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The Good Soldier Švejk

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Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand and Herzogin Sophie leave the Sarajevo Town Hall, five minutes before the assassination, 28 June 1914.

The Fateful Adventures of the Good Soldier Švejk is a novel with an unusually rich array of characters. In addition to the many who directly form part of the plot, a large number of fictional and real people (and animals) are mentioned; either through Švejk's anecdotes, the narrative or indirectly through words and expressions.

This web page contains short write-ups on the persons the novel refers to; from Napoléon in the introduction to Hauptmann Ságner in the last few lines of the unfinished Book Four. The list is sorted in to the order of which the names first appear. The chapter headlines are from Zenny Sadlon's recent translation (1999-2008) and will in most cases differ from Cecil Parrott's version from 1973. In January 2021 there are still around twenty entries to be added.

The quotes in Czech are copied from the on-line version of The Good Soldier Švejk: provided by Jaroslav Šerák and contain links to the relevant chapter. The toolbar has links for direct access to Wikipedia, Google maps, Google search, svejkmuseum.cz and the novel on-line.

The names are coloured according to their role in the novel, illustrated by the following examples: Dr. Grünstein who is directly involved in the plot, Heinrich Heine as a historical person, and Otto Katz as a fictional character. Note that a number of seemingly fictive characters are inspired by living persons. See for instance Oberleutnant Lukáš and Major Wenzl.

Titles and ranks have until 2020 largely been missing on this web page. Senior Lieutenant Lukáš has, for instance, only been known as Lukáš. This weakness is now (24 December 2020) slowly being addressed. Military ranks and other titles related to Austrian officialdom will appear in German, and in line with the terms used at the time. This means that Captain Ságner is still referred to as Hauptmann although the term is now obsolete, having been replaced by Kapitän. Civilian titles denoting profession etc. are mostly translated into English.

>> The Good Soldier Švejk index of people, mythical figures, animals ... (581) Show all
>> I. In the rear
>> II. At the front
>> III. The famous thrashing
Index Back Forward II. At the front Hovudpersonen

2. Švejk's budějovická anabasis

Xenophonnn flag
*430 BC Athen - †355 BC ?
Wikipedia czdeenno Google search
xenofon.jpg

John Steeple Davies, 1900.

Xenophon is mentioned by the narrator when he introduces the reader to the term "anabasis". Xenophon exemplified the anabasis by travelling around God knows where without a map. Hašek uses this symbolism in the chapter header Švejkova budějovická anabase and also in the short follow-up where he explains what the word means.

Background

Xenophon was a Greek commander, author and historian, best known for his historical descriptions of ancient Greece, his writings on Socrates, and for the first eyewitness account of a battle in ancient times. His best known book is "Anabasis". It describes the Greek mercenaries treacherous road back home though Asia Minor after a failed military mission against Persia. It is a seven-volume work and is considered Xenophon's best. It was translated into Czech already in 1853.

Anabasis: A dig at the Legions?
anabase1.png

Břetislav Hůla was probably the first who in writing aired the view that Hašek used "anabasis" as subtle kick at the Czechoslovak Legions (1951). His conclusion was in 1953 made public in a collection of explanations that were part of a new edition of Švejk.

© LA-PNP

Xenophon's anabasis and Jaroslav Hašek's symbolic use of the term has over the years led to speculation about the author's intentions when he wrote the chapter about Švejk's own anabasis. It has from certain quarters been claimed that the author by using the term "anabasis" in a subtle way made fun of the Legions.

In his explanations to a 1953 edition of The Good Soldier Švejk Zdena Ančík assesses the connection as "obvious" and more was to follow, albeit decades later. Literary scholars Antonín Měšťan (1983), Antoni Kroh (2002) (Polish translator of The Good Soldier Švejk) and Abigail Weil (2019) all without reservation postulate that Hašek's use of the term "anabase" was a dig at the Legions and that the author had their so-called Siberian anabasis from Kiev to Vladivostok in mind when he penned this chapter.

Sjølvsagt veit ingen sikkert kva som rørde sig i tankane til Hašek då han skreiv desse linjene så samanhengen kan ikkje heilt sjåast vekk frå. På den andre sida har me aldri sett prov som kan byggja opp under påstanden. Ein skulle i det minste venta utsagn frå forfattaren sjølv eller i det minste frå folk som kjende han? Om ikkje må det vel finnast opplysningar om at leseskaren på den tida oppfatta Švejk sin anabase som eit spark til Legionane? Ikkje noko av dette tykkjest å vera tilfelle. Det fylgjande kapittelet vil difor analysera opphavet og utviklinga av påstanden, og dessutan: ei vurdering av dei ulika forsøka på å underbyggja den.

Fiala
kroh.jpg

This otherwise excellent book contains far-fecthed claims regarding Hašek and his use of the term "anabasis".

In 2004 professor Jiří Fiala (Olomouc) published a thorough analysis of "anabasis" and other motifs from the novel[1]. He reveals that Zdena Ančík in explanatory notes in the 1953 edition of the book concludes that anabasis "obviously is an ironic reference the Legions and their fight against the Red Army, by nationalistic novel writers who coined the term Siberian anabasis".[2] Korporal Fiala compares this to later explanations from Radko Pytlík[3] and Milan Hodík[4]. He notes that neither of the two draw similar conclusions and Fiala himself leaves the question open. He then proceeds with reproducing an excerpt from the book O Szwejku i o nas by Kroh[5], from a chapter titled "Two Generals".

Kroh
kroh.png

O Szwejku i o nas, s.45

© Antoni Kroh

Kroh's text, as translated by Fiala, is the starting point for the following analysis. He juxtaposes Rudolf Medek and Jaroslav Hašek in the context of the anabasis but even the title Two Generals gives ground for sceptiscism. Medek did eventually advance to general, but to associate this rank with Hašek is downright absurd.

Even more questionable is the conclusion that Kroh draws. The reader is left with the impression that the hostility that Hašek encountered in Czechoslovakia after his return from Russia in 1920 was caused solely by his publishing of the anabasis chapter in The Good Soldier Švejk, and that this triggered an avalanche of criticism, insults and harassment. These assertions even found its way into the endnotes of the latest translation of the novel into English[6].

anabase3.png

Rudolf Medek lashing out at Hašek, two years before the anabase chapter in Švejk.

Československý deník, 6.4.1918.

There is no denying that Hašek was subjected to nasty attacks and insults, but the worst of these came to the fore already when he was still in Russia, and more than a year before he penned Švejk's anabasis. In the article "Průkopníci", published in Československý voják 6 April 1918, Medek delivered a cruel character assassination, and worse was to come. In Venkov 19 January 1919 Jaroslav Colman-Cassius wrote an obituary titled Zrádce (Traitor), obviously because he thought Hašek was dead. Cassius was every bit as unforgiving as Medek: writing about "small chubby hands", a clown and drunkard, a man without spine and character.

anabase2.png

Extracts from Cassius' nasty "obituary". Hašek read it in Irkutsk in 1920 and was deeply hurt.

Venkov, 19.1.1919.

When Kroh attempts to link Czech society's hostility to Hašek to the anabasis chapter he uses the phrase drunkard with chubby hands as one of the examples. The term was indeed used but pre-dated The Good Soldier Švejk. It was coined in 1920 in Irkutsk by Hašek himself, provoked by the mentioned "obituary" that he somehow got his hand on in while still in Russia[7]. His response was the story Dušička Jaroslava Haška vypravuje (The little soul of Jaroslav Hašek tells) and here this insulting phrase appears.

The links that Kroh draws to Rudolf Medek and his "Anabase" novels are timing-wise equally irrelevant: except the first they were published after Hašek's death[8]. As we have seen Medek attacked Hašek sharply at times, but this happened already in 1918 and thus can't be linked to the publishing of the anabase chapter. According to Zdeněk Matěj Kuděj the two met in Prague in 1921 and after a first heated encounter they were reconciled. The conclusion is that Kroh is unable to prove that the spiteful attacks on Jaroslav Hašek and his publishing of Švejkova budějovicka anabase coincided.

Weil
anabase4.png

Výbor ze spisů Xenofontových, Anabase, Kyrupaideie, Apomnemoneumat, Hellenik a Symposia..

A novelty appeared at Harvard Univeristy in 2019 through a dissertation thesis on Hašek by Abigail Weil[9]. Here the motif anabasis and Hašek's alleged dig at the Legions is given ample space. Whereas Kroh at last attempts to explain why there is a connection Weil simply states that there is, without asking further questions. Nor does she make any reference to Antonín Měšťan, Kroh's book (or Fiala's discussion of it) so we must assume that she is unaware of these papers.

Perhaps this confidence is inspired or underpinned by Zdena Ančík (read Břetislav Hůla) and his comment in the Švejk edition from 1953? (Weil explicitly refers to it as "the standard edition").

As one would expect from a literary scholar her thesis is strong on analysis and literary context but marred by errors and inaccuracies on the factual part (some of them admittedly "inherited" from Radko Pytlík and Cecil Parrott).

Ančík

So what about Břetislav Hůla's explanation from 1951, published by Zdena Ančík in 1953 (17th edition, Státní nakladatelství)? It was written at a time when anything that could put the pre-war "bourgoise" republic and the Legions in a bad light was the order of the day. It is also striking that by 1955 (22nd edition, Práce), the same Ančík has removed the reference to the Legions. Nor do a completely differents set of notes by Milan Jakovič (26th edition, Odeon) contain any mention of the Legions.

Hašek and Xenofon
anabase5.png

Xenofon was on the curriculum when Hašek was a pupil at the gymnasium.

Devátá výroční zpráva cís. král. vyššího gymnasia v Žitné ulici v Praze za školní rok 1896.

The term "anabase" was by no means unknown in Czech literature even before the deluge of legionnaire novels appeared in Czechoslovakia in the twenties. One of the teachers at the gymnasium in Žitná ulice, where Hašek studied from 1893 to 1898, was the famous author Alois Jirásek. He was teaching geography and history and already in 1886 he wrote a book with the theme anabasis. Xenophon's own magnum opus had been translated into Czech even earlier. Classical Greek was one of the subjects at the gymnasium and Xenofon was on the curriculum. That said the subject was introduced from the 5th form, a step Hašek never reached as he was forced to leave in the 4th. Jirásek didn't teach the classes of young Jaroslav (Ia, IIa, IIIa and IVa), despite Václav Menger a.o. claiming he opposite[10]. Still the fact that Xenofon was in the curriculum shows that he must have been quite well known amongst educated Czechs. It should be added that Greek was taught from the 3rd form so Xenofon's name may have been introduced already at this stage.

anabase6.png

Xenofon and his anabasis was a known theme for Hašek five years before he wrote Švejk.

Jaroslav Hašek / Čechoslovan, 25.9.1916.

Even though Hašek probably didn't study Xenophon as a subject at school there is no doubt that he had a good general knowledge of and interest in the history of ancient Greece. This is obvious already in the introduction to the novel. But even more importantly: Jaroslav Hašek's awareness of Xenophon was totally independent of the anabasis of the Legions. In Dopis z fronty (Letter from the front), Čechoslovan, 25 September 1916, both Xenophon and his anabasis are mentioned. At this time it could never have been a question of making fun of a Siberian anabasis that was to take place two years later. This is a fact none of the mentioned literary scholars seem to have been aware of.

Conclusion

Hašek's letter from the front is of course no proof that he later didn't poke fun at the Legions, but it does show that he could easily have written about Xenophon and his anabasis in The Good Soldier Švejk without any ironic intent. Hereby the claims from Zdena Ančík (i.e. Břetislav Hůla), Antoni Kroh, Antonín Měšťan and Abigail Weil ought to have been put where they rightly belong: in the category speculative.

We have in vain searched digitalised newspapers from 1921 or 1922 for any sign that any writers or critics connected Švejk's anabasis with the Legions. Even extending the search to 1950 and including the extensive inter-war legionnaire literature has proved futile. There must also be a reason why explanations to Švejk published from 1955 onwards don't connect the Legions and Švejk's anabasis any more. The answer is probably that the Communist publishers no longer believed in the hypothesis (perhaps they had by now discovered "Letters from the front"?). If there had been any substance in the theory they surely would have used Švejkova budějovická anabase for what it was worth.


Sergey Soloukh's notes

1. The term itself "anabasis" for any long and hard journey of armed man was quite standard for the epoch. For example it was widely used in Russian literature about Great and Civil wars (generals Denikin and Krasnov, writer and lit.critic Shklovsky). And all of them without any connection to Cz.Legion. So it was very standard in war-torn Russia of the time and not specifically used for particular Legion affair. And quite vice-versa, was rather used by Cz.Legion as a standard for "the journey of armed men" then something born and particularly and uniquely attributed to Legion move.

2. If it would be interpreted as an insult to Cz,Legion or an attempted joke on it at the moment of appearance of this chapter it definitely would be noted as such and discussed in Cz.press of epoch. But we know it didn't. It means and confirms my p.1. the term "anabasis" at that time was not considered specific and unique for depiction of Cz.Legion adventure only, it was freely used standard term for any "journey of the armed men". And only 30 years later it was interpreted as unique and specific to Legion adventure for the goals of communist propaganda.

Dva generálové (extr.). Antoni Kroh, transl. Jiří Fiala

Slovo „anabáze" mělo tehdy v češtině jediný, a to samozřejmý význam: znamenalo prodírání se česko- slovenských legií z Ukrajiny přes Sibiř do Vladivostoku. Kapesní slovník cizích slov (vydaný v Praze roku 1971) již objasňuje toto slovo subtilním a diskrétním způsobem: „Anabáze — probíjení se velkých vojenských oddílů do vlasti." 21 Legenda „anabáze", zvláště živá ve dvacátých letech, byla živena a pěstována po celé období meziválečného Československa. Rudolf Medek je současně jeden z jejích tvůrců i její i hrdina. A nyní si připomeňme kapitolu Švejkova budějovická anabáze (II, 2). Švejk jel spolu s nadporučíkem Lukášem vlakem z Prahy do Budějovic. Po incidentu se záchrannou brzdou byl vysazen v Táboře a uvězněn. Když se ukázalo, že nemá peníze ani dokumenty, podporučík sloužící na nádraží mu přikázal, aby šel do Budějovic pěšky. „A čert ví, jak se to stalo, že dobrý voják Švejk místo na jih k Budějovicím šel pořád rovně na západ." Není známo, jak se to stalo, ale je známo, že se to stalo nevědomky, poněvadž Švejk byl přece na západ." Není známo, jak se to stalo, ale je známo, že se to stalo nevědomky, poněvadž Švejk byl přece dobrý voják, žádný dezertér; on vskutku chtěl dorazit do Budějovic! Proč tam tedy nešel přímo, jen pořád kroužil a kroužil dokola? Protože byl idiot? Mnoho polských milovníků Švejka, jichž jsem se dotazoval, to právě tak vysvětluje. Ale kapitole Švejkova budějovická anabáze je možné porozumět teprve tehdy, když si uvědomíme, kdy a za jakých okolností byla napsána. Je to jedna z nejskvostnějších pasáží románu. Jako každé velké umělecké dílo se vymyká jednoznačným výkladům. Můžeme ji označit za panorama českého venkova, zvěčněním lidových typů a tehdejších nálad. Je to rovněž radostný hymnus ke cti životu, nespoutaný smích jakoby z Rabelaise. Rovněž groteska. Lze tam najít reminiscence na autorova dobrodružství. Ale to vše je málo. Švejkova budějovická anabáze je současně politický pamflet, bravurní publicistika na aktuální téma. Hašek jako první propíchl balon, který Medek se svými věrnými tak zdatně nafukoval. Přirovnání k balonu není trefné, problém vězel mnohem hlouběji; ve dvacátých letech nebyla legenda „anabáze" nafukovaným balonem, ale velikou radostí znovuzrozeného státu, důvodem hrdosti, léčbou několikasetletého komplexu zotročence, reakcí na nedávná pokořování. A tu do samého středu národní slavnosti vchází Švejk, který velice touží dorazit do Budějovic, ale dostává se kamsi úpině jinam a čert ví, proč se tak děje... Vybuchl skandál — zvlášť když autora obklopovala aura bolševického komisaře, a co horšího, kapitola byla znamenitě napsána... Na Haška se sesypaly přívlastky jako nihilista, dekadent, pijan s opuchlýma rukama; velké obžaloby ze zrady národa i drobné šikany. A současně — první entuziastické recenze.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Starověký válečník Xenofon prošel celou Malou Asii a byl bůhvíkde bez mapy. Staří Gotové dělali své výpravy také bez topografické znalosti. Mašírovat pořád kupředu, tomu se říká anabase. Prodírat se neznámými krajinami. Být obklíčeným nepřáteli, kteří číhají na nejbližší příležitost, aby ti zakroutili krk.

CreditsRadko Pytlík, Jaroslav Hašek, Jiří Fiala, Antoni Kroh, Abigail Weil, Ferdinand Hoffmeister, Sergey Soloukh

Also written:Xenofón cz Xenophon de

Notes
1. Jiří Fiala, Několik editologických poznámek k románu Jaroslava Haška Osudy dobrého vojáka Švejka za světové války, 2008.
2. Even though Zdena Ančík is credited with authorship of the explanations they were almost entirely the work of Břetislav Hůla. He passed his typewritten notes on to Ančík in 1951 and the latter only did some minor editing.
3. Radko Pytlík, Kniha o Švejkovi, 1982.
4. Milan Hodík, Encyklopedie pro milovníky Švejka, 1998.
5. Antoni Kroh, O Szwejku i o nas, 2002.
6. Zenny Sadlon, The Fateful Adventures of the Good Soldier Svejk During the World War Book Two Rev. 10/23/08, endnotes. The reference to the Legions has since been deleted (2020).
7. The story was first printed in Večerní Právo lidu 31 December 1920 but was dated 25 August so it must have been written in Irkutsk. This means that Hašek must have read his own obituary already there. It was also the first story Hašek had printed after his return to Prague.
8. Rudolf Medek, Anabase, 1927.
9. Abigail Weil, Man Is Indestructible: Legend and Legitimacy in the Worlds of Jaroslav Hašek, 2019.
10. Jaroslav Hašek had to repeat the 4th year and finally left the gymnasium in February 1898. This school year Jirásek actually taught class IVa so Menger may still be correct.

Literature

Caesar, Juliusnn flag
*13.7.100 BC ? Roma - †15.3.44 BC Roma
Wikipedia czdeenlano Google search
caesar.jpg

Commentarii de bello Gallico, 1892.

caesar1.png

Curriculum, gymnasium Žitná ulice, 1896

Caesar is mentioned by the author when he introduces the reader to the term "anabasis". Caesar's legions marched all the way to the Gallic Sea without maps.

Background

Caesar was a roman commander, politician and author. He had become most potent citizen of Roman Empire when he was murdered by senator Brutus in 44 BC. At that time he held the title "dictator in perpeteo". During his reign he undertook extensive reforms, centralising the administration. The area of the empire was greatly extended, including Britannia.

The Gallic Sea

In The Good Soldier Švejk the source of the information about the legions and Gallic Sea seems to be Caesar's own book De Bello Gallico (The Gallic Wars)[a]. It is also worth noticing that this work was on the Latin curriculum in the 4th year at the gymnasium Hašek visited[b].

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Tam někde na severu u Galského moře, kam až se také dostaly římské legie Caesarovy bez mapy, řekly si jednou, že se zas vrátí a pomašírujou jinou cestou, aby ještě víc toho užily, do Říma. A dostaly se tam také. Od té doby se říká patrně, že všechny cesty vedou do Říma.

Also written:Julius Caesar cz Julius Cäsar de Gaius Iulius Caesar la

References
aClas Merdin: Tales from the Enchanted IslandEdward Watson
bDevátá výroční zpráva cís. král. vyššího gymnasia v Žitné ulici v PrazeC. k. vyšší gymnasium v Žitné ulici1896
Mašků, Antonínnn flag
Google search
masku.png

Nachrichten über Verwundete und Verletzte, 20.4.1915.

Toníček Mašků had ran away from the call-up to k.k. Landwehr in Plzeň but was caught soon after. He was the husband of a niece of the old lady who helped Švejk by Vráž. The latest news was that he had lost a leg at the front.

Background

Toníček Mašků doesn't appear to have any real life model. One track may be information from the old grandmother in Vráž that he was called up to join k.k. Landwehr in Plzeň and that he had lost a leg. The first indicates that he served with k.k. Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 7. Had he lost a leg he would also figure in a Verlustliste but didn't. Additionally one would expect a recruit with Heimatrecht Vráž to serve in Písek's Landwehrinfanterieregiment Nr. 28 and not in Plzeň.

Mašků is not an official surname but searches in the casualty list for the similar Antonín Mašek give hits, albeit none with 7th Landwehr. Interestingly there was one in IR91 but connecting him to the k.k. Landwehr soldier from Vráž is far fetched.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] „U nás byl taky jeden takovej nezbeda. Ten měl ject do Plzně k landvér, nějakej Toníček Mašků,“ povzdechla si babička, „von je vod mojí neteře příbuznej, a vodjel. A za tejden už ho hledali četníci, že nepřijel ku svýmu regimentu. A ještě za tejden se vobjevil u nás v civilu, že prej je puštěnej domů na urláb. Tak šel starosta na četnictvo, a voni ho z toho urlábu vyzdvihli. Už psal z fronty, že je raněnej, že má nohu pryč.“
Pantát Melicháreknn flag
Google search
melichar.png

Strakonicko 6.1936.

melichar.jpg

Václav Melichar

© Ivana Sibková

Melichárek was a farmer and brother of the old woman from Vráž. He lived in Radomyšl in Dolejší ulice behind Floriánek. He was very suspicious of Švejk who he assumed had deserted and wanted nothing to do with him.

Background

Melichárek is supposed to have been inspired by Václav Melichar who lived in Dolejší ulice, just as the author writes. According to his descendants, Hašek visited Radomyšl in 1915 and Melichár's wife is said to have made him "bramborovka". The story featured in televizion programmes both in 1983 and 2002[a].

The mystery is how the author got this far from Budějovice without being noticed (60 km). Although several witnesses reveal that Hašek went on detours during his time in IR91, none of them confirmed that he got as far as Radomyšl.

Melichar

Václav Melichar was born in 1878 so he would have been 36 when Hašek allegedly visited. This rules out that he could have been the brother of any old grandmother from Vráž as described in The Good Soldier Švejk. He and wis wife Anna bought the cottage Chalupa Mlčonavská at Radomyšl No. 15 in 1912.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] V Radomyšli Švejk našel k večeru na Dolejší ulici za Floriánkem pantátu Melichárka. Když vyřídil mu pozdrav od jeho sestry ze Vráže, nijak to na pantátu neúčinkovalo. Chtěl neustále na Švejkovi papíry. Byl to nějaký předpojatý člověk, poněvadž mluvil neustále něco o raubířích, syčácích a zlodějích, kterých se síla potlouká po celém píseckém kraji.

Credits: Miroslav Vítek, Ivana Sibková, Ivana Jonová, Jaroslav Šerák

Literature

References
aPo cestách Švejkovy budějovické anabázeMiroslav Vítek2020
Jew Herrman, Robertnn flag
*27.12.1885 Lipnice - †1943 Auschwitz
Google search
herrmann.jpg

Passport photo from 1921

NAČR/Holocaust.cz.

Herrman was a trader in Vodňany who bought military equipment that he sold in the surrounding villages. In the opinion of the wanderer who accompanied Švejk from Štěkno to Švarcenberský ovčín he would surely buy Švejk's uniform.

Background

Herrman was not an uncommon surname but is not entered under Vodňany in the address book from 1915[a]. Miroslav Vítek did however get a step closer by investigating the census records from 1910 and here a Jew named Robert Herman is listed[b]. He was a merchant and former travelling salesman who now traded in textiles in Vodňany. He lived in Husova ul. č.p. 60Písek, 1910" href="#Herrmanx">[x]. Herrman was actually born at Lipnice and this could explain why Hašek knew about him.

Vítek’s meticulous research has opened the door for more specific investigations in newspapers and not the least in the Czech Holocaust archive[c]. Based on these sources one can in rough terms outline the life-story of the textile trader from Vodňany.

From Lipnice to Bavaria

Robert Herrmann (also written Hermann, less often Herman) was born in Lipnice 27 December 1885 with Heimatrecht Lipnice, okres Německý Brod. He was a son of Sigmund Herrmann and Aloisie Louisa (née Schwenger) and was the second born of eight siblings. His father was born 6 January 1859 in (Volichov 17) 2 km from Lipnice and his mother in nearby Kejžlice 1 January 1861[m].

herrmann.png

Munich 1907, sentenced for petty fraud

NAČR/Holocaust.cz.

Little is known about his childhood, teenage years, education and military service. He was due for compulsory military service from 1906. Surprisingly the first trace of him comes from abroad as he in Munich on 19 January 1907 was found guilty of fraud and sentenced to two days in prison and a 10 Mark fine[c].

Vodňany
herrmann2.png

NAČR/Holocaust.cz.

Exactly when he moved to Vodňany is not knows, but it is firmly established that he married Františka Khonová here on 23.21908[c]. His bride was from Vodňany itself, born 8 May 1885, and like her husband she was of Jewish confession.

herrmann1.png

A brazen provocation is often being carried out, especially on Saturdays and Sundays, by a little Jewboy Hermann, as he revels in an apartment by Khónka on the square in the evening with the window open and on a loud gramophone plays German songs and various German street vaudevilles and timeworn tunes. It is up to our burgomaster’s office to take resolute action against this unprecedented impudence. If a Czech were to dare something similar in a German town, they would break his windows and jail him for disturbing public peace.

Jihočeské ohlasy, 18.4.1908 (tr. Zenny Sadlon).

Soon after the name of the newly-wed merchant appeared in the local newspaper Jihočeské ohlasy (Týn nad Vltavou). Already on 18 April 1908 they wrote about a “brazen provocation” in a flat on the square židáček* Hermann often played German music loudly on a gramophone, with a window to the square open. "If a Czech allowed himself something similar in a German town he would have his windows broken and would have been jailed for breach of public peace" the newspaper noted[d]. This seems to have been the start of an ongoing quarrel between this newspaper and Herrmann.

* židáček: Derogatory term for Jew.

The next recorded incident happened on 13 May 1909 on a local market. Hermann had an argument with Kateřina Zimerhanzlová from Budějovice and was abused as an "impertinent and rude Jew who deserved a few slaps in the face". He sued here for libel and won the court case[e]. Jihočeské ohlasy however sided with the woman and also refused to print the comments that Herrmann’s lawyer, dr. Kučera, sent to the paper (they were according to the law obliged to do so). Herrmann then sued the paper because of this refusal and in addition for libel. Again the court agreed and afterwards he publicly thanked dr. Kučera for having restored his honour. This was through an advert in Šumavské proudy, printed on 12 February 1910[f].

herrmann3.png

Šumavské proudy, 15.10.1911.

His business was however less successful and in December 1910 his firm went bankrupt[g]. This was reported in Jihočeské ohlasy who gloated and ironically reported that Herrmann now was well again after having been ill[j]. Still he seems to have started up again later that year because he advertised both in 1911 and until March 1912, even in Prager Tagblatt. Jihočeské ohlasy appears to have conducted a smear campaign against Herrmann. That he was a German chauvinist appears unlikely as the during the census in 1910 reported his mother tongue as CzechVodňany, SOkA Písek, 1910" href="#Herrmanx">[x]. He was even referred to as "the ill-reputed merchant"[h]. Smear campaign or not: he did not have an entirely clean record because on 19 July 1911 he was sentenced to 14 days in jail at the Písek district court[c].

Prague
herrmann4.png

Magistrat města Prahy.

herrmann5.png

Prager Tagblatt, 21.12.1912.

After four turbulent years in Vodňany the young couple moved to Prague where they from 13 September 1912 er registered with domicile Praha II., Těšnov 1743/10[i]. The next year they lived in Eliščina třída 1503/28 (now Revoluční) where their first son was born. In Prague Herrmann started modestly by selling handerchiefs[k], exactly like he did towards the end in Vodňany. He seems to have expanded his business gradually. The couple had three sons: Jiří, Bedřich and Zdeněk, born in 1913, 1915 and 1919 respectively.

We have yet to see any documents that prove if Herrmann ever did military service or was called up during the war. In 1921 he applied for and was granted a passport and the photo of him used on this web page is from related documents, stored in the police archives. In 1930 the family still lived in Prague II, Revoluční třida 1503/28. In 1937 their address was Hlubočepy 369, a detached dwelling on the southern outskirts of Prague, and this is where they lived until they were deported by the Nazis.

Deported and murdered
herrmann6.png

Police records, 1938.

NAČR/Holocaust.cz.

For the Herrmann family and other Jews the Nazi occupation from March 1939 onwards had fatal consequences. Already towards the end of the year the police had collected information that classified him as a Jew. Imprisonment followed on 4 December 1941 as he was accused of illegal trade with textiles, which surely was a mere pretext. On 17 December he was transported to Terezín (Theresienstadt) and on 6 September 1943 onwards to Auschwitz where he was murdered[c]. His wife was in the same transport and suffered the same gruelling fate. Their sons Zdeněk and Jiří were also murdered by the Nazis but the fate of Bedřich is not known. His father Sigmund, also a merchant, was deported and died in Terezín at the age of 83. His mother Aloisie had passed away already in 1925.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] „Tak ten si nech. V tom se na venkově chodí. Potřebuješ kalhoty a kabát. Až budeme mít ten civil, tak kalhoty a kabát prodáme židovi Herrmanovi ve Vodňanech. Ten kupuje všechno erární a zas to prodává po vesnicích.

Credits: Miroslav Vítek

Literature

References
aChytilův úplný adresář Království ČeskéhoAlois Chytil1915
bPo cestách Švejkovy budějovické anabázeMiroslav Vítek2020
cRobert Herrmannholocaust.cz
dDrzou provokaciJihočeské ohlasy18.4.1908
eNekalá soutěžJihočeské ohlasy29.5.1909
fDíkůvydání!Šumavské proudy12.2.1910
gInsolvenzenPrager Tagblatt10.12.1910
hJeště HermannJihočeské ohlasy2.10.1909
iPobytové přihlášky pražského policejního ředitelstvíNAČR1851 - 1914
jVyléčenJihočeské ohlasy4.3.1911
kSoupis pražských domovských příslušníků 1830-1910 (1920)Popisní úřád král. hlav. města Prahy
mSigmund Herrmann (1859 - 1942)Geni.com
xSčitání lidu VodňanySOkA Písek1910
Jarešnn flag
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Jareš was the grandfather of the pond warden from Ražice, and was executed as a deserter during the Napoleonic wars. It happened in Písek and before he was executed he was hounded through the streets by soldiers and beaten with sticks 600 times. The information is revealed during the conversation at Švarcenberský ovčín.

Background

This is another Jareš that seems to be inspired by the author's grandfather. See pondwarden Jareš.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Z Ražic za Protivínem syn Jarešův, dědeček starýho Jareše, baštýře, dostal za zběhnutí prach a volovo v Písku. A před tím, než ho stříleli na píseckých šancích, běžel ulicí vojáků a dostal 600 ran holema, takže smrt byla pro něho vodlehčením a vykoupením.
Fürst Schwarzenberg (st.)nn flag
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adolfjosephschwarzenberg.jpg

Adolf Josef Schwarzenberg, detail - portrét z oslav zlaté svatby, 1907

schwarzenberg3.jpg

Český svět, 14.6.1907

Schwarzenberg (st.) (the old prince Schwarzenberg) is mentioned by the old shepherd in Švarcenberský ovčín. He tells us that at least the old Schwarzenberg used to travel around in an ordinary carriage but nowadays the young prince drives around in an auto-mobile.

Background

Schwarzenberg (st.) probably refers to Adolf Joseph Schwarzenberg (1832-1914), head of the Krumlov-Hluboká family branch (primogenitura) and the owner of the Libějovice estate to which Hašek's presumed Švarcenberský ovčín belonged[a].

He is talked about as the old prince Schwarzenberg and the fact that he died in 5 October 1914 at Libějovice at an advanced age fits the conversation at at the sheep house. He is referred to in the past tense whereas the young prince is talked about in present tense.

Adolf assumed ownership of the estates of Netolice, Libějovice and Protivín already in 1857, the rest followed after his father's death in 1888. He also enjoyed a military career, attaining the rank of major. He participated in the battle of Solferino 24 June 1859. After the battle he retired from the army and dedicated himself to politics and management of his estate. He raised 9 children, and his son Johann Nepomuk II. succeeded him as head of the estate.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Dyť vona i ta naše vrchnost už roupama nevěděla co dělat.Starej pán kníže Švarcenberg, ten jezdil jen v takovým kočáře, a ten mladej knížecí smrkáč smrdí samým automobilem. Von mu pánbůh taky ten benzin vomaže vo hubu.“

Credits: Miroslav Vítek

Literature

References
aPo cestách Švejkovy budějovické anabázeMiroslav Vítek2020
Fürst Schwarzenberg (ml.)nn flag
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schwarzenberg2.jpg

Adolf Johann Schwarzenberg

Schwarzenberg (ml.) (the young prince Schwarzenberg) is mentioned by the old shepherd in Švarcenberský ovčín. He tells us that at least the old Schwarzenberg used to move around in an ordinary carriage but nowadays the young prince drives around in an auto-mobile, and that the Good Lord will rub his snout in petrol one day.

Background

Schwarzenberg (ml.) may refer to Johann Nepomuk Schwarzenberg (1860-1938) or rather his son Adolf Johann (1890-1950). Both were car enthusiasts and very early they embraced the novel mean of transport.

Both were in turn heads of the Krumlov-Hluboká branch of the family (primogenitura), and they owned the sheep farm by Bavorov that we assume is Hašek's Švarcenberský ovčín. Johann bought his first car in 1905 and later added several more[a]. Antonín Nikendey was amongst several sources who confirmed that the son Adolf was an auto-mobile enthusiast in his younger years[b].

Adolf seems to be the best candidate, mostly due to his young age (in 1915 he was 25). In a book fromm 2008 his nephew Karel Jan stated that it actually was Adolf who inspirerte Hašek[a], a claim that for obvious reasons is impossible to verify. For the old shepherd even his father would have been a youngster (Johann was 55 in 1915). In 1915 Johann Nepomuk II. owned the estate, his son was serving in the army.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Dyť vona i ta naše vrchnost už roupama nevěděla co dělat. Starej pán kníže Švarcenberg, ten jezdil jen v takovým kočáře, a ten mladej knížecí smrkáč smrdí samým automobilem. Von mu pánbůh taky ten benzin vomaže vo hubu.“

Credits: Miroslav Vítek

References
aPo cestách Švejkovy budějovické anabázeMiroslav Vítek2020
bK narozeninám JUDr. Adolfa SchwarzenbergaAntonín Nikendey1990
Koříneknn flag
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Kořínek was arrested for sedition in Skočice after saying that after the war one would get rid of Emperors, and that the nobility would have their estates confiscated. This is what the old shepherd at Švarcenberský ovčín told Švejk and and the tramp who was there with them.

Background

Attempts to identify any person who may have inspired Hašek to introduce this figure have proved futile. According to the 1910 census no person with this surname lived in Skočice[a].

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] „Na to se mu, hochu, teď každej vykašle,“ rozdrážděně promluvil ovčák, „máš bejt při tom, když se sejdou sousedi dole ve Skočicích. Každej tam má někoho, a to bys viděl, jak ti mluvějí. Po tejhle válce že prej bude svoboda, nebude ani panskejch dvorů, ani císařů a knížecí statky že se vodeberou. Už taky kvůli takovej jednej řeči vodvedli četníci nějakýho Kořínka, že prej jako pobuřuje. Jó, dneska mají právo četníci.“
References
aSčitání lidu SkočiceSOkA Písek1910
Wachtmeister Flanderkann flag
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flanderka.jpg

Flanderka guarding Švejk in Putim

flanderka1.jpg

Kulturní adresář ČSR, 1934-1936

Flanderka was head Gendarmeriestation Putim and suspected Švejk of being a Russian spy. He considered himself a master of interrogation techniques and it soon became clear to him that Švejk was indeed a spy. The more he tanked up, the clearer it all became. He and his deputy also made complete arses of themselves with extremely seditious talk when they had enjoyed a drop too much. Austria was going to loose the war, a Russian prince would become king of Bohemia and Kaiser Franz Joseph I., was shitting all over Schloss Schönbrunn. The petrified old servant Pejzlerka who had witnessed it all, had to swear never to tell a living soul what she had heard. From the dialogue it is also apparant that Flanderka had served in Putim for 15 years and that he had at least two assistants.

Background

Considering that the whole setting of Putim has no obvious historical base one would not expect to find any real life prototype for Flanderka. This is merely confirmed by the fact that this surname didn't appear in Putim in the 1910 census, nor was any Flanderka listed in the k.k. Gendarmerie.

Flanderka is a quite common surname and Hašek might have known a few of them and taken the liberty to borrow the name. One person that the author of The Good Soldier Švejk probably knew was the illustrator Jaroslav Flanderka (1877-?) who from 1909 onwards contributed to Humoristické listy, a publication that at times also published Hašek's stories[a].

An even more tangible connection is the typographer František Josef Flanderka (1884-?)[c]. According to Julie Flanderková he was a friend of Hašek until the two fell out in the pub Maxim on the periphery of Malá Strana towards Smíchov. Flanderková (she seems to have been his wife) was of the opinion that Hašek took revenge by sticking the name Flanderka to the stupid policeman in Putim[b]. Flanderka eventually became editor of Venkov.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Četnickému strážmistrovi Flanderkovi se situace, čím déle psal tou podivnou úřední němčinou, vyjasňovala, a když skončil: „So melde ich gehorsam, wird der feindliche Offizier heutigen Tages, nach Bezirksgendarmeriekommando Písek, überliefert,“ usmál se na své dílo a zavolal na četnického závodčího. „Dali tomu nepřátelskému důstojníkovi něco jíst?“

Literature

References
aJ. Flan­derkaHumoristické listy18.4.1910
bHaškova pomstaJulie Flanderková, LA-PNP, Fond Zdena Ančík
cPobytové přihlášky pražského policejního ředitelstvíNAČR1851 - 1914
Oberleutnant Bergernn flag
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berger.png

Ranglisten des Kaiserlich und Königlichen Heeres 1916.

baum15.png

Sagner climbed a 15 metres tall tree to assist the heavy artillery in aiming the fire. From Sagner's "Vormerkblatt".

© VHA

Berger was a duty-conscious obrlajtnant from the artillery who according to Národní politika had established an observation post in a tree, and hid there for two weeks to avoid captivity. When his own troops returned he fell down and killed himself. This was a story that Wachtmeister Flanderka told his assistant at Gendarmeriestation Putim.

Background

Berger was a very common surname and there were more than 50 officers with this name in k.u.k. Heer alone, most of them serving with the infantry. In 1914 five Berger with the rank Oberleutnant were listed in Schematismus[a]. In addition there were a number of lieutenants that may have been promoted by the time the plot reached Putim, probably in early 1915.

In the artillery there was no Oberleutnant Berger in 1914 but in the Rangliste for 1916 a Theodor Berger is listed in Feldkanonenregiment Nr. 21. He was however promoted on 1 July 1915 so Wachtmeister Flanderka could not have read about him as senior lieutenant earlier that year. On 1 March Richard Berger in Feldkanonenregimnet Nr. 42 had been promoted to senior lieutenant (reservist).

Sagner in the tree

The story has a curious parallel to an episode involving Hašek's future commander Čeněk Sagner. In Serbia on 4 November 1914 he climbed a 15 metres tall tree to assist the heavy artillery with aiming the fire[b]. Such a spectacular deed may well have been retold and caught Hašek's ear in 1915 when veterans related stories and hearsay from the campaign previous autumn. Sagner's rank at the time was indeed senior lieutenant.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Kdyby bylo v Rakousku takové nadšení... ale nechme toho raději. I u nás jsou nadšenci. Četli v ,Národní politice’ o tom obrlajtnantovi Bergrovi od dělostřelectva, který si vylezl na vysokou jedli a zřídil si tam na větví beobachtungspunkt?
References
aSchematismus für das k. u. k. Heer...K.k. Hof und Staatsdruckerei1914
bJednadevadesátníciJan Ciglbauer2018
Wachtmeister Bürgernn flag
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Bürger was Wachtmeister Flanderka's predecessor as head of k.k. Gendarmerie in Putim until fifteen years ago, in other words around 1900. He never interrogated anyone, just sent them on to Písek.

Background

It has not been possible to find any real life parallel/inspiration for this policeman. It would surely be futile in any case as even Gendarmeriestation Putim itself is an invention.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Vzpomněl si na svého předchůdce strážmistra Bürgera, který se zadrženým vůbec nemluvil, na nic se ho netázal a hned ho poslal k okresnímu soudu s krátkým raportem: „Dle udání závodčího byl zadržen pro potulku a žebrotu.“ Je to nějaký výslech?
Pepík Vyskočnn flag
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vyskoc.jpg

Flanderka instructs Pepík Vyskoč

vyskoc2.jpg

K.L. Kukla, "Konec bahna Prahy", 1927, s.312

vyskoc.png

Polední list, 19.4.1936

Pepík Vyskoč was a village idiot who Wachtmeister Flanderka tried to hire as an informer. He was told to report anyone who said that the Emperor was a piece of cattle. Pepík took this literally, he told others that Flanderka had said that the Emperor was cattle and that the thing (the war) couldn't be won. Pepík was arrested and sentenced to twelve years by the military court in Prague. He got the nick-name because he bleated like a goat and jumped into the air when someone talked to him.

Background

This is a character that almost certainly was inspired by Václav Kompert (or Kompich?), also known as Venca Vyskoč. Firm evidence is provided by Sergey Soloukh (2015) who points to him as a curious character from Prague with some striking similarities with the character from the novel. "Venca" even frequented U Fleků, a tavern the author knew very well. Vyskoč is mentioned in several books that have been published over the past 30 years, and the information is more or less identical. In the book Jak se bavila Praha (2009) the authors Miloš Heyduk and Karel Sýs state directly (p. 137) that Venca was the model for Pepík.

When "Venca" died on 18 September 1926 at the age of 65, several national newspaper printed the news. Lidové noviny even provided a more detailed obituary[a]. Václav Kompert was a former waiter who had some bad luck in life and this affected his mental health. He started to walk around pubs and café's, bleated and jumped by the tables and collected money for his spectacle. He became a well-known but tragic character in the streets of Prague. His main area of operation was around Václavské náměstí. The description in this obituary is so close to Jaroslav Hašek's own that there is not even the slightest doubt where the inspiration for the name, the jumping and the bleating came from.

Augustín Knesl also made a note on the connection between "Venca Vyskoč" and Pepík Vyskoč in his series in Večerní Praha (1983), and refers to an article by Karel Ladislav Kukla in České Slovo from 1924.

A dubious link to Lipnice

Far less credible is Vladimír Stejskal (1953) and his claim that the inspiration was a character from the area around Lipnice. The evidence is weak: not much more than pure hearsay.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Toho si dal zavolat a řekl k němu: „Víš, Pepku, kdo to je starej Procházka?“ „Méé.“„Nemeč, a pamatuj si, že tak říkají císaři pánu. Víš, kdo je to císař pán?“ „To je číšaš pán.“ „Dobře, Pepku. Tak si pamatuj, že když někoho uslyšíš mluvit, když chodíš po obědech od domu k domu, že je císař pán dobytek nebo podobně, hned přijď ke mně a oznam mně to.

CreditsSergey Soloukh, Karel Ladislav Kukla, Augustín Knesl

Also written:Pepek Vyskoč Parrott Pepku Hopp Reiner Joey Jump Sadlon

Literature

References
aVenca Vyskoč zemřelLidové noviny, 21.9.1926
Starej Procházkann flag
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starej.jpg

Zlatá Praha, 21.7.1901

Starej Procházka is mentioned by Wachtmeister Flanderka when he recruits Pepík Vyskoč as an informer. He repapears soon after when one of the drunk policemen at Gendarmeriestation Putim exclaims that the emperor and king must is kept locked up in the toilet to prevent him from shitting all over Schloss Schönbrunn.

Background

Starej Procházka was a Czech nickname for Kaiser Franz Joseph I. In 1901 he visited Prague and pictures of him appeared walking on Most císaře Františka I., now Most Legii. One of the pictures allegedly had the title Procházka na mostě but it has not been established which picture and where it was printed. The photos were from the opening of the bridge on 14 June. "Procházka" is a common Czech surname which rougly means "walk" (noun) or "walkabout".

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Toho si dal zavolat a řekl k němu: „Víš, Pepku, kdo to je starej Procházka?“ „Méé.“„Nemeč, a pamatuj si, že tak říkají císaři pánu. Víš, kdo je to císař pán?“
[2.2] ,Pamatujou, bábo, že každý císař a král pamatuje jen na svou kapsu, a proto vede válku, ať je to třebas takový dědek jako starý Procházka, kterého nemohou už pustit z hajzlu, aby jim nepodělal celý Schönbrunn"...

Also written:Old Procházka English Alte Prochazka Reiner

Literature

Minister von Georgi, Friedrichnn flag
*27.1.1852 Praha - †23.6.1926 Wien
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georgi.jpg

Friedrich Freiherr von Georgi, 1914

georgi.png

Schematismus der K. K. Landwehr..., 1914

Minister für Landesverteidigung (minister of land defence) is mentioned in the bad dream that Wachtmeister Flanderka has regarding all the directives sent from k.k. Ministerium für Landesverteidigung.

Background

Because Švejk's anabasis by Putim necessarily must have taken place in early 1915, the minister who haunted Wachtmeister Flanderka in his dreams was no doubt Friedrich Freiherr von Georgi. He was head of k.k. Ministerium für Landesverteidigung (i.e. secretary of defence) in Cisleithanien from 1907 to 1917, and was thus formally head of both k.k. Landwehr and k.k. Gendarmerie.

Georgi was regarded an excellent organiser and also a person who was capable of operating both in the military and in politics. These seem to have been the reasons why his application to serve at the front where rejected[a]. At the outbreak of war his rank was general. Friedrich von Georgi was born in Prague and hailed from a family of officers.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Neustále očekával inspekci, vyšetřování. V noci zdálo se mu o provaze, jak ho vedou k šibenici. A ještě naposled se ho sám ministr zemské obrany pod šibenicí táže: „Wachmeister, wo ist die Antwort des Zirkulärs No 1789678/23792 X.Y.Z.?“
References
aFriedrich Freiherr von GeorgiAustro-Hungarian Land Forces 1848-1918
Gendarm Rampann flag
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Rampa was a gendarm (četnik) in Putim who was on inspection-duty around the neighbouring villages when Švejk was locked up here, but was right now playing cards with some shoemakers at U černého koně in Protivín, explaining during the breaks that Austria had to win (the war).

Background

Rampa is a petty rare surname and most of them are now (2021) concentrated in a limited area west and south of Praha[a]. There was obviously no gendarm with this surname at Gendarmeriestation Putim simply because this police station didn't exist. Nor is there any sign of any Rampa at nearby police stations like Protivín. Thus we can assume that Hašek simple borrowed the name more or less at radom and assigned it to a policeman. It probably has the same origin as pubkeeper Rampa from Vinohrady (he appears later on in the chapter).

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Strážmistr zůstal sedět na strážnici vedle Švejka na kavalci prázdné postele četníka Rampy, který měl do rána službu, obchůzku po vesnicích, a který v tu dobu klidně seděl „U černého koně“ v Protivíně a hrál s obuvnickými mistry mariáš, vykládaje v přestávkách, že to Rakousko musí vyhrát.
References
aPříjmení: 'Rampa', počet výskytů 54 v celé ČRKde jsme
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Where Peisler lived in 1907 and 1910

Pejzlerka was an old woman who served at Gendarmeriestation Putim. During the night that Švejk was interned here she shuttled back and forth to Na Kocourku to fetch beverages for the gendarmes and Švejk. Unfortunately she overheard the politically suspect conversation between the drunk gendarmes and the next morning she had to swear by the crucifix not to tell a living soul.

Otherwise it is revealed that she hadn't been paid for three years. The reason was that Wachtmeister Flanderka knew that her son was a poacher and was thus able to blackmail her.

Background

Pejzlerka is neither a Czech first name nor a surname, may be a nickname for some woman Pejzler, but not even this name is found in name databases. The German phonetically equivalent Peisler does however exist, despite being pretty rare.

In the Prague address books from 1907 and 1910 only one man with the surname Peisler is listed. František Peisler lived in an area of Praha II. that Hašek knew very well as it was his stomping ground and he also frequented the area a lot during the whole pre-war period. Peisler's address in 1907 was Melounová ul. 1654/2[a] and in 1910 he had moved to Lipová ul. 1444/18[b], a stone's throw further down towards Vltava.

Everything considered it could be that Peisler's wife or some other female relation was nicknamed "Pejzlerka" in Czech. Still it would be far fetched to conclude that Hašek knew (about) her and subsequently borrowed the name, but is remains a possibility.

Another possible source of inspiration is some variation of the surname Pejzl. The name is more widespread than Peisler although it is not found in Prague's police register or in the address books. Interesting is however that several Pejzl's live in the area around Lipnice[c] and surely also did so in 1921.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] A bába Pejzlerka, která jim posluhovala, se opravdu proběhla. Po večeři se cesta mezi četnickou stanicí a hospodou „Na Kocourku“ netrhla. Neobyčejně četné stopy těžkých velkých bot báby Pejzlerky na té spojovací linii svědčily o tom, že strážmistr si vynahražuje plnou měrou svou nepřítomnost „Na Kocourku“.
References
aAdresář královského hlavního města Prahy a obcí sousedníchVojtěch Kraus1907
bAdresář královského hlavního města Prahy a obcí sousedníchVojtěch Kraus1910
cPříjmení: 'Pejzl', počet výskytů 66 v celé ČRKde jsme
Nicholas Nikolaevichnn flag
*18.11.1856 St.Petersburg - †5.1.1929 Antibes
Wikipedia czdeennoru Google search
nikolai.jpg

Světozor, 25.1.1907.

nikolajnik.png

Jihočeské listy, 9.9.1915.

Nicholas Nikolaevich is mentioned when it is revealed what unpatriotic views were uttered during the drinking binge at Gendarmeriestation Putim. Nicholas Nikolaevich would soon be in Přerov, Wachtmeister Flanderka is reported to have said. Hi assistent concluded for his part the Nikolaj would become Czech king.

Background

Nicholas Nikolaevich was a grand duke from the Romanov house and Russian commander in chief from the outbreak of war until 5 September 1915 (23.8) when Tsar Nicholas II personally took charge. This was a result of the setbacks suffered during the summer of 1915 when the Russians were forced out of Poland and Galicia. Nicholas was subsequently appointed viceroy and commander at the Caucasus front.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Nakláněje se k uchu strážmistra, šeptal: „Že jsme všichni Češi a Rusové jedna slovanská krev, že Nikolaj Nikolajevič bude příští týden v Přerově, že se Rakousko neudrží, aby jen, až bude dál vyšetřován, zapíral a pletl páté přes deváté, aby to vydržel do té doby, dokud ho kozáci nevysvobodí, že už to musí co nejdřív prasknout, že to bude jako za husitských válek, že sedláci půjdou s cepy na Vídeň, že je císař pán nemocný dědek a že co nejdřív natáhne brka, že je císař Vilém zvíře, že mu budete do vězení posílat peníze na přilepšenou a ještě víc takových řečí...“
[2.2] "Oni se také pěkně vyjádřili," přerušil ho strážmistr, "kde jen přišli na takovou hloupost, že Nikolaj Nikolajevič bude českým králem?"

Also written:Nikolaj Nikolajevič cz Nikolai Nikolajewitsch de Николай Николаевич ru

Literature

References
aZaren overtar selv overkommandoenSocial-Demokraten8.9.1915
Hus, Jannn flag
*1369-1370? Husinec - †6.7.1415 Konstanz
Wikipedia czdeenno Google search
hus.png

Husitské válečnictví

Otakar Frankenberger, 1938.

prukopnik.jpg

Jaroslav Hašek, Průkopník, 27.3.1918

© VHÚ

Hus is mentioned indirectly through the term Hussite Wars, as part of the conversation between the drunk policemen at Gendarmeriestation Putim.

Background

Hus was a famous Czech theologician, philosopher and eventually Church reformer. He was one of the first who openly criticised the Catholic Church, and he subsequenlty was burned as a heretic. After his death the Hussite movement had a profound impact on the course of Czech history and until this day Hus remains an important national symbol.

The Hussite Wars

The Hussite Wars was a series of conflicts that were played out between 1419 and 1434 in the aftermath of the death of Hus. The Hussite movement rebelled against the Catholic Church and the German-Roman Emperor. These in turn dispatched four crusades against Bohemia that were all repelled. The wars also included conflicts between moderate and radical Hussites where the moderates in the end allied with the Catholics and the Emperor. The radicals centred around Tábor (the so-called Táborité) and were in the beginning led by the famous commander Jan Žižka, and like Hus a Czech national legend.

Hus and Czech nationbuilding

During the fight for Czech independence Hus and the Hussites became an important symbol. The first regiment of České legie (the unit that Hašek served in) was in August 1917 given the name 1. střelecý pluk Jana Husi. Hussite leaders like Jan Žižka, Prokop Holý and King Jiří z Poděbrad also had regiments named after themselves. Jaroslav Hašek also referred to the, in his propaganda writing from 1916 onwards and even after he became a Communist in 1918[a]. The Hussite, specifically the Taborite ideals of equality obviously inspired the Communists. In inter-war Czechoslovakia and also during Communist rule the Hussites were still revered. In the current Czech Republic more than 100 street carry his name. If his followers are included the number will reach several hundreds.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Nakláněje se k uchu strážmistra, šeptal: „Že jsme všichni Češi a Rusové jedna slovanská krev, že Nikolaj Nikolajevič bude příští týden v Přerově, že se Rakousko neudrží, aby jen, až bude dál vyšetřován, zapíral a pletl páté přes deváté, aby to vydržel do té doby, dokud ho kozáci nevysvobodí, že už to musí co nejdřív prasknout, že to bude jako za husitských válek, že sedláci půjdou s cepy na Vídeň, že je císař pán nemocný dědek a že co nejdřív natáhne brka, že je císař Vilém zvíře, že mu budete do vězení posílat peníze na přilepšenou a ještě víc takových řečí...“

Literature

References
aK českému vojskuJaroslav Hašek, Průkopník27.3.1918
Butcher Chaurann flag
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chaura.png

Adresář královského hlavního města Prahy a obcí sousedních, 1910.

Chaura was a butcher from Kobylisy who circled around the statue of Palacký at Moráň, thinking it was an endless wall. This is revealed in a story Švejk tells his guard on the way from Putim to Písek.

Background

Chaura was a rare surname and none of the three that are listed in the address book from 1910 were butchers or from Kobylisy[a]. In 1907 the town had two butchers: Josef Koníček and František Smetana.

Still it can't be ruled out that Hašek knew some Chaura and borrowed his name. One such candidate is the antique trader František Chaura who had his outlet next to Policejní ředitelství (an institution the author of The Good Soldier Švejk knew very well). One further notes that the Palacký monument was unveiled 1 July 1912 so if the story with Chaura has any real backround it must have happened after this date.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] „To byl bych si nikdy nemyslil,“ vykládal Švejk, „že taková cesta do Budějovic je spojena s takovejma vobtížema. To mně připadá jako ten případ s řezníkem Chaurou z Kobylis. Ten se jednou v noci dostal na Moráň k Palackýho pomníku a chodil až do rána kolem dokola, poněvadž mu to připadalo, že ta zeď nemá konce.
References
aAdresář královského hlavního města Prahy a obcí sousedníchVojtěch Kraus1910
Palacký, Františeknn flag
*14.6.1798 Hodslavice - †26.5.1876 Praha
Wikipedia czdeen Google search
palacky.jpg

Světozor, 12.6.1908.

Palacký is mentioned by Švejk in the story about butcher Chaura who walked round the Palacký-monument at Moráň the whole night.

In [3.2] in Budapest he is quoted by Leutnant Dub as follows: "if there weren’t Austria we’d have to create it.

Background

Palacký was a Czech historian and politician who played a pivotal role in the Czech National Revival. He was also called otec národa, the father of the nation. He was loyal to the Empire, initially a proponent of the so-called Austroslavism, although he became more radical after Ausgleich in 1867. Like most Czechs he resented that Hungary achieved a special status within the Habsburg Empire.

The Palacký monument is located on the eastern bank of Vltava, at Palackého náměstí. It was unveiled in 1 July 1912[a] in a grand ceremony, attended by Prague's notabilities.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] „To byl bych si nikdy nemyslil,“ vykládal Švejk, „že taková cesta do Budějovic je spojena s takovejma vobtížema. To mně připadá jako ten případ s řezníkem Chaurou z Kobylis. Ten se jednou v noci dostal na Moráň k Palackýho pomníku a chodil až do rána kolem dokola, poněvadž mu to připadalo, že ta zeď nemá konce.
[3.2] To budou také taková hovada, jako jste vy!... Čím byli?... U trénu?... Nu dobře... Pamatujte, že jste vojáci... Jste Češi?... Víte, že řekl Palacký, že kdyby nebylo Rakousko, že bychom ho musili vytvořit... Abtreten...!“
References
aSlavnost odhalení pomníku PalackéhoNárodní listy1.7.1912
Rittmeister Könignn flag
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kolsky.png

Kolský seems to have served diligently, just like König

Písecké Listy, 16.11.1918.

König was station commander at Bezirksgendarmeriekommando Pisek, and very diligent, an outstanding bureaucrat. “If we want to win the war,” he said, “an ‘a’ must be an ‘a’, a ‘b’ a ‘b’, and everywhere there has to be a dot over the ‘i’.” He received Švejk and correctly sent him south to join his regiment which he for many days had looked for in vain.

Background

König is clearly an invented person, nor would normally a Rittmeister (captain) be in command of a district command. The position in question was in 1915 held by Wachtmeister Antonín Kolský[a]. The chief of the unit they reported to did however have this rank: Rittmeister Rotter.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] A opravdu bylo to hrozné, když strážmistr poslal pro velitele stanice, rytmistra Königa. První slovo rytmistrovo bylo: „Dýchněte na mne.“ „Teď to chápu,“ řekl rytmistr, zjistiv nesporně situaci svým bystrým, zkušeným čichem, „rum, kontušovka, čert, jeřabinka, ořechovka, višňovka a vanilková. Pane strážmistr,“ obrátil se na svého podřízeného, „zde vidíte příklad, jak nemá četník vypadat. Takhle si počínat je takový přečin, že o tom bude rozhodovat vojenský soud. Svázat se s delikventem želízky. Přijít ožralý, total besoffen. Přilézt sem jako zvíře! Sundejte jim to!“
References
aChytilův úplný adresář Království ČeskéhoAlois Chytil1915
Wachtmeister Matějkann flag
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Matějka was master sergeant at Bezirksgendarmeriekommando Pisek. He was keen on getting off for a game of "Schnaps" down by the Otava but Rittmeister König held him back, and thought to himself that the police chief could kiss his arse with all these reports.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Rytmistr studoval „bericht“ četnického strážmistra z Putimě o Švejkovi. Před ním stál jeho četnický strážmistr Matějka a myslel si, aby mu rytmistr vlezl na záda i se všemi berichty, poněvadž dole u Otavy čekají na něho s partií „šnopsa“.
Herculesnn flag
Wikipedia czdeenno Google search
hercules.jpg

Hercules capturing the three-headed dog Cerberus

Hercules is mentioned indirectly by Rittmeister König when Švejk tells him about his efforts to join his regiment. The term he used was "a Herculian job".

Background

Hercules is the latin name of Heracles, a Greek demigod, son of Zeus, known for his strength. The text in The Good Soldier Švejk refers to the Twelve Labours of Heracles, each and one of them in turn a huge challenge.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] „To byla herkulovská práce,“ řekl konečně, když se zalíbením naslouchal Švejkovu líčení, jak ho to mrzí, že se nemohl tak dlouho dostat k pluku, „na vás musela být mohutná podívaná, když jste se kroutil kolem Putimi.“

Also written:Héraklés cz Hercules la

Pubkeeper Rampann flag
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Rampa was a pubowner in Vinohrady, mentioned by Švejk tells Rittmeister König that there would have been no point in telling Wachtmeister Flanderka his name or what regiment he belonged to.

Background

Rampa (Josef) actually owned a pub in Vinohrady as the address book from 1910 shows.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] „Proč jste v Putimi neupozornil, že se jedná o omyl?“ „Poněvadž jsem viděl, že je to marný, s ním mluvit. To už říkal starej hostinskej Rampa na Vinohradech, když mu chtěl někdo zůstat dlužen, že přijde někdy na člověka takovej moment, že je ke všemu hluchej jako pařez.“
Fähnrich Koťátkonn flag
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Koťátko was a junior offiser in IR91 who witnessed Švejk's appearance at Mariánská kasárna in Budějovice, and watched Oberleutnant Lukáš passing out as a result of seeing his servant again. Later he related about the incident, for instance that Švejk saluted during the whole sequence.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] U celé té scény byl praporčík Koťátko, který později vypravoval, že po tom hlášení Švejkově nadporučík Lukáš vyskočil, chytil se za hlavu a upadl naznak na Koťátko, a že když ho vzkřísili, Švejk, který po celou tu dobu vzdával čest, opakoval: „Poslušně hlásím, pane obrlajtnant, že jsem opět zde!“
Einjährigfreiwilliger Materna, Františeknn flag
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Materna was a one-year volunteer and an acquaintance of Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek. The latter mistook Materna for an artillery officer, knocked his cap off as a friendly gist, but this was a costly mistake. He was now sharing a cell with Švejk.

Background

A certain František Materna was owner of U Valšů (address book from 1910) and hence a person Jaroslav Hašek surely knew, and might have served as an inspiration. Whether or not this Materna was a one-year volunteer and served in Budějovice in 1915 can however not be established.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Stalo se to tak, že ten poručík od dělostřelectva stál v noci pod podloubím a patrně čekal na nějakou prostitutku. Byl obrácen k němu zády a jednoročnímu dobrovolníkovi připadal, jako by to byl jeho jeden známý jednoročák, Materna František.
Antonnn flag
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Anton was the artillery officer Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek mistook for Einjährigfreiwilliger Materna.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Může být,“ připouštěl jednoroční dobrovolník, „že při té tahanici padlo pár pohlavků, ale to myslím nic na věci nemění, poněvadž je to vyložený omyl. On sám přiznává, že jsem řekl: ,Servus, Franci’ a jeho křestní jméno je Anton. To je úplně jasné. Mně snad může škodit jenom to, že jsem utekl z nemocnice, a jestli to praskne s tím ,krankenbuchem’...
Doctor Masáknn flag
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Masák was a doktor from Žižkov, brother-in-law of Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek who helped him prolong his stay in the military hospital in Budějovice.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Do Budějovic byl přeložen můj pošvagřenec Dr Masák ze Žižkova a tomu mohu děkovat, že jsem se tak dlouho v nemocnici udržel. Byl by to se mnou dotáhl až k supravisitě, když jsem to ale tak zkazil s tím nešťastným ,krankenbuchem’!
Icarusnn flag
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Icarus is mentioned by Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek when he tells Švejk about his various misadventures and concludes "Pride preceedes the fall".

Background

Icarus is a character in Greek mythology. He is the son of Daedalus and is commonly known for his attempt to escape Crete by flight. He stuck wings to his body by wax, was warned not to fly too close to the sun, ignored this advice with the result that the wax melted and he fell in the sea and drowned.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Pýcha předchází pád. Všechna sláva polní tráva. Ikarus si spálil křídla. Člověk by chtěl být gigantem - a je hovno, kamaráde.

Also written:Ikaros cz

Oberst Schrödernn flag
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schroder.jpg

Josef Lada, 1930.

Schröder was colonel and commander of EB91 in Budějovice and Bruck an der Leitha and plays a prominent role in the four chapters where the action takes place in those places. He is described as a bully and a swine but the author later assigns him a partial sense of justice. His incompetence is never in doubt, a distinction he shares with most officers in k.u.k. Heer.

In [2.4], during the investigation into the letter scandal in Királyhida, he is more kindly treated by the author: although still a swine, it becomes clear that he defends his own men, even the Czechs. He clearly doesn't like Hungarians and it is evident that he has previously served in Hungary, and Eger is specifically mentioned.

Schröder appreciated Švejk's courage and loyalty when he swallowed the letter Oberleutnant Lukáš wrote EtelkaK and thus protected his obrlajtnant. He the personally named the good soldier company messenger. Schröder disappears from the plot when the march battalion departs for the front.

Parts of the information we have about Schröder comes from Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek's telling Švejk about the state of the regiment and the mood in the unit. This happened when the two shared a cell in the prison in Budějovice.

Background

The identity of Schröder has long been unclear, but he was, according to Bohumil Vlček, commander of EB91 in Budějovice and then for a short period in Bruck an der Leitha. This fits well with the novel, but it still appears that Vlček mixes up names: the colonel who was in charge of replacement battalion at the time was named Schlager. For more extensive information, see Karl Schlager.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Obrst Schröder přijel na mne přímo na koni a div mne nepovalil na zem. ,Donnerwetter,’ zařval, až to bylo slyšet jistě na Šumavě, ,was machen Sie hier, Sie Zivilist?’ Odpověděl jsem mu slušně, že jsem jednoroční dobrovolník a že se zúčastňuji cvičení.

Credits: Bohumil Vlček, VÚA, ÖStA

Einjährigfreiwilliger Wohltatnn flag
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Wohltat was a one-year volunteer, later corporal, who Oberst Schröder, bellowing at Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek, informed him was a prime examples of military heroic deeds, as opposed to Marek himself. Wohltat was promoted again, five minutes after having been torn apart by a grenade.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Jednoroční dobrovolník Wohltat, byv po odbyté zkoušce povýšen na kaprála, dobrovolně přihlásil se na frontu a zajal 15 nepřátel a při odevzdávání jich byl roztržen granátem. Za pět minut došel pak rozkaz, že jednoroční dobrovolník Wohltat je povýšen na kadeta.
Saint Agnesnn flag
*20.1.1211 Praha - †6.3.1282 Praha
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Saint Agnes was used ironically by Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek when he addressed the guard contemptuously as "Saint Agnes of the 91st Regiment".

Background

Saint Agnes may refer to a daughter of king Otakar I of Bohemia, who renounced a life in the circles of power and dedicated herself to religion and caring for the ill.

There are several other Saint Agnes around, so it is not 100 per cent certain that this is the person Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek has in mind.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Aniž by vstal ze slamníku, oslovil jednoroční dobrovolník profousa touto řečí: „Jak jest to vznešené a krásné, vězně navštěvovati, svatá Anežko 91. regimentu! Buď vítán, anděli dobročinnosti, jehož srdce jest naplněno soucitem. J

Also written:Svatá Anežka cz Heilige Agnes de

Pushkin, Alexandrnn flag
*6.6.1799 Moskva - †10.2.1837 Sankt Petersburg
Wikipedia czdeennoru Google search

Pushkin is mentioned by Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek who compares the monarchy to Pushkin's uncle who has as good as become a carcass.

Background

Pushkin was a Russian author of the Romantic era who is considered by many to be the greatest Russian poet and the founder of modern Russian literature.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] „Milý příteli,“ vykládal dál, „pozorujeme-li to všechno v měřítku naší milé monarchie, dospíváme neodvolatelně k tomu závěru, že je to s ní právě tak jako se strýcem Puškina, o kterém ten napsal, že nezbývá jen, poněvadž strýc je chcíplotina,

Also written:Puškin cz Puschkin de

Publisher Kočí, Bedřichnn flag
*2.3.1869 Mladá Boleslav - †17.1.1955 Praha
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koci.jpg

Český svět, 28.2.1913.

Kočí published the book Sources of economic prosperity which Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek refers to when describing the language the lower-rank officers use. This consists mainly of names of animals.

Background

Kočí was a Czech publisher, book trader and author. He often used pseudonyms. Today he is best known for theosophical writing and his work on mental health.

The book that Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek mentions was published in 1906 and contains 910 pages. It is an encyclopedia covering forestry, animal breeding, sugar growing, poultry and a range of other subjects.

Zdroje hospodářského blahobytu: kniha pro každého kdo chce brzo a poctivě zbohatnout (B. Kočí 1906) pův. vazba, 910 stran. Témata jsou uspořádána abecedně A–Ž: cukrovarnictví, dobytek, lesní hospodářství, půda atd.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Vytřískat nový válečný živý materiál a vojensky uvědomělá sousta pro jícny děl, k tomu je třeba důkladných studií přírodopisu nebo knihy ,Zdroje hospodářského blahobytu’, vydané u Kočího, kde vyskytuje se na každé stránce slovo: dobytek, prase, svině.

Literature

Korporal Althofnn flag
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Althof used the innovative swearing expression "You Engandin Goat" at the soldiers. This is a part of Mareks lecture to Švejk on the language employed by the lower rank officers.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] U 11. kompanie kaprál Althof používá slova: engadinská koza. Svobodník Müller, německý učitel z Kašperských Hor, nazývá nováčky českými smraďochy, šikovatel Sondernummer volskou žábou, yorkshirským kancem a slibuje přitom, že každého rekruta vydělá.
Gefreiter Müllernn flag
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Müller was a lance corporal from Kašperské Hory, teacher in civilian life, who used to call the recruits Czech stinkbags.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] U 11. kompanie kaprál Althof používá slova: engadinská koza. Svobodník Müller, německý učitel z Kašperských Hor, nazývá nováčky českými smraďochy, šikovatel Sondernummer volskou žábou, yorkshirským kancem a slibuje přitom, že každého rekruta vydělá.
Feldwebel Sondernummernn flag
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Sondernummer was a sergeant who used to address the recruits as Yorkshire boars and also promised to flay and stuff them.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] U 11. kompanie kaprál Althof používá slova: engadinská koza. Svobodník Müller, německý učitel z Kašperských Hor, nazývá nováčky českými smraďochy, šikovatel Sondernummer volskou žábou, yorkshirským kancem a slibuje přitom, že každého rekruta vydělá.
Fähnrich Dauerling, Konradnn flag
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drill_dauerling.png

A book that Dauerling read but hardly absorbed

Dauerling is never part of the plot, but is described by Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek as a particularly stupid and brutal ensign. He got a knock on his head when he was little and his mental horizon had suffered ever since.

According to Marek this made him perfectly suitable for a military career, and the fact that his father was a colonel pre-determined his destiny. He had attended Pionierkadettenschule Hainburg, where he distinguished himself through his gross stupidity, and when the war started he arrived at IR91 in Budějovice as an instructor. There he became notorious for his brutality towards the Czech recruits until one day Major Wenzl had enough and put a stop to his behaviour once and for all.

Background

This despicable ensign has in the secondary literature about Švejk never been associated with any particular real person, although his negative qualities (obviously caricatured) are surely inspired by one or more officers that the author knew or had heard about.

The Good Soldier Švejk in captivity
zajeti_dauerling.png

From "The Good Soldier Švejk in captivity", 1917

When investigating Dauerling it is of interest to compare the novel with Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí (1917) where the junior officer is assigned a much more important role.

The author’s description of him is nearly identical to Marek’s version from the novel: accident as a child that led to a malformed skull, exceptionally stupid and brutal, educated at Pionierkadettenschule Hainburg, had read Drill oder Erziehung (see Johann Orth), quoted Feldmarschall Conrad, rank Fähnrich etc.

Thereafter there are however big differences. In Királyhida and at the front Dauerling is the main character alongside Švejk. He actually takes on part of the role that Oberleutnant Lukáš has in the novel. Our good soldier is his servant and steals a dog for him, the affair with Mr. Kákonyi is there with similar details. It is also striking that the author assigned an servant to such a low ranking officer as an ensign. This may not mean much, but could also indicate that Dauerling's model(s) had a higher rank.

The similarities with Oberleutnant Lukáš are limited to situations and circumstances. Dauerling, as opposed to Lukáš, remains a detestable figure all the way until the plot is concluded at the front when he commands Švejk to shoot him in the arm so he can escape the fighting. The soldier ends up killing him instead, but the question whether or not this was intentional is left open by the author …

A rare surname

The family name Dauerling is extremely rare, underpinned by the fact that neither the address books of Prague nor Vienna from the period in question contain any such entry. Modern name databases show up less than ten hits. It is therefore to be expected that there is no Dauerling in neither officer's lists nor casualty lists.

Tragedy in Hollfeld
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Arbeiter-Zeitung, 13.2.1908

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Čech, 15.2.1908

One can imagine that the author borrowed the name by chance from news reports that mentioned some Dauerling. These were still few, but one such case springs to the eye: the music teacher Dauerling in Hollfeld in Bavaria beat a nine-year old girl so severely that she died. This happened on 11 February 1908 in front of the whole class and was reported in many newspapers in Austria, including Czech publications. Most German-language newspapers also added that Dauerling was a Jew.

The reports from the Hollfeld tragedy also reveal a possible misspelling. Most newspaper in fact referred to the teacher as Deuerling. Čech and Lidové noviny used Dauerling whilst Národní politika and most German language newspapers used Deuerling. The latter is also a more common name, but still not widespread. There are in fact Deuerlings living in Hollfeld to this day.

In the entire armed forces of Austria-Hungary there was only one officer named Deuerling. He served in k.k. Landwehr and can hardly have been known to Hašek.

Hauptmann Wimmer, an undeserved reputation
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Captain Wimmer: Morávek gave him an undeservedly bad reputation (Bestand Rudolf Kiesswetter). © ÖStA

As no Dauerling or anyone with a similarly sounding name can be located to IR91, possible inspirations may be any officer in the regiment with a some reputation as a tyrant. In his series in Večerní České Slovo in 1924 Jan Morávek mentions a certain captain Wimmer. Jan Vaněk remembers him as commander of his march company in IR91 11th march battalion. Morávek describes Wimmer as "a lunatic who tyrannised the soldiers and even pulled his horse to battalion report". Immediately before the departure to he front he was replaced by Rudolf Lukas.

There was only one officer in IR91 that fits the name and rank described by Jan Morávek. This was Hauptmann Otto Wimmer who in the summer of 1915 became commander of the 13th march battalion. They arrived at the front by Bug on 15 August 1915 so from then on Jan Vaněk may again have had to deal with him.

The connection between Dauerling and Wimmer is still only vague; there is for instance a great difference in rank between the two (without this necessarily have been seen as important by the author).

Hauptmann Wurm
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Captain Wurm. From the book "Jednadevadesátníci", Jan Ciglbauer, 2018.

We do not know of alternative sources that confirm captain Wimmer's alleged brutality, and recently published information actually clears his name entirely.

Thanks to information in the book Jednadevadesátníci (Jan Ciglbauer, 1918) we can now conclude that Morávek referred to captain Hans Wurm, an officer who according to several witnesses was notoriously cruel, bordering on madness.

The key phrase is "pulling his horse to battalion report". This is exactly what Oberleutnant Wurm did in Királyhida in 1916, and soldiers from IR91 later remembered both this incident and other examples of his senseless brutality.

Still it would be far fetched to claim that Oberleutnant Wurm was a model for Dauerling. Apart from their common cruel behaviour their life and army career had little in common. Dauerling thus joins the list of figures in the novel who are without an obvious real-life counter-part: Feldkurat Katz, Mr. Wendler, telephone operator Chodounský, Offiziersdiener Baloun, cook Jurajda, Leutnant Dub etc.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Když vypukla válka a všecky mladičké kadetíky udělali fähnrichy, dostal se do archu hainburských povýšenců i Konrád Dauerling a tak se dostal k 91. regimentu.“Jednoroční dobrovolník si oddechl a vypravoval dál: „Vyšla nákladem ministerstva vojenství kniha ,Drill oder Erziehung’, ze které vyčetl Dauerling, že na vojáky patří hrůza. Podle stupňů hrůzy že má též výcvik úspěch.

CreditsJan Morávek, Jan Ciglbauer

Also written:Konrád Dauerling cz

Literature

Feldmarschall Conrad von Hötzendorf, Franz Xaver Josephnn flag
*11.11.1852 Penzing - †25.8.1925 Bad Mergentheim
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hotzendorf.jpg

Conrad in 1915.

Conrad is mentioned in connection with Fähnrich Dauerling who recited parts of Conrad's infamous quote: Die Soldaten müssen sowieso krepieren. (Soldiers must peg out anyway).

The authenticity of this quote has not been verified. It should also be noted that Conrad obtained the rank Field Marshall only in 1916, so Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek was looking well into the future during this dialogue with Švejk that logically must have taken place in 1915.

A similar situations and an equally grotesque quote can be found in Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí (1917). Here the author is more direct and claims that Conrad said that "Die Tschechen müssen so wie so krepieren" and that this utterance took place in early January 1916 in Innsbruck in presence of Infanteriedivision Nr. 8. Fähnrich Dauerling is like in the novel linked to the quote but it has not been possible to verify even this one. It is tempting to suggest that it is a product of the author's imagination or forwarding rumours. It seems altogether unlikely that Conrad uttered such phrases publicly.

Conrad reappears during Kadett Biegler's dream on the train to Budapest. There is a picture of him on the wall of k.u.k. Gottes Hauptquartier. Here he is referred to as Chief of General Staff.

Background

Conrad was an Austrian Field Marshal who was Chief of Staff at k.u.k. Generalstab when war broke out in 1914. He was known for his aggressive stance in foreign policy matters and advocated preventive warfare as a solution to the "Serbian question". He was head of the general staff until 1 March 1917, when the new emperor Karl I. dismissed him. Conrad is seen by many as carrying a major responsibility for the disastrous policies that led to the outbreak of World War I.

Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí

"Die Tschechen müssen so wie so krepieren." To řekl též polní maršálek Conrad z Hötzendorfu počátkem ledna roku 1916 před 8. pěší divizí v Inšpruku.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Jednou, když rozbil oko jednomu rekrutovi, vyjádřil se: ,Pah, was für Geschichte mit einem Kerl, muß so wie so krepieren.’ To říkal též polní maršálek Konrád z Hötzendorfu: ,Die Soldaten müssen so wie so krepieren.’
[3.1] Uprostřed pokoje, ve kterém po stěnách visely podobizny Františka Josefa a Viléma, následníka trůnu Karla Františka Josefa, generála Viktora Dankla, arcivévody Bedřicha a šéfa generálního štábu Konráda z Hötzendorfu, stál pán bůh.

Also written:Konrád z Hötzendorfu Hašek

Literature

Hauptmann Adamičkann flag
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Adamička was an unusually apathetic captain at the garrison in Budějovice. Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek tells Švejk about him when they are locked up together, and how Adamička avoids dealing with the brutality of Fähnrich Dauerling. Marek also reveals that Captain Adamička has already been sent to the front, and in his shoes stepped Major Wenzl who put Dauerling firmly in his place.

Background

The officer AdamičkaJ from IR91 without doubt served as the prototype of Hašek's Adamička.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] „To bylo za hejtmana Adamičky, to byl člověk úplně apatický. Když seděl v kanceláři, tu se obyčejně díval do prázdna jako tichý blázen a měl takový výraz, jako by chtěl říct: ,Sežerte si mě, mouchy.’ Při batalionsraportu bůhví na co myslel. Jednou se hlásil k batalionsraportu voják od 11. kumpanie se stížností, že ho nazval fähnrich Dauerling na ulici večer českým prasetem. Byl to v civilu knihař, uvědomělý národní dělník.
Major Wenzlnn flag
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wenzel_ir91.jpg

Franz Wenzel, the prototype of Wenzl. First on the right.

Obrana lidu, 15.1 1972.

Wenzl was a major at the garrison in Budějovice in is introduced to the reader in the conversation between Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek and Švejk in the regimental prison. He replaced Hauptmann Adamička when the latter was sent to the front due to his alleged sense of justice. Wenzl was the one that finally put Fähnrich Dauerling in his place. Wenzl had a Czech wife so his greatest fear was disputes between the nationalities. He also hated lower rank officers after an unfortunate episode years ago, when being drunk at a hotel in Kutná Hora. Wenzl held the rank of captain in Kutná Hora so he had obviously been promoted since. He only appears directly in the plot once, in a conversation with Oberst Schröder and Hauptmann Ságner at the hotel in Budějovice.

In Királyhida his name reappears but this time he does not take part in the plot. He is mentioned during Švejk and Oberleutnant Lukáš' episode with Wenzl's servant Offiziersdiener Mikulášek. The author provides some additional information: Wenzl had showed himself utterly incompetent by the Drina, he had ordered the destruction of a pontoon bridge whilst half his battalion was stuck on the other side of the river. Here in Királyhida he was getting back on his feet; he had been assigned administrative duties, and was also commander of the camp's shooting range. Wenzl is seemingly not part of Švejk's march battalion and disappears from the story before their departure to the front.

Wenzl is introduced also in Dobrý voják Švejk v zajetí and plays a very similar role. At times the text of the two books is nearly identical.

Background

Inspiration for Wenzl was no doubt Franz Wenzel. He was assigned to IR91 throughout the period that Jaroslav Hašek served in the regiment.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] O tom hejtmanovi Adamičkovi se pak říkalo, že má smysl pro spravedlnost, milý kamaráde, tak ho poslali do pole a namístě něho přišel sem major Wenzl. A to byl čertův syn, pokud se týkalo národnostních štvanic, a ten zaťal tipec fähnrichovi Dauerlingovi. Major Wenzl má za manželku Češku a má největší strach z národnostních sporů.

Credits: Bohumil Vlček, ÖStA

Kadetstellvertreter Zítkonn flag
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Zítko was a reserve cadet from the school of one-year volunteers in Kutná Hora. He had gone to the press with the story about Major Wenzl having insulted a Czech waiter when drunk. The two had been enemies since Zítko had uttered something along these lines at a party where Wenzl was present: "What is any captain compared to the splendour of nature? The same nobody as any kadetstellvertreter".

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] ,Stačí,’ povídal kadetstellvertreter Zítko, ,zamyslit se nad tím, co je každý hejtman proti velebné přírodě. Stejná nula jako každý kadetstellvertreter.’ Poněvadž všichni vojenští páni byli tenkrát namazaní, chtěl hejtman Wenzl nešťastného filosofa Zítka zmlátit jako koně, a nepřátelství toto se stupňovalo a hejtman sekýroval Zítka, kde mohl, tím víc, poněvadž výrok kadetstellvertretera Zítka stal se pořekadlem. ,Co je hejtman Wenzl proti velebné přírodě?’ to znali po celé Kutné Hoře.
Carpenter Mlíčkonn flag
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Mlíčko was a carpenter from Vávrova třída who was the first war wounded from his regiment. Someone tore off his wooden leg and whacked him on his head with during a brawl at Apollo. All this is according to a story Švejk tells Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek in the arrest in Budějovice.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] „O velkej stříbrnej medalii za udatnost, kterou dostal jeden truhlář z Vávrovy ulice na Král. Vinohradech, nějakej Mlíčko, poněvadž byl první, kterému u jeho regimentu utrh na začátku války granát nohu
Kanonýr Jabůreknn flag
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Postkarte Kanonýr Jabůrek. Verlag: M. Schultz, Prag 1914 (ÖNB)

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Národní listy, 17.2.1886

Jabůrek was an artilleryman Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek and Švejk sang about in the cell in Budějovice. The singing provoked a visit from the officer on guard-duty, Leutnant Pelikán. The refrain of the song is accuratly reproduced in the novel, fragments of verse 12 less so.

Background

Kanonýr Jabůrek was a figure from a song story (cantastoria) Udatný rek kanonýr Jabůrek which had its background from the Austro-Prussian war of 1866. It is unclear whether it had any factual foundation, but in any case it appeared as a parody around 1884, perhaps even before. Jabůrek took part in the deciding battle by Hradec Králové on 3 July 1886. He keeps loading his cannon even as his limbs and other parts of the body are torn off, until his head is blown off and it reports to the general that he is no longer able to salute. The song is written in colloquial Czech.

The first verse of the song was printed on a postcard from 1914, but in formal written Czech. It was part of a series of patriotic songs issued on post-cards in Prague after outbreak of war. Why this obviously satirical song was included in the collection begs a good answer. In 1986 Franz Hiesel made a radio play based on the song. It was broadcast both in West Germany (WDR) and Austria (ORF). Over the years the cannoneer has been mentioned numerous times in the Czech press and other publications.

a u kanonu stál
a pořád ládoval
a u kanonu stál
a furt jen ládoval

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Tak mně připadá,“ řekl jednoroční dobrovolník po krátké pomlčce, „že duch vojenský v nás upadá, navrhuji, milý příteli, abychom v noční tmě, v tichu našeho vězení si zazpívali o kanonýrovi Jabůrkovi.

CreditsJaroslav Šerák, Hans-Peter Laqueur

Also written:Kanonier Jabůrek de Cannoneer Jabůrek en Kanonér Jabůrek no

Literature

Leutnant Pelikán, Františeknn flag
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Pelikán was a lieutenant and reserve officer, mathematician in civilian life. He knew Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek and helped the two prisoners with cigarettes.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] „To je profous,“ řekl jednoroční dobrovolník, „jde s ním lajtnant Pelikán, který má dnes službu. Je to reservní důstojník, můj známý z ,České besedy’, v civilu je matematikem v jedné pojišťovně. Od toho dostaneme cigarety. Řveme jen dál.“
Oberleutnant Kretschmannnn flag
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Kretschmann was a senior lieutenant which at the hotel in Budějovice related to his officer colleagues how he had witnessed an attack on Serbian positions. He had returned returned from Serbia with a sore leg after having been gored by a cow.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Zatímco jednoroční dobrovolník pronášel zdrcující kritiku poměrů v kasárnách, plukovník Schröder seděl v hotelu ve společnosti důstojníků a poslouchal, jak nadporučík Kretschmann, který se vrátil ze Srbska s bolavou nohou (trkla ho kráva), vypravoval, jak se díval od štábu, ku kterému byl přidělen, na útok na srbské posice:
Hauptmann Spíronn flag
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Spíro was a captain who at the hotel in Budějovice reeled off the most incoherent of observations. Banging his fist on the table, he concluded: "the Land Defense serves the land in peacetime".

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Hejtman Spíro udeřil pěstí do stolu. „Zeměbrana vykonává službu v zemi v čas míru.“
Hauptmann Ságnernn flag
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Ságner was captain in IR91 and takes part in the plot from Budějovice until the very last section of the novel. He is actually the last person being mentioned. Later on it is revealed that he has a past as a Czech patriot but lets his career take preference. He had attended cadet school in Prague together with Oberleutnant Lukáš (see k.u.k. Infanteriekadettenschule Prag). In general the author's attitude towards Ságner is fairly neutral.

Ságner is first introduced by Einjährigfreiwilliger Marek but enters the plot soon after when the author relates from an officers party at a hotel in Budějovice. Marek also reveals that he was commander of the school for one-year volunteers.

In Királyhida he was appointed commander of Švejk's march battalion and led the unit until the end of the novel. Soon after departure he was severely embarrassed by Kadett Biegler in the mix-up with the decryption keys involving the book by Ludwig Ganghofer.

According to Rechnungsfeldwebel Vaněk, Ságner had served at the front in Montenegro, and had reportedly proved himself incompetent.

Background

The prototype of Ságner is no doubt the Austrian (from 1918 Czechoslovak) officer Čeněk Sagner. He was Jaroslav Hašek's battalion commander from 11 July to 24 September 1915, and before that they had served simultaneously in Budějovice and Királyhida.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] „On skládá básničky,“ posměšně se ozval hejtman Ságner, „sotva přijel, tak se zamiloval do paní inženýrové Schreiterové, s kterou se setkal v divadle.“ Plukovník se zachmuřeně podíval před sebe: „Prý umí zpívat kuplety?“ „Už v kadetce nás velice bavil kuplety,“ odpověděl hejtman Ságner, „a anekdoty zná, jedna radost. Proč nejde mezi nás, nevím.“
Mrs. Schreiterovánn flag
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Schreiterová was an engineers' wife who Oberleutnant Lukáš had fallen in love with after meeting her at the theatre in Budějovice.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] „On skládá básničky,“ posměšně se ozval hejtman Ságner, „sotva přijel, tak se zamiloval do paní inženýrové Schreiterové, s kterou se setkal v divadle.“
Oberleutnant Danklnn flag
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Dankl was a senior lieutenant who used to entertain at the officers club by sticking a herrings tail up his bottom to do a mermaid performance. This is what Oberst Schröder told when reminiscing about the good old days.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Jeden, pamatuji se, nějaký nadporučík Dankl, ten se svlékl do naha, lehl si na podlahu, zastrčil si do zadnice ocas ze slanečka a představoval nám mořskou pannu.
Leutnant Schleisnernn flag
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Schleisner was a lieutenant who could wiggle his ears, whinny like a stallion, miaow like a cat and hum like a bumblebee. Again it is Oberst Schröder remembering the old days.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Jiný zas, poručík Schleisner, uměl střihat ušima a řičet jako hřebec, napodobovat mňoukání koček a bzučení čmeláka.
Hauptmann Skodaynn flag
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Skoday was a captain who brought to the officers club three girls he had trained like dogs. There they engaged in debauched forms of entertainment. Oberst Schröder remembers this with joy as he thniks back of the old days.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] Pamatuji se také na hejtmana Skodayho. Ten vždy, když jsme chtěli, přivedl do kasina holky, byly to tři sestry, a měl je nacvičené jako psy. Postavil je na stůl a ony se začaly před námi obnažovat do taktu. Měl takovou malou taktovku, a všechna čest, kapelník byl znamenitý. A co s nimi prováděl na pohovce! Jednou dal přinést vanu s teplou vodou doprostřed místnosti a my jeden po druhém museli jsme se s těma holkama vykoupat a on nás vyfotografoval.“
Einjährigfreiwilliger Mareknn flag
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marek1.jpg

Večerní Praha, 11.4.1983 (Augustin Knesl).

© MKP

Marek was a fat one-year volunteer who Švejk met for the first time in the garrison arrest at Mariánská kasárna in Budějovice. They shared a cell for three days and entertained themselves hugely. Marek is the first person in the novel who is an outspoken opponent of the war. In civilian life he studied classical philosophy. It is never said where he lives.

Marek appears regularly throughout the rest of the novel, but rarely in such a prominent role as here. His real name is only revealed when he goes on report, so far he had been referred to as "the fat one-year volunteer". He had been arrested after knocking the cap off an artillery officer by mistake, which led to the discovery that he had forged the hospital sick book to get away and take part in the nocturnal delights of the southern Czech metropolis. For this he got 21 days severe and subsequent kitchen service. This suited him perfectly, it was far better to peel potatoes than to be commanded to attack under enemy fire with his trousers full.

He re-appears in Királyhida in the cell with Švejk og Sappeur Vodička because he has refused to clean the latrines. In Budapest he is finally released and becomes Battallionsgeschichteschreiber, a duty he fulfils honourably: he writes the history of the battalion in advance. Marek is from then on part of the story all the way to the final pages of the novel.

Background

Marek has many traits in common with the author. From a purely biographical point of view, these are: one year volunteer, served in IR91, expelled from the reserve officer's school, stay in the military hospital in Budějovice, imprisoned in the garrison arrest, editor of Svět zvířat where he was dismissed after inventing new animals. Hašek actually turned up at the Budějovice garrison in civilian clothes and a cylindre hat, just like Marek.

On ideas and personal qualities, these fit: hatred of the monarchy and its institutions, anti-war attitudes, glittering rhetoric, fat, unusually good memory and grasp of detail. It is also obvious that Marek is a mouthpiece for Jaroslav Hašek's personal views.

Karel Marek

Experts seem to agree that the name of the one-year volunteer is borrowed from Karel Marek (1884-1945), a friend of Jaroslav Hašek from his youth. Václav Menger relates that the young Hašek often visited the Marek family at Vinohrady and that he particularly enjoyed listening to the stories Karel's father told from his experience in the Prussian War of 1866. From him the young author also learnt many of the army songs that he was so fond of singing. Karel Marek was actually a one-year volunteer but he served in k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Nr. 28, Prague's own regiment.

Karel Marek was, according to Augustín Knesl, born in 1884, son of Jan and Anna Marek. Like Jaroslav Hašek, young Karel studied at the Českoslovanská akademie obchodní in Resslova ulice, albeit two years later (i.e. 1901-1904). He worked as an official but was also an artist, mastering painting and writing. He met with Hašek also after the war and some material about the author was kept by his wife Marie Marková. At the end of World War II Marek was interned in Terezín and 15 May 1945 he died as a result of mistreatment he suffered in the camp.

Quote(s) from the novel
[2.2] A právě takovým hlasem pronesl plukovník: „Jednoroční dobrovolník Marek odsuzuje se: jednadvacet dní verschärft a po odpykání trestu do kuchyně škrábat brambory.“ ... A lump Marek stál vedle Švejka a tvářil se úplně spokojeně. Lépe to už s ním dopadnout nemohlo. Je rozhodně lepší škrábat v kuchyni brambory, modelovat blbouny a obírat žebro než řvát s plnými kaťaty pod uraganním ohněm nepřítele: „Einzelnabfallen! Bajonett auf!“

CreditsVáclav Menger, Augustín Knesl

Literature

Index Back Forward II. At the front Hovudpersonen

2. Švejk's budějovická anabasis


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