the same building.

The Royal and Imperial General Staff existed from 1867 to 1918 but the institution was already in place long before Ausgleich split the Habsburg empire into two parts of equal standing.

Chief of staff from 1912 to 1917 was Feldmarschall Conrad. He was demoted by the new emperor Karl I. (see Erzherzog Karl Franz Joseph) and replaced by infantry general Arthur Arz von Straußenburg who was to become the last ever Chief of Staff at k.u.k. Generalstab (picture to the right).

General staff officers were permanently present at major military units; at district, divisional and brigade level.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.13] A vida ho, vola, jakmile vypukla válka, ve všech kostelích se modlí za zdar zbraní a o pánubohu se mluví jako o nějakém náčelníkovi jenerálního štábu, který tu vojnu řídí a diriguje. Z téhle vojenské nemocnice už jsem viděl pohřbů, a uříznutých noh a ruk vozí odtud vozy.
[1.15] Zatraceně, proč ministerstvo vojenství dává takové věci do školního programu. To je přece pro dělostřelectvo. A jsou přece mapy jenerálního štábu.
[3.1] Uprostřed pokoje, ve kterém po stěnách visely podobizny Františka Josefa a Viléma, následníka trůnu Karla Františka Josefa, generála Viktora Dankla, arcivévody Bedřicha a šéfa generálního štábu Konráda z Hötzendorfu, stál pán bůh.

Also written:Royal and Imperial General Staff en C.a k. generální štáb cz

Literature

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

14. Švejk as military servant to senior lieutenant Lukáš

Stoletá kavárnann flag
Praha II./267, Na Zderaze 10
Google mapsearch
stoleta1.png

Národní politika, 1.12.1908

stoleta2.png

Národní politika, 28.6.1909

stoleta3.png

Adresář královského hlavního města Prahy a obcí sousedních, 1907

Stoletá kavárna is mentioned in Švejk's long anecdote that he tells Feldkurat Katz after the latter had played away his servant at cards. The game took place in a "hospoda" behind Stoletá kavárna and at the centre of events was the old plumber Vejvoda.

Background

Stoletá kavárna was a café with address Na Zderaze in Nové město that existed from some time before 1887, but we don't know with certainty when it started and when it ceased operation. Early adverts show a certain Slavík as landlord. In 1908 these small adverts reveal that the landlord is Antonín Kolář and the address book from 1907 confirms him also as the owner of the building. See also Hospoda za Stoletou kavárnou.

In 1909 the old building was demolished and a new one erected on the premises. Jaroslav Hašek surely knew both versions of the café, but the time of Vejvoda was probably before the rebuild. In 1914 they advertised for a piano player, the place was also a dance- and concert establishment. In 1915 the building changed hands after a bankruptcy and in 1916 it is referred to as the former café. By 1918 it appears to have reopened and in 1920 the landlord was B. Michálek. On the present building the inscription "Stoletá kavárna" is still visible.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.14.1] „A bylo v banku hodně?“ otázal se Švejk klidně, „nebo jste málokdy dělal forhonta? Když nepadá karta, je to velmi špatný, ale někdy je to mizerie, když to jde až příliš dobře. Na Zderaze žil nějakej klempíř Vejvoda a ten hrával vždy mariáš v jedné hospodě za ,Stoletou kavárnou’. Jednou taky, čert mu to napískal, povídá: ,A což abychom si hodili jedníka o pětníček.’
[1.14.1] Kominickej mistr byl už do banku dlužen přes půldruhého miliónu, uhlíř ze Zderazu asi milión, domovník ze Stoletý kavárny 800 000 korun, jeden medik přes dva milióny.

Also written:Century Café en Hundertjähriges kaffeehaus de

Literature

Hospoda za Stoletou kavárnounn flag
Praha II./261, Na Zbořenci 7
Google mapsearch

Hospoda za Stoletou kavárnou is mentioned in Švejk's long anecdote that he tells Feldkurat Katz after the latter had played away his servant at cards. The gambling party took place in a "hospoda" behind Stoletá kavárna and at the story was centered around old Vejvoda.

Background

Hospoda za Stoletou kavárnou was most probably an inn that belonged to Josef Pavlíček. The pub was located at Na Zbořenci No. 7, two houses up the street from Stoletá kavárna. cook Pavlíček also owned the building, he bought it at a bankrupcy auction in 1904.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.14.1] „A bylo v banku hodně?“ otázal se Švejk klidně, „nebo jste málokdy dělal forhonta? Když nepadá karta, je to velmi špatný, ale někdy je to mizerie, když to jde až příliš dobře. Na Zderaze žil nějakej klempíř Vejvoda a ten hrával vždy mariáš v jedné hospodě za ,Stoletou kavárnou’. Jednou taky, čert mu to napískal, povídá: ,A což abychom si hodili jedníka o pětníček.’

Also written:Pub behind the "Century Café" en Kneipe hinter dem "Hundertjährigen Kaffeehaus" de

Literature

Einjährig-Freiwilligenschule Pragnn flag
Google search
efschule.png

Heerwesen, Selbstverlag Hugo Schmid, 1916

ir73kasarna.jpg

The barracks of IR73 in Vršovice. Was it here that Lukáš trained One Year Volunteers?

kasarnymapy.png

The barracks of IR 11 and IR 102

albrechtova.jpg

Albrechtova kasárna, Smíchov. Here Sagner served as instructor at the reserve-officer school of IR 11 in February 1915

sagnerir11.png

Sagner at the IR 11 reserve officer's school. © VÚA

efschule1.png

Pilsner Tagblatt, 15.4.1914

efschule.jpg

Světozor, 17.9.1915

zakonb.png

Zákon branný, daný dne 5. prosince 1868

kejla.png

Jaroslav Kejla, 1972. © LA-PNP

Einjährig-Freiwilligenschule Prag was the school where Oberleutnant Lukáš was an instructor at the time he met Švejk. This is revealed when the author introduces Lukáš to the reader. The officer even tells his students: "Let us be Czechs but nobody needs to know about it. I am also Czech". The author also adds that all the students at the school were Czechs.

The school is also mentioned later, for instance when he tells Mr. Wendler what he is doing and about his future plans.

Background

Einjährig-Freiwilligenschule Prag is the author's term for some reserve officer's school in Prague. These schools belonged to the individual regiments, but as it is never revealed at which regiment Oberleutnant Lukáš served, it is impossible to know where the school was located. The next step in the investigation is therefore to look at which infantry regiments still had staff functions located in the city in the winter of 1914-15. Those were k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 11, IR73 and IR102 and Lukáš surely served as an instructor with one of these (that he was transferred from k.k. Landwehr is unlikely).

Conflicting traces

The description of the later dog theft does give some indication to where the school was located. Blahník dragged Fox in the direction of Vršovice, so it is logical to think that Oberleutnant Lukáš lived there. Coupling this with the fact that Katy Wendler walked together with Švejk to the barracks where the officer taught, indicates IR73 and Vršovice kasárna.

One should however be careful with taking the geographical logic of the plot literally. Later there is the episode where Oberleutnant Lukáš went for a walk with the recently stolen dog Fox. He bumped into the real owner of the dog, Oberst Kraus at Na Příkopě. This suggests that the officer lived for closer to the centre. Walking the dog all the way from Vršovice (3.5 km) seems improbable. In addition the author mentions that the students at the one-year volunteer schools were Czechs, whereas IR73 was a regiment where the overwhelming majority were Germans.

On the other hand the barracks of IR102 and k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 were located much closer (2 km), in Malá strána and Smíchov respectively. So if Oberleutnant Lukáš lived within walking distance of one of these he wouldn't have had to walk that far to get to Na Příkopě.

The literary figure Lukáš partly inspired by the real Sagner?

The discussion about which school/regiment Oberleutnant Lukáš instructed at is highly hypothetical because it is difficult to connect this part of the plot to any real persons or contemporary events. The author still hadn't aligned the story in the novel to that of his own career in k.u.k. Heer like he did from book two and onwards. Lukáš' main real life prototype, Rudolf Lukas, never served in Prague between 1911 and 1919. He did however teach one-year volunteers, but this was in Budějovice in 1911-12 and again in the autumn of 1914, that is before he met Jaroslav Hašek. Lukas served his entire career in k.u.k. Heer with IR 91 so he could not have been transferred there like his literary counterpart was.

Inspiration for his role as an instructor must therefore originate somewhere else, perhaps from some other officer hew knew. These could have been several, for instance Josef Adamička, but similarities with Čeněk Sagner springs to the fore. After a period of recuperation in Prague he volunteered as an instructor at k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 while still being officially on sick leave. He started in this role on 25 January 1915 but because it was against the rules to serve at another regiment, he was called back to IR 91 in Budějovice on 28 February 1915. Here he was appointed commander of the First Replacement Company..

At the time Jaroslav Hašek served with this very compnay and was also a student at the regiment's reserve officer's school. He therefore probably knew about Čeněk Sagner's position in Prague and also his transfer. A few more details about Oberleutnant Lukáš also fit better with Sagner than with Rudolf Lukas: Sagner was Czech and he is known to have stood up for the Czechs in k.u.k. Heer. On the contrary oberleutnant Lukas was an ethnic German. Exactly like the literary figure Lukáš, Sagner was educated at k.u.k. Infanteriekadettenschule Prag, whereas Lukas was not. Thus we have three details on Lukáš that could have been inspired by Sagner but could NOT have been derived from Lukas.

One-year volunteers and reserve officer's schools

The term "one-year volunteer" has created some confusion. Jaroslav Hašek himself wore this title, and some have therefore concluded that he must have volunteered for army service[1]. This is as far as we know not true, and if it was he would also have been called Kriegs-Freiwilliger and not only Einjährig-Freiwilliger.

One-year volunteer was an entitlement given to young men with middle and higher education. They had the option to serve for one year instead of the compulsory three (since 1912 two years), providing they paid for their own equipment. The system was created in 1868 modelled after Prussia and was functioning until 1918. The motive was that it would save the state money and wouldn't unduly damage the careers of the recruits. The "volunteer" part was also that soldier could (but didn't have to) attend a course to become a reserve officer during his term of service. Those who didn't pass the reserve officer's exam had to serve another year, but this duty was abolished in 1912. The one-year volunteer could also choose which branch of the armed forces and which unit he wanted to serve with.

The one-year volunteer was expected to buy his own equipment whereas k.u.k. k.u.k. Militärärar provided accommodation (if the soldier wanted). Eligibility depended on the recruit having completed the eight year middle school (gymnasium, "Realschule", teacher's academy, commercial academy or similar). It was up to the candidate to apply for the right as a one-year volunteer, and everyone had to pass an exam. Someone who was sentenced for property crimes or immorality automatically lost the right to serve for one year.

Thus Reserveoffizier-Schulen was an institution that educated one-year volunteers to become reserve officers. It may first appear that Jaroslav Hašek is wrong in using the terms "one-year volunteer school" or "school for one-year volunteers", but this is not the case. Until the army reforms of 1912 the schools were officially called Einjährig-Freiwilligenschule and obsolete term generally stick for years after the change has taken place (see Salmova ulice).

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.14.3] Mluvil ve společnosti německy, psal německy, četl české knížky, a když vyučoval ve škole jednoročních dobrovolníků, samých Čechů, říkal jim důvěrně: „Buďme Češi, ale nemusí o tom nikdo vědět. Já jsem taky Čech.“
[1.14.5] „Zažádal jsem o přeložení k 91. pluku do Budějovic, kam asi pojedu, jakmile budu hotov se školou jednoročáků.
[1.15] Ukončiv vyučování ve škole jednoročních dobrovolníků, vyšel si nadporučík Lukáš na procházku s Maxem.
Notes
1. An example of this misunderstanding is the article about Jaroslav Hašek in Spanish Wikipedia. Unfortunately this article also contains many other factual errors.

Literature

Pohodnice Pankrácnn flag
Dvorce/37, Na Dvorci
Google mapsearch
rasovna.jpg

"Prahou tisíciletou z dávna i dneška", Josef Veselý, 1926

Pohodnice Pankrác is mentioned when the author relates how unfortunate Oberleutnant Lukáš had been with his servants. One of them had sold the senior lieutenant´s dog to the knacker at Pankrác.

Background

Pohodnice Pankrác was a "knacker's yard", i.e. a station for disposal of animal carcasses. It was also called a "Thermochemical station". The animal remains were mostly boiled to make fertilizers, bone flour and other residual products. Those were often used as ingredients in soap and glue. The enterprise was also allowed to collect dogs, cats and other stray animals from the eastern bank of the Vltava (a similar enterprise in Břevnov catered for the western bank). Prague city at the time defined stray dogs as "an animal that walked on its without a muzzle". The enterprises were licensed by the city, but privately owned and managed.

The dogs were kept in a quarantine station at Vyšehrad until their owner reported and paid the fine for allowing his dog onto the street "improperly equipped". Dog owners had to claim their pets within three days, otherwise the animal would be destroyed. The carcass processing factory was located on the open fields between Dvorce-Podolí and Pankrác.

Nešvara, a family of knackers

The owner in 1912 was Rudolf Nešvara, so this is likely to be the person the author refers to as pohodný na Pankrác (the knacker at Pankrác). It is said that he was the nightmare of every dog owner in Prague. Nešvara's father Václav also ran the knacker's yard. He died 19 November 1888 at the age of forty, his father Antonín (1814-1894) and mother Marie both survived him. All in all four generations of Nešvaras ran carcass destruction enterprises in Prague, the latest was Rudolf's son Jaromír who was in business as late as during the Second World War.

The yard had existed at least since 1888 and was operating until 1950, and the building lasted until around 1970 when it was demolished to make way for the new seat of Česká Televize.

Egon Erwin Kisch
rasovna2.png

Bohemia, 27.11.1910 (Egon Erwin Kisch)

Nešrava and his undertaking is also the theme in the story Bei "Antouschek", dem Wasenmeister by the famous "raging reporter" Egon Erwin Kisch. The story was first printed in Bohemia on 27 November 1910, and was the 17th in his series called Prager Streifzüge. The story later appeared in books, including Aus Prager Gassen und Nächten (1912) and Abenteuer in Prag (1920). In the story Kisch describes a tour of the factory, his meeting with Herr Nešvara and he provides a number of details, both technical and also about the history and organisation of such enterprises in Prague. He also tells about his family and that his brother worked there. Kisch writes that the enterprise was relatively odourless, something that is at odds with the complaints that appeared in the inter-war years.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.14.3] Kanárka mořili hladem, jeden sluha angorské kočce vyrazil jedno oko, stájový pinč byl od nich práskán na potkání a nakonec jeden z předchůdců Švejka odvedl chudáka na Pankrác k pohodnému, kde ho dal utratit, nelituje dát ze své kapsy deset korun. Oznámil potom prostě nadporučíkovi, že mu pes utekl na procházce, a druhý den už mašíroval s rotou na cvičiště.

SourcesJaroslav Šerák, Jaromír Pešek, Egon Erwin Kisch, Josef Veselý

Literature

U Štupartůnn flag
Praha I./647, Štupartská ul. 14
Wikipedia cz Google mapsearch
ustupartu.jpg

U Štupartů, 11 March 1911

ustupartu.png

Alois Jirásek "Temno"

ustupartu2.png

From the courtyard of "U Štupartů", 16 March 1911

U Štupartů is mentioned by Švejk in a conversation with Oberleutnant Lukáš when he describes how the cat devoured the Harz canary. I similar episode is said to have taken place in this house but in this case the cat had eaten a parrot.

Background

U Štupartů is a building in Staré město with a history dating back to the 14th century. The house is named after Peter Stupart von Löwenthal who bought it 20 October 1664. His grandson sold it out of the family on 10 September 1732. In 1910 the house had two street addresses in Štupartská 14 og Jakubská 2 and had many tenants. Amongst them a the pub named after the house, run by Rudolf Holeček. It's address was Štupartská 14.

The original building (surely this was the one mentioned in the novel) was demolished in the autumn of 1911 after much opposition. Klub za starou Prahou and others wanted to preserve it due to its historical and architectural value but they were overruled by the city council. Already in December that year the new building was under construction, was ready the next year and still occupies the premises. The builder was Josef Sochor from Prague VII.

The devil's inn

Another author who wrote about U Štupartů was Alois Jirásek, Jaroslav Hašek's teacher at the gymnasium in Žitná ulice. The novel "Temno" (Darkness) was first printed as a serial in Zlatá Praha and was published as a book in1914. It mentions the pub U Štupartů opposite the church Sv. Jakub as čertová krčma (a devil's inn). This historical novel is set at the beginning of the 18th century.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.14.3] V domě ,U Štupartů’ sežrala před léty kočka dokonce papouška, poněvadž se jí posmíval a mňoukal po ní. Voni ale mají kočky tuhej život. Jestli poručíte, pane obrlajtnant, abych ji vodpravil, tak ji budu muset trhnout mezi dveřmi, jinak nedodělá.“

Also written:Beim Stupart Reiner

Literature

Armin von Barheimnn flag
Google search
barheim.png

Břetislav Hůla, "Vysvětlíky". © LA-PNP

Armin von Barheim was kennel in Bavaria. It enters the story when Švejk tells Oberleutnant Lukáš about the finer details of dog breeding, and that one sometimes has to forge the pedigrees, because dog owners don't want mongrel dogs.

Background

Armin von Barheim is an institution which existence remains unidentified. No Bavarian kennel Armin von Barheim has been found, nor any kennel carrying this name anywhere in the world. Generic searches (Google and Wikipedia 2018) provide no meaningful hits, neither on geography nor people. Břetislav Hůla does list the kennel in his explanations to the novel (1951) but doesn't provide any complimentary details.

Searches in the Bavarian, Austrian and Czech digital newspaper collections do however show up a few hits, but nothing that is related to dog breeding in Bavaria or anywhere else. All this indicates that the name Barheim is either invented or misspelt.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.14.3] A každej hned chtěl rodokmen, tak jsem si musel dát rodokmeny natisknout a dělat z nějakýho košířskýho voříška, kerej se narodil v cihelně, nejčistokrevnějšího šlechtice z bavorskýho psince Armin von Barheim.
Kronika světové válkynn flag
Karlín/108, Královská tř. 48
Google mapsearch
kronika2.png

Rovnost, 12.10.1914

kronika.png

Světová válka slovem i obrazem, s. 505: "Rakouský následník trůnu rozmlouvá se dvěma letci, sestřelivšími ruský aeroplan".

Kronika světové války is mentioned when Švejk escorts Katy Wendler to the barracks where Oberleutnant Lukáš serves. There he has a chat with a soldier about the events of the war. He has an expression as stupid as can be seen on a picture in Kronika světové války where the Austrian successor to the throne appears in a conversation with two pilots who have shot down a Russian plane.

Background

Kronika světové války was not a book like the context here indicates, but sub-titles in the booklet series Světová válka slovem i obrazem (The World War in words and pictures) issued by the publisher Emil Šolc in Karlín from October 1914 onwards. They were published every two weeks and were later assembled in six large volumes. Editor in chief was Adolf Srb who was assisted by a group of experts. The series is richly illustrated, is very detailed and is generally of high quality. In total it contains nearly 2000 pages.

Emil Šolc was also publisher of the weekly Český svět who in 1913 printed the well known picture of Jaroslav Hašek and Zdeněk Matěj Kuděj in female bathing gear. Šolc originated from Telč where he also acted as a publisher. In 1913 he bought the bookshop and publishing house of Rudolf Storch in Karlín. In 1919 the publishing house was merged with Nakladatelství Šimáček.

Fragments used in the novel

It is obvious that Jaroslav Hašek used some of the instalments/books from the series as a source when he wrote the novel. The quote from Kronika světove války regarding the photo of the heir to the throne Erzherzog Karl Franz Joseph is copied letter by letter from volume II, page 505. It should be added that these brief daily reports appear also in periodicals like Národní politika and Roskvět, but with a slightly different spelling. Therefore everything indicates that the author used The World War in words and pictures, and not any of the others. The picture also appeared in Český svět 4 June 1915 with exactly the same wording.

In chapter 14 fragments from Kronika appear repeatedly. The first example is the Sultan awarding the German Emperor the war medal, then general General Kusmanek who arrived in Kiev. The longest direct quote is however the sub-title of the picture of the heir to the throne.

The conversation between Lukáš and Wendler

Then follows the conversation between Oberleutnant Lukáš and hop trader Mr. Wendler when the latter arrives to fetch his wife. Here the officer lists a number of leading Turkish politicians and high ranking officers, and also three German officers serving the Ottoman Empire.

Wendler retorts with a tirade about the hopeless situation for the hop business, and a number of spots from the front in Belgium and France appear. He assigns a brewery to most of them and the names are all found in Kronika's summary of war events from 24 March to 2 April 1915. Some additional phrases are recognizable but adapted to the novel's context. These place names, persons and text fragments are all found on pages 505 to 507 of Kronika.

Further snippets appear on pages 508 to 511, but these are not from the brief daily updates. Instead they are from a longer article reporting on the Central Power's breakthrough by Dunajec on 2 May 1915, and on page 511 deliberations on Italy's entry in the war.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.14.4] Jedině když již stáli u kasáren, Švejk vyzval mladou dámu, aby počkala, a dal se do hovoru s vojáky ve vratech o vojně, z čehož musela mít mladá dáma náramnou radost, poněvadž chodila nervosně po chodníku a tvářila se velice nešťastně, když viděla, že Švejk pokračuje ve svých výkladech s tak hloupým výrazem, jaký bylo možno vidět též na fotografii uveřejněné v té době v „Kronice světové války“: „Rakouský následník trůnu rozmlouvá se dvěma letci, sestřelivšími ruský aeroplán“.

Also written:Chronice of the World War en Verdskrigens krønike no

Literature

The Turkish Parliamentnn flag
Wikipedia deentr Google mapsearch
turkpar3.jpg

"Dünden Bugüne İstanbul Ansiklopedisi" 8 vol, İstanbul 1993-1995.

turkpar1.jpg

Světozor, 15.1.1909

turkpar.jpg

Das interessante Blatt, 15.8.1912

turkpar2.jpg

Das interessante Blatt, 2.12.1915

The Turkish Parliament is mentioned by Oberleutnant Lukáš when he tells Mr. Wendler that the chairman of the Turkish parliament, Hali Bey, has arrived in Vienna.

Background

The Turkish Parliament (or General Assembly - tr. Meclis-i Umûmî) was opened in 1876 and functioned until 1920. It was the first attempt of a representative system of government in the Ottoman Empire. It was however dissolved by the Sultan already in 1878 and only revived in 1908 after the Young Turk Revolution.

The assembly consisted of two chambers, the Upper Chamber (Meclis-i Âyân) and the Lower Chamber (Meclis-i Mebusân). The Lower Chambers was made up of elected representatives, the Upper Chamber had its members picked by the Sultan.

At the election in 1908 several parties were represented, with the Committee for Unity and Progress (Young Turks) as the largest group. Many nationalities had seats in the parliament: Turks, Arabs, Armenians, Albanians, Greeks, Slavs, Jews etc.

The 1912 election was however won by the Committee with an overwhelming majority, after an election campaign where democratic rules were pushed to the side. The ethnic composition of the house remained much the same. After this election Halil Bey, the chairman of the Committee, was elected president of the lower chamber.

In 1914 new elections were held, but after the losses in the Balkan Wars the Committee had in 1913 taken power through a coup and in 1914 they were the only party participating. On 13 May 1914 Emir Ali Paşa and Hüseyin Cahit Bey were elected vice presidents of the lower chamber. Halil Bey was at the same time re-elected as speaker of the house with 180 of the 181 votes.

The last ever election to the parliament took place in 1919.

Hans-Peter Laqueur

Initialy (i.e. 1876) it assembled in the building designed for the Darülfünun, the predecessor of the University of Istanbul, but never used for that purpose. After the reopening in 1908 parliament assembled in Çırağan Sarayı on the Bosphorus, between Beşiktaş and Ortaköy (now Kempinski Çirağan Palace Hotel), which unfortunately burnt down two months later. After that the sessions were held in the Darülfünun building near Sultanahmet again.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.14.5] „Turci se drží dobře,“ odpověděl nadporučík, uváděje ho opět ke stolu, „předseda turecké sněmovny Hali bej a Ali bej přijeli do Vídně.

Also written:Turecká sněmovná cz Türkisches Parlament de det tyrkiske parlamentet nn Meclis-i Umûmî tr

Literature

Malý výčep pivann flag
Praha III./196, Thunovská ul. 19
Google mapsearch
vycep1.png

Adresář hl. města Prahy, 1910

Malý výčep piva (the small beer bar) was a small pub at the lower end Zámecké schody where Švejk and Blahník planned the theft of the dog the soldier had promised Oberleutnant Lukáš, a misdeed that would later have fatal consequences.

Background

Malý výčep piva surely refers to one of the pubs in Thunovská ulice, a street leading up to Zámecké schody. In 1907 the address book shows up three pubs in the street: at No. 14, 15 and 19. In 1910 the one at No. 14 was no longer listed.

No. 19 was located directly at the end of the steps so at first sights it appears to be the bar the author had in mind. Pub landlord in 1907 and 1910 was František Šťáral, born in 1846 and died in 1917. He was registered at the address of the pub from 1900 to 1910. In Chytilův úplný adresář království Českého of 1912 Anna Novotná is entered as landlady.

U krále brabantského

No. 15 hosted the well known U krále brabantského and according to Zdeněk Matěj Kuděj known as a gathering place for secret meetings. This fits the scene from the novel well, but it is odd that Hašek classed it as a small beer bar.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.14.6] Na Malé Straně u Zámeckých schodů je malý výčep piva. Jednoho dne tam seděli v šeru vzadu dva muži. Jeden voják a druhý civilista. Nakloněni k sobě šeptali si tajemně. Vyhlíželi jako spiklenci z dob Benátské republiky.

Also written:Small beer bar en Kleine Bierkneipe de Liten ølbar no

Literature

Psinec nad Klamovkounn flag
Smíchov/908, Bělohorská silnice
Google mapsearch
psinec.jpg

Svět zvířat, 1.2.1910

psinec0.jpg

Prager Tagblatt, 11.2.1900

Psinec nad Klamovkou (the kennel above Klamovka) is mentioned by Blahník when he and Švejk plan the dog-theft in the little pub by Zámecké schody. It turns out that Blahník worked at the kennel.

Background

Psinec nad Klamovkou refers to a breeding kennel that was owned by publisher and dog breeder editor Fuchs and located by the villa Svět zvířat in Košíře above Klamovka. The villa also housed the editorial offices of the magazine Svět zvířat where Jaroslav Hašek was lead editor in 1909 and 1910.

The kennel advertised already in 1899, and from 1901 it used the term Hundepark Fuchs or similar in their German language adverts. In Czech newspapers the term Fuchsův psinec or similar is often found. The sales pitch was particularly noticeable in Prague newspapers like Prager Tagblatt, Národní listy and Bohemia, although adverts and news at times appeared in many other newspapers across Austria. The weekly Das interessante Blatt from Vienna also often carried the adverts and even some articles where the breeding kennel was mentioned.

Fuchs moved to Klamovka from Jičín in 1898 and seem to have starting breeding dogs at the premises soon after. In 1906 the kennel advertised a dog exhibition that were open to the public and in 1909 and 1910 they claimed to have more than 100 animals on show. The assistant at the kennel was from 1908 some Ladislav Čížek.

Police dogs

One of the important customers of the kennel was Rittmeister Rotter from k.k. Gendarmerie who let his two German shepherd dogs be trained here (see Wölfin). Rotter was featured in an article in Svět zvířat in 1909, and there was also a picture of him with his dogs. On 1 February 1910 the magazine also printed a letter of acknowledgement from him in an advert for the kennel.

Hašek on Klamovka
psinec.png

Národní listy, 16.1.1910

In 1908 Hájek, one of Jaroslav Hašek's closest friends, became head editor of Svět zvířat. It was he who later that year brought Hašek to Klamovka in 1908, and the latter now came in close contact with the kennel, an experience that later was reflected not only in Švejk, but also in many of the short stories he wrote until 1914. Hájek soon fell out with his boss and resigned as editor. Hašek then succeeded him, this probably happened in February 1909.

According to police register he lived at the villa from 4 February 1909. From to 28 July 1910 he is registered at Smíchov No. 1125, below the Klamovka gardens. Note that these are registered dates and may not correspond to the actual dates he moved.

Hard-hitting adverts
psinec1.png

Prager Tagblatt, 21.3.1909

From February 1909 the adverts in Prager Tagblatt took on a more bombastic tone. The headline was "Raub und Mord" and the "dog park" was allegedly "world famous". The text of the adverts read: "robbery and murder is ruled out when a good guard dog is present". It is tempting to link the hard-hitting adverts to the arrival of Jaroslav Hašek in the editorial offices of Svět zvířat. These adverts ran for about 6 months and in the autumn they also appeared in Bohemia.

Imaginary animals

A well known theme from The Good Soldier Švejk are the animals that Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek invented and these stories got back to Jaroslav Hašek himself. He wrote improbable articles about animals, some of them real, some of them invented and also advertised some of them for sale. Eventually his tricks were uncovered, he was dismissed and Hájek was re-instated. Exactly when when this happened we don't know. Hašek wrote a story in the magazine on 15 August 1910 and Hájek was apparently in charge again by mid October.

Canisport
canisport08.png

Wiener Salonblatt, 19.12.1908

editor Fuchs passed away 27 September 1911 and a few weeks later adverts show the firm Canisport operating from his address at Klamovka. The adverts for Fuchs however continued for the rest of the year. The two firms presumably shared the premises for some months but from 1912 the adverts for Fuchs disappear. One also assumes that they merged, considering the close ties Canisport already had to the Fuchs family.

canisport10.png

Adresář hl.m. Prahy..., 1910

Canisport was a firm at Vinohrady who from 1908 advertised dogs. First it was registered at Manesová ul. 917/28, then in Moravská ul. 1053/25. The proprietor was František Pober, married to Marie Fuchsová, the oldest daughter of editor Fuchs. Pober had already in 1904 advertised dogs for sale in Prager Tagblatt, so he might have been a dog breeder already then. His address in 1904 was Karlova ulice 24 in Smíchov. The firm moved Radotín south of Prague in 1910. They advertised regularly but at the end of 1910 the adverts from Radotín stopped before surfacing again in November 1911, now using the address Klamovka. Police records show the couple living in villa Svět zvířat from 16 November 1911. Canisport specialized in luxury dogs.

psince38.png

Adresář Protektorátu Čechy a Morava..., 1939

The company seem to have flourished under Pober's management and adverts were even found in Polish newspapers. Address book entries reveal that Canisport remained in business at least until 1938. Pober was still the owner and their address remained "above Klamovka". They advertised even more extensively than before the war, also in Austrian newspapers. As a curiosity can be mentioned that Ladislav Čížek, the former servant at Psinec nad Klamovkou, was still in the dog breeding business. His name appears in the 1939 address book next to Canisport. He was now located in Horní Černošice south of Prague.

Kynologický ústav

Hašek's legendary Cynological Institute should not be confused with the Fuchs kennel, but we include a chapter about it because the two were direct competitors, operating in the same neighbourhood. Importantly Švejk's occupation as a dog dealer was largely inspired by his creator's brief career as owner of the "institute".

kyno3.png

Prager Tagblatt, 16.11.1910

kyno1.png

Světozor, 21.4.1914

After his dismissal from Svět zvířat in 1910 Hašek set up his own dog trading firm with the imaginative name Kynologický ústav (Cynological institute), and from 16 November 1910 onwards adverts appeared in a.o. Prager Tagblatt, Národní listy and Čech, offering pure-bred dogs at prices half those of the "so-called" Hundeparks and breeding institutions, obviously a kick at the former employer up the hill. One of the adverts claims that the institute is the only of its kind in Central Europe and warns against "mixing up", no doubt another dig at editor Fuchs.

From 24 November 1910 the latter responded with for him unusually verbose adverts, claiming again to be world famous, and also warning against mix-ups. On 27 November and over the next week the adverts of the competing dog-sellers even appeared in Prager Tagblatt next to each others. The advertising war seems to have been short, at least in the columns of Prager Tagblatt. Hašek's last known entry was on 7 December whereas his competitor flooded the newspaper for the rest of the year, before reverting to the usual briefer notes.

The institute was officially registered on 24 November, in the name of his wife Jarmila Hašková, address Košíře no. 1125, below Klamovka. It is however improbable that he could have kept the dogs here as the recently married couple lived in an apartment.

By February 1911 the firm had gone bankrupt and there are various versions on what happened. Josef Mach wrote that Hašek imported two hyenas from Hamburg destined for a circus that in the end didn't take them. The loss on this deal was one of the reasons why the firm collapsed. There is also mention of tinkering with pedigrees, his agent Čížek stealing dogs, themes that have obvious parallels in The Good Soldier Švejk. Mach confirms that Čížek was put on trial for dog theft.

The Hašek couple were also taken to court but 9 March 1912 they received a letter from their lawyer František Papoušek, informing that the proceedings had been cancelled.

In literature

Hašek himself immortalised his institute in the two near identical stories Můj obchod se psy and Kynologický ústav. The first story was featured in the book Můj obchod se psy a jiné humoresky, published in 1915. This book has been reprinted several times and headline story has even been filmed. The story is vague about where the dogs were kept, but the author indicated that the kennel was located "in the countryside", a theme also found in the novel.

Animals often appear is Hašek's writing and The Good Soldier Švejk is far from the only example. The famous novel actually borrows a lot from themes that the author had used in his pre-war short stories. The inspiration from his experiences at Klamovka shine through in many of them. Entire stories are dedicated to animals, be it dogs, cats, goats etc. The monkey Miss Julie who features in one story was very real, pictures of her appeared in Svět zvířat.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.14.6] Voják s civilistou si ťukli a civilista dále šeptal: „Jednou ode mne jeden černej špic, kterýho jsem potřeboval pro psinec nad Klamovkou, nechtěl taky vzít buřt.

SourcesHájek, Josef Mach, Jaroslav Šerák, Radko Pytlík

Literature

Pasteur-Institutnn flag
Wien III., Boerhavegasse 8
Wikipedia czdeenfrno Google mapsearch
rudolfspital.jpg

Wien 3, Rudolfspital, Ansicht über Eck Boerhavegasse - Juchgasse, 1900

© Österreichische Nationalbibliothek

pasteur.jpg

Wiener Allgemeine Zeitung, 12.11.1899

pasteur1.png

Die Gemeinde-Verwaltung Wien, 1894-1896

Pasteur-Institut was mentioned in the context of the dog thief Blahník having having been bitten by a rabid dog. He was sent to the institute where he felt quite at home.

Background

Pasteur-Institut is a private non-profit organisation whose main goal is to combat infectious diseases. They were founded by and are named after the world famous bacteriologist and chemist Louis Pasteur. Their headquarters are located in Paris but have research centres and clinics all over the world.

The first institute was opened in Paris 14 November 1888 and very soon others opened all over the world. Their main task until World War I was to battle rabies. Vienna was relatively late in providing a clinic for treatment of rabies and already in 1889 Wiener Allgemaine Zeitung that such an institution existed in Bucharest. Budapest soon followed.

Rudolfsanstalt

The so-called "Pasteur Institute" in Vienna was created in July 1894 as a clinic at k.k. Krankenanstalt Rudolfstiftung in III. Bezirk - Landstrasse. The founder was the renowned bacteriologist Richard Paltauf (1858-1924). The task of the institute was inoculation against rabies, both preventive and after the patient had been infected. Treatment was free apart but the patient had to pay for accommodation (for poor patients the bill was sent to his home council).

The clinic had no official name and the the connection to the institute in Paris was probably merely that they used the methods of Pasteur in treating the patients. In address books they are listed as Schutzimpfungsanstalt gegen Wut. They mainly served Vienna but patients from other parts of Austria were also welcome. Newspaper clips reveal that patients from Bohemia were treated here regularly.

Canine madness
rabies.jpg

Battling rabies in the 16th century

Until around 1900 the of rate of human fatalities in Cisleithanien due to rabies was high but steadily decreasing. From 142 victims in 1873 the number was down to 81 by 1886. Measures like a law requiring the use of muzzles helped, and the knackers were permitted to kill any dog that didn't wear hit. Still it was the vaccine of Pasteur that brought the numbers drastically down.

In interwar Czechoslovakia there were still deaths, but far fewer (yearly average slighly above 7). Prague now had its own Pasteur Institute. After the Second World War the disease was nearly eliminated and since then no deaths amongst humans have been recorded.

Already before 1894 another "Pasteur-Institut" existed in Vienna, but their task was to treat animals. This institution operated under the auspices of the department of agriculture.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.14.6] Oba přátelé si opět ťukli. Ještě když Švejk se živil prodejem psů do vojny, Blahník mu je dodával. Byl to zkušený muž a vypravovalo se o něm, že kupoval pod rukou z pohodnice podezřelé psy a zas je prodával dál. Měl dokonce už jednou vzteklinu a v Pasteurově ústavu ve Vídni byl jako doma.

Also written:Pasteur Institute en Pasteurův ústav cz Institut Pasteur fr

Literature

Hundezwinger von Bülownn flag
Google search
bulow.jpg

Leipziger Adreß-Buch, 1910

Hundezwinger von Bülow was the name of a kennel in Leipzig where Max (formerly Fox) was supposed to hail from. This was according to his pedigree invented by Blahník.

Background

Hundezwinger von Bülow was almost certainly an invention by Blahník. In the Leipzig address books from 1910 and 1914 four kennels are listed, but none of them were owned by any von Bülow. Two persons with this surname appear in the directory but none of them appear to have been involved in dog breeding.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.14.6] „To musí bejt tvou rukou napsaný. Napiš, že pochází z Lipska, z psince von Bülow. Otec Arnheim von Kahlsberg, matka Emma von Trautensdorf, po otci Siegfried von Busenthal. Otec obdržel první cenu na berlínský výstavě stájových pinčů v roce 1912. Matka vyznamenána zlatou medalií norimberskýho spolku pro chov ušlechtilých psů. Jak myslíš, že je starej?“

Also written:Kennel von Bülow en Psinec von Bülow cz Kennel von Bülow no

Berliner Stallpinscherausstellung nn flag
Google search
hektor.jpg

Dog exhibition in Berlin in November 1913

berlina.png

Österreichische Forst-und Jagd-Zeitung, 15.1.1909

Berliner Stallpinscherausstellung took place in 1912 and Arnheim von Kahlsberg, the alleged father of the stolen dog Max (formerly Fox), won a gold medal. All this according to Blahník as he instructs Švejk on how to fill in the pedigree form for "Max".

Background

Berliner Stallpinscherausstellung is supposed to have taken place in 1912, but it is unclear what exhibition Blahník here refers to, and it is probably as invented as the pedigree of Max (formerly Fox). It has in any case not been possible to identify an exhibition that fully corresponds to the details revealed in the novel.

Dog exhibitions in Berlin

Still the author surely drew inspiration from some dog fair in Berlin. The city regularly hosted international dog fairs and those were obviously known to Hašek at the time when he was editor of Svět zvířat in 1909 and 1910. One of the organisers of those exhibitions was the cynological club Hundevreien Hektor and the events took place at Zoologischer Garten. The fairs were at times reported on also in Austrian newspapers. Still Hektor was not the only organiser of such events, so any firm conclusion is not possible.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.14.6] „To musí bejt tvou rukou napsaný. Napiš, že pochází z Lipska, z psince von Bülow. Otec Arnheim von Kahlsberg, matka Emma von Trautensdorf, po otci Siegfried von Busenthal. Otec obdržel první cenu na berlínský výstavě stájových pinčů v roce 1912. Matka vyznamenána zlatou medalií norimberskýho spolku pro chov ušlechtilých psů. Jak myslíš, že je starej?“

Also written:Berlin stable pinscher exhibition en Berlínská výstava stájových pinčů cz Berlin stallpinscherutstilling no

Literature

Nürnberger Verein zur Zucht edler Hundenn flag
Nürnberg, Elisenstraße 30
Google mapsearch
frankische1.png

Adressbuch von Nürnberg, 1904

frankische.png

Allgemeine Sport-Zeitung, 7.3.1915

Nürnberger Verein zur Zucht edler Hunde was a society for breeding of thoroughbred dogs that had awarded Emma von Trautensdorf, the fictive mother of the stolen dog Max (previously Fox), a gold medal. At least this was what Blahník told Švejk to put on Max's pedigree form.

Background

Nürnberger Verein zur Zucht edler Hunde can not be identified explicitly from the address directory of 1904 (the only one available for the period), but two dog societies are listed: Dachshundklub Nürnberg and Fränkische Verein zur Förderung reiner Hunderassen.

The latter's name is so close that it could be assumed that this is indeed the society the dog thief refers to. It was located in Nuremberg and regularly arranged exhibitions and other dog-related events.

The association was founded around Christmas 1889 and in 1915 it was still operating although the war restricted their activities. In 1915 they had more than 100 members.

In 1912 an additional dog society was founded: Polizeihundverein Nuremberg 1912. It is however unlikely that Blahník had these in mind when he instructed Švejk on how to fill in the pedigree form of "Max".

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.14.6] „To musí bejt tvou rukou napsaný. Napiš, že pochází z Lipska, z psince von Bülow. Otec Arnheim von Kahlsberg, matka Emma von Trautensdorf, po otci Siegfried von Busenthal. Otec obdržel první cenu na berlínský výstavě stájových pinčů v roce 1912. Matka vyznamenána zlatou medalií norimberskýho spolku pro chov ušlechtilých psů. Jak myslíš, že je starej?“

Also written:Nuremberg society for the breeding of thoroughbred dogs en Norimberský spolek pro chov ušlechtilých psů cz Nürnberg-selskapet for oppdrett av reinrasa hundar no

Literature

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

15. Catastrophe

Kostel svatého Haštalann flag
Praha I./789, Haštalská ul. 21
Wikipedia czen Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum
hastal.png

"Mistr Kampanus", Zikmund Winter, 1906

Kostel svatého Haštala is mentioned by Švejk when he warns Oberleutnant Lukáš not to walk Fox near U mariánského obrazu, where they have a butcher's dog that is every bit as ill-tempered as the beggar from the Saint Castulus church.

Background

Kostel svatého Haštala is a church in Prague, Staré město, built in Gothic style. It is named after Saint Castulus, one of the first Christian martyrs. The church is one of the oldest i Praha, the predecessor was erected in the 13th century. The current structure was concecrated in 1375 and was finished by 1399.

The beggar

Hašek may have picked the theme of the beggar and the church from the histirical novel Mistr Kampanus by Zikmund Winter. It was published in 1906.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.15] Jak uvidí ve svým rayoně cizího psa, hned je na něho žárlivej, aby mu tam něco nesežral. Von je jako ten žebrák od svatýho Haštala.“

Also written:Church of Saint Castulus en Kirche zum heiligen Kastulus de

Literature

U mariánského obrazunn flag
Praha II./1011, Hybernská ul. 30
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum
mariaobraz.png

Čech, 12.12.1909.

mariaobraz1.png

Vilímkův rádce a průvodce Prahou, 1909.

mariaobraz2.png

Venkov, 3.10.1937.

U mariánského obrazu is mentioned when Švejk informs Oberleutnant Lukáš that a mean dog, owned by a butcher, has his territory here and that he better not go there with Max.

Background

U mariánského obrazu was a restaurant in Hybernská ulice. It was located on the ground floor in number 1011, right opposite the departure hall of Státní nádraží (Staatsbahnhof), present-day Masarykovo nádraží. It should not be confused with the current restaurant (2011) by the same name in Žižkov.

There were several pubs with this name in Prague at the time, but due to the fact that the wicked dog strayed to Havlíčkovo náměstí, we can safely assume that Švejk had the pub in Hybernská in mind. It was a large tavern, obviously popular with travellers. In the decade before World War I they served beer from Smíchov and Plzeň and offered soup from five o'clock in the morning!

Long history

The restaurant has a history at least back to 1877 in what was then house number 104. In 1878 some Leopold Ortl became landlord. Some time around 1890 the old house was demolished and number 1011 erected on the site. The restaurant continued operating in the new building. From 1897 and at least until 1914 Josef Šašek was landlord, running the place together with his wife Marie. The couple and their three children lived on the premises.

The address book from 1939 shows that the establishment was still operating, managed by Jan Cimický. He had presumably succeeded Karl Špirek who had managed the restaurant until the autumn of 1937. As late as 27 June 1948 an advert appeared in Rudé právo, but when the establishment closed down for good is not known.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.15] A taky bych vám neradil vodit ho přes Havlíčkovo náměstí, tam se potlouká jeden zlej řeznickej pes vod ,Mariánskýho vobrazu’, kterej je náramně kousavej.

SourcesJaroslav Šerák

Also written:Zum Marienbild de

Literature

Číňan Staněknn flag
Praha II./40, Ferdinandova tř. 32
Google mapsearch
stanek1.jpg

Petr Štembera, Nový Orient, 1996

stanek2.jpg

Český svět, 1913

stanek.png

Čech, 3.1.1914

Číňan Staněk was a "Chinese" who had a convex mirror. Švejk told Oberleutnant Lukáš this story when the latter was wondering if he liked his own looks. Švejk revealed that he did not like the sight of himself in Staněk's mirror.

Background

Číňan Staněk no doubt refers to the warehouse Maison Staněk. It was located at Ferdinandova třída 32, with stores and offices at the nearby Vladislavova ulice no. 13 (from 1896 no. 17). They imported and sold art and industrial goods from the Far East, tea, wine and rum. They also manufactured bamboo furniture. The firm was founded in 1876 by Vilém Staněk and adverts from after 1880 reveal that they focused on importing tea. The firm's name was Staňkův ruský obchod s čajem (Staněk's Russian tea trade).

Thus it was not a question of a "Chinese" in the true meaning of the word although the Chinese Li Gü was employed there and was well known in the city. One of the shop windows displayed a convex mirror.

Vilém Staněk

The owner was born in 1853 and was only 23 when he established the enterprise. He had travelled a fair deal in British and French colonies, amongst them India, and had lived in Paris for a few years. The firm grew rapidly and full-page adverts in Prager Tagblatt a.o. reveal details from their history. They were represented in several cities around the world, amongst them Yokohama and Hong Kong. In 1909 they opened a new outlet in Pilsen.

Every year Staněk attended auctions in Nishny Novgorod and London. He wrote expert articles on tea and also published the magazine Staňkův Světem (Staněk across the world). It appeared from 1889 to 1896, with content in Czech and German, edited by Hanuš Wahner. Staněk was regarded a master at marketing, helped by his younger brother Emanuel who provided illustrations.

Staněk died on 22 November 1893 from lung tuberculosis, at a mere age of 40. His wife Kateřina (born 1866) took over the enterprise after her husband passed away. The company remained in business until 1938 when it went bankrupt.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.15] „Poslušně hlásím, pane obrlajtnant, že se nelíbím, jsem v tom zrcadle nějakej takovej šišatej nebo co. Vono to není broušený zrcadlo. To jednou měli u toho Číňana Staňka vypouklý zrcadlo, a když se někdo na sebe podíval, tak se mu chtělo vrhnout. Huba takhle, hlava jako dřez na pomeje, břicho jako u napitýho kanovníka, zkrátka figura. Šel kolem pan místodržitel, podíval se na sebe a hned to zrcadlo museli sundat.“

SourcesMilan Hodík, Petr Štembera

Literature

Index Back Forward II. At the front Hovudpersonen

1. Švejk's mishaps on the train

Nádraží císaře Františka Josefann flag
Král. Vinohrady/300, Sadová silnice 2
Wikipedia czdeen Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum
hlavni.jpg

Wiener Bilder, 27.1.1909.

Nádraží císaře Františka Josefa (now Hlavní nádraží) is not mentioned explicitly but it is clear from the circumstances that Oberleutnant Lukáš and Švejk set out on their journey from this station. The trip got off to a bad start as their luggage was stolen at the station, and as we know it was to get worse …

Background

Nádraží císaře Františka Josefa was until 1918 the name of the main railway station in Prague. It has since then also been called Wilsonovo nádraží after president Woodrow Wilson. Since 1953 it has been named Praha hlavní nádraží (Prague main station). The station was opened in 1871 and is by far the busiest railway station in the country.

In 1914 the station had remote connection with Vienna and it served a number of other destinations both locally and regionally. It was one of the three major railway stations in Prague, together with Státní nádraží (now Masarykovo) and Severozápadní nádraží (now demolished).

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.1] „Poslušně hlásím, pane obrlajtnant,“ ozval se tiše Švejk, „doopravdy ho ukradli. Na nádraží se vždycky potlouká moc takových šizuňků a já si to představuju tak, že jednomu z nich se nepochybně zamlouval váš kufr a ten člověk že nepochybně využitkoval toho, jak jsem vodešel od zavazadel, abych vám vohlásil, že s našima zavazadlama je všechno v pořádku.

Also written:Emperor Franz Joseph Station en Kaiser-Franz-Joseph-Bahnhof de

Severozápadní nádražínn flag
Praha II./1583, Tešnov 2
Wikipedia czde Google mapsearch
tesnov.png

Venkov, 5.7.1912.

tesnov1.png

Orientační plán král. hl. města Prahy a obcí sousedních, 1910-1914.

Severozápadní nádraží is mentioned when Švejk explains Oberleutnant Lukáš that theft at railway stations always occur. This was after their luggage had been stolen at the station they left Prague from, presumably Nádraží císaře Františka Josefa.

According to the soldier a theft took place here at the North West Station. A pram with a little girl was stolen and handed in at Švejk's local police station.

Background

Severozápadní nádraží was a major railway station in Prague, from 1953 called Praha-Těšnov. It was located in Florenc and was in service until 1972. (The building was demolished in 1985). It was from here Jaroslav Hašek took the train to Světlá nad Sázavou (on his way to Lipnice) on 25 August 1921.

In Prague it was the main hub of Österreichische Nordwestbahn, a private railway operator that was founded in 1868 and functioned until it was nationalised in 1909. The headquarters were located in Vienna. During Austria-Hungary the station served Vienna and Berlin, and several regional desitinations.

Attempts to find any mentioning of the episode with the stolen pram have been futile. If the soldier is to be believed the theft took place in 1912 and the child handed in at Policejní komisařství Salmova ulice (the police station closest to where we assume that Švejk lived).

It should also be noted that Jaroslav Hašek was a reporter on local affairs in České Slovo for a period in 1912 and it can't be ruled out that he re-used one of his own reports (it has even been claimed that some of these were invented).

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.1] Před dvěma léty na Severozápadním nádraží ukradli jedné paničce kočárek i s holčičkou v peřinách a byli tak šlechetní, že holčičku vodevzdali na policejním komisařství u nás v ulici, že prej ji našli pohozenou v průjezdě. Potom noviny udělaly z tý ubohý paní krkavčí matku.“

Also written:North West Station en Nordwestbahnhof de Nordveststasjonen no

Literature

Neue Freie Pressenn flag
Wien I., Kolowratring, Fichtegasse 12
Wikipedia czdeen Google mapsearch
nfp0.png

The front page of the first issue, 1.9.1864

nfp1.png

The Jewish Monitor, 29.10.1920

Neue Freie Presse is mentioned in connection with Švejk and Oberleutnant Lukáš and their train journey to Budějovice. Opposite them in the compartment sat a completely bald man and red this paper. Later it became clear that this man was the notorious Generalmajor von Schwarzburg.

Background

Neue Freie Presse was a daily newspaper that was published in Vienna from 1864 to 1939, founded as a break-away from Die Presse. It published both a morning and an evening issue. It's political stance was bourgeois liberal, along the lines of e.g. Prager Tagblatt and Bohemia.

The newspaper eventually became very influential, led by the powerful editor in chief, Moritz Benedikt (1849-1920). It was also one of the largest of its kind in Austria, employing around 500, and it also enjoyed a reputation abroad. They were known for outstanding journalism and succeeded in enlisting writers like Theodor Herzl, Hugo von Hoffmannsthal, Bertha von Suttner and Stefan Zweig.

During World War I they took an aggressive patriotic stance, but had also during the French-German war in 1870-71 shown a pro German tendency.

In the inter-war years the newspaper continued to publish but was closed by the Nazis in 1939. The paper always had many Jewish employees and Benedikt himself was of Jewish descent.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.1] „Dohromady nic, pane obrlajtnant,“ odpověděl Švejk, nespouštěje oči s lysé lebky civilisty sedícího naproti nadporučíkovi, který, jak se zdálo, nejevil pražádný zájem o celou záležitost a četl si „Neue Freie Presse“, „v celým tom kufru bylo jen zrcadlo z pokoje a železnej věšák z předsíně, takže jsme vlastně neutrpěli žádný ztráty, poněvadž zrcadlo i věšák patřily panu domácímu.“

Literature

V čubčím hájinn flag
Praha II., Nekázanka ul.
Google search
nekazanka.jpg

Nekázanka ulice, 1907.

V čubčím háji is mentioned in an anecdote by Švejk when he tells Oberleutnant Lukáš about Nechleba who always wants to do good but rarely succeeds.

Background

V čubčím háji was according to Švejk a pub in Nekázanka ulice but additional information is not available. The name has surely been a colloquial term for and existing pub in the street or even a somewhere else. In 1910 there were several pubs in the street, where the best known was U zlatého křížku.

Folta Josef858-II. Nekázanka 1
Hýna Antonín "U zlatého křížku"880-II. Nekázanka 7
Stejskal Karel879-II. Nekázanka 9

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.1] „Poslušně hlásím, že jsem to, pane obrlajtnant, pozoroval. Já má, jak se říká, vyvinutej pozorovací talent, když už je pozdě a něco se stane nepříjemnýho. Já mám takovou smůlu jako nějakej Nechleba z Nekázanky, který tam chodil do hospody ,V čubčím háji’.

Also written:The Bitches' Grove en Hündin im Hain de

Literature

U Špírkůnn flag
Praha I./1024, Kožná ul. 14
Google mapsearch
uspirku3.png

Adressář hl.m. Prahy 1896

uspirku1.png

Prager Tagblatt, 26.9.1897

uspirku2.png

Národní listy, 11.5.1912

uspirku.png

Rovnost, 5.3.1916

uspirku4.png

Národní politika, 27.9.1929

U Špírků is mentioned on the train to Budějovice as Švejk loudly ponders the possible causes of loss of hair, and unfortunately quotes a medical student from U Špírků on this. The bald gentleman sitting opposite him is the feared Generalmajor von Schwarzburg, who doesn't take lightly to Švejk's comments.

Background

U Špírků was a coffee-house in Staré město in Prague which still exists albeit in a different setting. According to the restaurant's web site it was founded as early as 1870 and renovated in a traditional style between 2004 and 2006.

The café is not listed in the pre-war address books, but in 1891 the police registered a certain Karel Špirk, entered with cafetier as occupation. During the 1890's Špirk and his wife on several occasions placed adverts in Prager Tagblatt where they wishes their Jewish guests a Happy New Year. In the 1896 address book the café is entered under the name U dvou kominíků (At the two Chimneysweeps) with wife Rozalie Špirková as the owner.

In 1912 Národni listy reported that Karel Špirk had passed away and they also add that he was 54 years old, was a café owner and a proprietor of real estate. Špirk was according to the police books born 12 October 1858 in Prague so the connection to the café is indisputable. He was married to the ten year younger Roselie, and they had a daughter Anna who was born in 1887. Karel Špirk died on 9 May 1912 in Senohraby and was buried at Vyšehrad cemetery.

A newspaper notice in Právu Lidu from 1916 confirms that the café was still in business and that it was subjected to a police raid on suspicion of illegal prostitution (Tunel is mentioned in the same item). As late as 1929 adverts reveal that the establishment was still running, now officially using the name U Špírků. They hosted concerts, and served Prazdroj (Pilsner Urquell).

The owner in 1924 was Josef Baloun. In 1936 Marie Balounová was the owner. A picture from 1945 reveals that the establishment survived the Nazi protectorate. During the first republic U Špírků also functioned as an unofficial brothel (licensed brothels were banned in 1921).

Another "U Špírků"

From 1920 onwards another tavern carrying the name appears in newspaper adverts. It was located in Sokolská třída in Nové město and is also a place the author surely would have known about as he frequented this part of the city a lot (see Apollo, Bendlovka and U kalicha). Newspaper adverts reveal that this U Špírků was often used for meetings. Although there is no trace of this café in pre-war address books, one shouldn't rule out "backdating" as Jaroslav Hašek at times added pieces of information to his novel that were chronologically at odds with the 1914/1915 plot. See Siedliska, Artur Lokesch, doctor Batěk for some examples.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.1] “A pokračoval neúprosně dál: „Potom říkal jednou jeden medik v kavárně „U Špírků“, že padání vlasů zaviňuje duševní pohnutí v šestinedělí.“

Literature

Banka Slaviann flag
Praha II/978, Havlíčkovo nám. 23
Google mapsearch
slavia.jpg

Rozkvět, 10.4.1910

slavia1.png

Český Lloyd, 13.9.1902

Banka Slavia is mentioned on the train to Budějovice when Švejk in an innocent manner asks general Generalmajor von Schwarzburg if he may happen to be Mr. Purkrábek, the representative of this bank.

Background

Banka Slavia was a mutual insurance company (and bank) with headquarters at Havlíčkovo náměstí. The company was founded in 1868 by a group of businessmenn led by F. L. Chleborad. The first general assembly was held 14 May 1869. The company expanded quickly and by the turn of the century they were established in Prague, Brno, Vienna, Lwów, Zagreb and Lubljana. At the outbreak of war they were present also in Sarajevo.

The inter-war years saw the firm prosper even more and they were part owners of many foreign financial institutions, even as far as New York. They remained in business until 1945.

Hašek and Slavia

Jaroslav Hašek was employed as an apprentice by the bank from October 1902 until he was dismissed in June 1903. The reason was two longer absences without permission, the latest occurred 30 May 1903. Hašek disappeared without a trace and went off on a trip that may have lasted up to 4 months.

The author's family were strongly connected to Slavia: both his father Josef and his younger brother Bohuslav worked for the bank.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.1] „Dovolte, vašnosti, neráčíte být pan Purkrábek, zástupce banky Slavie?“

Sources: Vojtěch Pojar, Radko Pytlík

Literature

K.u.k. Infanteriekadettenschule Pragnn flag
Praha IV./221, Mariánské hradby -
Wikipedia czde Google mapsearch
kadetniskola1.jpg

Český svět, 1913

K.u.k. Infanteriekadettenschule Prag is directly mentioned first time in the conversation between Generalmajor Generalmajor von Schwarzburg and Oberleutnant Lukáš after the infamous episode on the train to Tábor. Here Lukáš is asked where he absolved cadet school, and the answer is Prague.

When the author introduces Oberleutnant Lukáš in [1.14] the cadet school is mentioned but it was not revealed where it was located.

In [3.1], at the station in Győr, Hauptmann Ságner and station commander Bahnhofskommandant Zykán have a serious conversation. It is revealed that Ságner and Oberleutnant Lukáš were class-mates at the school, together with Zykán.

Background

K.u.k. Infanteriekadettenschule Prag refers to an infantry cadet school in Prague that was opened in 1869 and was situated in the northern part of Hradčany (from 1900 onwards). The building still exists and has had various functions since, including its use by Nazi and Soviet occupants. Today the building hosts the Czech Ministry of Defence.

The real life Čeněk Sagner actually attended this school from 1901 to 1905 whereas Rudolf Lukas did not. He graduated from Královo Pole (Königsfeld) by Brno. These two were the only infantry cadet schools on Czech lands. In addition Moravia hosted the only cavalry cadet school in the monarchy, i Hranice na Moravě (Mährisch Weisskirchen).

Cadet schools were institutions that educated active officers for the land forces. Most of them belonged to the infantry, but there were schools also for cavalry, artillery and pioneers. The education lasted for four years and beside military subjects general subjects were also taught. The graduates obtained the rank Fähnrich, until 1908 called Kadett-Stellvertreter. The schools' elite profile was underpinned by an arrangement were sons of officers paid much lower tuition fees than others.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.1] „Pane nadporučíku,“ řekl, „kde jste navštěvoval kadetní školu?“ „V Praze.“ „Vy jste tedy chodil do kadetní školy a nevíte ani, že důstojník je zodpověden za svého podřízeného. To je pěkné.
[3.1] Pamatuji se jenom na to, že jsem jednou v kadetce v Praze vám pomáhal na hrazdu jako jeden ze staršího ročníku. Tenkrát jsme oba nesměli ven. Vy jste se pral s Němci ve třídě? Tam byl s vámi také Lukáš.

SourcesMilan Hodík

Also written:Infantry Cadet School Prague en Pěchotní kadetní škola Praha cz Praha Infanterikadettskule no

Literature

Táborské nádražínn flag
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum
tabornadr1.jpg

Josef Lada, 1955.

tabornadr.jpg

Bechyňská dráha, zahájení, nádraží, 1903

tabormag.png

Wounded Hungarian soldiers in Tábor

Nachrichten über Verwundete und Kranke, 9.1.1915.

tabornadr.png

Chytilův adresař 1915.

Táborské nádraží plays an important role in the plot because Švejk and Oberleutnant Lukáš's journey from Prague to Budějovice to join their regiment was unexpectedly interrupted here. This was after Švejk's many mishaps on the train, culminating in him pulling the emergency brake. As he couldn't pay the fine he had to leave the train to explain himself to the station master.

A benefactor at the station who were sympathetic to his plight paid the fine and gave him money for the trip onwards, but the money were spent at the station restaurant instead. Here Švejk treated a Hungarian reconvalescent with beer (one after the other) and the chance to buy a ticket onwards disappeared progressively with each beer.

Švejk was in the end discovered by a patrol and taken to the station's military commander who in the end ordered him to continue on foot. This was the beginning of his famous anabasis where he, despite his great enthusiasm, for a long timed struggled to join his regiment.

Tábor and the railway station is then mentioned several times when Wachtmeister Flanderka interrogates Švejk at Gendarmeriestation Putim. The soldier informs that station are easy to photograph because they don't move.

Background

Táborské nádraží is the railway station in Tábor, situated appx. 2 km east of the town centre. It is one of the major stops on the line Prague - Budějovice.

The railway station was built between 1869 and 1971 and was used by the company Kaiser Franz Josephs-Bahn[1] who operated the line Prague - Vienna. Other important stops on the line were Benešov, Veselí nad Lužnicí, Třeboň and Gmünd. The station was also served Budějovice and from 1903 the local train to Bechyně. In 1914 the station also served lines going east-west: Jihlava - Domažlice. Station manager in 1914 was Vincenc Motyčka so this was the person Švejk would have reported to (if his mishaps were based on any real-life incident).

Magyars in Tábor

It may at first sight appear strange that Švejk would meet a wounded Hungarian soldier in Tábor, far from the Hungarian heartlands. Further investigations do however reveal that it was quite likely. Tábor had a large hospital, good railway connections, and admitted wounded soldiers from all over the monarchy. Lists of wounded and infirm from early 1915 show up several Hungarian names at this hospital.

Outbreak of war also led to the establishment of temporary hospitals. Already in August 1914 Sokol put their building at the disposal for sick-beds and the waiting rooms at the station were used by the Red Cross. In january 1915 military hospitals were also established elsewhere in town. That there were several of them in Tábor is also mentioned by the author.

Hašek at the station?

Jaroslav Hašek didn't write much about Tábor in his short stories so it is unclear if he ever visited before World War I. In February 1915 there is however no doubt that the train that brought him to Budějovice to enrol in k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 91 must have stopped here. The contingent of Landsturm recruits that Hašek belonged to was called up on 15 February 1915 and he enlisted at the regiment two days later. Whether this delay was due to a stop-over in Tábor or simply a result of queues during enrolment is anybody's guess. In the novel the author mentions two propaganda posters that fit fairly well with mid February 1915, namely those of Trainsoldat Bong and Zugsführer Danko. There is no doubt that he saw the items, otherwise he wouldn't have been able to describe them so accurately. It does however turn out the these propaganda motifs were all from the Kriegskalender for 1919 and some of them even describing events from 1917 so the possibility that Hašek observed them in February 1915 is none. It should also be added that his description of the station restaurant as "third class" doesn't seem to correspond to facts. Photos and other information indicates that it was an up-market establishment. See Nádražní restaurace v Táboře.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.1] Zůstal průvodčí se Švejkem a mámil na něm dvacet korun pokuty, zdůrazňuje, že ho musí v opačném případě předvést v Táboře přednostovi stanice. „Dobrá,“ řekl Švejk, „já rád mluvím se vzdělanejma lidma a mě to bude moc těšit, když uvidím toho táborskýho přednostu stanice.“

Also written:Tábor railway station en Tábor Bahnhof de Tábor jernbanstasjon no

Notes
1. Nationalised and incorporated into k.k. Staatsbahnen 1 May 1884.

Literature

Nádražní restaurace v Tábořenn flag
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum
tabnadrest.jpg

Interiér, Nádražní restaurace

tabnadrest.png

Chytilův adresař 1915.

tabnadres1.png

Tábor, 4.6.1915.

Nádražní restaurace v Táboře was a third class restaurant at the station in Tábor that was visisted by Švejk after he had to leave the train because of the episode with the emergency break. A friendly gentleman both paid his fine and also gave him a fiver for the journey onwards. Švejk however suffered the misfortune that he drank one beer after the other and he also invited a Hungarian reconvalescent to join him. The result was that he had no money left and had to continue on foot, thus starting on his famous anabasis.

Background

Nádražní restaurace v Táboře is today (2010) a basic bistro but earlier it was a large and up-market restaurant with a summer terrace. It was situated between the two main blocks of the station building.

A restaurant existed at the station already from 1871 when the station opened, and in 1886 it was run by Antonín Jonáš. Who ran the restaurant through the years is unknown but in 1913 Antonín Stětina was in charge. He seems to have gone bankrupt in the spring of 1914.

From 1914 Jan Zimák is officially listed as proprietor and he was also in charge when Jaroslav Hašek passed through Tábor in mid February 1915. From August 1914 Zimák also provided food for the Red Cross clinic that was set up at the station. In 1915 the restaurant advertised itself as elegant, with excellent food, serving draught beer from Pilsen. In 1932 it was still operating and not much had changed - and the beer was still from Pilsen. The landlord was now Karel Hokův and he was listed as owner also in 1939. What happened to the restaurant since then is not known.

The information we have about the restaurant does not correspond to the author's description of it as "third class" so it must be assumed that he didn't visit himself, and that Švejk's stop-over is inspired by events that took place elsewhere.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.1] Mezitím dobrý muž věřící v nevinnost Švejkovu zaplatil za něho v kanceláři pokutu a odvedl si Švejka do restaurace třetí třídy, kde ho pohostil pivem, a zjistiv, že všechny průkazy i vojenský lístek na dráhu nalézají se u nadporučíka Lukáše, velkomyslně dal mu pětku na lístek i na další útratu. When this large scale restaurant ceased to exist is not known.

Also written:Tábor station restaurant en Tábor Bahnhofgaststätte de Tábor stasjonsrestaurant no

Literature

K.u.k. Traineskadron Nr. 3nn flag
Kraków, ul. Zwierzynieckiej
Google mapsearch
train3.png

Verordnungsblatt für das k.u.k. Heer, 5.12.1914

train3a.png

Grazer Tagblatt, 19.2.1915

train3b.png

Schematismus für das k. u. k. Heer.., 1914

K.u.k. Traineskadron Nr. 3 is mentioned as the unit where the soldier Trainsoldat Bong performed his heroic deeds. This according to a propaganda poster Švejk observed at Táborské nádraží.

Background

K.u.k. Traineskadron Nr. 3 refers to the 3. squadron of Traindivision Nr. 1, a supply unit in k.u.k. Heer. The soldier Trainsoldat Bong was real enough, confirmed by several newspaper notices in early 1915.

Supply divisions

K.u.k. Heer had 16 Traindivisionen (supply divisions), numbered according to the army district from which they were recruited. Armeekorps Nr. 1 and the Kraków military distric covered western Galicia and parts of Silesia and Moravia and this is where Traindivision Nr. 1 were recruited from. Czech cities like Moravská Ostrava, Opava and Olomouc were thus within the district, together with notable Polish cities like Kraków, Cieszyn, Wadovice, Nowy Targ, and Tarnów.

The 16 train (supply) divisions consisted of a varying number of squadrons. Traindivision Nr. 1 was garrisoned in Kraków itself, in the so-called Weichseldepotkaserne (in 1918 renamed koszary Bartosza Głowackiego). It was located near the centre in ul. Zwierzynieckiej.

Head of Traindivision Nr. 1 since 1 November 1912 was Major Theodor Indra, from 1 May 1915 Oberstleutnant. A glance at the list of officers from 1914 reveals a curiosity: none of them had Polish surnames, all the officers seem to have been Czechs or Germans.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.1] Zatímco šikovatel šel shánět nějakého důstojníka, Švejk si přečetl na plakátu:

VOZATAJEC JOSEF BONG

Vojáci zdravotního sboru dopravovali těžce raněné k vozům, připraveným v kryté úžlabině. Jakmile byl plný, odjelo se s ním na obvaziště. Rusové, vypátravše tyto vozy, počali je obstřelovati granáty. Kůň vozatajce Josefa Bonga od c. a k. 3. vozatajské švadrony byl usmrcen střepinou granátu. Bong bědoval: „Ubohý můj bělouši, je veta po tobě!“ Vtom sám zasažen byl kusem granátu.

Literature

K.k. Schützenregiment Nr. 21nn flag
St. Pölten, Schießstattring 8
Wikipedia pl Google mapsearch
lir21.png

Landwehr-Ergänzungsbezirk Nr. 21, 1913

schutzen.png

Eggenburger Zeitung, 6.4.1917

paulhart.png

Österreichisches Kriegs-Echo, Jänner 1918

K.k. Schützenregiment Nr. 21 is mentioned in passing as Švejk at the station in Tábor observes a propaganda poster that features Zugsführer Hammel, Korporal Paulhart, and Korporal Bachmayer. All three served in this regiment.

Background

K.k. Schützenregiment Nr. 21 was one of 37 Austrian k.k. Landwehr infantry regiments. Together with most of its peer units it was established in 1889. The recruitment district was St. Pölten and consisted of roughly the western half of current Niederösterreich. Some of the men were also recruited from the district Vienna B. Ethnically the regiment was almost entirely German. Staff and all three battalions were in 1914 garrisoned in St. Pölten. Commander in 1914 was Oberst Eduard von DietrichSchematismus der k. k. Land­wehr..., Ministerium für Landesverteidigung, 1914" href="#LIR21a">[a].

The regiment was housed in a barrack complex at Schießstattring (Eugenkaserne, Rainerkaserne and Franz-Josephs-Kaserne), now Hesserkaserne[b].

During the war they first fought on the eastern front. In 1915 they were relocated to the Italian front and transported to Galicia in 1916 after the Brusilov offensive. Thereafter they were sent back to the south-west front where they took part in the advance on Piave in the autumn of 1917.

K.k. Landwehr ⇒ K.k. Schützen

It was only in 1917 that the term Schützenregiment (Rifle Regiment)[1] was officially introduced as all k.k. Landwehr units were renamed in April that year. This indicates that the author drew inspiration from propaganda material originating from late in the war, and not from what he himself may have witnessed in 1915. See the next paragraph for confirmation of this hypothesis.

1. The translation into English by Cecil Parrott erroneously concludes that this was an artillery regiment.

Tagliamento, 1917

The events that were described on pictures that Švejk saw in Tábor in early 1915 actually took place, but almost three years later. Zugsführer Hammel, Korporal Paulhart and Korporal Bachmayer all served in k.k. Schützenregiment Nr. 21 and they were mentioned together in a battlefield report in early 1918. The title was Das St. Pöltner Schützenregiment Nr. 21 am Tagliamento and it was printed in Streffleur's Militärblatt, Linzer Volkszeitung a.o. It dealt with the regiment's engagement by the river Tagliamento in northern Italy on 5 November 1917, and includes a few lines about the three soldiers who are mentioned in the novel. All three distinguished themselves during the battle and were awarded silver medals for bravery.

Not invented

In the novel Hašek states that these posters were created at k.u.k. Kriegsministerium by conscripted German journalists. This is mostly true, Egon Erwin Kisch was for instance one of them. On the other hand his claim that the people on the posters were "invented rare model soldiers" is untrue. Zugsführer Hammel, Korporal Bachmayer, Korporal Paulhart, Zugsführer Danko, and Trainsoldat Bong were all real enough but their exploits were obviously glorified for propaganda purposes.

Der Soldatenfreund. Kalender für das Jahr 1919

The inspiration for the propaganda posters that Švejk observed in Tábor is no doubt Kriegskalender, or more precisely: Der Soldatenfreund. Kalender für das Jahr 1919 and probably the Czech version of it. The reason that we can be so sure is that all the four motifs (six persons) that are described in this sequence of The Good Soldier Švejk are found also in the calendar. In addition the text sequences that Hašek uses are more or less to the letter copies of text fragments from the calendar. In the case of doctor Vojna even a spelling mistake in the surname found its way into The Good Soldier Švejk.

The motifs are fetched from pages 6 to 29 which is a pure calendar section. For each month there are two pages presenting a "shining role model of courage and gallantry". One page contains a drawing with a brief subtitle and on the next page there is a detailed description of the heroic deed.

In the case of Zugsführer Danko and Zugsführer Hammel (with Korporal Paulhart and Korporal Bachmayer) the short subtitles are reproduced as is. In the case of Trainsoldat Bong the entire description is copied almost to the letter. For doctor Vojna it was different: only brief extracts from the description found their way into The Good Soldier Švejk and the soldier's vivid imagination provided the rest.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.1] Dobrého vojáka Švejka uvítal obraz znázorňující dle nápisu, jak četař František Hammel a desátníci Paulhart a Bachmayer od c. k. 21. střeleckého pluku povzbuzují mužstvo k vytrvání. Na druhé straně visel obraz s nadpisem: „Četař Jan Danko od 5. pluku honvédských husarů vypátrá stanoviště nepřátelské baterie.“

Literature

References
aSchematismus der k. k. Land­wehr...Ministerium für Landesverteidigung1914
bHesserkaserneWikipedia.de
K.u. Honvéd Husaren Regiment Nr. 5nn flag
Kassa (Košice)
Wikipedia deenhupl Google mapsearch
honhus5.png

Honvédség és Csendőrség Névkönyve, 1914

danko2.png

Oesterreichische Volks-Zeitung, 21.10.1914

K.u. Honvéd Husaren Regiment Nr. 5 is mentioned in passing as Švejk at the station in Tábor observes a propaganda poster that features Zugsführer Danko from this regiment.

Background

K.u. Honvéd Husaren Regiment Nr. 5 (M. kir. 5. Honvéd Huszárezred) was one of 10 Hungarian Honvéd cavalry regiments. It was recruited from Honvéd district no. III Kassa (now Košice). Commander in 1914 was Oberst Pál Hegedűs. The regiment was garrisoned in Košice and Nyíregyháza.

During the war

Immediately upon outbreak of war the regiment was sent to the front in Galicia and had their baptism of fire on 15 August 1914 by Stojanów (now Стоянів) on the border with Russia. They experienced the disastrous defeat at the end of August that forced Austria-Hungary to abandon Lemberg. At the turn of the year they were fighting in the Carpathians and took part in the advance eastwards from early May 1915. By now they were however operating as foot soldiers. In the summer of 1916 they were moved to the front against Romania whereas the final year of the war was spent fighting on the Italian front.

Dankó János

In 1935 the regiment's history was published as a book. The history confirms that Zugsführer Danko, the soldier Švejk observed on a propaganda poster in Tábor, indeed was a Zugsführer in the regiment and took part in the early battles in Galicia. His Hungarian name was János Dankó but he may also have been a Slovak.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.1] Dobrého vojáka Švejka uvítal obraz znázorňující dle nápisu, jak četař František Hammel a desátníci Paulhart a Bachmayer od c. k. 21. střeleckého pluku povzbuzují mužstvo k vytrvání. Na druhé straně visel obraz s nadpisem: „Četař Jan Danko od 5. pluku honvédských husarů vypátrá stanoviště nepřátelské baterie.“

Literature

K.u.k. Feldjägerbataillon Nr. 7nn flag
Canale (Kanal ob Soči)
Wikipedia de Google mapsearch
fjb7a.jpg

7. Feldjägerbataillon. Champagne in Tolmin

fjb7.png

Schematismus für das k.u.k. Heer..., 1914

fjb7.jpg

Kaserne in Tolmein

K.u.k. Feldjägerbataillon Nr. 7 is mentioned by Švejk in a conversation with a k.k. Landwehr soldier at the railway station in Tábor. Švejk has read in Pražské úřední listy about the heroic deeds of doctor Vojna, a one-year volunteer from this battalion.

Background

K.u.k. Feldjägerbataillon Nr. 7 was one of 32 Feldjäger (light infantry) battalions in k.u.k. Heer. The regiment was formed as early as 1808 and took part in the campaigns against Italy around the middle of the century. The replacement battalion was located in Laibach (now Ljubljana). Staff and the troops were from 1905 to 1914 garrisoned in Canale and Tolmein[1] by the river Isonzo on the border with Italy, currently in Slovenia. The vast majority of the battalion's soldiers were Slovenes. Battalion commander in 1914 was Oberstleutnant Wilhelm Staufer. The battalion formed part of Infanteriebrigade Nr. 94 in Tolmein who in turn reported to Infanteriedivision Nr. 28 in Laibach.

Detailed information about the battalion during World War I is scarce. Österreich-Ungarns letzter Krieg reveals that they were now assigned to Infanteriebrigade Nr. 56, still reporting to Infanteriedivision Nr. 28, III. Korps, operating on the eastern front. In 1914 they were involved in battles by Gologóry, Jaroslav, Przemyśl, Homonna and Dukla. For the rest of the war it is difficult to trace them but in July 1916 they were fighting south of Valsugana on the Tirolean front. Their exploits here were even mentioned in the daily official war bulletins.

1. Slovenian: Kanal ob Soči, Tolmin

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.1] Když Švejk dočetl a šikovatel se ještě nevracel, řekl k landverákům na strážnici: „Tohle je moc krásnej příklad zmužilosti. Takhle budou u nás v armádě samý nový postroje na koně, ale když jsem byl v Praze, tak jsem čet v Pražskejch úředních listech ještě hezčí případ vo nějakým jednoročním dobrovolníkovi Dr Josefu Vojnovi. Ten byl v Haliči u 7. praporu polních myslivců, a když to přišlo na bodáky, tak dostal kulku do hlavy, a když ho vodnášeli na obvaziště, tak na ně zařval, že kvůli takovému šrámu se nenechá obvázat.

Literature

Pražské úřední listynn flag
Praha III./387, Karmelitská ul. 6
Google mapsearch
pnov1.png

Adresář královského hlavního města Prahy a obcí sousedních, 1907

Pražské úřední listy is referred to by Švejk at the station in Tábor. In this paper he had read about the glorious deeds of doctor Vojna from k.u.k. Feldjägerbataillon Nr. 7.

Background

Pražské úřední listy was a collective term that applied to the newspapers of c.k. Místodržitelství (k.k. Statthalterei) in Prague. These newspapers were mouthpieces of the Austrian authorities in Bohemia, headed by the Statthalter (governor). For more information see Pražské úřední noviny.

Quote(s) from the novel
[1.7] O celé této události objevil se v „Pražských úředních novinách“ tento článek:

Also written:Prague Official Newspaper en Prager Amtsblatt de Praha Amtsblad no

Literature

Index Back Forward II. At the front Hovudpersonen

2. Švejk's budějovická anabasis

K.k. Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 7nn flag
Plzen, Doudlevecká třída
Google mapsearch
lir7a.jpg

Landwehr-Ergänzungsbezirk Nr. 7, 1913

lir7.jpg

The barracks of LIR7, Plzeň

lir7.png

Pilsner Tagblatt, 27.5.1915.

K.k. Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 7 is indirectly referred to through the term k.k. Landwehr in Pilsen. The old grandmother in Vráž tells Švejk about Toníček Mašků who was called up here.

Background

K.k. Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 7 was one of 37 Austrian k.k. Landwehr infantry regiments. Together with most of its peer units it was established in 1889. The regiments was recruited from the districts Plzeň, Beroun and Písek. Staff and two battalions were in 1914 garrisoned in Pilsen, the other battalion in Rokycany. Commander in 1914 was Oberst Franz SappeSchematismus der k. k. Land­wehr..., Ministerium für Landesverteidigung, 1914" href="#LIR7a">[a]. The barracks were located in Doudlevecká třida, south of the city centre[d] at Dobytčí trh, currently Štefánikovo náměstí.

During the war they first fought in Serbia, from February 1915 in the Carpathians, Galicia and Russian Poland, in 1916 in Bukovina and by the river Dniestr. In June 1917 they were transferred to the Italian front were they remained for the rest of the war, except from an interlude in Ukraine in early 1918[b].

During the first half of 1915 all replacement battalions from Czech-speaking areas were transferred to areas populated by other nationalities. This also applied to k.k. Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 7 who were moved to Rumburg (Rumburk) in northern Bohemia, an region almost exlusively populated by Germans. They arrived in Rumburg in the morning of the 23 May 1915 [c]. In 1918 soldiers from the replacement battalon were involved in the so-called Rumburk rebellion and several of them were executed when the insurrection had been put down.

Kuděj

Hašek might have had second hand information from the regiment through his friend Zdeněk Matěj Kuděj who enrolled with them in 1902. He also participated in periodical exercices in 1905, 1909, 1911 and 1913 but during the war he got off lightly. Being called up as late as 1917 he never served at the front.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] „U nás byl taky jeden takovej nezbeda. Ten měl ject do Plzně k landvér, nějakej Toníček Mašků,“ povzdechla si babička, „von je vod mojí neteře příbuznej, a vodjel. A za tejden už ho hledali četníci, že nepřijel ku svýmu regimentu. A ještě za tejden se vobjevil u nás v civilu, že prej je puštěnej domů na urláb. Tak šel starosta na četnictvo, a voni ho z toho urlábu vyzdvihli. Už psal z fronty, že je raněnej, že má nohu pryč.“
References
aSchematismus der k. k. Land­wehr...Ministerium für Landesverteidigung1914
bLIR 7 - bojová cestaSignum belli 19142014
cDer Einmarsch unserer Siebener in RumburgPilsner Tagblatt27.5.1915
dKolaudace zeměbraneckých kasáren Encyclopedie Plzeň
K.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 35nn flag
Plzeň/37, Palackého nám. 2
Wikipedia cz Google mapsearch
ir35ka.jpg

The barracks of IR35, Plzeň

ir35schema.png

Schematismus für das k. u. k. Heer..., 1914.

steinsberg.jpg

Until 1.2.1915 Oberleutnant Alfred Steinsberg was one of the senior officers in IR35. Here a picture from 1915, now as Oberst and commander of IR91.

SOkA Beroun. Fond Jan Ev. Eybl..

K.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 35 is mentioned as Švejk sleeps over in a haystack by Putim and discovers that he is in the company of three deserters. Two of them are from IR 35.

Background

K.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 35 was one of 102 regular infantry regiments in k.u.k. Heer. It was also one of the oldest as it was formed as early as 1683. During it's long history the regiment participated in several famous battles, amongst them: Vienna (1689), Aspern (1809), and Solferino (1859). The soldiers were recruited from Heeresergänzungsbezirk Nr. 35, Pilsen. Staff and three battalions were in 1914 garrisoned in Plzeň, whereas the third battalion in 1912 were relocated to Kalinovik in Bosnia. The regiment's barracks were located at Palackého náměstí, slightly west of the city centre.

Commander at the outbreak of war was Oberst Johann von Mossig. One of the other senior officers was Alfred SteinsbergSchematismus für das k. u. k. Heer..., K.k. Hof und Staatsdruckerei, 1914" href="#IR35a">[a] who 1 February 1915 assumed command of IR 91 and remained in that position during Jaroslav Hašek's time in the regiment.

During the war

From the beginning of the war until May 1915 battalions 1,2 and 4 fought in Russian Poland by Komarów, in Galicia by Rawa Ruska, along the river San and east of Kraków, later in the Carpathians. The rest of 1915 and the time until September 1917 was spent in eastern Galicia where they on 2 July 1917 fought their countrymen from the Legions at Zborów. The remainder of the war was spent on the Italian front[b]. The detached 3rd battalion never joined the bulk of the regiment, it operated in Serbia, then against Italia[c].

Ersatzbataillon

IR 35's replacement battalion was on 14 June 1915 moved to Székesfehérvár[c] in Hungary as part of a larger initiative to "shield" recruits from presumed disloyal nations from the subversive influence of the local population. In Hungary another one of Hašek's superiors, Oberst Karl Schlager, was 26 July 1915 appointed head of the regiment's convalescents unit and served here until the end of the war.

Songen om regimentet

The well known soldier's song Pětatřicátníci deals with this regiment and Švejk sings fragments from it twice. First he entertains Feldkurat Katz in [I.13] and then he sings for himelf by Květov in [II.2][d]. The song didn't actually exists in 1915 as it was penned two years later. This Hašek probably picked it up at the time he wrote The Good Soldier Švejk.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Když se smích utišil, optal se Švejk, od jakého regimentu jsou oni. Zjistil, že dva jsou od 35. a jeden že je od dělostřelectva, taktéž z Budějovic. Pětatřicátníci že utekli před marškou před měsícem a dělostřelec že je od samé mobilisace na cestách.

SourcesJaroslav Šerák

Literature

References
aSchematismus für das k. u. k. Heer...K.k. Hof und Staatsdruckerei1914
cPřekládání náhradních těles jednotek z ČechSignum belli 19142014
dKterou Švejk určitě nezpívalKuzma, Obrana lidu1.1.1966
K.u.k. Feldkanonenregiment Nr. 24nn flag
Budějovice, Pražská ul.
Google mapsearch
fkr24.png

Schematismus für das k.u.k. Heer, 1914.

fkr24k.jpg

"Heimatbuch der Berg- und Kreisstadt Böhmisch-Budweis", 1930.

fkr24ob.png

Ordre de bataille. 9th infantry division, 11.7.1915

© ÖStA/KA

K.u.k. Feldkanonenregiment Nr. 24 is mentioned as Švejk sleeps over in a haystack by Putim and discovers that he is in the company of three deserters. One is from the artillery in Budějovice and would thus have been called up to this regiment. A few paragraphs further the author changes his mind and makes him a Dragoner (cavalry soldier). The deserter is from Putim and is the owner of the haystack.

Background

K.u.k. Feldkanonenregiment Nr. 24 was one of 42 field artillery regiments in k.u.k. Heer, garrisoned in Budějovice. It was established in 1892 and was recruited from (Militärterritorialbereich Prag) (8. Korps), i.e southern and western Bohemia and the area around the capital. In 1914 Oberleutnant Giorgi di Nobile was their commander. The regiment was housed in Erzherzog Wilhelm Kaserne, situated on the northern outskirts of the city.

During the war

The regiment was mobilised on outbreak of war and with Infanteriedivision Nr. 9 sent to the front by the Drina where they took part in the failed attempts to invade Serbia. It was part of Feldartilleriebrigade Nr. 9 and consisted of five batteries[d].

In July 1915 the regiment was still assigned to Infanteriedivision Nr. 9[b] so one must assume that they largely followed the route of k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 91 and other units in the division throughout the war. Jan Eybl's diaries[c] confirms that they operated on the Isonzo-front as part of the this division in 1916.

The war-time history of the regiment until 1916 is therefore roughly as follows: Serbia August-December 1914, Carpathians February-May 1915, then Galicia and Volhynia until November before they were transferred to the Isonzo-front. In 1915 they took part in the battles by Sokal and Chorupan.

Some time in spring 1916 they were renamed k.u.k. Feldkanonenregiment Nr. 9 and in 1918 k.u.k. Feldartillerieregument Nr. 9. Artillery regiments were also often moved around between divisions[e] so we have not investigated their whereabouts from 1916 onwards. It transpires from Ranglisten that their commander from 1915 to 1918 was Oberst Lorenz Dobringer.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Když se smích utišil, optal se Švejk, od jakého regimentu jsou oni. Zjistil, že dva jsou od 35. a jeden že je od dělostřelectva, taktéž z Budějovic. Pětatřicátníci že utekli před marškou před měsícem a dělostřelec že je od samé mobilisace na cestách.

Literature

References
aSchematismus für das k. u. k. Heer...K.k. Hof und Staatsdruckerei1914
bITD.9, Ordre de batailleÖStA/KA11.7.1915
cPrvní světová válka v denících feldkuráta P. Jana Evangelisty EyblaJan Eybl (ed. Miloš Garkisch)2014,2015,2018
dKriegsgliederungÖsterreich-Ungarns letzter Krieg, Band III.
eA-H Field Artillery Organization 1917/18Christian Frech
Švarcenberský ovčínnn flag
Bavorov/12, Útěšov
Wikipedia czdeenno Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum
ovcinsm.jpg

Ovčín u Leskovce.

ovcin2.png

Franziszeische Landesaufnahme (1806-1869).

Švarcenberský ovčín was a place where Švejk stayed overnight in the company of an old wanderer (se Štěkeň) and an even older shepherd. Here, as elsewhere, he was assumed to have run away from the army. He was told many tales, amongst them stories of defectors from the Thirty Year War (here called the Swedish War) and the Napoleonic Wars. The earlier anecdote about Rittmeister Rotter is repeated, the name Jarěš reappears, and Lipnice is mentioned for the first time. The latter indicates that this sequence of The Good Soldier Švejk was written shortly after 25 May 1921, the day Hašek moved to Lipnice.

Background

Švarcenberský ovčín was obviously a sheep-house that belonged to the Schwarzenberg estate. It is not known exactly where it was located, but according to Radko Pytlík and local sources, it could have been near Skočice and Protivín. This theory fits well both with the topography of the area, and the author's description. We know from the novel that it was a four hour walk from Štěkeň, that it was located in a forest, and that Švejk had a glimpse of Vodňany to his right when he appeared from the forest.

The large Schwarzenberg estate owned several sheep farms so it is difficult to guess which one the author had in mind. Hašek surely drew most of his knowledge about the area from summer holidays with his mother in 1896 and 1897 and also from stories told by his grandfather Jareš who was employed by Schwarzenberg.

Candidates

There was a sheep house in Albrechtice by Drahonice (near Skočice), a farm called Ovčín by Čepřovice, and another sheep farm in Leskovec by Bavorov. All of the three are more or less a four hours walk (appx. 15 km) from Štěkeň as stated in the novel.

Leskovec
ovcin1.png

Zlatá stezka, 09.1936.

Amongst the three Leskovec is no doubt the best fit to the description in The Good Soldier Švejk. As opposed to the two others it has been verified that it belonged to the Schwarzenberg family, more precisely their Libějovice estate[a]. When Švejk leaves in the morning he comes out of the forest and to the right he can see Vodňany. This makes sense considering the location of Leskovec. This candidate is further underpinned when the wanderer talks about "down in Skočice" (for the other two places this doesn't make sense). The Leskovec sheep-shed is seen on the military survey map from the mid 19th century and the large building seems to be intact still (2016). The address is Útěšov 12, Bavorov.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Dnes půjdeme na Strakonice,“ rozvinoval dál svůj plán. „Odtud čtyry hodiny je starej švarcenberskej ovčín. Je tam můj jeden známej ovčák, taky už starej dědek, tam zůstaneme přes noc a ráno se potáhnem na Strakonice, splašit tam někde ve vokolí civil.“

SourcesJaroslav Šerák, Radko Pytlík, Miroslav Vítek

Literature

References
aPo cestách Švejkovy budějovické anabázeMiroslav Vítek2020
Hrad Lipnicenn flag
Wikipedia czde Google mapsearch
liphrad.jpg

Království České, Pavel Körber, 1912.

liphrad.png

Oesterreichisches Handels-Journal, 26.9.1869.

liphrad1.jpg

View from the castle 8.9.2009

Hrad Lipnice is mentioned when the tramp in Švarcenberský ovčín tells the story about that time when he was begging in Lipnice and he by accident knocked on the door of the police station that was located below the castle. Here he received such a whack that he ended up all the way down in Kejžlice.

Background

Hrad Lipnice was built at beginning of the 14th century and at the end of the 16th century it was altered in a renaissance style. In 1645, during the Thirty Year War, the Swedes occupied and partly destroyed the castle. The following centuries witnessed further decline and on 19 September 1869 the castle and Lipnice town were ravaged by a disastrous fire. In 1913 work began to safeguard and restore it, work that has continued on and off until today[a].

The castle is owned by the state and open to the public, provides guided tours, and is a major tourist attraction. The view from the top of the castle across Vysočina is spectacular.

Hašek and the castle

Jaroslav Hašek was very fond of the castle, spent considerable time there and also arranged drinking binges on the premises. He virtually had unlimited access because his friend forest warden Böhm gave him the keys. His favourite room there was the so-called "mazhaus"[b].

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] A zatímco ovčák cedil brambory a nalíval do mísy kyselé ovčí mléko, dělil se dál vandrák se svými vzpomínkami na četnické právo: „V Lipnici bejval jeden strážmistr dole pod hradem.

SourcesRadko Pytlík

Literature

References
aHrad LipniceStátní hrad Lipnice
bToulavé houseRadko Pytlík1971
Gendarmeriestation Lipnicenn flag
Google mapsearch

Gendarmeriestation Lipnice is mentioned when the tramp in Švarcenberský ovčín tells the story about that time when he was begging in Lipnice and he by accident knocked on the door of the police station that was located in a side street below the castle.

Background

Gendarmeriestation Lipnice was according to the tramp located below Hrad Lipnice in a side street but this doesn't say much as almost everything in Lipnice is somewhat below the castle. We can however deduce that it was not located on the square and seems to have been on the outskirts of town.

Hašek was surely referring to the location of the police station in 1921 but we can pretty safely assume that it would have been in the same building also before 1915. Exact details are difficult to get hold of without consulting the census records from 1910 or 1920. Information from an unofficial web site about Lipnice does however indicate that the police station was located in the so-called činžák, a building next to the school that provided flats for rent (see quotes and link below). The witness accounts quoted on this web page is however from the time around World War II so one can't take for granted that this was the location also 20-30 years earlier.

Dagmar Kalenská

Hned vpravo bokem školy stál takzvaný činžák. Byl to dům inteligence. Byly tu čtyři dvoupokojové byty a tři garsoniéry. V prvním patře zleva bydlela rodina Šulcových - četnická, pan Šulc měl dole vpravo úřadovnu.

František Bouma

O bezpečnost se starala četnická stanice v činžáku. Byli zde četnící p. Maxera a Šulc, posléze p. Vaňkát. Obec měla ještě obecního strážníka p. Pitche. Ten měl k dispozici na radnici obecní šatlavu.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] A zatímco ovčák cedil brambory a nalíval do mísy kyselé ovčí mléko, dělil se dál vandrák se svými vzpomínkami na četnické právo: „V Lipnici bejval jeden strážmistr dole pod hradem. Bydlel přímo na četnické stanici a já, dobrák stará, pořád jsem byl všude v tý domněnce, že četnická stanice musí být přece někde na vystrčeným místě, jako na náměstí nebo podobně, a ne někde v zastrčenej uličce.
References
aVzpominkyFrantišek Roček
Gendarmeriestation Putimnn flag
Google mapsearch
putimg.png

There was no gendarmerie station in Putim.

Jahrbuch für die k.k. Gendarmerie..., 1915.

putim40.jpg

Putim no. 40. This is a fictive location and the sign merely commemorates the casting of Steklý's film.

Gendarmeriestation Putim is the scene of Švejk's entire stay in Putim. Here he is suspected of being a Russian spy and interrogated by Wachtmeister Flanderka, the head of the local police.

Background

Gendarmeriestation Putim was a literary creation, an example of licensia poetica. There simply wasn't any k.k. Gendarmerie station in Putim in 1915 or during the preceeding years. Putim was organised under the Písek station and there was also an office in nearby Protivín.

Steklý's film

In 1957 the de-facto standard Czech film about The Good Soldier Švejk was released, directed by Karel Steklý. For casting purposes building no. 40 was selected as the police station and by the entrance was mounted a sign that still remains in place (2020).

The film is still very popular, and most Czechs know Švejk only from this film. This obviously has had a profound effect on how Czechs perceive the good soldier. Because the film fails to convey the satirical edge of the novel, most people regard The Good Soldier Švejk as a comedy and nothing more. This distortion is particularly evident in Putim where a disproportionate amount of the cast is set. It even includes a tedious invented comic scene where Švejk rolls his drunk police escort to Písek in a wheelbarrow.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Četník se sarkasticky usmál: „Vy jdete přece od Budějovic. Máte ty vaše Budějovice už za sebou,“ a vtáhl Švejka do četnické stanice.

Sources: Václav Pixa, Miroslav Vítek

Literature

Na Kocourkunn flag
Google mapsearch
putim42.jpg

Stará hospoda, Putim č.p. 42

putimh.png

Chytilův úplný adresář..., 1915

nakocourku.png

České slovo, 24.12.1908

Na Kocourku was a pub in Putim where the gendarmes sent old Pejzlerka to fetch food and drink. There is no description of the inn apart from that Pejzlerka told the innkeeper what was going on over at Gendarmeriestation Putim.

Background

Na Kocourku was according to the novel some pub in Putim. At the time there were three inns in the village: U Srnků at no. 9 (where the large U Cimbury is today), U Pavlů at no. 7, and Stará hospoda (U Žižků) at no. 42[a].

The latter is the more likely candidate but as the whole Putim section of the plot (including the police station) seems not be based on historical circumstances one shouldn't put too much emphasis on the details conveyed in The Good Soldier Švejk.

Name from Humpolec?

In the years before World War I there existed a well known public house Na Kocourku in Humpolec[b] and if it was still operating after the war Hašek may well have been aware of it or even visited (Humpolec is only 11 km from Lipnice).

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] „Tohle je velká výjimka,“ důstojně řekl strážmistr, „to je nějaký vyšší důstojník, nějaký štábní. To víte, že Rusové na špionáž sem nepošlou nějakého frajtra. Pošlou mu do hospody ,Na Kocourku’ pro nějaký oběd. Jestli už nic není, ať uvaří něco.
[2.2] Od té doby neměl četnický strážmistr informátora a musel se spokojit tím, že si vymyslil jednoho, udav fingované jméno, a zvýšil tak svůj příjem o padesát korun měsíčné, které propíjel v hospodě Na Kocourku.
[2.2] Neobyčejné četné stopy těžkých velkých bot báby Pejzlerky na té spojovací linii svědčily o tom, že strážmistr si vynahražuje plnou měrou svou nepřítomnost na Kocourku.

Sources: Václav Pixa

References
aHospody v PutimiVáclav Pixa
bVýroční valnou hromaduČeské slovo24.12.1908
Okresní soud Píseknn flag
Písek/119, Velké nám. 13
Wikipedia cz Google mapsearch
ksoudpisek.jpg

Velké náměstí in Písek (1917). The large building to the left housed the regional court, the smaller building next to it the district court.

© Písecký deník

Okresní soud Písek is mentioned in connection with Wachtmeister Bürger at Gendarmeriestation Putim who never bothered to interrogate suspects and instead passed them directly to the district court in Písek. This was an entirely different approach to that of his vigilent successor Wachtmeister Flanderka.

Background

Okresní soud Písek was an institution that was part of the judiciary of Austria, and exists also today (2021). It resided on the southern part of Velké náměstí, down towards Otava and adjacent to the larger Krajský soud Písek.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Vzpomněl si na svého předchůdce strážmistra Bürgera, který se zadrženým vůbec nemluvil, na nic se ho netázal a hned ho poslal k okresnímu soudu s krátkým raportem: „Dle udání závodčího byl zadržen pro potulku a žebrotu.“ Je to nějaký výslech?

Also written:Písek District Court en Bezirksgericht Písek de Distriktsretten Písek no

Landesgendarmeriekommando Pragnn flag
Praha III./388, Karmelitská 2
Google mapsearch
gend2.png

K.k. Landesgendarmeriekommando Nr. 2 für Böhmen

gend2.jpg

Pohled do Karmelitské ulice s domem čp. 388 na Malé Straně (četnická kasárna), 1904

Landesgendarmeriekommando Prag is mentioned by the author when he explains in detail how the HQ of k.k. Gendarmerie in Prague floods the police stations with directives that mostly were stamped "strictly confidential".

Background

Landesgendarmeriekommando Prag (zemské četnické velitelství v Praze) refers to the headquarters of k.k. Gendarmerie in Bohemia. It was number 2 of the 14 gendarmerie country commands in Cisleithanien.

Their location was Gendarmeriekaserne in Malá Strana, in a group av buildings at the junction of Karmelitská and Harantova.

The institution supervised a total of 29 Gendarmerieabteilungskommandos where the most important in a The Good Soldier Švejk context was No. 14 in Písek. Commander in chief of k.k. Gendarmerie in Bohemia in 1914 was Václav Řezáč (colonel)Schematismus der k. k. Land­wehr..., Ministerium für Landesverteidigung, 1914" href="#Gend2a">[a].

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] A strážmistr dívaje se na stránky svého raportu se usmál se zadostiučiněním a vytáhl ze svého psacího stolu tajný reservát zemského četnického velitelství v Praze s obvyklým „Přísně důvěrné“ a přečetl si ještě jednou:
[2.2] Zemské velitelstvo nařizuje proto zadržet všechny podezřelé a zejména zvýšiti bedlivost v těch místech, kde v blízkostí nalézají se posádky, vojenská střediska a stanice s projíždějícími vojenskými vlaky.
[2.2] Na zemském četnickém velitelství v Praze nestačili je rozmnožovat a rozesílat.
[2.2] a že zemské četnické velitelství ho připraví o poslední špetku rozumu a že se nebude moci těšit z vítězství rakouských zbraní
References
aSchematismus der k. k. Land­wehr...Ministerium für Landesverteidigung1914
K.k. Ministerium des Innernnn flag
Wien I., Judenplatz 11
Google mapsearch
inmis.jpg

K.k. Ministerium des Innern (Wipplingerstraße)

heinold.jpg

Innenminister 1911-1915, Karl Heinold

K.k. Ministerium des Innern is mentioned by the author when he in detail describes how the ministry floods the police with directives on how to keep an eye on the population and their attitudes to the war. They even created a classification for degrees of loyalty.

Background

K.k. Ministerium des Innern (cz. ministerstvo vnitra) was the ministry of interior of Cisleithanien, the Austrian part of the Dual Monarchy. It was housed in am enormous building between Judenplatz and Wipplingerstraße in the centre of Vienna. Minister of the interior from 1911 to 1915 was Karl Heinold von Udyński.

As opposed to like-named ministries in other countries and also what is suggested in The Good Soldier Švejk, this ministry had little to do with inner state security. Their main task seems to have been public health and during World War I they were accordingly in charge of the POW-camps.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Bylo jich mnoho, které vypracovalo ministerstvo vnitra za součinnosti ministerstva zemské obrany, kterému podléhalo četnictvo.
[2.2] Zaplaven tou spoustou vynálezů rakouského ministerstva vnitra, strážmistr Flanderka měl ohromnou spoustu restů a dotazníky zodpovídal stereotypně, že je u něho všechno v pořádku a loyalita že je mezi místním obyvatelstvem stupnice I.a.
[2.2] Rakouské ministerstvo vnitra vynalezlo pro loyalitu a neochvějnost k mocnářství tyto stupnice: I.a, I.b, I.c - II.a, II.b, II. - III.a, III.b, III. - IV.a, IV.b, IV.c.

Literature

K.k. Ministerium für Landesverteidigungnn flag
Wien I., Babenbergerstraße 5
Wikipedia deen Google mapsearch
lwmis.jpg

Babenbergerstraße

georgi.png

Schematismus der K. K. Landwehr..., 1914

K.k. Ministerium für Landesverteidigung is mentioned by the author when he in detail describes how the ministry floods the police with directives on how to keep an eye on the population and their attitudes to the war. They even created a classification for degrees of loyalty.

Background

K.k. Ministerium für Landesverteidigung (Ministry for National Defence) was the ministry of defence in Cisleithanien, i.e. the Austrian part of the Habsburg empire. It was in charge of k.k. Landwehr and also k.k. Gendarmerie. In peace time their task was primarly inner security whereas after the outbreak of war Landwehr became a fully functional army.

Secretary of home defence from 1907 to 1917 was Friedrich von Georgi. Sjå Minister für Landesverteidigung.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Bylo jich mnoho, které vypracovalo ministerstvo vnitra za součinnosti ministerstva zemské obrany, kterému podléhalo četnictvo.
[2.2] V příloze B1 zasílá se účet za stravování dotyčného k laskavému převedení na účet min. zem. obrany s žádostí o potvrzení přijetí předvedeného.

Literature

K.k. Gendarmerienn flag
Wien I., Opernring 6
Wikipedia czdeen Google mapsearch
cetnik.jpg

© Michal Dlouhý

cetnik.png

Schematismus der k. k. Land­wehr... 1914.

K.k. Gendarmerie is mentioned by the author when he in detail describes how k.k. Ministerium für Landesverteidigung to which the gendarmery reported floods the police stations with directives on how to keep an eye on the population and their attitudes to the war.

Background

K.k. Gendarmerie (c.k. četnictvo) was an armed state police force of Cisleithanian, responsible for public order and homeland security. It's history goes back to 1848 but at the time it operated in the entire Habsburg emprire, an situation that changed after Ausgleich. As the author correctly notes it reported to k.k. Ministerium für Landesverteidigung where its official role was assisting body to the ministry (Hilfsorgan). It was organised as a military unit and the policemen were classed as soldiers. During the war they were also serving in the field, mainly as military police, so-called Feldgendarmen.

In 1914 the institution was headed by General Michael Tišljar von LentulisSchematismus der k. k. Land­wehr..., Ministerium für Landesverteidigung, 1914" href="#GENDa">[a]. His title was Gendarmerieinspektor and his office was located at Opernring 6 whereas other parts of the administration were housed at the defence ministry's building in Babenbergerstraße 5.

At the outbreak of World War I gendarmerie force counted nearly 15,000 men[b] and was organised in 14 Landesgedarmeriekommandos where no. 2 (see Landesgendarmeriekommando Prag) is the most relevant in the context of The Good Soldier Švejk. These in turn supervised a number of Gendarmerieabteilungskommandos (29 in Bohemia) that again managed a few Bezirksgendarmeriekommandos. The lowest unit was the Gendarmeriestation (or Gendarmeriepost) that in the countryside (like at Gendarmeriestation Putim) counted one or two police officials, generally headed by a Wachtmeister.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Bylo jich mnoho, které vypracovalo ministerstvo vnitra za součinnosti ministerstva zemské obrany, kterému podléhalo četnictvo.

Literature

References
aSchematismus der k. k. Land­wehr...Ministerium für Landesverteidigung1914
bPolizeigeschichteLandespolizeidirektion Wien
U černého koněnn flag
Google search
ucernehokone.png

Pubs is Protivín 1915

U černého koně was a pub in Protivín where gendarm Rampa was playing cards with some shoemakers even when on duty.

Background

U černého koně was according to the novel the name of a pub in Protivín. In the address book of 1915 there were 13 public houses in the town but as they are listed by owners it is impossible to tell if any of them was named U černého koně. Miroslav Vítek has even investigated the census records from 1910 and concludes that none of the 15 hostelries in town seem to have had such a name[a].

Inspiration from elsewhere?

U černého koně was the name of hotels and restaurants in various places in Bohemia, a.o. in Prague, Beroun and Domažlice. There is however no indication that Hašek had any connection to any of those. He would at least have been aware of the one in Prague at Na Příkopě and also may have stumbled upon the other two on his travels to Domažlice in 1904 and Beroun in 1913.

ukonicka.png

Jihočeské listy, 31.10.1914

A more likely though still far-fetched source of inspiration is U černého koníčka/Zum Schwarzen Rössl (The little black horse) in Budějovice[b], a restaurant located a few steps from k.u.k. Reserve-Spital where Hašek was receiving treatment from 6 March 1915 onwards. From the hospital he allegedly escaped with his Krankenbuch like his alter ego Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek did in The Good Soldier Švejk. To our knowledge it has not been recorded that he visited the pub but given the location it would be no surprise if he dropped by.

The restaurant was owned by the Schwarzenberg dynasty and served beer from their Třeboň brewery. The address in 1915 was Schmerlingová třída 540/28, now Žižkova třída. Attached was a cinema called The Royal Biograf[c]. The landlord in 1915 was František Bednář. The restaurant has been operation since 1854, is still functioning, and serves beer from Protivín (2011).

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Strážmistr zůstal sedět na strážnici vedle Švejka na kavalci prázdné postele četníka Rampy, který měl do rána službu, obchůzku po vesnicích, a který v tu dobu klidně seděl „U černého koně“ v Protivíně a hrál s obuvnickými mistry mariáš, vykládaje v přestávkách, že to Rakousko musí vyhrát.

Also written:The Black Horse en Den svarte hest no

Literature

References
aPo cestách Švejkovy budějovické anabázeMiroslav Vítek2020
bHostinec U Černého koníčka existoval již před rokem 1854. Měl k dispozici stáje pro 40 koníJan Schinko28.7.2016
cThe Royal BiografJihočeské listy31.12.1909
Schloss Schönbrunnnn flag
Wien XIII./1
Wikipedia czdeenno Google mapsearch
schonbrunn.jpg

Schönbrunn, 1911

Schloss Schönbrunn is mentioned when it is revealed what unpatriotic utterances appeared during the policemen's drinking binge Gendarmeriestation Putim. Kaiser Franz Joseph I. had to be locked away in the toilets to prevent him from shitting all over Schönbrunn it was claimed.

Background

Schloss Schönbrunn was the summer residence of the Emperor until the monarchy was abolished in 1918. Today it is mostly a museum and is on the UNESCO World Heritage list. The palace has 1441 rooms and is on of the major tourist attractions of Vienna.

Schloss Schönbrunn dates back to the 18th century and associated with palace is a large park, the zoo Schönbrunner Menagerie and various lesser buildings. It is located in Hietzing in XIII. Bezirk, on the south-western outskirts of the city.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Závodčí se zastavil u okna, a bubnuje na ně, prohlásil: „Vy jste si také, pane strážmistr, nedal ubrousek na ústa před naší bábou a pamatuji se, že jste jí řekl: ,Pamatujou, bábo, že každý císař a král pamatuje jen na svou kapsu, a proto vede válku, ať je to třebas takový dědek jako starý Procházka, kterého nemohou už pustit z hajzlu, aby jim nepodělal celý Schönbrunn.’„

Literature

Bezirksgendarmeriekommando Piseknn flag
Písek/262, Pražská ul. 17
Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum
cetvel.png

Gendarmeriekommando in 1900 and 1910

Královské město Písek, Jan Matzner, 1898.

Bezirksgendarmeriekommando Pisek is the scene of the end of Švejk's Anabasis. Rittmeister König soon verified that Švejk was no Russian spy, and dispatched him immediately to his regiment in Budějovice.

Background

Bezirksgendarmeriekommando Pisek (Okresní četnické velitelství) was the former state police headquarters in hejtmanství Písek. The police station was in the inter-war years located in Pražská ulice čp. 262[a] and presumably this was also the case in 1915. This is however at odds with information found in a book from 1898 where a map shows some police station much closer to the town centre but still in the same street[b], in house number 181.

Gendarmerie in Písek
kolsky.png

Kolský seems to have served diligently

Písecké Listy, 16.11.1918.

In Písek k.k. Gendarmerie was present on two command levels. The lowest ranked of the units was the one we know from The Good Soldier Švejk: Bezirksgendarmeriekommando. In 1915 it was commanded by Wachtmeister Antonín Kolský[c], an indication that Rittmeister König firmly belongs in the category of fiction. Kolský's department was responsible for 13 gendarmerie posts in the area, amongst them Vráž, Protivín, Bavorov, Mitrovice and Vodňany.

His unit reported to Abteilungskommando Nr. 14 that again reported to Landesgendarmeriekommando Prag. Abteilungskommando was from 1910 to 1916 headed by a person familiar to readers of The Good Soldier Švejk, the well known policeman and dog expert Rittmeister Rotter, a person Hašek knew. Apart from the Písek district his department supervised the districts of Strakonice and Blatná, and Rotter's unit counted 91 gendarmes.

Location
pisekgend.png

Jahrbuch für die k.k. Gendarmerie ..., 1915.

Rittmeister Rotter's office was at Pražská čp. 262, this is confirmed by the 1910 census records[d]. On this address were three flats: one for Rotter and his family (with servants), one for another tenant, and the third for lower ranking gendarmes. In this flat lived four Wachtmeister, one assistant and one female servant. Our unconfirmed assumption is that also Bezirksgendarmeriekommando resided at this address because there was no longer any k.k. Gendarmerie presence at the former address at Pražská čp. 181.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Zítra ho budeme lifrovat do Písku, k panu okresnímu.
[2.2] Četnickému strážmistrovi Flanderkovi se situace, čím déle psal tou podivnou úřední němčinou, vyjasňovala, a když skončil: "So melde ich gehorsam, wird der feindliche Offizier heutigen Tages, nach Bezirksgendarmeriekommando Písek, überliefert"
[2.2] Strážmistr vyzval Švejka, aby šel zas na strážnici, a rychle, aby nezapomněl, připsal do svého raportu na okresní četnické velitelství v Písku: "Ovládaje dokonale český jazyk, chtěl se v Českých Budějovicích pokusit vstoupit do 91. pěšího pluku."
[2.2] Závodčího zmocnila se naprostá deprese, a když po hrozném utrpení pozdě večer dorazili do Písku k četnickému velitelství, na schodech řekl úplně zdrceně závodčí Švejkovi: „Teď to bude hrozné. My od sebe nemůžem.“ A opravdu bylo to hrozné, když strážmistr poslal pro velitele stanice, rytmistra Königa. První slovo rytmistrovo bylo: „Dýchněte na mne.“ „Teď to chápu,“ řekl rytmistr, zjistiv nesporně situaci svým bystrým, zkušeným čichem, „rum, kontušovka, čert, jeřabinka, ořechovka, višňovka a vanilková.

Also written:Regional State Police Headquarters en Okresní četnické velitelství cz

Literature

References
aHistorieMěsto Písek
bKrálovské město PísekJan Matzner1898
cChytilův úplný adresář Království ČeskéhoAlois Chytil1915
dSčitání lidu 1910SOkA Písek
K.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 11nn flag
Písek, Svatoplukova ul.
Google mapsearch
ir11schema.png

Schematismus für das k. u. k. Heer..., 1914.

ebzk11.png

Heeresergänzungsbezirk Nr. 11

Schematismus für das k. u. k. Heer..., 1911.

ir11kasarna.jpg

Písecký deník, 20.10.1910.

K.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 is mentioned by the author when he describes the state of affairs and general mood in the area at the time when Švejk is handed over to Bezirksgendarmeriekommando Pisek. Rebellion is in the air and battalions from from k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 28 and k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 have crossed over to the enemy in Serbia and in the Carpathians.

Background

K.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 (c.a k. pěší pluk č. 11) was one of the 102 Austro-Hungarian infantry regiments that existed in 1914. According to Schematismus für das k.u.k. Heer[a] it was founded in 1629 and was as such the longest serving infantry regiment in the entire k.u.k. Heer. The name k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 is however much more recent; it dates back to 1873. From 1854 onwards the regiment was recruited from the Písek area and the city was also home of the replacement battalion and at least one of the four regular battalions.

Due to its long history the regiment took part in nearly every war the Habsburg empire was involved in: The Thirty Year War, the War of Austrian succession, the Napoleonic wars and the campaigns in northern Italy during the mid 19th century. The regiment's memorial day was 8 June 1859, commemorating the battle of Melagnano.

Recruitment and garrison

Heeresergänzungsbezirk Nr. 11 (recruitment district) encompassed five hejtmanství: Písek, Strakonice, Sušice, Klatovy and Blatná. Eighty per cent of the men were of Czech nationality. Almost all the places mentioned in Švejk's anabasis fell within the district which also included Kašperské Hory, a place mentioned after Švejk's march battalion left Királyhida.

It was customary in Austria-Hungary to move regiments around in various parts of the empire and it rarely occurred that an entire regiment served in the same location. The four (sometimes three) battalions of an infantry regiment was usually located in 2-3 places, and this was also the case with k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 11. In 1914 staff and 3rd and 4th battalion were located in Prague (Albrechtkaserne), 1st battalion in Písek and 2nd battalion in PrachaticeSchematismus für das k. u. k. Heer..., K.k. Hof und Staatsdruckerei, 1914" href="#IR11a">[a]. In Písek the local units of the regiment were originally housed in the barracks in the city centre, but at the turn of the century new barracks were built in Pražské předměstí (the Prague suburb), next to the already existing barracks of Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 28.

During the war
ir11m.jpg

Písecké listy, 25.12.1915.

The regiment was mobilised immediately and as part of Prague's Infanteriedivision Nr. 9[1] sent to the Drina front as part of 5th army and VIII. Korps[f]. Together with IR73 they formed Infanteriebrigade Nr. 18. They took part in the three failed invasions of Serbia in the autumn of 1914. Forced into a calamitous withdrawal onto Hungarian soil around 20 December, they were in early February 1915 transferred to the Carpathians. From early May they took part in the Central Powers'd offensives in Galicia and Volhynia. In November 1915 they were transferred to the Isonzo-front east of Monfalcone, on the so-called Karst-plateau in current Slovenia. Here they remained until October 1917 (apart from a short interlude south of Trento in early summer 1916). In September 1916 they were placed under the command of Infanteriedivision Nr. 28. The regiment took part in the advance into Italy after the October breakthrough at Caporetto and in November they reached Piave where they saw out the rest of the war.

Until September 1916 their battlegrounds were roughly the same os those of their sister regiments in 9th division. Jaroslav Hašek may have been in touch with k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 during the period from 11 July 1915 until he was captured on 24 September. Like k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 91 and the rest of division the Písek regiment took part in the bloody battles by Sokal and Chorupan that year.

Regimental commander at the outbreak war was Walter Schreitter von SchreiterfeldSchematismus für das k. u. k. Heer..., K.k. Hof und Staatsdruckerei, 1914" href="#IR11a">[a]. He was soon replaced by Karl Wokoun who served until the autumn 1915. Thereafter the regiment had several commanders. One of them was the infamous Florian Schaumeier, commander of k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 28 during the debacle on 3 April 1915 and also the person who set in motion the "fact" that two battalions from his regiments had surrounded to one Russian battalion without firing a shot.

A reliable regiment
ir11paris.png

La Nation tchèque, 1.6.1916.

Hašek claims in The Good Soldier Švejk that battalions from k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 had crossed over to the Serbs but here he seems to be relaying allied propaganda, much like he does later in the novel when he describes the circumstances around k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 28's alleged defection by Dukla.

In 1916 the mouthpiece of the Czechoslovak National Council in Paris, La Nation tchèque, printed a piece of propaganda that also mentioned k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 11. It was relating to the campaign in Serbia[c], and the content also appeared in other newspapers and surely also in Russia. La Nation tchèque certainly didn't hold back: "the 11th regiment refused to march on Valjevo, was decimated and taken prisoners. The parts that remained were ordered to positions that were exposed to Serbian artillery fire and the rest were wiped out by Hungarian artillery as revenge".

ir11kolubara.png

IR 11 praised in an official communique

Reichspost, 27.11.1914.

There seemed to be little substance in the allied propaganda. There were indeed several reports that praised k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 - they were mentioned in glowing terms three times in official war bulletins, first 26 November 1914 for their performance by the river Kolubara in northern Serbia. During a parliamentary inquiry in 1918 into the performance of Czech regiments the minister of defence in Cisleithanien said that the regiment had performed bravely and had no complaints[e].

That said entire companies from k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 "vanished" (were captured or broken up) during the retreat from Belgrade in December 1914 but this was the case also with their sister regiments on that section of the front. That entire units were wiped out was a common occurence throughout the war.

Schreib das auf, Kisch!
ir11kisch.jpg

Egon Erwin Kisch as soldier in k.u.k. Heer

One prime witness to the Serbian campaign was the famous journalist and writer Egon Erwin Kisch. In 1922 he published Soldat im Prager Korps, based on his diaries from war, and in 1930 an enhanced version titled Schreib das auf, Kisch![g] appeared. Kisch gave a chilling account of the horrors he observed, and also laid bare cases of self-mutilation, corruption and incompetence within the army, all themes that reader of Švejk would recognise. Korporal Kisch was living in Berlin when the war broke out, returned home to join k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 in Písek and describes the journey to the front and the disastrous invasions of Serbia in 1914. Then follows the chaotic retreat by Belgrade to southern Hungary (by current Novi Sad in Serbia), a 6 weeks of restitution followed by the transfer to the Carpathians. Here he was wounded on 18 March 1915 and he narrative ends as he return to Prague. After recovering he worked for Kriegspressequartier in Vienna and also as a censor at the regiment's replacement battalion in Gyula. Kisch never returned to active front service.

Ersatzbataillon
ir11guyla.png

Písecké listy, 30.6.1915.

The replacement battalion of k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 11 was like their equivalents from other Czech regiments relocated to non-Czech soil. The destination was Hungary, temporarily Kolozsvar (now Cluj in Romania), then Gyula on the current Hungarian-Romanian border. The transfer took place in May 1915 (reported on 19 May)[b] and the battalion returned to Písek 10 November 1918[d]. Presumably a Hungarian regiment took their place in the barracks in Písek but it is not known which.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Černožluté obzory počaly se zatahovat mraky revoluce. Na Srbsku, v Karpatech přecházely bataliony k nepříteli. 28. regiment, 11. regiment. V tom posledním vojáci z píseckého kraje a okresu. V tom předvzpourovém dusnu přijeli rekruti z Vodňan s karafiáty z černého organtinu.

Sources: Martin Zeman, Egon Erwin Kisch

Notes
1. In August 1914 the division contained k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 11, IR73, k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 91, IR102, one battalion from k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 28, artillery (a.o. k.u.k. Feldkanonenregiment Nr. 24) and cavalry.

Literature

References
aSchematismus für das k. u. k. Heer...K.k. Hof und Staatsdruckerei1914
bZměna vojenských posádekPísecké Listy19.5.1915
cLes soldats tchécoslovaquesLa Nation tchèque1.6.1916
dPříjezd 11. pěš. pluku do PískuPísecké Listy16.11.1918
eDas Verhalten tschechischer Regimenter an der FrontStreffleur's Militärblatt15.6.1918
fKriegsgliederungÖsterreich-Ungarns letzter Krieg, Band I.
gSchreib das auf Kisch!Egon Erwin Kisch1930
Písecké nádražínn flag
Wikipedia cz Google mapsearch
pisekkisch.png

"Scrieb das auf Kisch", Egon Erwin Kisch, 1930.

Písecké nádraží is mentioned by the author when he wrote that soldiers who travelled through from Prague threw back cigarettes and chocolate that society ladies from Písek gave them.

Švejk would also either have boarded the train here or travelled past when he finally concluded his anabasis by being escorted to his regiment in Budějovice.

Background

Písecké nádraží probably refers to the main railway station in Písek that is by far the largest of the four stops in the city. It is located on the southern outskirts of Písek and is a regular stop on the line Prague - Beroun - Protivín - Budějovice. It would be logical to assume that soldiers from Prague passed through this station on the way to the battlefield in Serbia.

Egon Erwin Kisch also mentions a station in his book Schreib das auf Kisch!. The settings was k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 11's transport to the front in Serbia in early August 1914. The soldiers left around midnight and Kisch noted that they marched past a pond but that few people accompanied them along the route. The regiment travelled via Tábor to Vienna, a journey that took 30 hours!

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Píseckým nádražím projížděli vojáci od Prahy a házeli nazpátek cigarety a čokoládu, kterou jim podávaly do prasečích vozů dámy z písecké společnosti.

Literature

Budějovické nádražínn flag
Wikipedia czen Google mapsearch
budnadr.jpg

The new station in 1914

"Heimatbuch der Berg- und Kreisstadt Böhmisch-Budweis", 1930.

budnadr.png

Budweiser Zeitung, 18.12.1908.

ir91e.jpg

The 91st regioment's orchestra by the railway station before departure to the front, 1.8.1914.

Jednadevadesátníci, Jan Ciglbauer, 2018.

odchod91.png

IR91 transferred to Bruck (sensored)

Jihočeské listy, 2.6.1915.

Budějovické nádraží is mentioned when Švejk is escorted from Písek til Budějovice to join k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 91. This marks the end of his famous anabasis.

In [2.3] the station takes a more prominent place in the plot. Švejk and his cell-mate Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek boarded the train here later in when the whole replacement battalion of IR 91 was transferred to Királyhida.

Background

Budějovické nádraží (Budweiser Bahnhof) refers to the main railway station in Budějovice that is located slightly more than a kilometre east of the centre. The orginal station was opened for traffic in 1872 but replaced by the current and much larger one in 1908. The first passenger train rolled into the station on 17 December 1908[a].

During the war

The railway's had a crucial role in military logistics, so also in Budějovice. Already on mobilisation staff, 2nd and 3rd battalion of IR 91 arrived from Prague and was together with the already present 4th battalion put on a war footing. On 1 August 1915 the regiment left for the front by Drina in four stages, a journey that lasted three days. Around the same time the local Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 29 boarded the trains and headed for the eastern front.

During 1914 the station witnessed the departure of 5 march battalions to Serbia, in January 1915 the 6th was shipped to southern Hungary were the regiment spent six weeks recovering after the withdrawal from Serbia. March battalions numbered 6 to 11 were subsequently dispatched to the battlefields of the Carpathians and Galicia.

Jaroslav Hašek's 12th march battalon was actually the first that was not shipped from Budějovice. In early summer 1915 the replacement battalions of the city's two house regiments were relocated to non-Czech soil. IR 91 was on 1 June 1915 moved to Királyhida in two stages[b], an event that is extensively covered in The Good Soldier Švejk. Almost two weeks earlier Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 29 had been relocated.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Po celé cestě se Švejkem od nádraží do Mariánských kasáren v Budějovicích upíral své oči křečovitě na Švejka, a kdykoliv přicházeli k nějakému rohu nebo křižovatce ulic, jako mimochodem vypravoval Švejkovi, kolik dostávají ostrých patron při každé eskortě, načež Švejk odpovídal, že je o tom přesvědčen, že žádný četník nebude po někom střílet na ulici, aby neudělal nějaké neštěstí.
[2.3] Jednadevadesátý pluk se stěhoval do Mostu nad Litavou-Királyhidy. Právě když po třídenním věznění měl být za tři hodiny Švejk propuštěn na svobodu, byl s jednoročním dobrovolníkem odveden na hlavní strážnici a s eskortou vojáků doprovozen na nádraží.

Literature

References
aDer neue BahnhofBudweiser Zeitung18.12.1908
bOdchod 91. plukuJihočeské listy2.6.1915
Mariánská kasárnann flag
Budějovice/1851, Pražská tř. 1
Wikipedia cz Google mapsearch Švejk-muzeum