Hovudpersonen

The Good Soldier Švejk

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The novel The Good Soldier Švejk refers to a number of institutions and firms, public as private. These have until 15 September 2013 been categorised as 'Places'. This only partly makes sense as this type of entity can not be always be accosiated with fixed geographical point, in the way that for instance cities, montains and rivers can. This new page contains military and civilian institutions (including army units, regiments etc), hotels, public houses, newspapers and magazines.

The line between this page and "Places" is blurred, but the idea with this section is to include entities that are not necessarily located on a fixed spot on earth. Therefore Prague and Vienna will still be found in the "Places" database, because these have constant co-ordinates. On the other hand institutions may change location: K.u.k. Heer and U kalicha are not unequivocal geographical terms so they will from now on appear on this page.

>> The Good Soldier Švejk index of institutions mentioned in the novel (184) Show all
>> I. In the rear
Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

14. Švejk as military servant to senior lieutenant Lukáš

Stoletá kavárnann flag
Na Zderaze 267/10, Praha II-Antonín Kolář [1909]
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Národní politika, 1.12.1908

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Národní politika, 28.6.1909

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Adresář královského hlavního města Prahy a obcí sousedních, 1907

Stoletá kavárna is mentioned in Švejk's long anecdote that he tells Katz after the latter had played away his servant at cards. The game took place in a "hospoda" behind Stoletá kavárna and at the centre of events was the old plumber Vejvoda.

Background

Stoletá kavárna was a café with address Na Zderaze in Nové Město that existed from some time before 1887, but we don't know with certainty when it started and when it ceased operation. Early adverts show a certain Slavík as landlord. In 1908 these small adverts reveal that the landlord is Antonín Kolář and the address book from 1907 confirms him also as the owner of the building. See also Hospoda za Stoletou kavárnou.

In 1909 the old building was demolished and a new one erected on the premises. Jaroslav Hašek surely knew both versions of the café, but the time of Vejvoda was probably before the rebuild. In 1914 they advertised for a piano player, the place was also a dance- and concert establishment. In 1915 the building changed hands after a bankruptcy and in 1916 it is referred to as the former café. By 1918 it appears to have reopened and in 1920 the landlord was B. Michálek. On the present building the inscription "Stoletá kavárna" is still visible.

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Quote from the novel
[1.14.1] „A bylo v banku hodně?“ otázal se Švejk klidně, „nebo jste málokdy dělal forhonta? Když nepadá karta, je to velmi špatný, ale někdy je to mizerie, když to jde až příliš dobře. Na Zderaze žil nějakej klempíř Vejvoda a ten hrával vždy mariáš v jedné hospodě za ,Stoletou kavárnou’. Jednou taky, čert mu to napískal, povídá: ,A což abychom si hodili jedníka o pětníček.’
[1.14.1] Kominickej mistr byl už do banku dlužen přes půldruhého miliónu, uhlíř ze Zderazu asi milión, domovník ze Stoletý kavárny 800 000 korun, jeden medik přes dva milióny.

Also written:Century Café en Hundertjähriges kaffeehaus de

Hospoda za Stoletou kavárnounn flag
Na Zbořenci 261/7, Praha II-Josef Pavlíček [1910]
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Hospoda za Stoletou kavárnou is mentioned in Švejk's long anecdote that he tells Katz after the latter had played away his servant at cards. The gambling party took place in a "hospoda" behind Stoletá kavárna and at the story was centered around old Vejvoda.

Background

Hospoda za Stoletou kavárnou was most probably an inn that belonged to Josef Pavlíček. The pub was located at Na Zbořenci No. 7, two houses up the street from Stoletá kavárna. Pavlíček also owned the building, he bought it at a bankrupcy auction in 1904.

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Quote from the novel
[1.14.1] „A bylo v banku hodně?“ otázal se Švejk klidně, „nebo jste málokdy dělal forhonta? Když nepadá karta, je to velmi špatný, ale někdy je to mizerie, když to jde až příliš dobře. Na Zderaze žil nějakej klempíř Vejvoda a ten hrával vždy mariáš v jedné hospodě za ,Stoletou kavárnou’. Jednou taky, čert mu to napískal, povídá: ,A což abychom si hodili jedníka o pětníček.’

Also written:Pub behind the "Century Café" en Kneipe hinter dem "Hundertjährigen Kaffeehaus" de

Einjährig-Freiwilligenschule (Prag)nn flag
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Heerwesen, Selbstverlag Hugo Schmid, 1916

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The barracks of IR73 in Vršovice. Was it here that Lukáš trained One Year Volunteers?

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The barracks of IR11 and IR102

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Albrechtova kasárna, Smíchov. Here Sagner served as instructor at the reserve-officer school of IR11 in February 1915

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Sagner at the IR11 reserve officer's school. © VHA

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Pilsner Tagblatt, 15.4.1914

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Světozor, 17.9.1915

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Zákon branný, daný dne 5. prosince 1868

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Jaroslav Kejla, 1972. © LA-PNP

Einjährig-Freiwilligenschule (Prag) was the school where Lukáš was an instructor at the time he met Švejk. This is revealed when the author introduces Lukáš to the reader. The officer even tells his students: "Let us be Czechs but nobody needs to know about it. I am also Czech". The author also adds that all the students at the school were Czechs.

The school is also mentioned later, for instance when he tells Wendler what he is doing and about his future plans.

Background

Einjährig-Freiwilligenschule (Prag) is the author's term for some reserve officer's school in Prague. These schools belonged to the individual regiments, but as it is never revealed at which regiment Lukáš served, it is impossible to know where the school was located. The next step in the investigation is therefore to look at which infantry regiments still had staff functions located in the city in the winter of 1914-15. Those were IR11, IR73 and IR102 and Lukáš surely served as an instructor with one of these (that he was transferred from Landwehr is unlikely).

Conflicting traces

The description of the later dog theft does give some indication to where the school was located. Blahník dragged Fox in the direction of Vršovice, so it is logical to think that Lukáš lived there. Coupling this with the fact that Katy walked together with Švejk to the barracks where the officer taught, indicates IR73 and Vršovice kasárna.

One should however be careful with taking the geographical logic of the plot literally. Later there is the episode where Lukáš went for a walk with the recently stolen dog Fox. He bumped into the real owner of the dog, colonel Kraus at Na Přikopě. This suggests that the officer lived for closer to the centre. Walking the dog all the way from Vršovice (3.5 km) seems improbable. In addition the author mentions that the students at the one-year volunteer schools were Czechs, whereas IR73 was a regiment where the overwhelming majority were Germans.

On the other hand the barracks of IR102 and IR11 were located much closer (2 km), in Malá strána and Smíchov respectively. So if Lukáš lived within walking distance of one of these he wouldn't have had to walk that far to get to Na Přikopě.

The literary figure Lukáš partly inspired by the real Sagner?

The discussion about which school/regiment Lukáš instructed at is highly hypothetical because it is difficult to connect this part of the plot to any real persons or contemporary events. The author still hadn't aligned the story in the novel to that of his own career in K.u.k. Heer like he did from book two and onwards. Lukáš' main real life prototype, Rudolf Lukas, never served in Prague between 1911 and 1919. He did however teach one-year volunteers, but this was in Budějovice in 1911-12 and again in the autumn of 1914, that is before he met Jaroslav Hašek. Lukas served his entire career in K.u.k. Heer with IR91 so he could not have been transferred there like his literary counterpart was.

Inspiration for his role as an instructor must therefore originate somewhere else, perhaps from some other officer hew knew. These could have been several, for instance Josef Adamička, but similarities with Čeněk Sagner springs to the fore. After a period of recuperation in Prague he volunteered as an instructor at IR11 while still being officially on sick leave. He started in this role on 25 January 1915 but because it was against the rules to serve at another regiment, he was called back to IR91 in Budějovice on 28 February 1915. Here he was appointed commander of the First Replacement Company..

At the time Jaroslav Hašek served with this very compnay and was also a student at the regiment's reserve officer's school. He therefore probably knew about Čeněk Sagner's position in Prague and also his transfer. A few more details about Lukáš also fit better with Sagner than with Lukas: Sagner was Czech and he is known to have stood up for the Czechs in K.u.k. Heer. On the contrary oberleutnant Rudolf Lukas was an ethnic German. Exactly like the literary figure Lukáš, Sagner was educated at K.u.k. Infanteriekadettenschule Prag, whereas Lukas was not. Thus we have three details on Lukáš that could have been inspired by Sagner but could NOT have been derived from Lukas.

One-year volunteers and reserve officer's schools

The term "one-year volunteer" has created some confusion. Jaroslav Hašek himself wore this label, and some have therefore concluded that he volunteered for army service *). This is as far as we know not true, and if it was he would also have been called Kriegs-Freiwilliger and not only Einjährig-Freiwilliger.

*) An example of this misunderstanding is the article about Jaroslav Hašek in Spanish Wikipedia. Unfortunately this article also contains many other factual errors.

One-year volunteer was an entitlement given to young men with middle and higher education. They had the option to serve for one year instead of the compulsory three (since 1912 two years), providing they paid for their own equipment. The system was created in 1868 modelled after Prussia and was functioning until 1918. The motive was that it would save the state money and wouldn't unduly damage the careers of the recruits. The "volunteer" part was also that soldier could (but didn't have to) attend a course to become a reserve officer during his term of service. Those who didn't pass the reserve officer's exam had to serve another year, but this duty was abolished in 1912. The one-year volunteer could also choose which branch of the armed forces and which unit he wanted to serve with.

The one-year volunteer was expected to buy his own equipment whereas K.u.k. Militärärar provided accommodation (if the soldier wanted). Eligibility depended on the recruit having completed the eight year middle school (gymnasium, "Realschule", teacher's academy, commercial academy or similar). It was up to the candidate to apply for the right as a one-year volunteer, and everyone had to pass an exam. Someone who was sentenced for property crimes or immorality automatically lost the right to serve for one year.

Thus Reserveoffizier-Schulen was an institution that educated one-year volunteers to become reserve officers. It may first appear that Jaroslav Hašek is wrong in using the terms "one-year volunteer school" or "school for one-year volunteers", but this is not the case. Until the army reforms of 1912 the schools were officially called Einjährig-Freiwilligenschule and obsolete term generally stick for years after the change has taken place (see Salmova ulice).

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Quote from the novel
[1.14.3] Mluvil ve společnosti německy, psal německy, četl české knížky, a když vyučoval ve škole jednoročních dobrovolníků, samých Čechů, říkal jim důvěrně: „Buďme Češi, ale nemusí o tom nikdo vědět. Já jsem taky Čech.“
[1.14.5] „Zažádal jsem o přeložení k 91. pluku do Budějovic, kam asi pojedu, jakmile budu hotov se školou jednoročáků.
[1.15] Ukončiv vyučování ve škole jednoročních dobrovolníků, vyšel si nadporučík Lukáš na procházku s Maxem.
Pohodnice Pankrácnn flag
Na Dvorci 37/-, Dvorce-Rudolf Nešvara [1912]
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"Prahou tisíciletou z dávna i dneška", Josef Veselý, 1926

Pohodnice Pankrác is mentioned when the author relates how unfortunate Lukáš had been with his servants. One of them had sold the senior lieutenant´s dog to the knacker at Pankrác.

Background

Pohodnice Pankrác was a "knacker's yard", i.e. a station for disposal of animal carcasses. It was also called a "Thermochemical station". The animal remains were mostly boiled to make fertilizers, bone flour and other residual products. Those were often used as ingredients in soap and glue. The enterprise was also allowed to collect dogs, cats and other stray animals from the eastern bank of the Vltava (a similar enterprise in Břevnov catered for the western bank). Prague city at the time defined stray dogs as "an animal that walked on its without a muzzle". The enterprises were licensed by the city, but privately owned and managed.

The dogs were kept in a quarantine station at Vyšehrad until their owner reported and paid the fine for allowing his dog onto the street "improperly equipped". Dog owners had to claim their pets within three days, otherwise the animal would be destroyed. The carcass processing factory was located on the open fields between Dvorce-Podolí and Pankrác.

Nešvara, a family of knackers

The owner in 1912 was Rudolf Nešvara, so this is likely to be the person the author refers to as pohodný na Pankrác (the knacker at Pankrác). It is said that he was the nightmare of every dog owner in Prague. Nešvara's father Václav also ran the knacker's yard. He died 19 November 1888 at the age of forty, his father Antonín (1814-1894) and mother Marie both survived him. All in all four generations of Nešvaras ran carcass destruction enterprises in Prague, the latest was Rudolf's son Jaromír who was in business as late as during the Second World War.

The yard had existed at least since 1888 and was operating until 1950, and the building lasted until around 1970 when it was demolished to make way for the new seat of Česká Televize.

Egon Erwin Kisch
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Bohemia, 27.11.1910 (Egon Erwin Kisch)

Nešrava and his undertaking is also the theme in the story Bei "Antouschek", dem Wasenmeister by the famous "raging reporter" Egon Erwin Kisch. The story was first printed in Bohemia on 27 November 1910, and was the 17th in his series called Prager Streifzüge. The story later appeared in books, including Aus Prager Gassen und Nächten (1912) and Abenteuer in Prag (1920). In the story Kisch describes a tour of the factory, his meeting with Herr Nešvara and he provides a number of details, both technical and also about the history and organisation of such enterprises in Prague. He also tells about his family and that his brother worked there. Kisch writes that the enterprise was relatively odourless, something that is at odds with the complaints that appeared in the inter-war years.

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SourceJaroslav Šerák, Jaromír Pešek, Egon Erwin Kisch, Josef Veselý

Quote from the novel
[1.14.3] Kanárka mořili hladem, jeden sluha angorské kočce vyrazil jedno oko, stájový pinč byl od nich práskán na potkání a nakonec jeden z předchůdců Švejka odvedl chudáka na Pankrác k pohodnému, kde ho dal utratit, nelituje dát ze své kapsy deset korun. Oznámil potom prostě nadporučíkovi, že mu pes utekl na procházce, a druhý den už mašíroval s rotou na cvičiště.
U Štupartůnn flag
Štupartská ul. 647/14, Praha I-Rudolf Holeček [1910]
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U Štupartů, 11 March 1911

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Alois Jirásek "Temno"

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From the courtyard of "U Štupartů", 16 March 1911

U Štupartů is mentioned by Švejk in a conversation with Lukáš when he describes how the cat devoured the Harz canary. I similar episode is said to have taken place in this house but in this case the cat had eaten a parrot.

Background

U Štupartů is a building in Staré Město with a history dating back to the 14th century. The house is named after Peter Stupart von Löwenthal who bought it 20 October 1664. His grandson sold it out of the family on 10 September 1732. In 1910 the house had two street addresses in Štupartská 14 og Jakubská 2 and had many tenants. Amongst them a the pub named after the house, run by Rudolf Holeček. It's address was Štupartská 14.

The original building (surely this was the one mentioned in the novel) was demolished in the autumn of 1911 after much opposition. Klub za starou Prahou and others wanted to preserve it due to its historical and architectural value but they were overruled by the city council. Already in December that year the new building was under construction, was ready the next year and still occupies the premises. The builder was Josef Sochor from Prague VII.

The devil's inn

Another author who wrote about U Štupartů was Alois Jirásek, Jaroslav Hašek's teacher at the gymnasium in Žitná ulice. The novel "Temno" (Darkness) was first printed as a serial in Zlatá Praha and was published as a book in1914. It mentions the pub U Štupartů opposite the church Sv. Jakub as čertová krčma (a devil's inn). This historical novel is set at the beginning of the 18th century.

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Quote from the novel
[1.14.3] V domě ,U Štupartů’ sežrala před léty kočka dokonce papouška, poněvadž se jí posmíval a mňoukal po ní. Voni ale mají kočky tuhej život. Jestli poručíte, pane obrlajtnant, abych ji vodpravil, tak ji budu muset trhnout mezi dveřmi, jinak nedodělá.“

Also written:Beim Stupart Reiner

Armin von Barheimnn flag
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Břetislav Hůla, "Vysvětlíky". © LA-PNP

Armin von Barheim was kennel in Bavaria. It enters the story when Švejk tells Lukáš about the finer details of dog breeding, and that one sometimes has to forge the pedigrees, because dog owners don't want mongrel dogs.

Background

Armin von Barheim is an institution which existence remains unidentified. No Bavarian kennel Armin von Barheim has been found, nor any kennel carrying this name anywhere in the world. Generic searches (Google and Wikipedia 2018) provide no meaningful hits, neither on geography nor people. Břetislav Hůla does list the kennel in his explanations to the novel (1951) but doesn't provide any complimentary details.

Searches in the Bavarian, Austrian and Czech digital newspaper collections do however show up a few hits, but nothing that is related to dog breeding in Bavaria or anywhere else. All this indicates that the name Barheim is either invented or misspelt.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.3] A každej hned chtěl rodokmen, tak jsem si musel dát rodokmeny natisknout a dělat z nějakýho košířskýho voříška, kerej se narodil v cihelně, nejčistokrevnějšího šlechtice z bavorskýho psince Armin von Barheim.
Kronika světové válkynn flag
Královská tř. 108/48, Karlín-Emil Šolc [1914]
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Rovnost, 12.10.1914

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Světová válka slovem i obrazem, s. 505: "Rakouský následník trůnu rozmlouvá se dvěma letci, sestřelivšími ruský aeroplan".

Kronika světové války is mentioned when Švejk follows Katy to the barracks where Lukáš serves. There he has a chat with a soldier about the events of the war. He has an expression as stupid as can be seen on a picture in Kronika světové války where the Austrian successor to the throne appears in a conversation with two pilots who have shot down a Russian plane.

Background

Kronika světové války was not a book like the context here indicates, but sub-titles in the booklet series Světová válka slovem i obrazem (The World War in words and pictures) issued by the publisher Emil Šolc in Karlín from October 1914 onwards. They were published every two weeks and were later assembled in six large volumes. Editor in chief was Adolf Srb who was assisted by a group of experts. The series is richly illustrated, is very detailed and is generally of high quality. In total it contains nearly 2000 pages.

Emil Šolc was also publisher of the weekly Český svět who in 1913 printed the well known picture of Jaroslav Hašek and Zdeněk Matěj Kuděj in female bathing gear. Šolc originated from Telč where he also acted as a publisher. In 1913 he bought the bookshop and publishing house of Rudolf Storch in Karlín. In 1919 the publishing house was merged with Nakladatelství Šimáček.

Fragments used in the novel

It is obvious that Jaroslav Hašek used some of the instalments/books from the series as a source when he wrote the novel. The quote from Kronika světove války regarding the photo of the heir to the throne Karl Franz Joseph is copied letter by letter from volume II, page 505. It should be added that these brief daily reports appear also in periodicals like Národní politika and Roskvět, but with a slightly different spelling. Therefore everything indicates that the author used The World War in words and pictures, and not any of the others. The picture also appeared in Český svět 4 June 1915 with exactly the same title.

In chapter 14 fragments from Kronika appear repeatedly. The first example is the Sultan awarding the German Emperor the war medal, then general Kusmanek who arrived in Kiev. The longest direct quote is however the sub-title of the picture of the heir to the throne.

The conversation between Lukáš and Wendler

Then follows the conversation between Lukáš and hop trader Wendler when the latter arrives to fetch his wife. Here the officer lists a number of leading Turkish politicians and high ranking officers, and also three German officers serving the Ottoman Empire.

Wendler retorts with a tirade about the hopeless situation for the hop business, and a number of spots from the front in Belgium and France appear. He assigns a brewery to most of them and the names are all found in Kronika's summary of war events from 24 March to 2 April 1915. Some additional phrases are recognizable but adapted to the novel's context. These place names, persons and text fragments are all found on pages 505 to 507 of Kronika.

Further snippets appear on pages 508 to 511, but these are not from the brief daily updates. Instead they are from a longer article reporting on the Central Power's breakthrough by Dunajec on 2 May 1915, and on page 511 deliberations on Italy's entry in the war.

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Quote from the novel
[1.14.4] Jedině když již stáli u kasáren, Švejk vyzval mladou dámu, aby počkala, a dal se do hovoru s vojáky ve vratech o vojně, z čehož musela mít mladá dáma náramnou radost, poněvadž chodila nervosně po chodníku a tvářila se velice nešťastně, když viděla, že Švejk pokračuje ve svých výkladech s tak hloupým výrazem, jaký bylo možno vidět též na fotografii uveřejněné v té době v „Kronice světové války“: „Rakouský následník trůnu rozmlouvá se dvěma letci, sestřelivšími ruský aeroplán“.

Also written:Chronice of the World War en Verdskrigens krønike no

The Turkish Parliamentnn flag
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"Dünden Bugüne İstanbul Ansiklopedisi" 8 vol, İstanbul 1993-1995.

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Světozor, 15.1.1909

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Das interessante Blatt, 15.8.1912

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Das interessante Blatt, 2.12.1915

The Turkish Parliament is mentioned by Lukáš when he tells Wendler that the chairman of the Turkish parliament, Hali Bey, has arrived in Vienna.

Background

The Turkish Parliament (or General Assembly - tr. Meclis-i Umûmî) was opened in 1876 and functioned until 1920. It was the first attempt of a representative system of government in the Ottoman Empire. It was however dissolved by the Sultan already in 1878 and only revived in 1908 after the Young Turk Revolution.

The assembly consisted of two chambers, the Upper Chamber (Meclis-i Âyân) and the Lower Chamber (Meclis-i Mebusân). The Lower Chambers was made up of elected representatives, the Upper Chamber had its members picked by the Sultan.

At the election in 1908 several parties were represented, with the Committee for Unity and Progress (Young Turks) as the largest group. Many nationalities had seats in the parliament: Turks, Arabs, Armenians, Albanians, Greeks, Slavs, Jews etc.

The 1912 election was however won by the Committee with an overwhelming majority, after an election campaign where democratic rules were pushed to the side. The ethnic composition of the house remained much the same. After this election Halil Bey, the chairman of the Committee, was elected president of the lower chamber.

In 1914 new elections were held, but after the losses in the Balkan Wars the Committee had in 1913 taken power through a coup and in 1914 they were the only party participating. On 13 May 1914 Emir Ali Paşa and Hüseyin Cahit Bey were elected vice presidents of the lower chamber. Halil Bey was at the same time re-elected as speaker of the house with 180 of the 181 votes.

The last ever election to the parliament took place in 1919.

Hans-Peter Laqueur

Initialy (i.e. 1876) it assembled in the building designed for the Darülfünun, the predecessor of the University of Istanbul, but never used for that purpose. After the reopening in 1908 parliament assembled in Çırağan Sarayı on the Bosphorus, between Beşiktaş and Ortaköy (now Kempinski Çirağan Palace Hotel), which unfortunately burnt down two months later. After that the sessions were held in the Darülfünun building near Sultanahmet again.

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Quote from the novel
[1.14.5] „Turci se drží dobře,“ odpověděl nadporučík, uváděje ho opět ke stolu, „předseda turecké sněmovny Hali bej a Ali bej přijeli do Vídně.

Also written:Turecká sněmovná cz Türkisches Parlament de det tyrkiske parlamentet nn Meclis-i Umûmî tr

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Thunovská ul. 196/19, Praha III-František Šťáral [1910]
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Adresář hl. města Prahy, 1910

Malý výčep piva (the small beer bar) was a small pub at the lower end Zámecké schody where Švejk and Blahník planned the theft of the dog the soldier had promised Lukáš, a misdeed that would later have fatal consequences.

Background

Malý výčep piva surely refers to one of the pubs in Thunovská ulice, a street leading up to Zámecké schody. In 1907 the address book shows up three pubs in the street: at No. 14, 15 and 19. In 1910 the one at No. 14 was no longer listed.

No. 19 was located directly at the end of the steps so at first sights it appears to be the bar the author had in mind. Pub landlord in 1907 and 1910 was František Šťáral, born in 1846 and died in 1917. He was registered at the address of the pub from 1900 to 1910. In Chytilův úplný adresář království Českého of 1912 Anna Novotná is entered as landlady.

U krále brabantského

No. 15 hosted the well known U krále brabantského and according to Zdeněk Matěj Kuděj known as a gathering place for secret meetings. This fits the scene from the novel well, but it is odd that Hašek classed it as a small beer bar.

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Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] Na Malé Straně u Zámeckých schodů je malý výčep piva. Jednoho dne tam seděli v šeru vzadu dva muži. Jeden voják a druhý civilista. Nakloněni k sobě šeptali si tajemně. Vyhlíželi jako spiklenci z dob Benátské republiky.

Also written:Small beer bar en Kleine Bierkneipe de Liten ølbar no

Psinec nad Klamovkounn flag
Bělohorská silnice 908/-, Smíchov-Václav Fuchs [1910]
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Svět zvířat, 1.2.1910

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Prager Tagblatt, 11.2.1900

Psinec nad Klamovkou (the kennel above Klamovka) is mentioned by Blahník when he and Švejk plan the dog-theft in the little pub by Zámecké schody. It turns out that Blahník worked at the kennel.

Background

Psinec nad Klamovkou refers to a breeding kennel that was owned by publisher and dog breeder Fuchs and located by the villa Svět zvířat in Košíře above Klamovka. The villa also housed the editorial offices of the magazine Svět zvířat (Animal World) where Jaroslav Hašek was lead editor in 1909 and 1910.

The kennel advertised already in 1899, and from 1901 it used the term Hundepark Fuchs or similar in their German language adverts. In Czech newspapers the term Fuchsův psinec or similar is often found. The sales pitch was particularly noticeable in Prague newspapers like Prager Tagblatt, Národní listy and Bohemia, although adverts and news at times appeared in many other newspapers across Austerrike. The weekly Das interessante Blatt from Vienna also often carried the adverts and even some articles where the breeding kennel was mentioned.

Fuchs moved to Klamovka from Jičín in 1898 and seem to have starting breeding dogs at the premises soon after. In 1906 the kennel advertised a dog exhibition that were open to the public and in 1909 and 1910 they claimed to have more than 100 animals on show. The assistant at the kennel was from 1908 Ladislav Čížek.

Police dogs

One of the important customers of the kennel was gendarme officer Rotter who let his two German shepherd dogs be trained here (see Wölfin). Rotter was featured in an article in Svět zvířat in 1909, and there was also a picture of him with his dogs. On 1 February 1910 the magazine also printed a letter of acknowledgement from him in an advert for the kennel.

Hašek on Klamovka
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Národní listy, 16.1.1910

In 1908 Hájek, one of Jaroslav Hašek's closest friends, became head editor of Švět zvířat. It was he who later that year brought Hašek to Klamovka in 1908, and the latter now came in close contact with the kennel, an experience that later was reflected not only in Švejk, but also in many of the short stories he wrote until 1914. Hájek soon fell out with his boss and resigned as editor. Hašek then succeeded him, this probably happened in February 1909.

According to police register he lived at the villa from 4 February 1909. From to 28 July 1910 he is registered at Smíchov No. 1125, below the Klamovka gardens. Note that these are registered dates and may not correspond to the actual dates he moved.

Hard-hitting adverts
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Prager Tagblatt, 21.3.1909

From February 1909 the adverts in Prager Tagblatt took on a more bombastic tone. The headline was "Raub und Mord" and the "dog park" was allegedly "world famous". The text of the adverts read: "robbery and murder is ruled out when a good guard dog is present". It is tempting to link the hard-hitting adverts to the arrival of Jaroslav Hašek in the editorial offices of Svět zvířat. These adverts ran for about 6 months and in the autumn they also appeared in Bohemia.

Imaginary animals

A well known theme from Švejk are the animals that Marek invented and these stories got back to Jaroslav Hašek himself. He wrote improbable articles about animals, some of them real, some of them invented and also advertised some of them for sale. Eventually his tricks were uncovered, he was dismissed and Hájek was re-instated. Exactly when when this happened we don't know. Hašek wrote a story in the magazine on 15 August 1910 and Hájek was apparently in charge again by mid October.

Canisport
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The 1939 address book

Fuchs passed away 27 September 1911 and a few weeks later adverts show the firm Canisport operating from the address although adverts for Fuchs continued for the rest of the year. The two firms presumably shared the premises for some months but from 1912 the adverts for Fuchs disappear. Canisport was a well known firm that worked from Královské Vinohrady in 1908, moving to Radotín south of Prague in 1910. Then the adverts disappear for a year before surfacing again in November 1911 using the address Klamovka. Canisport remained in business at least until 1938 and specialised in breeding luxury dogs. The owner was František Pober, married to (Marie Fuchsová), the oldest daughter of FuchsV. Police records show them living in villa Svět zvířat from 16 November 1911.

Kynologický ústav

Hašek's legendary Cynological Institute should not be confused with the Fuchs kennel, but we include a chapter about it because the two were direct competitors, operating in the same neighbourhood. Importantly Švejk's occupation as a dog dealer was largely inspired by his creator's brief career as owner of the "institute".

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Prager Tagblatt, 16.11.1910

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Světozor, 21.4.1914

After his dismissal from Svět zvířat in 1910 Hašek set up his own dog trading firm with the imaginative name Kynologický ústav (Cynological institute), and from 16 November 1910 onwards adverts appeared in a.o. Prager Tagblatt, Národní listy and Čech, offering pure-bred dogs at prices half those of the "so-called" Hundeparks and breeding institutions, obviously a kick at the former employer up the hill. One of the adverts claims that the institute is the only of its kind in Central Europe and warns against "mixing up", no doubt another dig at Fuchs.

From 24 November 1910 the latter responded with for him unusually verbose adverts, claiming again to be world famous, and also warning against mix-ups. On 27 November and over the next week the adverts of the competing dog-sellers even appeared in Prager Tagblatt next to each others. The advertising war seems to have been short, at least in the columns of Prager Tagblatt. Hašek's last known entry was on 7 December whereas his competitor flooded the newspaper for the rest of the year, before reverting to the usual briefer notes.

The institute was officially registered on 24 November, in the name of his wife Jarmila Hašková, address Košíře no. 1125, below Klamovka. It is however improbable that he could have kept the dogs here as the recently married couple lived in an apartment.

By February 1911 the firm had gone bankrupt and there are various versions on what happened. Josef Mach wrote that Hašek imported two hyenas from Hamburg destined for a circus that in the end didn't take them. The loss on this deal was one of the reasons why the firm collapsed. There is also mention of tinkering with pedigrees, his agent Čížek stealing dogs, themes that have obvious parallels in Švejk. Mach confirms that Čížek was put on trial for dog theft.

The Hašek couple were also taken to court but 9 March 1912 they received a letter from their lawyer František Papoušek, informing that the proceedings had been cancelled.

In literature

Hašek himself immortalised his institute in the two near identical stories Můj obchod se psy and Kynologický ústav. The first story was featured in the book Můj obchod se psy a jiné humoresky, published in 1915. This book has been reprinted several times and headline story has even been filmed. The story is vague about where the dogs were kept, but the author indicated that the kennel was located "in the countryside", a theme also found in the novel.

Animals often appear is Hašek's writing and Švejk is far from the only example. The famous novel actually borrows a lot from themes that the author had used in his pre-war short stories. The inspiration from his experiences at Klamovka shine through in many of them. Entire stories are dedicated to animals, be it dogs, cats, goats etc. The monkey Miss Julie who features in one story was very real, pictures of her appeared in Svět zvířat.

External Links

SourceJaroslav Šerák,Radko Pytlík

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] Voják s civilistou si ťukli a civilista dále šeptal: „Jednou ode mne jeden černej špic, kterýho jsem potřeboval pro psinec nad Klamovkou, nechtěl taky vzít buřt.
Pasteur-Institutnn flag
Boerhavegasse -/8, Wien III.-K.k. Ärar [1910]
Wikipedia czdeenfrno Google mapsearch
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Wien 3, Rudolfspital, Ansicht über Eck Boerhavegasse - Juchgasse, 1900

© Österreichische Nationalbibliothek

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Wiener Allgemeine Zeitung, 12.11.1899

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Die Gemeinde-Verwaltung Wien, 1894-1896

Pasteur-Institut was mentioned in the context of the dog thief Blahník having having been bitten by a rabid dog. He was sent to the institute where he felt quite at home.

Background

Pasteur-Institut is a private non-profit organisation whose main goal is to combat infectious diseases. They were founded by and are named after the world famous bacteriologist and chemist Louis Pasteur. Their headquarters are located in Paris but have research centres and clinics all over the world.

The first institute was opened in Paris 14 November 1888 and very soon others opened all over the world. Their main task until WW1 was to battle rabies. Vienna was relatively late in providing a clinic for treatment of rabies and already in 1889 Wiener Allgemaine Zeitung that such an institution existed in Bucharest. Budapest soon followed.

Rudolfsanstalt

The so-called "Pasteur Institute" in Vienna was created in July 1894 as a clinic at k.k. Krankenanstalt Rudolfstiftung in III. Bezirk - Landstrasse. The founder was the renowned bacteriologist Richard Paltauf (1858-1924). The task of the institute was inoculation against rabies, both preventive and after the patient had been infected. Treatment was free apart but the patient had to pay for accommodation (for poor patients the bill was sent to his home council).

The clinic had no official name and the the connection to the institute in Paris was probably merely that they used the methods of Pasteur in treating the patients. In address books they are listed as Schutzimpfungsanstalt gegen Wut. They mainly served Vienna but patients from other parts of Austerrike were also welcome. Newspaper clips reveal that patients from Bohemia were treated here regularly.

Canine madness
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Battling rabies in the 16th century

Until around 1900 the of rate of human fatalities in Cisleithanien due to rabies was high but steadily decreasing. From 142 victims in 1873 the number was down to 81 by 1886. Measures like a law requiring the use of muzzles helped, and the knackers were permitted to kill any dog that didn't wear hit. Still it was the vaccine of Pasteur that brought the numbers drastically down.

In interwar Czechoslovakia there were still deaths, but far fewer (yearly average slighly above 7). Prague now had its own Pasteur Institute. After the Second World War the disease was nearly eliminated and since then no deaths amongst humans have been recorded.

Already before 1894 another "Pasteur-Institut" existed in Vienna, but their task was to treat animals. This institution operated under the auspices of the department of agriculture.

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] Oba přátelé si opět ťukli. Ještě když Švejk se živil prodejem psů do vojny, Blahník mu je dodával. Byl to zkušený muž a vypravovalo se o něm, že kupoval pod rukou z pohodnice podezřelé psy a zas je prodával dál. Měl dokonce už jednou vzteklinu a v Pasteurově ústavu ve Vídni byl jako doma.

Also written:Pasteur Institute en Pasteurův ústav cz Institut Pasteur fr

Hundezwinger von Bülownn flag
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Leipziger Adreß-Buch, 1910

Hundezwinger von Bülow was the name of a kennel in Leipzig where Max (formerly Fox) was supposed to hail from. This was according to his pedigree invented by Blahník.

Background

Hundezwinger von Bülow was almost certainly an invention by Blahník. In the Leipzig address books from 1910 and 1914 four kennels are listed, but none of them were owned by any von Bülow. Two persons with this surname appear in the directory but none of them appear to have been involved in dog breeding.

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] „To musí bejt tvou rukou napsaný. Napiš, že pochází z Lipska, z psince von Bülow. Otec Arnheim von Kahlsberg, matka Emma von Trautensdorf, po otci Siegfried von Busenthal. Otec obdržel první cenu na berlínský výstavě stájových pinčů v roce 1912. Matka vyznamenána zlatou medalií norimberskýho spolku pro chov ušlechtilých psů. Jak myslíš, že je starej?“

Also written:Kennel von Bülow en Psinec von Bülow cz Kennel von Bülow no

Berliner Stallpinscherausstellung nn flag
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Dog exhibition in Berlin in November 1913

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Österreichische Forst-und Jagd-Zeitung, 15.1.1909

Berliner Stallpinscherausstellung took place in 1912 and Arnheim von Kahlsberg, the alleged father of the stolen dog Max (formerly Fox), won a gold medal. All this according to Blahník as he instructs Švejk on how to fill in the pedigree form for "Max".

Background

Berliner Stallpinscherausstellung is supposed to have taken place in 1912, but it is unclear what exhibition Blahník here refers to, and it is probably as invented as the pedigree of Max (formerly Fox). It has in any case not been possible to identify an exhibition that fully corresponds to the details revealed in the novel.

Dog exhibitions in Berlin

Still the author surely drew inspiration from some dog fair in Berlin. The city regularly hosted international dog fairs and those were obviously known to Hašek at the time when he was editor of Švet zvířat in 1909 and 1910. One of the organisers of those exhibitions was the cynological club Hundevreien Hektor and the events took place at Zoologischer Garten. The fairs were at times reported on also in Austrian newspapers. Still Hektor was not the only organiser of such events, so any firm conclusion is not possible.

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] „To musí bejt tvou rukou napsaný. Napiš, že pochází z Lipska, z psince von Bülow. Otec Arnheim von Kahlsberg, matka Emma von Trautensdorf, po otci Siegfried von Busenthal. Otec obdržel první cenu na berlínský výstavě stájových pinčů v roce 1912. Matka vyznamenána zlatou medalií norimberskýho spolku pro chov ušlechtilých psů. Jak myslíš, že je starej?“

Also written:Berlin stable pinscher exhibition en Berlínská výstava stájových pinčů cz Berlin stallpinscherutstilling no

Nürnberger Verein zur Zucht edler Hundenn flag
Elisenstraße -/30, Nürnberg-Bahninspektor Dietrich [1904]
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Adressbuch von Nürnberg, 1904

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Allgemeine Sport-Zeitung, 7.3.1915

Nürnberger Verein zur Zucht edler Hunde was a society for breeding of thoroughbred dogs that had awarded Emma von Trautensdorf, the fictive mother of the stolen dog Max (previously Fox), a gold medal. At least this was what Blahník told Švejk to put on Max's pedigree form.

Background

Nürnberger Verein zur Zucht edler Hunde can not be identified explicitly from the address directory of 1904 (the only one available for the period), but two dog societies are listed: Dachshundklub Nürnberg and Fränkische Verein zur Förderung reiner Hunderassen.

The latter's name is so close that it could be assumed that this is indeed the society the dog thief refers to. It was located in Nuremberg and regularly arranged exhibitions and other dog-related events.

The association was founded around Christmas 1889 and in 1915 it was still operating although the war restricted their activities. In 1915 they had more than 100 members.

In 1912 an additional dog society was founded: Polizeihundverein Nuremberg 1912. It is however unlikely that Blahník had these in mind when he instructed Švejk on how to fill in the pedigree form of "Max".

External Links

Quote from the novel
[1.14.6] „To musí bejt tvou rukou napsaný. Napiš, že pochází z Lipska, z psince von Bülow. Otec Arnheim von Kahlsberg, matka Emma von Trautensdorf, po otci Siegfried von Busenthal. Otec obdržel první cenu na berlínský výstavě stájových pinčů v roce 1912. Matka vyznamenána zlatou medalií norimberskýho spolku pro chov ušlechtilých psů. Jak myslíš, že je starej?“

Also written:Nuremberg society for the breeding of thoroughbred dogs en Norimberský spolek pro chov ušlechtilých psů cz Nürnberg-selskapet for oppdrett av reinrasa hundar no

Index Back Forward I. In the rear Hovudpersonen

14. Švejk as military servant to senior lieutenant Lukáš


© 2009 - 2019 Jomar Hønsi Last updated: 5/10-2019